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Sample records for activation energy due

  1. Energy deposition in the earth's atmosphere due to impact of solar activity-generated disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Kan, L. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Dryer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy deposition in and dynamic responses of the terrestrial atmosphere to solar flare-generated shocks and other physical processes - such as particle precipitation and local heating - are investigated self-consistently in the context of hydrodynamics, the problem being treated as an initial boundary-value problem. It is extremely difficult to construct a general model for the line solar activity-magnetosphere-atmosphere; however, a limited model for this link is possible. The paper describes such a model, and presents some results on energy deposition into the earth's atmosphere due to solar activity-generated disturbances. Results from the present calculations are presented and discussed.

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  3. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-04-10

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of {approx}8.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg over 3 days.

  4. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  5. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  6. Anisotropic perturbations due to dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam

    2006-08-01

    A variety of observational tests seem to suggest that the Universe is anisotropic. This is incompatible with the standard dogma based on adiabatic, rotationally invariant perturbations. We point out that this is a consequence of the standard decomposition of the stress-energy tensor for the cosmological fluids, and that rotational invariance need not be assumed, if there is elastic rigidity in the dark energy. The dark energy required to achieve this might be provided by point symmetric domain wall network with P/ρ=-2/3, although the concept is more general. We illustrate this with reference to a model with cubic symmetry and discuss various aspects of the model.

  7. Microcalorimetric determination of energy expenditure due to active sodium-potassium transport in the soleus muscle and brown adipose tissue of the rat.

    PubMed

    Chinet, A; Clausen, T; Girardier, L

    1977-02-01

    1. The resting heat production rate (E) of soleus muscles from young rats and brown adipose tissue from adult rats was measured by means of a perfusable heat flux microcalorimeter in the absence and presence of ouabain. In the soleus muscle, the acute response of E to ouabain was compared with the ouabain-suppressible components of 22Na-efflux and 42K-influx. 2. In standard Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, ouabain (10(-3)M) induced an immediate but transient decrease in E of around 5%. Both in muscle and adipose tissue this was followed by a progressive rise in heat production rate. 3. When the medium was enriched with Mg (10 mM), ouabain produced a sustained decrease in E of the same magnitude as in the standard medium and the secondary rise was less marked or abolished. Under these conditions, in the soleus muscle, ouabain inhibited E by 5% (i.e. by 1-76 +/- 0-22 mcal.g wet wt.-1.min-1), 22Na-efflux by 58% (0-187 +/- 0-013 micronmole. g wet wt.-1.min-1) and 42K-influx by 34% (0-132 +/- 0-028 micronmole. g wet wt.-1.min-1). 4. When the muscles were loaded with Na by pre-incubation in K-free Mg-enriched medium, the addition of K (3mM) induced an immediate ouabain-suppressible increase in E of 2-98 +/- 0-33 mcal. g wet wt.-1.min-1 and a concomitant stimulation of 22Na-efflux of 0-388 +/- 0-136 micronmole. g wet wt.-1.min-1. 5. Maximum Na/ATP ratios for the active Na-K transport process were computed, with no assumption as to the in vivo free energy of ATP hydrolysis. These were 2-1, 1-9 and 2-3 under the conditions described in paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) respectively. 6. The calculated reversible thermodynamic work associated with active Na-K transport corresponded to 34% of the measured ouabain-induced decrease in E. On the premise that the maximum efficiency of the cellular energy conservation processes is 65%, this estimate indicates that the minimum energetic efficiency of ATP utilization by the active Na-K transport process in mammalian muscle is 52%.

  8. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  9. Ionospheric Response Due to Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Signatures of the seismic activity in the ionospheric F2 region have been studied by analyzing the measurement of electron and ion temperatures during the occurrence of earthquake. The ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data recorded by the RPA payload aboard the Indian SROSS-C2 satellite during the period from January 1995 to December 2000 were used for the altitude range 430-630 km over Indian region. The normal day's electron and ion temperatures have been compared to the temperatures recorded during the seismic activity. The details of seismic events were obtained from USGS earthquake data information website. It has been found that the average electron temperature is enhanced during the occurrence of earthquakes by 1.2 to 1.5 times and this enhancement was for ion temperature ranging from 1.1to 1.3 times over the normal day's average temperatures. The above careful quantitative analysis of ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data shows the consistent enhancement in the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures. It is expected that the seismogenic vertical electrical field propagates up to the ionospheric heights and induces Joule heating that may cause the enhancement in ionospheric temperatures.

  10. Simulating environmental changes due to marine hydrokinetic energy installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Craig A.; James, Scott Carlton; Roberts, Jesse Daniel; Seetho, Eddy

    2010-08-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) projects will extract energy from ocean currents and tides, thereby altering water velocities and currents in the site's waterway. These hydrodynamics changes can potentially affect the ecosystem, both near the MHK installation and in surrounding (i.e., far field) regions. In both marine and freshwater environments, devices will remove energy (momentum) from the system, potentially altering water quality and sediment dynamics. In estuaries, tidal ranges and residence times could change (either increasing or decreasing depending on system flow properties and where the effects are being measured). Effects will be proportional to the number and size of structures installed, with large MHK projects having the greatest potential effects and requiring the most in-depth analyses. This work implements modification to an existing flow, sediment dynamics, and water-quality code (SNL-EFDC) to qualify, quantify, and visualize the influence of MHK-device momentum/energy extraction at a representative site. New algorithms simulate changes to system fluid dynamics due to removal of momentum and reflect commensurate changes in turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. A generic model is developed to demonstrate corresponding changes to erosion, sediment dynamics, and water quality. Also, bed-slope effects on sediment erosion and bedload velocity are incorporated to better understand scour potential.

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  13. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  14. Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013). Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari Department of Physics, A.P.S.University, Rewa(M.P.) Email: - btiwtari70@yahoo.com mobile 09424981974 Abstract- The geospace environment is dominated by disturbances created by the sun, it is observed that coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare events are the causal link to solar activity that produces geomagnetic storm (GMS).CMEs are large scale magneto-plasma structures that erupt from the sun and propagate through the interplanetary medium with speeds ranging from only a few km/s to as large as 4000 km/s. When the interplanetary magnetic field associated with CMEs impinges upon the earth’s magnetosphere and reconnect occur geomagnetic storm. Based on the observation from SOHO/LASCO spacecraft for solar activity and WDC for geomagnetism Kyoto for geomagnetic storm events are characterized by the disturbance storm time (Dst) index during the period 2006-2013. We consider here only intense geomagnetic storm Dst <-100nT, are 12 during 2006-2013.Geomagnetic storm with maximum Dst< -155nT occurred on Dec15, 2006 associated with halo CME with Kp-index 8+ and also verify that halo CME is the main cause to produce large geomagnetic storms.

  15. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  16. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  17. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  18. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  20. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions.

  1. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  2. Dark Energy due to Late Time Quantum Decay Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Macorra, A.; Briscese, F.

    2010-06-01

    We show that the dark energy field can be dynamically obtained at a low scale, e.g. at E = O(eV), via a quantum transitions process. This is achieved if the φ field is coupled with a relativistic scalar field which we call J. The 2<-->2 coupling has a transition rate Γ~g2TJ and the fields are coupled at low energies when Γ/H ≡ Tgen/TJ~g2/TJ is larger than one, i.e. at Tenergy of φ is transferred to its scalar classical potential V(φ) The classical evolution of φ is then given by the form of V(φ).

  3. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  4. Modeling energy-loss spectra due to phonon excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. D.; Allen, L. J.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss a fundamental theory of how to calculate the phonon-loss sector of the energy-loss spectrum for electrons scattering from crystalline solids. A correlated model for the atomic motion is used for calculating the vibrational modes. Spectra are calculated for crystalline silicon illuminated by a plane wave and by an atomic-scale focused coherent probe, in which case the spectra depend on probe position. These spectra are also affected by the size of the spectrometer aperture. The correlated model is contrasted with the Einstein model in which atoms in the specimen are assumed to vibrate independently. We also discuss how both the correlated and Einstein models relate to a classical view of the energy-loss process.

  5. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1983-07-01

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the seawater pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHz. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  6. Changes in osteoblastic activity due to simulated weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Using histochemistry and electron microscopy, the reduced bone formation which occurs in the hypokinetic, orthostatically treated adult rat has been studied. The two major changes noted occurred in the osteoblast population, indicated by a reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced numbers of gap junctions between cells. These results were most noticeable in the periosteum and endosteum of the long bones. Changes in osteoblasts lining the surface of trabecular bone were not as evident. These results indicate that the cells lining the surfaces of weight bearing bones are most affected by hypokinesia and this reduction in cellular activity may be a mechanically induced effect.

  7. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  8. Energy Scaling of Spin Tune due to RHIC Snakes

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay,W.W.

    2009-01-02

    For a ring like RHIC with two full Siberian snakes on opposite sides of the ring, the spin tune for a flat orbit will be 1/2 if the snake rotation axes are perpendicular, {Delta}{phi} = {phi}{sub 9}-{phi}{sub 3} = {pi}/2. Here {phi}{sup 9} and {phi}{sub 3} are respectively the direction of the rotation axes of the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock snakes relative to the design trajectory as shown in Figure 1. If the two snakes are slightly detuned by the same amount such that the rotation axes are no longer perpendicular, then the deviation of the closed-orbit spin tune {nu}{sub 0} from 1/2 is given by {Delta}{nu}{sub 0} {approx_equal} ({Delta}{mu}){sup 2}/4{pi} cosG{gamma}{pi} - 2{Delta}{phi}/{pi} {approx_equal} 2{Delta}{phi}/180{sup o} with G{gamma} at a half integer, and where {Delta}{mu} is the deviation of snake rotation angle from 180{sup o}. It should be noted that there is a sign ambiguity in {Delta}{mu}{sub 0} since a spin tune of 0.495 is also a spin tune of 0.505, depending on the direction taken along the stable spin axis. In order to understand the effect of energy scaling on the snake axis direction, I have integrated the trajectory and spin rotation through a model of a RHIC snake (bi9-snk7) and found the energy (U) dependence of the snake axis angle {phi}{sub 9} and rotation angle {mu} as shown. A {approx_equal} p{sup -2} scaling of errors is typical in helical snakes. To first order, the orbit excursion drops as p{sup -1} and the spin precessions about transverse fields increase as {gamma} giving an approximate cancellation with energy, so we do not expect much change during the field ramp. The next order term which comes in is primarily proportional to p{sup -2}; although naively one might expect a slight effect inversely proportional to the velocity since {gamma}/p {proportional_to} c/{nu} {approx_equal} 1 + 1/2{gamma}{sup 2}.

  9. Effects of activity interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.; Powell, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of aircraft flyover noise on annoyance were compared for face to face conversation, reverie, and television viewing. Eighteen 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented on each of 2 days to subjects in a simulated living room. Twelve pairs of females and 12 pairs of males were tested, once before and once after work. Flyovers varied in peak noise level from 53 to 83 dB, A weighted. On each day, subjects engaged in 18 sessions, six of conversation, six of television viewing, and six of reverie. The subjects completed subjective ratings of annoyance and acceptability following every session. Annoyance and unacceptability rating scores were significantly higher for the activity of television viewing compared to conversation or reverie. There was no difference between judgments during the latter two activities. No differences were found in the judgments when compared on the basis of "fatigue" (before/after work) or sex of the subject.

  10. Indoor air quality. [Health hazards due to energy conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed.

  11. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  12. Density increase due to active feedback in mirror machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, Omri; Be'Ery, Ilan

    2014-10-01

    Mirror machines are one of the schemes for future fusion systems. Its main drawbacks are the flute instability and being open ended which results in plasma losses. A feedback system is used to stabilize the flute instability in a table top mirror machine with a continuous plasma source and RF heating. Under certain source density and temperature conditions, although the plasma was stabilized, plasma density increase was not measured. After decreasing the source density and increasing the temperature, Plasma density increase was achieved. It is theorized that these results are due to transition of the plasma main loss mechanism from collision dominated to instability dominated. In the former, the main density loss is through diffusion and In the latter, it is through flute instability which drives the plasma to the edge of the vacuum chamber. Future research directions are discussed for a planned machine which should achieve higher temperatures and better diagnostic capabilities. The research will focus on magnetic actuators and passive RF stabilization.

  13. Cell organization in soft media due to active mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Bischofs, I B; Schwarz, U S

    2003-08-01

    Adhering cells actively probe the mechanical properties of their environment and use the resulting information to position and orient themselves. We show that a large body of experimental observations can be consistently explained from one unifying principle, namely that cells strengthen contacts and cytoskeleton in the direction of large effective stiffness. Using linear elasticity theory to model the extracellular environment, we calculate optimal cell organization for several situations of interest and find excellent agreement with experiments for fibroblasts, both on elastic substrates and in collagen gels: cells orient in the direction of external tensile strain; they orient parallel and normal to free and clamped surfaces, respectively; and they interact elastically to form strings. Our method can be applied for rational design of tissue equivalents. Moreover, our results indicate that the concept of contact guidance has to be reevaluated. We also suggest that cell-matrix contacts are up-regulated by large effective stiffness in the environment because, in this way, build-up of force is more efficient.

  14. RADIOLOGICAL RELEASES DUE TO AIR AND SILICA DUST ACTIVATION IN EMPLACEMENT DRIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tang

    2003-05-07

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the quantity and significance of annual Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface normal radiological releases due to neutron activation of air and silica dust in emplacement drifts. This calculation includes the following items: (1) Calculate activation of ventilation airflow through emplacement drifts to quantify radioactive gaseous releases; and (2) Calculate the bounding potential activated silica dust concentration and releases. The sources of silica dust may arise from air supply to emplacement drifts as well as host rock around emplacement drifts. For this calculation, the source of dust is conservatively assumed to be the host rock (Assumption 3.6), which is subject to long-term neutron exposure resulting in saturated radioactivity. The scope of this calculation is limited to releases from activated air and silica dust only, excluding natural radioactive releases such as radon or releases from defective waste packages (breached or contaminated). This work supports the repository ventilation system design and Preclosure Safety Analysis. This includes MGR items classified as Quality Level 1, for example, the Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Operation Contractor] 1999a, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE [U.S. Department of Energy] 2003). The performance of the calculation and development of this document are carried out in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculation and Analyses'' and LP-3.30Q-BSC, ''Hazards Analysis System''.

  15. Familial adult onset hyperinsulinism due to an activating glucokinase mutation: Implications for pharmacological glucokinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Benjamin G.; Harris, Julie; Sleigh, Alison; Isaac, Iona; Orme, Steve M.; Seevaratnam, Nandini; Dhatariya, Ketan; Simpson, Helen L.; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Glucokinase (GCK) phosphorylates and thereby “traps” glucose in cells, thus serving as a gatekeeper for cellular glucose metabolism, particularly in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. In humans, activating GCK mutations cause familial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (GCK-HH), leading to keen interest in the potential of small molecule glucokinase activators (GKAs) as treatments for diabetes mellitus. Many such agents have been developed, however observation of side effects including hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis have delayed their clinical development. Objective To describe the clinical presentation and metabolic profiles of affected family members in a kindred with familial hyperinsulinism of adult presentation due to a known activating mutation in GCK. Design Clinical, biochemical and metabolic assessment, and GCK sequencing in affected family members. Results In the 60 year-old female proband, hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 2.1mmol/mol, insulin 18pmol/l) was confirmed following 34 hours of fasting, however abdominal computed tomography (CT), pancreatic MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, octreotide scintigraphy and selective arterial calcium stimulation failed to localise an insulinoma. A prolonged OGTT revealed fasting hypoglycaemia that was exacerbated after glucose challenge, consistent with dysregulated glucose-stimulated insulin release. A heterozygous activating mutation, p.Val389Leu, in the glucokinase gene (GCK) was found in the proband and four other family members. Of these, two had been investigated elsewhere for recurrent hypoglycaemia in adulthood, while the other two adult relatives were asymptomatic despite profound hypoglycaemia. All three of the available family members with the p.Val389Leu mutation had normal serum lipid profiles, normal rates of fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis and had hepatic triglyceride levels commensurate with their degree of adiposity. Conclusion Activating GCK mutations may

  16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  17. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  18. Estimating Energy Dissipation Due to Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone Using Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.

    Wave breaking is the largest forcing mechanism in the surf zone. Therefore, quantifying energy dissipation due to wave breaking is important for improving models that seek to predict nearshore circulation, wave-current interactions, air-sea gas exchange, erosion and accretion of sediment, and storm surge. Wave energy dissipation is difficult to measure with in situ instruments, and even the most reliable estimates are limited to point measurements. Using remote sensing technologies, specifically infrared (IR) imagery, the high spatial and temporal variability of wave breaking may be sampled. Duncan (1981) proposed a model (D81) for dissipation on a wave-by-wave basis, based on wave slope and roller length, the crest-perpendicular length of the aerated region of a breaking wave. The wave roller is composed of active foam, which, in thermal IR images, appears brighter than the surrounding water and the residual foam, the foam left behind in the wake of a breaking wave. Using IR imagery taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC, and exploiting the distinct signature of active foam, a retrieval algorithm was developed to identify and extract breaking wave roller length. Roller length was then used to estimate dissipation rate via the D81 formulation. The D81 dissipation rate estimates compare reasonably to in situ dissipation estimates at a point. When the D81 estimates are compared to the bulk energy flux into the surf zone, it is found that wave breaking dissipates approximately 25-36% of the incoming wave energy. The D81 dissipation rate estimates also agree closely with those from a dissipation parameterization proposed by Janssen and Battjes (2007) (JB07) and commonly applied within larger nearshore circulation models. The JB07 formulation, however, requires additional physical parameters (wave height and water depth) that are often sparsely sampled and are difficult to attain from remote sensing alone. The power of the D81 formulation lies in

  19. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  20. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  1. [Ergotism due to simultaneous use of ergot alkaloids and high activity antiretroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes M, Daniel; Blanco L, Sergio; Ramírez F, Camila

    2016-06-01

    High activity antiretroviral therapy may exacerbate the activity of ergot alkaloids due to an inhibition of cytochrome P450. We report a 57 years old female with AIDS treated with lamivudine, zidovudine, atazanavir, ritonavir and cotrimoxazole presenting with ischemic signs in the four limbs. There was acrocyanosis and weak radial and ulnar pulses. A family member referred that the patient used ergot alkaloids for headaches. An ergotism due to the simultaneous use of ergot alkaloids and antiretroviral therapy was suspected. The latter was discontinued and intravenous nitroglycerin, nifedipine and pentoxifyline were started with good results. PMID:27598502

  2. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but <500 metabolic equivalent min/week) and active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  3. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  4. Energy Change due to Off-Fault Damage Evolution associated with Dynamic Fault Tip Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.

    2010-12-01

    We theoretically study off-fault damage evolution effects on dynamic earthquake rupture, especially from a standpoint of energy change in a whole system. The importance of off-fault inelastic energy loss due to damage on dynamic earthquake rupture has attracted interests of many researchers in terms of, for example, rupture velocity reduction and crack tip growth cessation. The damage effect is found to be important on dynamic earthquake slip behavior in terms of porosity increase also in a series of our previous studies, Suzuki and Yamashita (2007; 2008; 2009; 2010). The mathematical formulation of Murakami and Kamiya (1997) is assumed in the present study; the damage tensor D is used to describe damage state in a medium. Damage, which consists of microcracks in a medium, has direction (defined as normal to the crack surface) and the magnitude (crack size), so that a scalar damage variable is insufficient to describe the damage state. We first analytically derive the equation system including the damage tensor and describing energy change in a whole system due to any dynamic elastic and inelastic deformation processes such as macroscopic crack extension and damage evolution. The change in the summation of strain and kinetic energies and damage energy is found to be equal to the summation of energy flowing out of the medium through the boundary and energy turning to heat and irreversibly lost based on the analytical expression; the damage energy is associated with surface energy released by damage evolution. The damage energy is confirmed to be equal to the summation of the loss in strain energy due to change in the elastic moduli and irreversibly lost energy. A mode III crack embedded in a medium causing damage is then assumed to study the off-fault damage effects on dynamic earthquake rupture. Spontaneous crack tip growth with the Coulomb fracture criterion is assumed and in such a case the rupture velocity can be sufficiently smaller than the terminal velocity

  5. Absence of in vitro Procoagulant Activity in Immunoglobulin Preparations due to Activated Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Adriana E.; Bernardi, María E.; Guglielmone, Hugo A.; Vitali, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Immunoglobulin (IG) products, including intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulins are considered safe and effective for medical therapy; however, a sudden and unexpected increase in thromboembolic events (TE) after administration of certain batches of IVIG products has been attributed to the presence of activated coagulation factors, mainly factor XIa. Our aims were to examine the presence of enduring procoagulant activity during the manufacturing process of IGs, with special focus on monitoring factor XIa, and to evaluate the presence of in vitro procoagulant activity attributed to coagulation factors in different lots of IVIG and SCIG. Methods Samples of different steps of IG purification, 19 lots of IVIG and 9 of SCIG were analyzed and compared with 1 commercial preparation of IVIG and 2 of SCIG, respectively. Factors II, VII, IX, XI and XIa and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) were assayed. Results The levels of factors II, VII, IX, X and XI were non-quantifiable once fraction II had been re-dissolved and in all analyzed lots of IVIG and SCIG. The level of factor XIa at that point was under the detection limits of the assay, and NAPTT yielded values greater than the control during the purification process. In SCIG, we detected higher concentrations of factor XIa in the commercial products, which reached values up to 5 times higher than the average amounts found in the 9 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Factor XIa in commercial IVIG reached levels slightly higher than those of the 19 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Conclusion IVIG and SCIG manufactured by UNC-Hemoderivados showed a lack of thrombogenic potential, as demonstrated not only by the laboratory data obtained in this study but also by the absence of any reports of TE registered by the post marketing pharmacovigilance department. PMID:26733772

  6. 48 CFR 9903.201-8 - Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities. 9903.201-8 Section 9903.201-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...

  7. Energy conservation and CO2 emission reductions due to recycling in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenteira, C A P; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, L B; Rosa, L P; Reis, M M; Henriques, R M

    2004-01-01

    The present paper aims to make the energy saving potential provided by waste recycling in Brazil evident by pointing out more specifically the benefits regarding climate change mitigation. In this case, based on the energy saved due to the recycling process of an exogenous amount of waste, we have built two scenarios in order to show the potential for indirectly avoiding CO2 emissions in the country as a result of the recycling process. According to the scenario, 1 Mt and 3.5 Mt of CO2, respectively, would be avoided per year due to solid waste recycling. The international context for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol has been taken into account.

  8. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  9. Energy harvesting using parametric resonant system due to time-varying damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapolan, Matteo; Tehrani, Maryam Ghandchi; Bonisoli, Elvio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy harvesting is considered using an electromechanical oscillator. The energy harvester is modelled as a spring-mass-damper, in which the dissipated energy in the damper can be stored rather than wasted. Previous research provided the optimum damping parameter, to harvest maximum amount of energy, taking into account the stroke limit of the device. However, the amount of the maximum harvested energy is limited to a single frequency in which the device is tuned. Active and semi-active strategies have been suggested, which increases the performance of the harvester. Recently, nonlinear damping in the form of cubic damping has been proposed to extend the dynamic range of the harvester. In this paper, a periodic time-varying damper is introduced, which results in a parametrically excited system. When the frequency of the periodic time-varying damper is twice the excitation frequency, the system internal energy increases proportionally to the energy already stored in the system. Thus, for certain parametric damping values, the system can become unstable. This phenomenon can be exploited for energy harvesting. The transition curves, which separate the stable and unstable dynamics are derived, both analytically using harmonic balance method, and numerically using time simulations. The design of the harvester is such that its response is close to the transition curves of the Floquet diagram, leading to stable but resonant system. The performance of the parametric harvester is compared with the non-parametric one. It is demonstrated that performances and the frequency bandwidth in which the energy can be harvested can be both increased using time-varying damping.

  10. Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)

  11. Elevated Ground Temperatures at Crude Oil Spill Sites due to Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Crude oil near the water table at spill sites near Bemidji and Cass Lake, Minnesota, has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for decades. Because the reactions are exothermic, biodegradation of oil compounds will produce measurable temperature increases if heat is generated faster than it is transported away from the oil body. Subsurface temperatures at the two spill sites were measured with thermistors at multiple depths in groundwater monitoring wells and water-filled tubes in the vadose zone. Temperatures in selected wells were measured in the summer of 2007, 2008, and 2009. At the Bemidji site, temperatures measured in the summer ranged from a low of 6.3 oC in the background well to a high of 9.2 oC within wells in the oil-contaminated zone. From year to year, background minimum temperatures were constant within +/- 0.05 oC while maximum temperatures within the oil-contaminated zone remained within +/- 0.25 oC. Seasonal changes in temperature in the plume as measured by data loggers exceeded 4 oC, which was far greater than the year to year change in the summer measurements. Seasonal variability was greater near the water table than at depth. It is unclear whether this variability is due to subsurface hydrology or microbial activity. Temperatures in the vadose zone were warmer near and down-gradient from the oil body compared to the background indicating the heat from the oil and plume propagates up and outward into the vadose zone. At the Cass Lake site, summer temperatures in 2009 were 6.4 oC in the background and 11.5 oC in wells near the oil. Reaction rates inferred from chemical data were compared to heating required in a 3-dimension energy transport model of the subsurface. The increased temperature compared well to the expected heat production from biodegradation reactions occurring in the oil and plume. Results indicate that microbial activity in sediments contaminated with crude oil undergoing biodegradation can be detected using

  12. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  13. Geographical and temporal differences in electric vehicle range due to cabin conditioning energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambly, Kiran; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2015-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles that are propelled by electric motors powered by rechargeable battery. They are generally asserted to have GHG emissions, driveability and life cycle cost benefits over conventional vehicles. Despite this, EVs face significant challenges due to their limited on-board energy storage capacity. In addition to providing energy for traction, the energy storage device operates HVAC systems for cabin conditioning. This results in reduced driving range. The factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, duration and thermal soak have been identified to affect the cabin conditions. In this paper, the development of a detailed system-level approach to HVAC energy consumption in EVs as a function of transient environmental parameters is described. The resulting vehicle thermal comfort model is used to address several questions such as 1) How does day to day environmental conditions affect EV range? 2) How does frequency of EV range change geographically? 3) How does trip start time affect EV range? 4) Under what conditions does cabin preconditioning assist in increasing the EV range? 5) What percentage increase in EV range can be expected due to cabin preconditioning at a given location?

  14. Nonlinear thermoelectric response due to energy-dependent transport properties of a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilans, Artis; Burke, Adam M.; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Leijnse, Martin; Linke, Heiner

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots are useful model systems for studying quantum thermoelectric behavior because of their highly energy-dependent electron transport properties, which are tunable by electrostatic gating. As a result of this strong energy dependence, the thermoelectric response of quantum dots is expected to be nonlinear with respect to an applied thermal bias. However, until now this effect has been challenging to observe because, first, it is experimentally difficult to apply a sufficiently large thermal bias at the nanoscale and, second, it is difficult to distinguish thermal bias effects from purely temperature-dependent effects due to overall heating of a device. Here we take advantage of a novel thermal biasing technique and demonstrate a nonlinear thermoelectric response in a quantum dot which is defined in a heterostructured semiconductor nanowire. We also show that a theoretical model based on the Master equations fully explains the observed nonlinear thermoelectric response given the energy-dependent transport properties of the quantum dot.

  15. Approximation error method can reduce artifacts due to scalp blood flow in optical brain activation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskala, Juha; Kolehmainen, Ville; Tarvainen, Tanja; Kaipio, Jari. P.; Arridge, Simon R.

    2012-09-01

    Diffuse optical tomography can image the hemodynamic response to an activation in the human brain by measuring changes in optical absorption of near-infrared light. Since optodes placed on the scalp are used, the measurements are very sensitive to changes in optical attenuation in the scalp, making optical brain activation imaging susceptible to artifacts due to effects of systemic circulation and local circulation of the scalp. We propose to use the Bayesian approximation error approach to reduce these artifacts. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated using simulated brain activations. When a localized cortical activation occurs simultaneously with changes in the scalp blood flow, these changes can mask the cortical activity causing spurious artifacts. We show that the proposed approach is able to recover from these artifacts even when the nominal tissue properties are not well known.

  16. Bifunctional enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction activity on Ag catalysts due to water activation on LaMnO3 supports in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Ae; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Song, Hannah; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-08-27

    Ag is considered to be one of the best candidates for oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts in alkaline media for application in various electrochemical energy devices. In this study, we demonstrate that water activation is a key factor in enhancing the ORR activity in alkaline media, unlike in acid environments. Ag supported on LaMnO3 having a high oxophilicity showed a markedly higher ORR activity than that on carbon with inert surfaces. Through various electrochemical tests, it was revealed that the origin of the enhanced ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3 is the bifunctional effect mainly due to the water activation at the interface between Ag and LaMnO3. Furthermore, the ligand effect due to the charge transfer from Mn to Ag leads to the enhancement of both oxygen activation on Ag and water activation on Mn sites, and hence, an improvement in the ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3. On the other hand, the strain effect based on the fine structure variation in the lattice was negligible. We therefore suggest that the employment of a co-catalyst or support with highly oxophilic nature and the maximization of the interface between catalyst and support should be considered in the design of electrocatalysts for the ORR in alkaline media.

  17. Energy Activities for the Classroom: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Bowman, Mary Lynne

    This resource book contains descriptions of over 100 classroom activities designed to illustrate concepts relating to energy, its production, characteristics, use, and conservations. Each activity integrates the energy lesson into a concept that relates to one or more subject areas common to public school curricula. Many of the activities included…

  18. Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Klody, Kelly Anne; Jenkins, Mark W.; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing theory predicts Newtonian losses with little slip at the interface. Nevertheless, experiments showed less effect due to Newtonian losses and elevated levels of slip for small gaps. Values of damping were much less than expected. Novel closed form solutions for the response of components are presented. The stiffness of the resonator is derived using Castigliano's theorem, and viscous fluid motion above and below the resonator is derived using a wave approach. Analytical results are compared with experimental results to determine the utility of existing theory. It was found that existing macro and molecular theory is inadequate to describes measured responses.

  19. Energy shifts of Rydberg atoms due to patch fields near metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J. D.; Martin, J. D. D.

    2011-03-15

    The statistical properties of patch electric fields due to a polycrystalline metal surface are calculated. The fluctuations in the electric field scale like 1/z{sup 2} when z>>w, where z is the distance to the surface and w is the characteristic length scale of the surface patches. For typical thermally evaporated gold surfaces these field fluctuations are comparable to the image field of an elementary charge, and scale in the same way with distance to the surface. Expressions for calculating the statistics of the inhomogeneous broadening of Rydberg-atom energies due to patch electric fields are presented. Spatial variations in the patch fields over the Rydberg orbit are found to be insignificant.

  20. Experimental evaluation of decrease in bacterial activity due to cell death and activity decay in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Xiangping; Cao, Yali; van Mark Loosdrecht, C M

    2009-08-01

    Decrease in bacterial activity (cell decay) in activated sludge can be attributed to cell death (reduction in the amount of active bacteria) and activity decay (reduction in the specific activity of active bacteria). The aim of this study was to experimentally differentiate between cell death and activity decay as a source of decrease in microbial activity. By means of measuring maximal oxygen uptake rates, verifying membrane integrity by live/dead staining and verifying presence of 16S rRNA with fluorescence in-situ hybridization, the decay rates and the death rates of ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHOs) were determined respectively in a nitrifying sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a heterotrophic SBR. The experiments revealed that in the nitrifying system activity decay contributed 47% and 82% to the decreased activities of AOB and NOB and that cell death was responsible for 53% and 18% of decreases in their respective activities. In the heterotrophic system, activity decay took a share of 78% in the decreased activity of OHOs, and cell death was only responsible for 22% of decrease in their activity. The difference between the importance of cell death on the decreased activities of AOB and OHOs might be caused by the mechanisms of substrate storage and/or cryptic growth/death-regeneration of OHOs. The different nutrient sources for AOB and NOB might be the reason for a relatively smaller fraction of cell death in NOB.

  1. Temperature rise due to mechanical energy dissipation in undirectional thermoplastic composites(AS4/PEEK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgious, I. T.; Sun, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The history of temperature rise due to internal dissipation of mechanical energy in insulated off-axis uniaxial specimens of the unidirectional thermoplastic composite (AS4/PEEK) has been measured. The experiment reveals that the rate of temperature rise is a polynomial function of stress amplitude: It consists of a quadratic term and a sixth power term. This fact implies that the specific heat of the composite depends on the stretching its microstructure undergoes during deformation. The Einstein theory for specific heat is used to explain the dependence of the specific heat on the stretching of the microstructure.

  2. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-07-15

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  3. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  4. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708

  5. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms.

  6. Out of control: Diminished prefrontal activity coincides with impaired motor performance due to choking under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taraz G.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    There are three non-exclusive theoretical explanations for the paradoxical collapse of performance due to large financial incentives. It has been proposed that “choking under pressure” is either due to distraction, interference via an increase in top-down control and performance monitoring, or excessive levels of arousal in the face of large losses. Given the known neural architecture involved in executive control and reward, we used fMRI of human participants during incentivized motor performance to provide evidence to support and/or reconcile these competing models in a visuomotor task. We show that the execution of a pre-trained motor task during neuroimaging is impaired by high rewards. BOLD activity occurring prior to movement onset is increased in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between this region and motor cortex is likewise increased just prior to choking. However, the extent of this increase in functional connectivity is inversely related to a participant's propensity to choke, suggesting that a failure in exerting top-down influence on motor control underlies choking under pressure due to large incentives. These results are consistent with a distraction account of choking and suggest that frontal influences on motor activity are necessary to protect performance from vulnerability under pressure. PMID:25449744

  7. Observation of vertical betatron sideband due to electron clouds in the KEKB low energy ring.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, J W; Ohmi, K; Fukuma, H; Hiramatsu, S; Tobiyama, M; Perevedentsev, E

    2005-02-11

    The effects of electron clouds on positively charged beams have been an active area of research in recent years at particle accelerators around the world. Transverse beam-size blowup due to electron clouds has been observed in some machines and is considered to be a major limiting factor in the development of higher-current, higher-luminosity electron-positron colliders. The leading proposed mechanism for beam blowup is the excitation of a fast head-tail instability due to short-range wakes within the electron cloud. We present here observations of betatron oscillation sidebands in bunch-by-bunch spectra that may provide direct evidence of such head-tail motion in a positron beam.

  8. Biochemical changes in plant leaves as a biomarker of pollution due to anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Thawale, P R; Satheesh Babu, S; Wakode, R R; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sunil; Juwarkar, A A

    2011-06-01

    The air pollution due to anthropogenic activities seriously affected human life, vegetation, and heritage as well. The vegetation cover in and around the city mitigates the air pollution by acting as a sink for pollution. An attempt was made to evaluate biochemical changes occurred in four selected plant species, namely Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, Delonix regia, and Cassia fistula of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Nagpur city in India. It was observed that the correlated values of air pollutants and plant leaves characteristics alter foliar biochemical features (i.e., chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, pH and relative water content) of plants due to air pollution. The changes in air pollution tolerance index of plants was also estimated which revealed that these plants can be used as a biomarker of air pollution.

  9. Biodiversity loss in seagrass meadows due to local invertebrate fisheries and harbour activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Gullström, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, but their distribution and health are adversely affected by man. In the present study, we examined the influence of coastal exploitation in terms of invertebrate harvesting and harbour activity on invertebrate community composition in subtropical seagrass meadows at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, in the Western Indian Ocean. There was a fivefold higher invertebrate density and biomass, and clearly higher invertebrate species richness, in the protected (control) site compared to the two exploited sites. The causes for the clear differences between protected and exploited sites were probably a result of (1) the directional outtake of large edible or saleable invertebrates (mostly molluscs) and the absence of boat traffic in the harvested site, and (2) harbour activities. Invertebrate community composition in the two exploited sites also differed (although less clear), which was likely due to inherent distinction in type of disturbance. Our findings revealed that protection of seagrass habitat is necessary and that disturbances of different origin might require different forms of management and conservation. Designing protected areas is however a complex process due to competition for use and space with activities such as invertebrate harvesting and harbours.

  10. Subthreshold voltage noise due to channel fluctuations in active neuronal membranes.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, P N; Manwani, A; Koch, C; London, M; Segev, I

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels in neuronal membranes fluctuate randomly between different conformational states due to thermal agitation. Fluctuations between conducting and nonconducting states give rise to noisy membrane currents and subthreshold voltage fluctuations and may contribute to variability in spike timing. Here we study subthreshold voltage fluctuations due to active voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels as predicted by two commonly used kinetic schemes: the Mainen et al. (1995) (MJHS) kinetic scheme, which has been used to model dendritic channels in cortical neurons, and the classical Hodgkin-Huxley (1952) (HH) kinetic scheme for the squid giant axon. We compute the magnitudes, amplitude distributions, and power spectral densities of the voltage noise in isopotential membrane patches predicted by these kinetic schemes. For both schemes, noise magnitudes increase rapidly with depolarization from rest. Noise is larger for smaller patch areas but is smaller for increased model temperatures. We contrast the results from Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic nonlinear kinetic schemes with analytical, closed-form expressions derived using passive and quasi-active linear approximations to the kinetic schemes. For all subthreshold voltage ranges, the quasi-active linearized approximation is accurate within 8% and may thus be used in large-scale simulations of realistic neuronal geometries.

  11. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  12. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  13. Metabolic adaptation to decreases in energy intake due to changes in the energy cost of low energy expenditure regimen.

    PubMed

    Garby, L

    1990-01-01

    (1) The energy content in food is used in the human body for three main purposes. The first is to maintain the dissipative structures. Most of the structures of the body are of this kind, i.e. they represent stationary non-equilibrium states, or (generalized) stationary potentials, and are inherently unstable. The second is to maintain a body temperature independent of and usually higher than that of the surroundings. The third is to provide energy for performance of external work. The functional structure of the system providing these results consists of a large number of coupled processes (chemical reactions and translocations), in series and in parallel, whose general nature is well understood but whose quantitative extents are mainly unknown. The coupled processes are driven by the spontaneous reaction of the main substrates with oxygen. Energy flows through the system and is converted to heat (and external work) with simultaneous creation of stationary generalized potentials. For each potential there is an associated flow of energy and the relation between the two is an expression of the efficiency with which the potential is maintained. The processes giving rise to the potentials are likely to be controlled with respect to the efficiency with which the potentials are maintained. The control is partly provided through feedback from the potentials themselves: the potentials are regulated. In this way, the system can respond in a non-linear fashion to perturbations in the energy intake (or energy expenditure): the potentials are maintained at constant, or nearly constant, values. The concept of metabolic adaptation implies that control of the efficiency by feedback from the potentials is an important element in the overall regulation of the potentials, including that of the body temperature. (2) The concept of metabolic adaptation can be framed in such a way that it becomes operational. Quantities such as maintained potentials and efficiency can be revealed in

  14. Investigation of energy dissipation due to contact angle hysteresis in capillary effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Iyer, Ram

    2016-06-01

    Capillary action or Capillarity is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like gravity. Three effects contribute to capillary action, namely, adhesion of the liquid to the walls of the confining solid; meniscus formation; and low Reynolds number fluid flow. We investigate the dissipation of energy during one cycle of capillary action, when the liquid volume inside a capillary tube first increases and subsequently decreases while assuming quasi-static motion. The quasi-static assumption allows us to focus on the wetting phenomenon of the solid wall by the liquid and the formation of the meniscus. It is well known that the motion of a liquid on an non-ideal surface involves the expenditure of energy due to contact angle hysteresis. In this paper, we derive the equations for the menisci and the flow rules for the change of the contact angles for a liquid column in a capillary tube at a constant temperature and volume by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy using calculus of variations. We describe the numerical solution of these equations and present results from computations for the case of a capillary tube with 1 mm diameter.

  15. Suppression of turbulent energy cascade due to phase separation in homogenous binary mixture fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Youhei; Okamoto, Sachiya

    2015-11-01

    When a multi-component fluid mixture becomes themophysically unstable state by quenching from well-melting condition, phase separation due to spinodal decomposition occurs, and a self-organized structure is formed. During phase separation, free energy is consumed for the structure formation. In our previous report, the phase separation in homogenous turbulence was numerically simulated and the coarsening process of phase separation was discussed. In this study, we extended our numerical model to a high Schmidt number fluid corresponding to actual polymer solution. The governing equations were continuity, Navier-Stokes, and Chan-Hiliard equations as same as our previous report. The flow filed was an isotropic homogenous turbulence, and the dimensionless parameters in the Chan-Hilliard equation were estimated based on the thermophysical condition of binary mixture. From the numerical results, it was found that turbulent energy cascade was drastically suppressed in the inertial subrange by phase separation for the high Schmidt number flow. By using the identification of turbulent and phase separation structure, we discussed the relation between total energy balance and the structures formation processes. This study is financially supported by the Grand-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. T26820045) from the Ministry of Education, Cul-ture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  16. The Energy-Dependent Position of the IBEX Ribbon Due to the Solar Wind Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M.

    2016-08-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) allow for remote studies of the condition of plasma in the heliosphere and the neighboring local interstellar medium. The first results from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) revealed an arc-like enhancement of the ENA intensity in the sky, known as the ribbon. The ribbon was not expected from the heliospheric models prior to the launch of IBEX. One proposed explanation for the ribbon is the mechanism of secondary ENA emission. The ribbon reveals energy-dependent structure in the relative intensity along its circumference and in its position. That is, the geometric center of the ribbon varies systematically by about 10° in the energy range 0.7-4.3 keV. Here, we show by analytical modeling that this effect is a consequence of the helio-latitudinal structure of the solar wind reflected in the secondary ENAs. Along with a recently measured distance to the ribbon’s source just beyond the heliopause, our findings support the connection of the ribbon with the local interstellar magnetic field by the mechanism of secondary ENA emission. However, the magnitude of the center shift in the highest IBEX energy channel is much larger in the observations than expected from the modeling. This may be due to another, not currently recognized, process of ENA generation.

  17. The Energy-Dependent Position of the IBEX Ribbon Due to the Solar Wind Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M.

    2016-08-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) allow for remote studies of the condition of plasma in the heliosphere and the neighboring local interstellar medium. The first results from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) revealed an arc-like enhancement of the ENA intensity in the sky, known as the ribbon. The ribbon was not expected from the heliospheric models prior to the launch of IBEX. One proposed explanation for the ribbon is the mechanism of secondary ENA emission. The ribbon reveals energy-dependent structure in the relative intensity along its circumference and in its position. That is, the geometric center of the ribbon varies systematically by about 10° in the energy range 0.7–4.3 keV. Here, we show by analytical modeling that this effect is a consequence of the helio-latitudinal structure of the solar wind reflected in the secondary ENAs. Along with a recently measured distance to the ribbon’s source just beyond the heliopause, our findings support the connection of the ribbon with the local interstellar magnetic field by the mechanism of secondary ENA emission. However, the magnitude of the center shift in the highest IBEX energy channel is much larger in the observations than expected from the modeling. This may be due to another, not currently recognized, process of ENA generation.

  18. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  19. Active tissue factor and activated factor XI in circulating blood of patients with systolic heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zabczyk, Michał; Butenas, Saulius; Palka, Ilona; Nessler, Jadwiga; Undas, Anetta

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Elevated clotting factors and thrombin generation have been reported to occur in patients with heart failure (HF). Circulating activated factor XI (FXIa) and active tissue factor (TF) can be detected in acute coronary syndromes and stable angina. OBJECTIVES We investigated circulating FXIa and active TF and their associations in patients with systolic HF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS In an observational study, we assessed 53 consecutive patients, aged below 75 years, with stable HF associated with documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Atrial fibrillation (LA), recent thromboembolic events, and current anticoagulant therapy were the exclusion criteria. Plasma TF and FXIa activity was determined in clotting assays by measuring the response to inhibitory monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS Coagulant TF activity was detected in 20 patients (37.7%), and FXIa in 22 patients (41.5%). Patients with detectable TF activity and/or FXIa were younger, had a history of myocardial infarction more frequently, significantly higher F1+2 prothrombin fragments, larger LA and right ventricular diastolic diameter, and higher right ventricular systolic pressure than the remaining subjects (P ≤0.01 for all). Circulating FXIa was positively correlated with F1+2 levels (r = 0.69; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Circulating active TF and FXIa occurred in about 40% of patients with systolic HF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of these factors was associated with enhanced thrombin formation. Associations between both factors and LA diameter and right ventricular parameters might suggest that TF and FXIa predispose to thromboembolic complications of HF. PMID:20864906

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  1. Heat deposition in thick targets due to interaction of high energy protons and thermal hydraulics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, H.; Dutta, D.; Mantha, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Satyamurthy, P.; Choudhury, R. K.; Kailas, S.

    2008-02-01

    Heat deposition inside thick targets due to interaction of high energy protons (Ep ∼ GeV) has been estimated using an improved version of the Monte Carlo simulation code CASCADE.04.h. The results are compared with the available experimental data for thick targets of Be, Al, Fe, Cu, Pb and Bi at proton energies of 0.8 GeV, 1.0 GeV and 1.2 GeV. A more continuous heat deposition approach which has been adopted in CASCADE.04.h yields results which are in better agreement with the experimental data as compared to the ones from the earlier version of CASCADE.04. The results are also compared with the predictions of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Both CASCADE.04.h and FLUKA predictions are nearly similar for heavy targets and both agree with the experimental measurements. However, they do have differences in predictions for lighter targets where measurements also differ from the predictions. It is observed that the maximum heat loss in thick targets occurs at the beginning of the target due to increasing nuclear reaction contributions. This aspect is crucial in designing the window of a spallation neutron target employed in an accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) as this is the first material to be traversed by the proton beam and is subjected to the maximum temperature gradient. Optimization of the target-window parameters requires a careful estimation of heat deposition in the window region and this has been demonstrated through thermal hydraulic studies related to the design of a realistic lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation neutron target for an ADS system.

  2. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  3. Prediction of airplane cabin noise due to engine shock cell excitation using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Steven E.

    As part of the effort in the 1980's to design fuel efficient propulsion systems (unducted fan engines) for large commercial airplanes, procedures were developed for predicting interior noise using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Due to stable fuel process and deregulation in the airline industry, the emphasis for propulsion systems on commercial airplanes shifted to higher thrust and lower operating costs. In order to preserve and enhance the knowledge acquired using SEA to predict cabin noise for propeller airplanes, potential noise control applications for more conventional airplane configurations were investigated. The present paper records an effort to extend the experience acquired using statistical energy analysis for unducted fan engines to noise generated by turbofan engine exhaust. The technique is applied to the generic case of a large commercial airplane with twin, wing-mounted engines. Results are presented from an evaluation of the noise source based on an uncommon set of flight test data. Model construction is decribed and prediction results compared to the flight test data. It is then demonstrated how SEA is used to prioritize the transmission paths and judge the merit of the common noise suppression techniques.

  4. Energy transfer between laser beams due to recording of optical axis gratings in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nersisyan, Sarik R.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.; Stickley, C. Martin

    2006-10-01

    We have studied two-beam-coupling processes related to the generation of optical axis gratings in liquid crystals (LCs) due to the electromagnetic torque acting on the orientation of LCs in superimposed laser beams with spatially modulated polarization. Such gratings result in efficient coupling between the laser beams controlled by the frequency shift introduced between the beams at infrasound frequencies. Larger than 80% efficiency of energy transfer from a pump to a signal beam is reported at power density levels of the laser beams at 1-10 kW/cm2. The distinction between pump and signal beams is relative, since the sign of the frequency shift rather than the power ratio between the beams determines the direction of energy transfer. The experiments were performed for radiation at a 1.06 μm wavelength; high optical nonlinearity and low absorption make LCs suitable for use in visible and near-IR spectra, particularly in high-power laser systems. We have characterized the main fundamental features of the process of recording dynamic orientation gratings, plotting the gain spectra for several LCs and verifying the good quality of the amplified signal beam even for a strongly distorted pump. The obtained results set the groundwork for a variety of novel opportunities and applications that include combining high-power laser beams and wavelength division multiplexing at an ultranarrow interval of frequencies of the order of 1-100 Hz.

  5. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349

  6. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  7. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  8. Thermal energy conduction in a honey bee comb due to cell-heating bees.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J A C; Dykes, E S

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations are performed to characterize the unsteady two-dimensional conduction of thermal energy in an idealized honey bee comb. The situation explored corresponds to a comb containing a number of brood cells occupied by pupae. These cells are surrounded by other cells containing pollen which, in turn, are surrounded (above) by cells containing honey and (below) by vacant cells containing air. Up to five vacant cells in the brood region can be occupied by cell-heating bees which, through the isometrical contraction of their flight muscles, can generate sufficient energy to raise their body temperatures by a few degrees. In this way, the cell-heating bees alter the heat flux and temperature distributions in the brood region so as to maintain conditions that benefit the pupae. The calculations show that the number of cell-heating bees significantly affects the magnitude, time rate of change, and spatial distribution of temperature throughout the comb. They also reveal a vertically aligned asymmetry in the spatial distribution of temperature that is due to the large heat capacity and thermal conductivity of honey relative to air, whereby air-filled cells experience larger temperature increases than honey-filled cells. Analysis shows that convection and radiation represent negligible modes of thermal energy transfer at all levels in the problem considered. Also, because of its small thickness, the wax wall of a comb cell simultaneously presents negligible resistance to conduction heat transfer normal to it and very large resistance along it. As a consequence the walls of a cell play no thermal role, but simply serve as mechanical supports for the materials they contain.

  9. Absence of Remote Triggering in Geothermal Fields Due to Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Zhang, Q.; Lin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Operational geothermal fields typically have high seismicity rates, which could be caused by both tectonic and anthropogenic activities. Due to the high background seismicity and possible interaction between fluid and seismic waves, geothermal areas have been recognized to be susceptible to large remote earthquakes. However, whether human activity (geothermal production) affects remote earthquake triggering by changing the stress state is unclear. Here we choose two geothermal fields, Coso and Salton Sea in southern California, to study the spatiotemporal distributions of the triggered earthquakes following the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. These two geothermal fields have been in operation since 1980s with comparable net capacity, and have long-term geothermal fluid loss. By analyzing the regional catalog recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network, we find that these two operational geothermal areas remain unaffected by the remote mainshocks, whereas the surrounding areas show vigorous triggered responses. We interpret this phenomenon as a result of human activity, which presumably has brought the stress state away from failure by reducing pore pressure. To further understand how much the human activity can affect the stress state, we also conduct a systematic study on Long Valley Caldera in northern California as a comparison site. Long Valley Caldera hosts an active geothermal field with net capacity about one sixth of that in Coso or Salton Sea geothermal field, and the extraction volume is not constantly larger than the injection. We will show comparisons of the triggered response in Long Valley with the two geothermal fields in southern California.

  10. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  11. Anammox brings WWTP closer to energy autarky due to increased biogas production and reduced aeration energy for N-removal.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, H; Salzgeber, D; Eugster, J; Joss, A

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago when only BOD was removed at municipal WWTPs primary clarifiers were designed with 2-3 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). This changed with the introduction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge treatment that needed more BOD for denitrification. The HRT of primary clarification was reduced to less than one hour for dry weather flow with the consequence that secondary sludge had to be separately thickened and biogas production was reduced. Only recently the ammonia rich digester liquid (15-20% of the inlet ammonia load) could be treated with the very economic autotrophic nitritation/anammox process requiring half of the aeration energy and no organic carbon source compared to nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification. With the introduction of this new innovative digester liquid treatment the situation reverts, allowing us to increase HRT of the primary clarifier to improve biogas production and reduce aeration energy for BOD removal and nitrification at similar overall N-removal. PMID:18309216

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Waseem; Fayazuddin, Mohd.; Shariq, Syed; Singh, Ompal; Moin, Shagufta; Akhtar, Kafil; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cichorium intybus L. commonly known as chicory is one of the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is commonly used for the treatment of diseases involving a khapa and pitta doshas. Traditionally, C. intybus is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but there are only few in vitro studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory. Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory and mechanisms involved in it using in vivo models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150–200 g were used. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots of chicory were prepared with the help of Soxhlet's apparatus. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1 and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated. Results: Chicory roots demonstrated significant dose-dependent decrease in paw edema in carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Chicory roots diminished the serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 levels. They also significantly attenuated the malonylaldehyde levels and increased the activities of CAT and GPx in paw tissue. Similarly, chicory roots demonstrated a significant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. Conclusion: Chicory roots possess anti-inflammatory activity, and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines, antioxidant effects, and their free radical scavenging activity. PMID:25737610

  13. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  14. Undesirable Consequences of Insecticide Resistance following Aedes aegypti Control Activities Due to a Dengue Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Avendanho, Fernando Campos; Santos, Rosangela; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Background During a dengue outbreak with co-circulation of DENV-1 and -2 in the city of Boa Vista, one patient was diagnosed with DENV-4, a serotype supposed absent from Brazil for almost 30 years. The re-emergence of DENV-4 triggered the intensification of mechanical and chemical Aedes aegypti control activities in order to reduce vector density and avoid DENV-4 dissemination throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings Vector control activities consisted of (a) source reduction, (b) application of diflubenzuron against larvae and (c) vehicle-mounted space spraying of 2% deltamethrin to eliminate adults. Control activity efficacy was monitored by comparing the infestation levels and the number of eggs collected in ovitraps before and after interventions, performed in 22 Boa Vista districts, covering an area of ∼80% of the city and encompassing 56,837 dwellings. A total of 94,325 containers were eliminated or treated with diflubenzuron. The most frequently positive containers were small miscellaneous receptacles, which corresponded to 59% of all positive breeding sites. Insecticide resistance to deltamethrin was assessed before, during and after interventions by dose-response bioassays adopting WHO-based protocols. The intense use of the pyrethroid increased fourfold the resistance ratio of the local Ae. aegypti population only six months after the beginning of vector control. Curiously, this trend was also observed in the districts in which no deltamethrin was applied by the public health services. On the other hand, changes in the resistance ratio to the organophosphate temephos seemed less influenced by insecticide in Boa Vista. Conclusions Despite the intense effort, mosquito infestation levels were only slightly reduced. Besides, the median number of eggs in ovitraps remained unaltered after control activity intensification. The great and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance levels of natural Ae. aegypti populations is discussed in the context of

  15. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

    2010-03-09

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  16. Possible two-step solar energy release mechanism due to turbulent magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Quanlin; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, a possible two-step solar magnetic energy release process attributed to turbulent magnetic reconnection is investigated by magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the purpose of accounting for the closely associated observational features including canceling magnetic features and different kinds of small-scale activities such as ultraviolet explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. Numerical results based on realistic transition region physical parameters show that magnetic reconnections in a vertical turbulent current sheet consist of two stages, i.e., a first slow Sweet-Parker-like reconnection and a later rapid Petschek-like reconnection, where the latter fast reconnection phase seems a direct consequence of the initial slow reconnection phase when a critical state is reached. The formation of coherent plasmoid of various sizes and their coalescence play a central role in this complex nonlinear evolution. The 'observed' values of the rate of cancellation flux as well as the approaching velocity of magnetic fragments of inverse polarity in present simulation are well consistent with the corresponding measurements in the latest observations. The difference between our turbulent magnetic reconnection two-step energy release model and other schematic two-step models is discussed and then possible application of present outcome to solar explosives is described.

  17. The nucleoporin Nup153 affects spindle checkpoint activity due to an association with Mad1

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The nucleoporin Nup153 is known to play pivotal roles in nuclear import and export in interphase cells and as the cell transitions into mitosis, Nup153 is involved in nuclear envelope breakdown. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of Nup153 with the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad1 is important in the regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Overexpression of human Nup153 in HeLa cells leads to the appearance of multinucleated cells and induces the formation of multipolar spindles. Importantly, it causes inactivation of the spindle checkpoint due to hypophosphorylation of Mad1. Depletion of Nup153 using RNA interference results in the decline of Mad1 at nuclear pores during interphase and more significantly causes a delayed dissociation of Mad1 from kinetochores in metaphase and an increase in the number of unresolved midbodies. In the absence of Nup153 the spindle checkpoint remains active. In vitro studies indicate direct binding of Mad1 to the N-terminal domain of Nup153. Importantly, Nup153 binding to Mad1 affects Mad1's phosphorylation status, but not its ability to interact with Mad2. Our data suggest that Nup153 levels regulate the localization of Mad1 during the metaphase/anaphase transition thereby affecting its phoshorylation status and in turn spindle checkpoint activity and mitotic exit. PMID:21327106

  18. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-03-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-degree defectors, who are hence unable to utilize on their inherent evolutionary advantage. Between cascading failures, the fraction of cooperators is therefore higher than usual, which lastly balances out the asymmetric dynamic instabilities that emerge due to intermittent blackouts of cooperative hubs.

  19. Whiting events: biogenic origin due to the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterial picoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. B.; Schultze-Lam, S.; Beveridge, T. J.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    An annual whiting event occurs each year in late May to early June in Fayetteville Green Lake, New York. The initiation of this event correlates with exponential growth of the Synechococcus population within the lake. Synechococcus is the dominant (by approximately 4 orders of magnitude) autotrophic organism owing to the oligotrophic condition of the lake. The delta 13C values of the dissolved inorganic C range seasonally from -9.5% in winter to -6.2% in summer due to photosynthetic activity. Calcite precipitates principally in the microenvironment surrounding Synechococcus because of a photosynthetically driven alkalization process and the availability of the cells as nucleation sites. This calcite has a heavier delta 13C value (>4%) than does the dissolved inorganic C of the lake water owing to the cells' preferential uptake of 12C. A conceptual model suggests that photosynthetic activity and cell surface chemistry, together with the substantial surface area that arises from the great abundance of micron-sized cells, allow Synechococcus to dominate the annual whiting events in Fayetteville Green Lake.

  20. MELANOPHORE BANDS AND AREAS DUE TO NERVE CUTTING, IN RELATION TO THE PROTRACTED ACTIVITY OF NERVES

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G. H.

    1941-01-01

    1. When appropriate chromatic nerves are cut caudal bands, cephalic areas, and the pelvic fins of the catfish Ameiurus darken. In pale fishes all these areas will sooner or later blanch. By recutting their nerves all such blanched areas will darken again. 2. These observations show that the darkening of caudal bands, areas, and fins on cutting their nerves is not due to paralysis (Brücke), to the obstruction of central influences such as inhibition (Zoond and Eyre), nor to vasomotor disturbances (Hogben), but to activities emanating from the cut itself. 3. The chief agents concerned with the color changes in Ameiurus are three: intermedin from the pituitary gland, acetylcholine from the dispersing nerves (cholinergic fibers), and adrenalin from the concentrating nerves (adrenergic fibers). The first two darken the fish; the third blanches it. In darkening the dispersing nerves appear to initiate the process and to be followed and substantially supplemented by intermedin. 4. Caudal bands blanch by lateral invasion, cephalic areas by lateral invasion and internal disintegration, and pelvic fins by a uniform process of general loss of tint equivalent to internal disintegration. 5. Adrenalin may be carried in such an oil as olive oil and may therefore act as a lipohumor; it is soluble in water and hence may act as a hydrohumor. In lateral invasion (caudal bands, cephalic areas) it probably acts as a lipohumor and in internal disintegration (cephalic areas, pelvic fins) it probably plays the part of a hydrohumor. 6. The duration of the activity of dispersing nerves after they had been cut was tested by means of the oscillograph, by anesthetizing blocks, and by cold-blocks. The nerves of Ameiurus proved to be unsatisfactory for oscillograph tests. An anesthetizing block, magnesium sulfate, is only partly satisfactory. A cold-block, 0°C., is successful to a limited degree. 7. By means of a cold-block it can be shown that dispersing autonomic nerve fibers in Ameiurus can

  1. Channeling Children's Energy through Vocabulary Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares vocabulary development activities for young learners. These activities channel students' energy and make learning more effective and fun. The author stresses the importance of giving young learners a good language-learning experience, and the challenges of teaching young learners who are not literate in their L1.…

  2. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    La Scala jr, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  3. The mesoscale sediment transport due to technical activities in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Jacek A.; Zielke, Werner

    This paper presents a mesoscale model for sediment transport in the deep sea resulting from technical activities such as manganese nodule mining. The model includes the temporal variability of ambient currents, the modification of the water density due to suspended sediments (density driven flow), bottom boundary-layer effects, and the influence of flocculation on the sediment settling velocity. It yields the three-dimensional sediment concentration and the bottom blanketing for time periods of up to a few weeks in areas of up to a few hundred square kilometers. The model also allows simulation of the mobilization, sorption and the transport of heavy metals. Two applications are presented. One treats the sediment transport during the NOAA Benthic Impact Experiment. The other is concerned with dispersion of heavy metals, including the interaction with suspended sediment in the Disturbance and Recolonization Experiment Experimental Area. The model is highly sophisticated with regard to the processes and numerical methods. Nevertheless, a final conclusion concerning the quantification of its prognostic capability for industrial scale operations cannot presently be drawn because of the lack of complete and coherent data sets.

  4. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of boundary layer ozone depletion events in the Polar Regions [1] and in the mid-latitudes [2], two areas of very different temperature regimes, begs the question of temperature dependence of reactions responsible for these observations [3]. These ODEs have been attributed to ozone reacting with halides leading to reactive halogens (halogen activation) of which bromide is extensively studied, R1 - R3 [4, 5] (R1 is a multiphase reaction). O3 + Br-→ O2 + OBr- (R1) OBr- + H+ ↔ HOBr (R2) HOBr + H+ + Br-→ Br2 + H2O (R3) Despite extensive studies of ozone-bromide interactions, the temperature dependence of bromine activation is not clear [3]. This limits parameterization of the involved reactions and factors in atmospheric models [3, 6]. Viscosity changes in the matrix (such as organic aerosols) due to temperature have been shown to influence heterogeneous reaction rates and products beyond pure temperature effect [7]. With the application of coated wall flow-tubes, the aim of this study is therefore to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation by ozone interaction while attempting to characterize the contributions of the bulk and surface reactions to observed ozone uptake. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix whose viscosity changes with temperature and humidity. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. Comparison of measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake at different matrix compositions (and viscosities) indicate that bulk reactive uptake dominates, but there are other factors which still need further consideration in the model. References 1. Barrie, L.A., et al., Nature, 1988. 334: p. 138 - 141. 2. Hebestreit, K., et al., Science, 1999. 283: p. 55-57. 3. Simpson, W.R., et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2007. 7: p. 4375 - 4418. 4. Haag, R.W. and J. Hoigné, Environ Sci Technol, 1983. 17: p. 261-267. 5. Oum, K.W., et

  5. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of boundary layer ozone depletion events in the Polar Regions [1] and in the mid-latitudes [2], two areas of very different temperature regimes, begs the question of temperature dependence of reactions responsible for these observations [3]. These ODEs have been attributed to ozone reacting with halides leading to reactive halogens (halogen activation) of which bromide is extensively studied, R1 - R3 [4, 5] (R1 is a multiphase reaction). O3 + Br‑→ O2 + OBr‑ (R1) OBr‑ + H+ ↔ HOBr (R2) HOBr + H+ + Br‑→ Br2 + H2O (R3) Despite extensive studies of ozone-bromide interactions, the temperature dependence of bromine activation is not clear [3]. This limits parameterization of the involved reactions and factors in atmospheric models [3, 6]. Viscosity changes in the matrix (such as organic aerosols) due to temperature have been shown to influence heterogeneous reaction rates and products beyond pure temperature effect [7]. With the application of coated wall flow-tubes, the aim of this study is therefore to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation by ozone interaction while attempting to characterize the contributions of the bulk and surface reactions to observed ozone uptake. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix whose viscosity changes with temperature and humidity. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. Comparison of measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake at different matrix compositions (and viscosities) indicate that bulk reactive uptake dominates, but there are other factors which still need further consideration in the model. References 1. Barrie, L.A., et al., Nature, 1988. 334: p. 138 - 141. 2. Hebestreit, K., et al., Science, 1999. 283: p. 55-57. 3. Simpson, W.R., et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2007. 7: p. 4375 - 4418. 4. Haag, R.W. and J. Hoigné, Environ Sci Technol, 1983. 17: p. 261-267. 5. Oum

  6. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks. PMID:26035983

  7. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks.

  8. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  9. Internal energy of molecules ejected due to energetic C60 bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Barbara J.; Postawa, Zbigniew; Ryan, Kathleen E.; Vickerman, John C.; Webb, Roger P.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The early stages of C60 bombardment of octane and octatetraene crystals are modeled using molecular dynamics simulations with incident energies of 5-20 keV. Using the AIREBO potential, which allows for chemical reactions in hydrocarbon molecules, we are able to investigate how the projectile energy is partitioned into changes in potential and kinetic energy as well as how much energy flows into reacted molecules and internal energy. Several animations have been included to illustrate the bombardment process. The results show that the material near the edge of the crater can be ejected with low internal energies and that ejected molecules maintain their internal energies in the plume, in contrast to a collisional cooling mechanism previously proposed. In addition, a single C60 bombardment was able to create many free and reacted H atoms which may aid in the ionization of molecules upon subsequent bombardment events. PMID:19228010

  10. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-01

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  11. Airway Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Acute Mortality Due to Lethal Sulfur Mustard Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Veress, Livia A.; Anderson, Dana R.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Houin, Paul R.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; Loader, Joan E.; Paradiso, Danielle C.; Smith, Russell W.; Rancourt, Raymond C.; Holmes, Wesley W.; White, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon stockpiled today in volatile regions of the world. SM inhalation causes a life-threatening airway injury characterized by airway obstruction from fibrin casts, which can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is more than 80%. No therapy exists to prevent mortality after SM exposure. Our previous work using the less toxic analog of SM, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, identified tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) an effective rescue therapy for airway cast obstruction (Veress, L. A., Hendry-Hofer, T. B., Loader, J. E., Rioux, J. S., Garlick, R. B., and White, C. W. (2013). Tissue plasminogen activator prevents mortality from sulfur mustard analog-induced airway obstruction. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 48, 439–447). It is not known if exposure to neat SM vapor, the primary agent used in chemical warfare, will also cause death due to airway casts, and if tPA could be used to improve outcome. Methods: Adult rats were exposed to SM, and when oxygen saturation reached less than 85% (median: 6.5 h), intratracheal tPA or placebo was given under isoflurane anesthesia every 4 h for 48 h. Oxygen saturation, clinical distress, and arterial blood gases were assessed. Microdissection was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Results: Intratracheal tPA treatment eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h) and greatly improved morbidity after lethal SM inhalation (100% death in controls). tPA normalized SM-associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress. Moreover, tPA treatment resulted in greatly diminished airway casts, preventing respiratory failure from airway obstruction. Conclusions: tPA given via airway more than 6 h after exposure prevented death from lethal SM inhalation, and normalized oxygenation and ventilation defects, thereby rescuing from respiratory distress and failure. Intra-airway tPA should be considered as a life

  12. In Vivo Activity of Ceftobiprole in Murine Skin Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Hilliard, Jamese J.; Abbanat, Darren; Zhang, Wenyan; Melton, John L.; Santoro, Colleen M.; Flamm, Robert K.; Bush, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC β-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC β-lactamase). In the MSSA and MRSA infection models, ceftobiprole, administered as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, was more effective in reducing CFU/g skin (P < 0.001) than were cefazolin, vancomycin, or linezolid based on the dose-response profiles. Skin lesion volumes in MSSA-infected animals treated with ceftobiprole were 19 to 29% lower than those for cefazolin-, vancomycin-, or linezolid-treated animals (P < 0.001). In MRSA infections, lesion size in ceftobiprole-treated mice was 34% less than that with cefazolin or linezolid treatment (P < 0.001). Against P. aeruginosa, ceftobiprole at similar doses was as effective as meropenem-cilastatin in reductions of CFU/g skin, despite 8- and 32-fold-lower MICs for meropenem; both treatments were more effective than was cefepime (P < 0.001) against the inducible and overproducing AmpC β-lactamase strains of P. aeruginosa. Ceftobiprole was similar to meropenem-cilastatin and 47 to 54% more effective than cefepime (P < 0.01) in reducing the size of the lesion caused by either strain of P. aeruginosa in this study. These studies indicate that ceftobiprole is effective in reducing both bacterial load and lesion volume associated with infections due to MSSA, MRSA, and P. aeruginosa in this murine model of skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:19884364

  13. The uncertainty analysis on energy scale due to the variation of W value for liquid xenon dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The average energy expended per electron-ion pair, W value, is critical in understanding a liquid xenon detector energy response to low energy recoils. The reduction of scintillation and ionization yield for electronic recoils and nuclear recoils are explained using the scintillation quenching mechanism due to the variation of the average energy expended per electron hole pair, W value, which includes the energy lost to scintillation and phonon generation. We show the theoretical calculation of scintillation efficiency with W value in comparison with experimental data. The impact of variation of W value on the analysis of energy scale is discussed in detail. We conclude that the W value determined with experimental data depends on recoil energy and particle type. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF OIA 1434142, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  14. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  15. Imbalance of Nature due to Anthropogenic Activities in the Bay of Bacorehuis, Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Cárdenas Cota, H.

    2013-05-01

    Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream, globally the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication, a result of high-nutrient loads, which substantially impairs beneficial uses of water. Projected food production needs and increasing wastewater effluents associated with an increasing population over the next three decades suggest a 10%-15% increase in the river input of nitrogen loads into coastal ecosystems (UNO, 2009). Our study in the Bay of Bacorehuis in the State of Sinaloa, which was carried out due to a request from local fishermen who wanted to find out the reason for fishing stocks depletion, confirmed this trend with the consequent imbalance of nature. Sinaloa depends heavily on intensive agricultural production to support its economy which in turn relies on water irrigation and the application of agro-chemicals. The research project included a desk top study of geophysical and environmental factors as well as sampling and testing of the water. In addition we carried out socio-economic research to find out the impact on the local community of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic activities in the watershed upstream from the Bay. Our research established that the Bay of Bacorehuis is contaminated by organic matter, bacteria coliforms, pesticides and mercury due to the discharge of surplus runoff generated by irrigation of farmlands into drainage networks as well as the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater form more than 24,000 inhabitants. The main contaminants detected in the water bodies were organic matter, faecal coliforms, mercury, dimethoate, endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organonitrogen, synthetic pyrethroid, chlorothalonil, ethion, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos. Contaminants in sediments included the pesticides endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organophosphates, organonitrogen and synthetic pyrethroids. Natural water courses have been highly modified

  16. Energy consumption due to local travel by urban households under three alternative policies: 1980 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M K

    1981-11-01

    An evaluation was made of total energy consumption, by fuel type, resulting from local travel (by urban households) in 1980, 1990, and 2000, in two scenarios and three alternative policies. Energy consumed in vehicle operation, fuel production, vehicle production, and infrastructure construction was projected; and the relative impact of each policy was also evaluated. The results indicate that the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies in both scenarios save on total energy use and total petroleum use relative to the In-Place Travel Policy in both scenarios. However, the results also indicate that some of the savings achieved in direct energy consumed by vehicle operation under the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies are offset by the increased energy required to manufacture the vehicles and to build the infrastructure associated with these policies.

  17. Surface tension, surface energy, and chemical potential due to their difference.

    PubMed

    Hui, C-Y; Jagota, A

    2013-09-10

    It is well-known that surface tension and surface energy are distinct quantities for solids. Each can be regarded as a thermodynamic property related first by Shuttleworth. Mullins and others have suggested that the difference between surface tension and surface energy cannot be sustained and that the two will approach each other over time. In this work we show that in a single-component system where changes in elastic energy can be neglected, the chemical potential difference between the surface and bulk is proportional to the difference between surface tension and surface energy. By further assuming that mass transfer is driven by this chemical potential difference, we establish a model for the kinetics by which mass transfer removes the difference between surface tension and surface energy.

  18. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to different flow regimes due to human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Turberg, Pascal; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower production and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define eco-sustainable flows is to quantify the effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem adaptation. We present 2-years controlled experiments to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. In 2012 one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy for small run-of-river hydropower plants, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. In 2013 we confirmed and completed some of 2012 results, by reproducing typical hydropeaking effects due to dam management and focusing on daily water table variations and offsets. For both the seasons, after an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses revealed a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, in agreement with field observations of Pasquale et al. (2012). In particular, an initial strong difference in terms of stress and growth performances was then followed by a later

  19. A simple expression for sound attenuation due to surface duct energy leakage in low-latitude oceans.

    PubMed

    Duan, Rui; Yang, Kunde; Ma, Yuanliang; Chapman, N Ross

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an expression for the attenuation of sound energy in an ocean surface duct due to energy leakage outside the duct. Dominant parameters determining the attenuation are the sound frequency and the surface duct thickness. The attenuation is found to be exponentially dependent on a scaled frequency that combines the two parameters. Data from experiments in low-latitude oceans with three different surface duct thicknesses are used to verify the exponential expression derived for the attenuation.

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  1. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  2. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  3. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  4. JANNAF workshop on hazards due to pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results and hazards associated with the pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants are discussed. Special attention was given to future needs for modeling and the problem of deflagration to detonation transition.

  5. Void formation in amorphous germanium due to high electronic energy deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Joehrens, J.; Steinbach, T.; Schnohr, C. S.; Wesch, W.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of high electronic energy deposition in amorphous germanium has been studied experimentally by Au irradiation with ion energies of up to 185 MeV and different angles of incidence and by molecular dynamics computer simulations. In both cases, the energy deposition leads to void formation accompanied by strong swelling of the amorphous germanium. The simulation results prove that the formation of the voids is mainly based on a shock wave mechanism and the swelling is determined by the competing processes of the formation and growth of voids on the one hand and the shrinking and annihilation of voids on the other hand. In full agreement between experiment and simulation, the amount of the swelling is a linear function of the total energy deposited into electronic processes and there exists a threshold value of the electronic energy loss per ion and depth for swelling. A comparison of the threshold values obtained by the experiment and the simulation suggests that approximately 20% of the energy deposited into electronic processes is converted into atomic motion.

  6. A Fluorescent Reporter of AMPK activity and Cellular Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Peiling; Zheng, Bin; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the AMP/ATP ratio in cells is elevated due to energy stress. Here we describe a biosensor, AMPKAR, which exhibits enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in response to phosphorylation by AMPK, allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of AMPK activity in single cells. We show that this reporter responds to a variety of stimuli that are known to induce energy stress and that the response is dependent on AMPK α1 & α2 and on the upstream kinase, LKB1. Interestingly we found that AMPK activation is confined to the cytosol in response to energy stress but can be observed in both the cytosol and nucleus in response to calcium elevation. Finally, using this probe with U2OS cells in a microfluidics device, we observed a very high cell-to-cell variability in the amplitude and time course of AMPK activation and recovery in response to pulses of glucose deprivation. PMID:21459332

  7. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  8. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  9. Selectiveness of laser processing due to energy coupling localization: case of thin film solar cell scribing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Račiukaitis, G.; Grubinskas, S.; Gečys, P.; Gedvilas, M.

    2013-07-01

    Selectiveness of the laser processing is the top-most important for applications of the processing technology in thin-film electronics, including photovoltaics. Coupling of laser energy in multilayered thin-film structures, depending on photo-physical properties of the layers and laser wavelength was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Energy coupling within thin films highly depends on the film structure. The finite element and two-temperature models were applied to simulate the energy and temperature distributions inside the stack of different layers of a thin-film solar cell during a picosecond laser irradiation. Reaction of the films to the laser irradiation was conditioned by optical properties of the layers at the wavelength of laser radiation. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental data achieved in laser scribing of copper-indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on a flexible polymer substrate using picosecond-pulsed lasers. Selection of the right laser wavelength (1064 nm or 1572 nm) enabled keeping the energy coupling in a well-defined volume at the interlayer interface. High absorption at inner interface of the layers triggered localized temperature increase. Transient stress caused by the rapid temperature rise facilitating peeling of the films rather than evaporation. Ultra-short pulses ensured high energy input rate into absorbing material permitting peeling of the layers with no influence on the remaining material.

  10. Molecular dynamics analysis of metal surface sputtering due to bombardment of high energy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. Kishore; Donbosco, Ferdin Sagai; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-12-09

    Dependence of sputtering yield of Cu (100) and Ni (100) metal surface by bombardment of 200 Ar ions at various energies and angles of projections is investigated in this paper. The sputtering yield has been calculated by performing molecular dynamics simulation and the same is compared with experiments and theoretical predictions wherever possible. Additionally the kinetic energy, velocity and scattering angle distribution for sputtered and incident atoms are also observed. The results obtained from the present molecular dynamics simulations are found to be in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical estimates. It is observed that the sputtering yield increases as the energy of the bombarding ion increases. Furthermore as the incidence angle increases, the sputtering yield increases until a specific angle and then decreases as normal incidence is approached.

  11. Possible changes for mudflow and avalanche activity in former Soviet Union due to the global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Glazovskaya, T.G.; Sidorova, T.L.; Seliverstov, Y.G.

    1996-12-31

    Past research, as well as laboratory evidence have revealed a relationship between climate, mudflow, and avalanche activity. It is possible to predict changes in mudflow and avalanche activity by using climate models. In this study, the GFDL model was used which contained data on mean monthly air temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentrations.

  12. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  14. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  15. Thermal and Energy Performance of Conditioned Building Due To Insulated Sloped Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Suhandi Syiful; Ahmed, Azni Zain; Zakaria, Nor Zaini; Ibrahim, Norhati

    2010-07-01

    For low-rise buildings in equatorial region, the roof is exposed to solar radiation longer than other parts of the envelope. Roofs are to be designed to reject heat and moderate the thermal impact. These are determined by the design and construction of the roofing system. The pitch of roof and the properties of construction affect the heat gain into the attic and subsequently the indoor temperature of the living spaces underneath. This finally influences the thermal comfort conditions of naturally ventilated buildings and cooling load of conditioned buildings. This study investigated the effect of insulated sloping roof on thermal energy performance of the building. A whole-building thermal energy computer simulation tool, Integrated Environmental Solution (IES), was used for the modelling and analyses. A building model with dimension of 4.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m was designed with insulated roof and conventional construction for other parts of the envelope. A 75 mm conductive insulation material with thermal conductivity (k-value) of 0.034 Wm-1K-1 was installed underneath the roof tiles. The building was modelled with roof pitch angles of 0° , 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and simulated for the month of August in Malaysian climate conditions. The profile for attic temperature, indoor temperature and cooling load were downloaded and evaluated. The optimum roof pitch angle for best thermal performance and energy saving was identified. The results show the pitch angle of 0° is able to mitigate the thermal impact to provide the best thermal condition with optimum energy savings. The maximum temperature difference between insulated and non-insulted roof for attic (AtticA-B) and indoor condition (IndoorA-B) is +7.8 °C and 0.4 °C respectively with an average energy monthly savings of 3.9 %.

  16. Enhanced Xylitol Production by Mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus 36907-FMEL1 Due to Improved Xylose Reductase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Seong; Park, Jae-Bum; Jang, Seung-Won; Ha, Suk-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A directed evolution and random mutagenesis were carried out with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 for efficient xylitol production. The final selected strain, K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1, exhibited 120 and 39 % improvements of xylitol concentration and xylitol yield, respectively, as compared to the parental strain, K. marxianus ATCC 36907. According to enzymatic assays for xylose reductase (XR) activities, XR activity from K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1 was around twofold higher than that from the parental strain. Interestingly, the ratios of NADH-linked and NADPH-linked XR activities were highly changed from 1.92 to 1.30 when K. marxianus ATCC 36907 and K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1 were compared. As results of KmXYL1 genes sequencing, it was found that cysteine was substituted to tyrosine at position 36 after strain development which might cause enhanced XR activity from K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1.

  17. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  18. Multiplicity fluctuations due to the temperature fluctuations in high-energy nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the multiplicity fluctuations observed in high-energy nuclear collisions attributing them to intrinsic fluctuations of temperature of the hadronizing system formed in such processes. To account for these fluctuations, we replace the usual Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistics by the nonextensive Tsallis statistics characterized by the nonextensivity parameter q, with |q-1| being a direct measure of fluctuation. In the limit of vanishing fluctuations, q{yields}1 and Tsallis statistics converge to the usual BG. We evaluate the nonextensivity parameter q and its dependence on the hadronizing system size from the experimentally observed collision centrality dependence of the mean multiplicity and its variance Var(N). We attribute the observed system size dependence of q to the finiteness of the hadronizing source, with q=1 corresponding to an infinite, thermalized source with a fixed temperature, and with q>1 (which is observed) corresponding to a finite source in which both the temperature and energy fluctuate.

  19. Thermodynamics of Interacting new Agegraphic Dark Energy and Dark Matter Due to Bianchi Type I Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossienkhani, Hossien

    2016-07-01

    We study a thermodynamical description of the interaction between new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) and dark matter (DM) in an anisotropic universe. We find expressions for the entropy changes of these dark energy (DE) candidates. In addition, considering thermal fluctuations, thermodynamics of the DE component interacting with a DM sector is addressed. We also show that if one wants to solve the coincidence problem by using this mutual interaction, then the coupling constants of the interaction will be constrained. Finally, we obtain a physical expression for the interaction which is consistent with phenomenological descriptions and passes reasonably well the observational tests. Our study shows that, with the local equilibrium assumption, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

  20. STABILITY IN BCC TRANSITION METALS: MADELUNG AND BAND-ENERGY EFFECTS DUE TO ALLOYING

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P; Ruban, A; Peil, O; Vitos, L

    2009-08-28

    The phase stability of the bcc Group VB (V, Nb, and Ta) transition metals is explored by first-principles electronic-structure calculations. Alloying with a small amount of a neighboring metal can either stabilize or destabilize the bcc phase. This counterintuitive behavior is explained by competing mechanisms that dominate depending on particular dopand. We show that band-structure effects dictate stability when a particular Group VB metal is alloyed with its nearest neighbors within the same d-transition series. In this case, the neighbor with less (to the left) and more (to the right) d electrons, destabilize and stabilize bcc, respectively. When alloying with neighbors of different d-transition series, electrostatic Madelung energy dominates over the band energy and always stabilizes the bcc phase.

  1. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1982-06-17

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the sea-water pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHZ. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  2. Energy saving due to natural ventilation in housing blocks in Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Lezcano, RA; Hormigos-Jiménez, S.

    2016-07-01

    Getting a healthy and comfortable indoor environment in homes in southern Europe is a complicated task. In continental climates, with very cold temperatures in winter and very hot in summer, energy consumption greatly increases with air conditioning significant spending. To propose action guidelines for use of natural ventilation and to develop effective design strategies is essential. Therefore, and given a specific building type block of flats in Madrid, this article focuses on establishing what periods of the year natural ventilation is required to reduce energy consumption in air conditioning, also considering the quality of the outdoor environment and the design of the building. To develop this, a statistical study of the chosen type, that allows studying the direction and the wind speed in the area, is performed. Analysis of wind pressures in holes in the facade is performed by means of numerical simulations of fluid flow (CFD) inside to later infer in the natural ventilation rate required within policy parameters. With the data obtained, a study of energy saving is made as a function of natural ventilation rate established for the building type.

  3. Decreased contractility due to energy deprivation in a transgenic rat model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Luedde, Mark; Flögel, Ulrich; Knorr, Maike; Grundt, Christina; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Brors, Benedikt; Frank, Derk; Haselmann, Uta; Antony, Claude; Voelkers, Mirko; Schrader, Juergen; Most, Patrick; Lemmer, Bjoern; Katus, Hugo A; Frey, Norbert

    2009-04-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with cardiac hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and sudden death. Recently, it has been suggested that inefficient energy utilization could be a common molecular pathway of HCM-related mutations. We have previously generated transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats overexpressing a truncated cardiac troponin T (DEL-TNT) molecule, displaying typical features of HCM such as diastolic dysfunction and an increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We now studied these rats using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS demonstrated that cardiac energy metabolism was markedly impaired, as indicated by a decreased phosphocreatine to ATP ratio (-31%, p < 0.05). In addition, we assessed contractility of isolated cardiomyocytes. While DEL-TNT and control cardiomyocytes showed no difference under baseline conditions, DEL-TNT cardiomyocytes selectively exhibited a decrease in fractional shortening by 28% after 1 h in glucose-deprived medium (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant decreases in contraction velocity and relaxation velocity were observed. To identify the underlying molecular pathways, we performed transcriptional profiling using real-time PCR. DEL-TNT hearts exhibited induction of several genes critical for cardiac energy supply, including CD36, CPT-1/-2, and PGC-1alpha. Finally, DEL-TNT rats and controls were studied by radiotelemetry after being stressed by isoproterenol, revealing a significantly increased frequency of arrhythmias in transgenic animals. In summary, we demonstrate profound energetic alterations in DEL-TNT hearts, supporting the notion that inefficient cellular ATP utilization contributes to the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:19189074

  4. Electron residual energy due to stochastic heating in field-ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Yazdanpanah, Jam Chakhmachi, Amir; Jahanpanah, Jafar; Yazdani, Elnaz

    2015-11-15

    The electron residual energy originated from the stochastic heating in under-dense field-ionized plasma is investigated here. Initially, the optical response of plasma is modeled by using two counter-propagating electromagnetic waves. In this case, the solution of motion equation of a single electron indicates that by including the ionization, the electron with higher residual energy compared with that without ionization could be obtained. In agreement with chaotic nature of the motion, it is found that the electron residual energy will be significantly changed by applying a minor change in the initial conditions. Extensive kinetic 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in order to resolve full plasma reactions. In this way, two different regimes of plasma behavior are observed by varying the pulse length. The results indicate that the amplitude of scattered fields in a proper long pulse length is high enough to act as a second counter-propagating wave and trigger the stochastic electron motion. On the contrary, the analyses of intensity spectrum reveal the fact that the dominant scattering mechanism tends to Thomson rather than Raman scattering by increasing the pulse length. A covariant formalism is used to describe the plasma heating so that it enables us to measure electron temperature inside and outside of the pulse region.

  5. Decreased contractility due to energy deprivation in a transgenic rat model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Luedde, Mark; Flögel, Ulrich; Knorr, Maike; Grundt, Christina; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Brors, Benedikt; Frank, Derk; Haselmann, Uta; Antony, Claude; Voelkers, Mirko; Schrader, Juergen; Most, Patrick; Lemmer, Bjoern; Katus, Hugo A; Frey, Norbert

    2009-04-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with cardiac hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and sudden death. Recently, it has been suggested that inefficient energy utilization could be a common molecular pathway of HCM-related mutations. We have previously generated transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats overexpressing a truncated cardiac troponin T (DEL-TNT) molecule, displaying typical features of HCM such as diastolic dysfunction and an increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We now studied these rats using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS demonstrated that cardiac energy metabolism was markedly impaired, as indicated by a decreased phosphocreatine to ATP ratio (-31%, p < 0.05). In addition, we assessed contractility of isolated cardiomyocytes. While DEL-TNT and control cardiomyocytes showed no difference under baseline conditions, DEL-TNT cardiomyocytes selectively exhibited a decrease in fractional shortening by 28% after 1 h in glucose-deprived medium (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant decreases in contraction velocity and relaxation velocity were observed. To identify the underlying molecular pathways, we performed transcriptional profiling using real-time PCR. DEL-TNT hearts exhibited induction of several genes critical for cardiac energy supply, including CD36, CPT-1/-2, and PGC-1alpha. Finally, DEL-TNT rats and controls were studied by radiotelemetry after being stressed by isoproterenol, revealing a significantly increased frequency of arrhythmias in transgenic animals. In summary, we demonstrate profound energetic alterations in DEL-TNT hearts, supporting the notion that inefficient cellular ATP utilization contributes to the pathogenesis of HCM.

  6. Modeling dose deposition and DNA damage due to low-energy β(-) emitters.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Cutaia, C; Mariotti, L; Friedland, W; Ottolenghi, A

    2014-09-01

    One of the main issues of low-energy internal emitters concerns the very short ranges of the beta particles, versus the dimensions of the biological targets. Depending on the chemical form, the radionuclide may be more concentrated either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of the target cell. Consequently, since in most cases conventional dosimetry neglects this issue it may overestimate or underestimate the dose to the nucleus and hence the biological effects. To assess the magnitude of these deviations and to provide a realistic evaluation of the localized energy deposition by low-energy internal emitters, the biophysical track-structure code PARTRAC was used to calculate nuclear doses, DNA damage yields and fragmentation patterns for different localizations of radionuclides in human interphase fibroblasts. The nuclides considered in the simulations were tritium and nickel-63, which emit electrons with average energies of 5.7 (range in water of 0.42 μm) and 17 keV (range of 5 μm), respectively, covering both very short and medium ranges of beta-decay products. The simulation results showed that the largest deviations from the conventional dosimetry occur for inhomogeneously distributed short-range emitters. For uniformly distributed radionuclides selectively in the cytoplasm but excluded from the cell nucleus, the dose in the nucleus is 15% of the average dose in the cell in the case of tritium but 64% for nickel-63. Also, the numbers of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the distributions of DNA fragments depend on subcellular localization of the radionuclides. In the low- and medium-dose regions investigated here, DSB numbers are proportional to the nuclear dose, with about 50 DSB/Gy for both studied nuclides. In addition, DSB numbers on specific chromosomes depend on the radionuclide localization in the cell as well, with chromosomes located more peripherally in the cell nucleus being more damaged by short-ranged emitters in cytoplasm compared with chromosomes

  7. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  8. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research

  9. The spatial structure of underwater noise due to shipping activities in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Underwater noise is now classed as pollution alongside chemical pollution and marine litter (MSFD, 2012). Underwater noise from man-made sources arises from a number of sources including shipping activities. There are numerous examples of sound-induced effects recorded for various marine mammals, either in controlled situations, or opportunistically (MSFD-GES, 2012). Broad or narrow band continuous sounds, as well as pulses, have been documented to cause effects ranging from slight behaviour change, to activity disruption, avoidance or abandonment of preferred habitat (see Clark et al., 2009). Underwater ambient noise generated by shipping activities has increased significantly over the past decades (e.g. Mcdonald et al., 2006). Noise from shipping is a major contributor to the ambient noise levels in ocean, particularly at low (

  10. Complete energy transfer due to rare-earth phase segregation in optical fiber preform glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahoz, F.; Pérez-Rodríguez, C.; Halder, A.; Das, S.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.; Vasconcelos, H. C.

    2011-10-01

    An Yb3+ to Tm3+ energy-transfer quantum yield close to one has been found in phase-separated yttrium-alumina silicate optical fiber preform glasses. Optical absorption, luminescence, lifetime measurements, and rare-earth concentration dependence have been performed to investigate the feasibility of efficient blue upconversion fiber lasers through convenient Yb3+ sensitation. Luminescence decay measurements have demonstrated the co-existence of two phases. One of the phases is characterized by an yttrium-rich composition. Most of the RE ions partition into the yttrium-rich phase and produce the intense upconversion emission.

  11. Changes in antibacterial activity of triclosan and sulfa drugs due to photochemical transformations.

    PubMed

    Wammer, Kristine H; Lapara, Timothy M; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2006-06-01

    Sulfa drugs and triclosan represent two classes of antibacterials that have been found in natural waters and for which photodegradation is anticipated to be a significant loss process. Parent antibacterial compounds and the products of photolysis reactions were compared for three sulfa drugs and triclosan to determine the extent to which photolysis affects their antibacterial potency on Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Sulfathiazole (median effective concentration [EC50] = 20.0 microM), sulfamethoxazole (EC50 = 12.3 microM), and sulfachloropyridazine (EC50 = 6.9 microM) inhibited bacterial growth but did not affect respiratory activity. Photolysis products of these sulfa drugs did not retain any measurable ability to inhibit growth. Triclosan inhibited both the growth (EC50 = 0.24 microM) and respiratory activity of E. coli DH5alpha. Triclosan photolysis products also exhibited no measurable effect on growth or respiratory activity. These experiments indicate that the products of triclosan and sulfa drug photolysis are unlikely to possess antibacterial activity in natural waters. The rapid screening method used for these two classes of compounds will be useful for helping to identify photolabile antibacterial compounds, for which photoproducts could require further investigation.

  12. 131I activity in urine to the sewer system due to thyroidal treatments.

    PubMed

    Andrés, C; Barquero, R; Tortosa, R; Nuñez, C; del Castillo, A; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Alonso, D

    2011-08-01

    In nuclear medicine, estimating the radioactivity contained in the urine of patients treated with I and discharged to the environment could prevent the exposure of a population to radioactive effluents and the pollution of the aquatic environment with ionizing radiation. This can be a regulatory requirement (as in Spain) or requested by the sewer authority. Seventy-nine differentiated thyroid cancer cases (undergone as inpatients) and 187 hyperthyroidism cases (undergone as outpatients) were treated in our hospital with I throughout the year 2009. In hyperthyroidism treatments, the effective elimination constant was used to calculate the corresponding discharged activity in the urine, giving an activity level always below 0.7 GBq. In differentiated thyroid cancer treatments, patient's urine was collected in storage tanks during the hospitalization. Measurements of external exposure at 1 m made every day were used to calculate the activity contained in the urine. The tank activity was always below 15 GBq, but always higher than 2 GBq. Obtained results show that effective doses to sewage workers, received from liquid discharges, can only be reduced to less than 10 μSv if storage tanks are installed. Without tanks, 157 μSv can be reached, above the constrain dose used in nuclear installations (100 μSv). Our calculations may be helpful to the regulatory authority to review the clinical radiation waste normative, especially in countries where the discharges are released directly into public sewage plants. PMID:21709491

  13. Modeling of geomagnetic activity due to passage of different structures and features of high speed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustajab, Fainana

    2016-07-01

    The modeling of terrestrial environment and relative geoeffectiveness due to high speed streams of different type and also compare their geoeffectiveness due to fine structures associated with streams, for example i) streams with different speed, ii) streams with different durations, iii) streams from different solar source and iv) associated fine structures. We also observed high speed streams during 1996 to 2011, and divided them into convenient groups based on their i) speed, ii) durations, iii) solar sources and iv) Dst groups. Performed them method of superposed-epoch analysis and other some statistical-analysis and correlation analysis between geomagnetic index Dst and plasma/field parameters during for both main phase and recovery phase. Streams having the passage duration ranging from 4.5 days to 10.5 days is 59% while other groups, having passage duration <4.5 days and > 10.5 days, contribute only near about 13%. When we observe group according to speed of streams, 30% of high speed streams are having the speed >650km/s and other groups are near about equally distributed in the range 400km/s to 650km/s. Out of 575 high speed streams, 45% streams are caused by single coronal hole, 20% due to multiple coronal hole, 24% by compound i.e: due to coronal hole and coronal mass ejections and only 10% from coronal mass ejections. The streams which are responsible for quiet, weak, moderate storms are nearly equal and only 12% streams cause severe storms. Dst gives best correlation with V(km/s) and BVres to the power 2 (x10res to the power 6) for over all storm time. B(nT) and BV(x10res to the power 3) represent good correlation with Dst during recovery phase duration for the speed groups. I observed the percentage of quiet storms decreases with increasing speed of streams. Near about equal percentage of weak storm are observed in each set of speed of stream. 17% moderate storms are found to contribute for the speed range 400-550km/s and ≈33% contribution is

  14. Intrinsic rotation due to MHD activity in a tokamak with a resistive wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, M. G.; Gimblett, C. G.; Hastie, R. J.

    2013-05-01

    MHD activity in a tokamak, in the form of waves and instabilities, generally has a preferred direction for propagation in a two-fluid plasma. When the radial component of magnetic field associated with this activity interacts with a resistive wall, momentum or angular momentum will be given to the wall. The equal and opposite reaction will be on the plasma, in particular, for ideal and resistive modes, at the singular or resonant surfaces for the various modes. In this case the torque exerted is electromagnetic. This is in contrast to other mechanisms for intrinsic or spontaneous rotation which may arise at the plasma boundary. The resistive wall is considered generally, and the thin and thick wall limits found, the latter being relevant to ITER parameters. Remarkably small radial perturbing fields of order 0.1 G could produce a torque comparable in effect to the apparent anomalous toroidal viscosity.

  15. Priming the Holiday Spirit: Persistent Activation due to Extra-Experimental Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Balota, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of activation is a critical component of many models of cognition. A key characteristic of activation is that recent experience with a concept or stimulus increases the accessibility of the corresponding representation. The extent to which increases in accessibility occur as a result of experiences outside of laboratory settings has not been extensively explored. In the present study, we presented lexical stimuli associated to different holidays and festivities over the course of a year in a lexical decision task. When stimulus meaning and time of testing were congruent (e.g., leprechaun in March), response times were faster and accuracy greater than when meaning and time of test were incongruent (e.g., leprechaun in November). Congruency also benefited performance on a surprise free recall task of the items presented earlier in the lexical decision task. Discussion focuses on potential theoretical accounts of this heightened accessibility of time-of-the-year relevant concepts. PMID:19966266

  16. Massive stars: flare activity due to infalls of comet-like bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon; Ibodov, Firuz S.

    2015-01-01

    Passages of comet-like bodies through the atmosphere/chromosphere of massive stars at velocities more than 600 km/s will be accompanied, due to aerodynamic effects as crushing and flattening, by impulse generation of hot plasma within a relatively very thin layer near the stellar surface/photosphere as well as ``blast'' shock wave, i.e., impact-generated photospheric stellar/solar flares. Observational manifestations of such high-temperature phenomena will be eruption of the explosive layer's hot plasma, on materials of the star and ``exploding'' comet nuclei, into the circumstellar environment and variable anomalies in chemical abundances of metal atoms/ions like Fe, Si etc. Interferometric and spectroscopic observations/monitoring of young massive stars with dense protoplanetary discs are of interest for massive stars physics/evolution, including identification of mechanisms for massive stars variability.

  17. Activity of cathepsins in rat's spleen due to experimentally induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, R; Burdan, F; Madej, B; Kiś, G; Szkodziak, P; Burski, K

    The aim of this study was to establish and quantify the changes of the level of cathepsin B, D and L in the spleen during experimental pancreatitis. The experiment was carried out in 115 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into three groups: intact (n = 15), injected with 0.9% NaCl solution into the common bile pancreatic duct (n = 50) and injected with 5% sodium taurocholate into this duct to induce acute pancreatitis (n = 50). After 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours rats were anaesthetised, and blood was taken for amylase determination from the heart, and the spleen was removed. Alpha-amylase level in the blood serum samples was measured by enzymatic method. Cathepsin activity was established by spectrophotometric methods using substrates which form coloured complexes when they react with these proteases. The specific free fraction activity of cathepsin B, D and L in the spleen changed during the course of experiment, but there was no correlation between their activity and the intensity of pancreatitis established by serum amylase level.

  18. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching.

    PubMed

    Sivarajah, I; Goodman, D S; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2013-11-01

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field. PMID:24289382

  19. Heating due to momentum transfer in low-energy positronium-antiproton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, M.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the consequences of unexpectedly large elastic cross sections for the scattering of low-energy antiprotons from n ≤3 positronium (Ps) on the experimental implementation of antihydrogen formation via Ps-antiproton collisions. The integrated elastic cross sections, obtained using the two-center convergent close-coupling theory, can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than their counterparts for antihydrogen formation. The differential momentum transfer cross sections, which suppress the large cross sections at forward scattering angles, show remarkably rich behavior across all scattering angles. We discuss the implications of these findings for the heating, via momentum transfer, of clouds of trapped antiprotons that are typically used for the creation of antihydrogen.

  20. The Antimicrobial Activity of Marinocine, Synthesized by Marinomonas mediterranea, Is Due to Hydrogen Peroxide Generated by Its Lysine Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Elío, Patricia; Gómez, Daniel; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Marinocine is a broad-spectrum antibacterial protein synthesized by the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This work describes the basis for the antibacterial activity of marinocine and the identification of the gene coding for this protein. The antibacterial activity is inhibited under anaerobic conditions and by the presence of catalase under aerobic conditions. Marinocine is active only in culture media containing l-lysine. In the presence of this amino acid, marinocine generates hydrogen peroxide, which causes cell death as confirmed by the increased sensitivity to marinocine of Escherichia coli strains mutated in catalase activity. The gene coding for this novel enzyme was cloned using degenerate PCR with primers designed based on conserved regions in the antimicrobial protein AlpP, synthesized by Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and some hypothetical proteins. The gene coding for marinocine has been named lodA, standing for lysine oxidase, and it seems to form part of an operon with a second gene, lodB, that codes for a putative dehydrogenase flavoprotein. The identity of marinocine as LodA has been demonstrated by N-terminal sequencing of purified marinocine and generation of lodA mutants that lose their antimicrobial activity. This is the first report on a bacterial lysine oxidase activity and the first time that a gene encoding this activity has been cloned. PMID:16547036

  1. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  2. Low energy scatter due to in-situ irradiation of solid tumors in laboratory rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ritenour, E.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the pattern of scattered radiation in laboratory rat cadavers during irradiation of solid tumors on the animals' flanks was performed. The animals were wrapped in a lead shield having a circular cutout through which the tumor protruded. Irradiations were performed with a 250 kVp 15ma X-ray machine with a measured half value layer of 1.39 mmCu. Lead shielding was of sufficient thickness to attenuate essentially all of the beam. The absorbed dose measured in the animal was then due to internal scatter from the tumor. Arrays of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed beneath the skin of 17 animals bearing a solid tumor (hepatoma H-4-II-E). Absorbed dose was seen to vary isotropically, decreasing as the inverse distance squared from the tumor. Analysis of experimental error played a major role in this study. A pilot study resulted in standard errors that were 35% of the mean absorbed dose measurements. A careful reassessment of methods of manipulating the animals and the dosimetry system resulted in a reduction in standard error to 14% of the mean for small groups (less than 10 animals).

  3. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  4. Estimation of landslides activities evolution due to land-use changes in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Desramaut, Nicolas; Cottin, Léa; Bernardie, Séverine; Grandjean, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Global changes would have impacts worldwide, but their effects should be even more exacerbated in areas particularly vulnerable. Mountainous areas are among these vulnerable territories. Ecological systems are often at a fragile equilibrium, socio-economical activities are often climate-dependent and climate-driven natural hazards can be a major threat for human activities. In order to estimate the capacity of such mountainous valleys to face global changes (climate, but also climate- and human- induced land-use changes), it is necessary to be able to evaluate the evolution of the different threats. The present work presents a method to evaluate the influences of the evolution of both climate and vegetation cover on landslides activities over a whole valley, to propose adequate solutions for current and future forestry management. It is therefore necessary to properly estimate the vegetation influences on slope stabilities. In the present study, we develop a complementary module to our large-scale slope stability assessment tool to take into account the effects of vegetation on the mechanical soil properties (cohesion and over-load), but also on the slope hydrology (change in interceptions, run-off, and infiltration). Hence the proposed method combines a mechanical stability model (using finite slope analysis), a hydrological model, and a vegetation module which interfere with both aspects. All these elements are interfaced within a GIS-based solution. The whole chain is applied to a 100-km² Pyrenean Valley, for the ANR Project SAMCO (Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext), as a first step in the chain for risk assessment for different climate and economical development scenarios, to evaluate the resilience of mountainous areas.

  5. The Very High Premature Mortality Rate among Active Professional Wrestlers Is Primarily Due to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Christopher W.; Conlon, Anna S. C.; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Burghardt, Andrew R.; McGregor, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, much media attention has been given to the premature deaths in professional wrestlers. Since no formal studies exist that have statistically examined the probability of premature mortality in professional wrestlers, we determined survival estimates for active wresters over the past quarter century to establish the factors contributing to the premature mortality of these individuals. Methods Data including cause of death was obtained from public records and wrestling publications in wrestlers who were active between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2011. 557 males were considered consistently active wrestlers during this time period. 2007 published mortality rates from the Center for Disease Control were used to compare the general population to the wrestlers by age, BMI, time period, and cause of death. Survival estimates and Cox hazard regression models were fit to determine incident premature deaths and factors associated with lower survival. Cumulative incidence function (CIF) estimates given years wrestled was obtained using a competing risks model for cause of death. Results The mortality for all wrestlers over the 26-year study period was.007 deaths/total person-years or 708 per 100,000 per year, and 16% of deaths occurred below age 50 years. Among wrestlers, the leading cause of deaths based on CIF was cardiovascular-related (38%). For cardiovascular-related deaths, drug overdose-related deaths and cancer deaths, wrestler mortality rates were respectively 15.1, 122.7 and 6.4 times greater than those of males in the general population. Survival estimates from hazard models indicated that BMI is significantly associated with the hazard of death from total time wrestling (p<0.0001). Conclusion Professional wrestlers are more likely to die prematurely from cardiovascular disease compared to the general population and morbidly obese wrestlers are especially at risk. Results from this study may be useful for professional wrestlers, as well as

  6. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  7. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  8. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Teppei; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-10-24

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of A{beta} 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-{gamma} antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-{gamma} agonistic effect, also inhibited A{beta}-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was not affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for A{beta} showed the reduced A{beta} deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-{gamma} activation, could exert a stronger effect.

  9. Are the changes in the peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels due to platelet activation?

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Millàs, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600

  10. Platelet Activation Due to Hemodynamic Shear Stresses: Damage Accumulation Model and Comparison to In Vitro Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nobili, Matteo; Sheriff, Jawaad; Morbiducci, Umberto; Redaelli, Alberto; Bluestein, Danny

    2009-01-01

    The need to optimize the thrombogenic performance of blood recirculating cardiovascular devices, e.g., prosthetic heart valves (PHV) and ventricular assist devices (VAD), is accentuated by the fact that most of them require lifelong anticoagulation therapy that does not eliminate the risk of thromboembolic complications. The formation of thromboemboli in the flow field of these devices is potentiated by contact with foreign surfaces and regional flow phenomena that stimulate blood clotting, especially platelets. With the lack of appropriate methodology, device manufacturers do not specifically optimize for thrombogenic performance. Such optimization can be facilitated by formulating a robust numerical methodology with predictive capabilities of flow-induced platelet activation. In this study, a phenomenological model for platelet cumulative damage, identified by means of genetic algorithms (GAs), was correlated with in vitro experiments conducted in a Hemodynamic Shearing Device (HSD). Platelets were uniformly exposed to flow shear representing the lower end of the stress levels encountered in devices, and platelet activity state (PAS) was measured in response to six dynamic shear stress waveforms representing repeated passages through a device, and correlated to the predictions of the damage accumulation model. Experimental results demonstrated an increase in PAS with a decrease in “relaxation” time between pulses. The model predictions were in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:18204318

  11. Efficient influenza B virus propagation due to deficient interferon-induced antiviral activity in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Frensing, Timo; Seitz, Claudius; Heynisch, Bjoern; Patzina, Corinna; Kochs, Georg; Reichl, Udo

    2011-09-22

    Influenza B virus infections are mainly restricted to humans, which is partially caused by the inability of influenza B virus NS1 protein to counteract the innate immune response of other species. However, for cell culture-based influenza vaccine production non-human cells, such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, are commonly used. Therefore, the impact of cellular pathogen defence mechanisms on influenza B virus propagation in MDCK cells was analysed in this study. Activation of the cellular antiviral defence by interferon stimulation slowed down influenza B virus replication at early time points but after 48h the same virus titres were reached in stimulated and control cells. Furthermore, suppression of the antiviral host defence by transient expression of a viral antagonist, the rabies virus phosphoprotein, could not increase influenza B virus replication. Finally, canine Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins showed no antiviral activity in an influenza B virus-specific minireplicon assay in contrast to the murine Mx1 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that an insufficient antiviral defence in MDCK cells promotes efficient influenza B virus replication favouring the use of MDCK cells in influenza vaccine production.

  12. Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection Due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Broome, Jacqueline E.; Lis, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). Many of the biological effects of XO were due to the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme. We wondered, however, if uric acid generated by XO also had biological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Uric acid triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, including increased submucosal edema and release of extracellular DNA from host cells. While uric acid alone was unable to trigger a chloride secretory response in intestinal monolayers, it did potentiate the secretory response to cyclic AMP agonists. Uric acid crystals were formed in vivo in the lumen of the gut in response to EPEC and STEC infections. While trying to visualize uric acid crystals formed during EPEC and STEC infections, we noticed that uric acid crystals became enmeshed in the neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) produced from host cells in response to bacteria in cultured cell systems and in the intestine in vivo. Uric acid levels in the gut lumen increased in response to exogenous DNA, and these increases were enhanced by the actions of DNase I. Interestingly, addition of DNase I reduced the numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered after a 20-h infection and protected against EPEC-induced histologic damage. PMID:26787720

  13. Stored energy in metallic glasses due to strains within the elastic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, A. L.; Sun, Y. H.

    2016-06-01

    Room temperature loading of metallic glasses, at stresses below the macroscopic yield stress, raises their enthalpy and causes creep. Thermal cycling of metallic glasses between room temperature and 77 K also raises their enthalpy. In both cases, the enthalpy increases are comparable to those induced by heavy plastic deformation, but, as we show, the origins must be quite different. For plastic deformation, the enthalpy increase is a fraction (<10%) of the work done (WD) (and, in this sense, the behaviour is similar to that of conventional polycrystalline metals and alloys). In contrast, the room temperature creep and the thermal cycling involve small strains well within the elastic limit; in these cases, the enthalpy increase in the glass exceeds the WD, by as much as three orders of magnitude. We argue that the increased enthalpy can arise only from an endothermic disordering process drawing heat from the surroundings. We examine the mechanisms of this process. The increased enthalpy ('stored energy') is a measure of rejuvenation and appears as an exothermic heat of relaxation on heating the glass. The profile of this heat release (the 'relaxation spectrum') is analysed for several metallic glasses subjected to various treatments. Thus, the effects of the small-strain processing (creep and thermal cycling) can be better understood, and we can explore the potential for improving properties, in particular the plasticity, of metallic glasses. Metallic glasses can exhibit a wide range of enthalpy at a given temperature, and small-strain processing may assist in accessing this for practical purposes.

  14. Monitoring and modeling shoreline response due to shoreface nourishment on a high-energy coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P. L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Shoreface nourishment can be an efficient technique to feed sediment into the littoral zone without the order of magnitude cost increase incurred by directly nourishing the beach. An erosion hot spot at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, USA, threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location, a new beneficial reuse plan was implemented in May 2005 for the sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. From 2005 to 2007, approximately 230,000 m of sand was placed annually at depths between 9 and 14 m, in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves could potentially feed sediment onto the section of beach experiencing critical erosion. The evolution of the disposal mound and adjacent beach were monitored with 12 multibeam bathymetric surveys, and over 40 high-resolution beach topographic surveys. In addition, sediment transport processes were investigated using sediment grab samples, acoustic Doppler profilers, and two separate models: a cross-shore profile model (UNIBEST-TC) and a coastal area model (Delft3D). The results of the monitoring and modeling demonstrate that the disposal mound may be effective in dissipating wave energy striking this vulnerable stretch of coast with negligible shadowing effects, but a positive shoreline response can only be achieved by placing the sediment in water depths less than 5 m. 

  15. Temperature dependent surface modification of molybdenum due to low energy He+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Novakowski, T. J.; Joseph, G.; Linke, J.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report on the temperature dependent surface modifications in molybdenum (Mo) samples due to 100 eV He+ ion irradiation in extreme conditions as a potential candidate to plasma-facing components in fusion devices alternative to tungsten. The Mo samples were irradiated at normal incidence, using an ion fluence of 2.6 × 1024 ions m-2 (with a flux of 7.2 × 1020 ions m-2 s-1). Surface modifications have been studied using high-resolution field emission scanning electron-(SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopy. At 773 K target temperature homogeneous evolution of molybdenum nanograins on the entire Mo surface were observed. However, at 823 K target temperature appearance of nano-pores and pin-holes nearby the grain boundaries, and Mo fuzz in patches were observed. The fuzz density increases significantly with target temperatures and continued until 973 K. However, at target temperatures beyond 973 K, counterintuitively, a sequential reduction in the fuzz density has been seen till 1073 K temperatures. At 1173 K and above temperatures, only molybdenum nano structures were observed. Our temperature dependent studies confirm a clear temperature widow, 823-1073 K, for Mo fuzz formation. Ex-situ high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Mo fuzzy samples show the evidence of MoO3 3d doublets. This elucidates that almost all the Mo fuzz were oxidized during open air exposure and are thick enough as well. Likewise the microscopy studies, the optical reflectivity measurements also show a sequential reduction in the reflectivity values (i.e., enhancement in the fuzz density) up to 973 K and after then a sequential enhancement in the reflectivity values (i.e., reduction in the fuzz density) with target temperatures. This is in well agreement with microscopy studies where we observed clear temperature window for Mo fuzz growth.

  16. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  17. Possible sea sediments due to glaciofluvial activity in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J.

    Observations of fluvial morphologies in southern Elysium Planitia strongly supports the hypothesis that water substantially affected this region during the relatively recent geologic past. As of yet, however, the extent of a standing body of water has been speculative. The observation of zig-zag features potentially analogous to those observed near the Wadden Sea on Earth [see 1] may help show in more detail the origin, activity, and fate of water in this region of Mars. These terrestrial analogs could constrain environmental scenarios concerning the formation of these features. We present a geomorphologic map of central Elysium Planitia, that aids in our interpretation of potentially site-specific depositional/erosional morphologies. Positive relief zig-zag features within the Medusae Fossae Formation (Themis Image V05875001) resemble similar structures on Earth observed at shorelines of flat regions. Glaciofluvial activity is indicated by linear features resembling straight glacial flutings, which could form aeolian yardangs subsequently. The flutings are associated with branches of inverted fluvial channels (Images Themis V05588002, MOC e1800307). Their excavated positive relief (height ~40 m) indicates, that the adjacent material was eroded by sublimation or aeolian activity. The channels possibly resemble ice marginal channels. A high resolution Digital Terrain Model of one of the channels suggests, that one channel is possibly running upslope. Fluvial processes could have operated at one location at one time, and glacial processes at another location at another time [2]. A glacial drainage system [see 3] is a possible terrestrial analog for one inverted fluvial channel on Mars (Themis Image V05875001). Flutings occur on the foreland of many glaciers and their length may provide important evidence for rapid advance over substantial distances. Flutings are the product of subglacial erosion and transport processes [4]. By assigning the different environmental

  18. On Stellar Activity Enhancement Due to Interactions with Extrasolar Giant Planets.

    PubMed

    Cuntz; Saar; Musielak

    2000-04-20

    We present a first attempt to identify and quantify possible interactions between recently discovered extrasolar giant planets (and brown dwarfs) and their host stars, resulting in activity enhancement in the stellar outer atmospheres. Many extrasolar planets have masses comparable to or larger than Jupiter and are within a distance of 0.5 AU, suggesting the possibility of their significant influence on stellar winds, coronae, and even chromospheres. Beyond the well-known rotational synchronization, the interactions include tidal effects (in which enhanced flows and turbulence in the tidal bulge lead to increased magnetoacoustic heating and dynamo action) and direct magnetic interaction between the stellar and planetary magnetic fields. We discuss relevant parameters for selected systems and give preliminary estimates of the relative interaction strengths.

  19. CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY DUE TO TURBULENT CONVECTION IN SPHERICAL WEDGE GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaepylae, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-08-10

    We report on simulations of turbulent, rotating, stratified, magnetohydrodynamic convection in spherical wedge geometry. An initially small-scale, random, weak-amplitude magnetic field is amplified by several orders of magnitude in the course of the simulation to form oscillatory large-scale fields in the saturated state of the dynamo. The differential rotation is solar-like (fast equator), but neither coherent meridional poleward circulation nor near-surface shear layer develop in these runs. In addition to a poleward branch of magnetic activity beyond 50 Degree-Sign latitude, we find for the first time a pronounced equatorward branch at around 20 Degree-Sign latitude, reminiscent of the solar cycle.

  20. Mitigation of Autoignition Due to Premixing in a Hypervelocity Flow Using Active Wall Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Preinjection of fuel on the forebody of an airbreathing vehicle is a proposed method to gain access to hypervelocity flight Mach numbers. However, this creates the possibility of autoignition either near the wall or in the core of the flow, thereby consuming fuel prematurely as well as increasing the amount of pressure drag on the vehicle. The computational fluid dynamics code VULCAN was used to conduct three dimensional simulations of the reacting flow in the vicinity of hydrogen injectors on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 notional flight vehicle forebody to determine the location where autoignition occurs. Active wall cooling strategies were formulated and simulated in response to regions of autoignition. It was found that tangential film cooling using hydrogen or helium were both able to nearly or completely eliminate wall autoignition in the flow domain of interest.

  1. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  2. Impact comminution of solids due to local kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: I. Continuum theory and turbulence analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Caner, Ferhun C.

    2014-03-01

    The modeling of high velocity impact into brittle or quasibrittle solids is hampered by the unavailability of a constitutive model capturing the effects of material comminution into very fine particles. The present objective is to develop such a model, usable in finite element programs. The comminution at very high strain rates can dissipate a large portion of the kinetic energy of an impacting missile. The spatial derivative of the energy dissipated by comminution gives a force resisting the penetration, which is superposed on the nodal forces obtained from the static constitutive model in a finite element program. The present theory is inspired partly by Grady's model for expansive comminution due to explosion inside a hollow sphere, and partly by analogy with turbulence. In high velocity turbulent flow, the energy dissipation rate gets enhanced by the formation of micro-vortices (eddies) which dissipate energy by viscous shear stress. Similarly, here it is assumed that the energy dissipation at fast deformation of a confined solid gets enhanced by the release of kinetic energy of the motion associated with a high-rate shear strain of forming particles. For simplicity, the shape of these particles in the plane of maximum shear rate is considered to be regular hexagons. The particle sizes are assumed to be distributed according to the Schuhmann power law. The condition that the rate of release of the local kinetic energy must be equal to the interface fracture energy yields a relation between the particle size, the shear strain rate, the fracture energy and the mass density. As one experimental justification, the present theory agrees with Grady's empirical observation that, in impact events, the average particle size is proportional to the (-2/3) power of the shear strain rate. The main characteristic of the comminution process is a dimensionless number Ba (Eq. (37)) representing the ratio of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate to the maximum possible

  3. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  4. Kinetic energy budgets during the life cycle of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic-scale data at three- and six-hour intervals are employed to study the relationship between changing kinetic energy variables and the life cycles of two severe squall lines. The kinetic energy budgets indicate a high degree of kinetic energy generation, especially pronounced near the jet-stream level. Energy losses in the storm environment are due to the transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion; large-scale upward vertical motion carries aloft the kinetic energy generated by storm activity at lower levels. In general, the time of maximum storm intensity is also the time of maximum energy conversion and transport.

  5. Diffusion enhancement due to low-energy ion bombardment during sputter etching and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoukhy, A.H.; Greene, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    The effects of low-energy ion bombardment on enhancing elemental diffusion rates at both heterojunction interfaces during film deposition and over the compositionally altered layer created during sputter etching alloy targets have been considered. Depth dependent enhanced interdiffusion coefficients, expressed as D*(x)=D*(0) exp(-x/L/sub d/), where D*(0) is more than five orders of magnitude greater than thermal diffusion values, were measured in InSb/GaSb multilayer structures deposited by multitarget bias sputering. D*(0) was determined from the amplitude u of the compositional modulation in the multilayered films (layer thicknesses between 20 and 45 A) as measured by superlattice x-ray diffraction techniques. The value of D*(0) was found to increase from 3 x 10/sup -17/ to 1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2//sec as the applied substrate bias was increased from 0 to -75 V. However even at V/sub a/=0, the diffusion coefficient was enhanced owing to an induced substrate potential with respect to the positive space-charge region in the Ar discharge. The diffusion length of L/sub d/ of the ion bombardment created defects was approx.1000 A. Enhanced diffusion also has a significiant effect on the altered layer thickness x/sub e/ and the total sputtering time t/sub e/ (or ion dose) required to reach steady state during ion etching of multielement targets. The effects of using an exponentially depth dependent versus a constant value of the enhanced diffusion coefficient on calculated values of x/sub e/ and t/sub e/ in single-phase binary alloys were considered. The results show that both x/sub e/ and t/sub e/ are considerably larger using a depth dependent D*(x), when L/sub d/D*(0)/v, the usual case for most sputtering applications, the two solutions approach each other.

  6. Energy Balance Alterations Due to Cropland Conversion in a Tropical Montane Environment: Shaded Coffee to Sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Holwerda, F.; Salazar-Martinez, D.

    2014-12-01

    Although land use change (LUC) is an important driver of changes in climate, very limited field observations of atmosphere-landscape interactions exist in tropical montane zones to examine the extent to which LUCs affect climate locally and regionally. The lack of ground observations hampers the evaluation of satellite-derived datasets of land surface parameters as well as the validation of regional climate models. The first results of an ongoing study of the climate effects of a LUC trajectory in the lower montane region (1200 m a.s.l.) of central Veracruz, Mexico, are presented. The radiation balance, turbulent fluxes and soil heat flux were measured in order to obtain field-derived land surface parameters (albedo and Bowen ratio) of two contrasting land uses: shaded coffee (CO) and sugarcane (SU) plantations. Measurements were conducted on days representing different seasons and crop stages during 2014: cold-dry (January), warm-dry (March) and warm-wet (July). Average noon-time albedo was higher for SU than for CO (0.14 vs. 0.11). Soil heat flux was on average 13% and 12% of net radiation for SU and CO, respectively. Preliminary turbulent flux calculations indicate that noon-time Bowen ratio was higher for sugar cane (range: 1.0-1.5) compared to shaded coffee (range: 0.5-1.0). Seasonal (and crop-stage) changes affected the surface parameters of SU mostly. For example, the SU Bowen ratio increased with decreasing soil moisture, indicating soil moisture limitation for transpiration reducing latent heat flux. In contrast, the shaded coffee Bowen ratio remained relatively constant across measuring periods. The energy balance closure was 80% (pending complete eddy covariance data corrections). These results indicate that the conversion of shaded coffee to sugarcane result in a drier and hotter lower atmosphere. Next steps include examining the implications of these local changes for regional climate, with special attention to cloud formation, using a regional model

  7. Monthly Variability in Upper Ocean Biogeochemistry Due to Mesoscale Eddy Activity in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Erin N.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of monthly biogeochemical measurements made from 1993 to 1995, combined with hydrography and satellite altimetry, was used to observe the impacts of nine eddy events on primary productivity and particle flux in the Sargasso Sea. Measurements of primary production, thorium-234 flux, nitrate+nitrite, and photosynthetic pigments made at the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site were used. During the three years of this study, four out of six high thorium-234 flux events over 1000 dpm/sq m/d occurred during the passage of an eddy. Primary production nearly as high as the spring bloom maximum was observed in two mode-water eddies (May 1993 and July 1995). The 1994 spring bloom at BATS was suppressed by the passage of an anticyclone. Distinct phytoplankton community shifts were observed in mode-water eddies, which had an increased percentage diatoms and dinoflagelletes, and in cyclones, which had an increased percentage cyanobacteria (excluding Prochlorococcus). The difference in the observations of mode-water eddies and cyclones may result from the age of the eddy, which was very important to the biological response. In general, eddies that were one to two months old elicited a large biological response; eddies that were three months old may show a biological response and were accompanied by high thorium flux measurements; eddies that were four months old or older did not show a biological response or high thorium flux. Our conceptual model depicting the importance of temporal changes during eddy upwelling and decay fit the observations well in all seven upwelling eddies. Additional information is needed to determine the importance of deeper mixed layers and winter mixing to the magnitude of the eddy impacts. Also, sampling generally captured only the beginning, end, and/or edge of an eddy due to the monthly to semi-monthly frequency of the measurements made at BATS. Lagrangian studies, higher resolution time-series, and/or more spatial

  8. Monthly Variability in Upper Ocean Biogeochemistry due to Mesoscale Eddy Activity in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Erin N.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of monthly biogeochemical measurements made from 1993 to 1995, combined with hydrography and satellite altimetry, was used to observe the impacts of nine eddy events on primary productivity and particle flux in the Sargasso Sea. Measurements of primary production, thorium-234 flux, nitrate+nitrite, and photosynthetic pigments made at the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site were used. During the three years of this study, four out of six high thorium-234 flux events over 1000 dpm/sq m/d occurred during the passage of an eddy. Primary production nearly as high as the spring bloom maximum was observed in two modewater eddies (May 1993 and July 1995). The 1994 spring bloom at BATS was suppressed by the passage of an anticyclone. Distinct phytoplankton community shifts were observed in mode-water eddies, which had an increased percentage diatoms and dinoflagelletes, and in cyclones, which had an increased percentage cyanobacteria (excluding Prochlorococcus). The difference in the observations of mode-water eddies and cyclones may result from the age of the eddy, which was very important to the biological response. In general, eddies that were one to two months old elicited a large biological response; eddies that were three months old may show a biological response and were accompanied by high thorium flux measurements, eddies that were four months old or older did not show a biological response or high thorium flux. Our conceptual model depicting the importance of temporal changes during eddy upwelling and decay fit the observations well in all 7 upwelling eddies. Additional information is needed to determine the importance of deeper mixed layers and winter mixing to the magnitude of the eddy impacts. Also, sampling generally captured only the beginning, end, and /or edge of an eddy due to the monthly to semi-monthly frequency of the measurements made at BATS. Lagrangian studies, higher resolution time-series, and/or more spatial

  9. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  10. RADIAL VELOCITY OFFSETS DUE TO MASS OUTFLOWS AND EXTINCTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kraemer, S. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the radial velocity offsets between narrow emission lines and host galaxy lines (stellar absorption and H I 21 cm emission) in Seyfert galaxies with observed redshifts less than 0.043. We find that 35% of the Seyferts in the sample show [O III] emission lines with blueshifts with respect to their host galaxies exceeding 50 km s{sup -1}, whereas only 6% show redshifts this large, in qualitative agreement with most previous studies. We also find that a greater percentage of Seyfert 1 galaxies show blueshifts than Seyfert 2 galaxies. Using Hubble Spce Talescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spatially resolved spectra of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 and the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, we generate geometric models of their narrow-line regions (NLRs) and inner galactic disks, and show how these models can explain the blueshifted [O III] emission lines in collapsed STIS spectra of these two Seyferts. We conclude that the combination of mass outflow of ionized gas in the NLR and extinction by dust in the inner disk (primarily in the form of dust spirals) is primarily responsible for the velocity offsets in Seyfert galaxies. More exotic explanations are not needed. We discuss the implications of this result for the velocity offsets found in higher redshift active galactic nuclei.

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Ogura, Sayoko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Aging induces arginase activation and reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in the arteries. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), conferred by cycles of brief hypoxia and normoxia, contributes to OSAS pathogenesis. Here, we studied the role of arginase and aging in the pathogenesis of PAH in adult (9-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to IH or normoxia for 4 weeks and analyzed them with a pressure-volume catheter inserted into the right ventricle (RV) and by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Western blot analysis was conducted on arginase, NO synthase isoforms, and nitrotyrosine. IH induced PAH, as shown by increased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, in adult rats but not in young rats. IH increased expression levels of arginase I and II proteins in the adult rats. IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia. Furthermore, IH reduced pulmonary levels of nitrate and nitrite but increased nitrotyrosine levels in adult rats. An arginase inhibitor (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-1-arginine) prevented IH-induced PAH and normalized nitrite and nitrate levels in adult rats. IH induced arginase up-regulation and PAH in adult rats, but not in young rats, through reduced NO production. Our findings suggest that arginase inhibition prevents or reverses PAH. PMID:25490411

  12. Chronic active gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in immunized gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Krakowka, S

    1992-11-01

    In gnotobiotic piglets, parenteral vaccination with formalin-killed Helicobacter pylori and oral vaccination with live bacteria induced H. pylori-specific serum immunoglobulins G, M, and A. Vaccination reduced but did not prevent infection by subsequent challenge with viable H. pylori. Oral vaccination with killed bacteria was less effective in inducing serum antibody and had no effect on bacterial colonization. Immunization status influenced the histologic response of piglets to challenge by H. pylori. Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was more severe in parenterally vaccinated piglets than in the other groups. In addition, neutrophilic infiltrates and neutrophilic gland abscesses in the gastric mucosa were present in 5 of 7 parenterally immunized piglets, none of the orally immunized piglets, and only 1 of 8 infected nonimmune control piglets. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between immunoglobulin G, M, and A titer at challenge and severity of both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation. These results suggest that although vaccination does not prevent infection by H. pylori, infection of an immune host leads to increased severity and activity of gastritis.

  13. Lateral OFC activity predicts decision bias due to first impressions during ultimatum games.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hackjin; Choi, Min-Jo; Jang, In-Ji

    2012-02-01

    Despite the prevalence and potentially harmful consequences of first impression bias during social decision-making, its precise neural underpinnings remain unclear. Here, on the basis of the fMRI study using ultimatum games, the authors show that the responders' decisions to accept or reject offers were significantly affected by facial trustworthiness of proposers. Analysis using a model-based fMRI method revealed that activity in the right lateral OFC (lOFC) of responders increased as a function of negative decision bias, indicating a greater likelihood of rejecting otherwise fair offers, possibly because of the facial trustworthiness of proposers. In addition, lOFC showed changes in functional connectivity strength with amygdala and insula as a function of decision bias, and individual differences in the strengths of connectivities between lOFC and bilateral insula were also found to predict the likelihood of responders to reject offers from untrustworthy-looking proposers. The present findings emphasize that the lOFC plays a pivotal role in integrating signals related to facial impression and creating signal biasing decisions during social interactions.

  14. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Dai, Qinghua; Ekizoglu, Melike

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities. PMID:23396341

  15. Behavioral sexual dimorphism in models of anxiety and depression due to changes in HPA axis activity.

    PubMed

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Sideris, Antonios C; Dendi, Artemis; Mikail, Hudu G; Antoniou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are considered as stress-related disorders, which present considerable sex differentiation. In animal models of anxiety and depression sex differences have been described and linked to the sexually dimorphic hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis. The present study aimed to adjust corticosterone, the main HPA axis stress hormone, in male and female adrenalectomized rats with oral (25 μg/ml) corticosterone replacement (ADXR). Subsequently we investigated the behavioral performance of ADXR rats in the open field, light/dark and forced swim test (FST). Male ADXR rats showed less anxiety-like behavior when compared to sham-operated controls, despite adequate corticosterone replacement. They further showed increased swimming and reduced climbing behavior in the FST, while immobility duration did not differ from sham-operated males. On the contrary, adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement did not have significant effects on the female behavioral response. Females were generally more active and presented less anxiety-like behavior than males, while they exhibited higher depressive-like symptomatology in the FST. ADXR affected behavioral responses predominantly in males, which in turn modified sex differences in the behavioral profile. Females in proestrous and estrous did not differ from females in diestrous and methestrous in any measured behavioral response. Present results suggest that the male and not the female behavioral responses in models of anxiety and depression were mainly affected by ADXR. These findings may play a significant role in explaining the differential coping strategy of the two sexes in response to stressful experiences. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  16. n-Alkane isodesmic reaction energy errors in density functional theory are due to electron correlation effects.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Stefan

    2010-10-15

    The isodesmic reaction energies of n-alkanes to ethane, which have so far been known to give systematic errors in standard DFT calculations, are successfully reproduced by SCS-MP2 and dispersion-corrected double-hybrid functionals. The failure of conventional DFT is not due to the lack of long-range exchange interactions but results from an inaccurate account of medium-range electron correlation that is attractive for 1,3-interactions (proto-branching). Highly accurate CCSD(T)/CBS data are provided that are recommended in thermochemical benchmarks.

  17. High-efficiency deflection of high energy protons due to channeling along the <110> axis of a bent silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Masi, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Smirnov, G.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Chaumat, V.; Dubos, S.; Maalmi, J.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Addesa, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Denisov, A. S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Malyarenko, L. G.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; James, T.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2016-09-01

    A deflection efficiency of about 61% was observed for 400 GeV/c protons due to channeling, most strongly along the <110> axis of a bent silicon crystal. It is comparable with the deflection efficiency in planar channeling and considerably larger than in the case of the <111> axis. The measured probability of inelastic nuclear interactions of protons in channeling along the <110> axis is only about 10% of its amorphous level whereas in channeling along the (110) planes it is about 25%. High efficiency deflection and small beam losses make this axial orientation of a silicon crystal a useful tool for the beam steering of high energy charged particles.

  18. Gamow-Teller strength distributions and neutrino energy loss rates due to chromium isotopes in stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Shehzadi, Ramoona; Fayaz, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Gamow-Teller transitions in isotopes of chromium play a consequential role in the presupernova evolution of massive stars. β-decay and electron capture rates on chromium isotopes significantly affect the time rate of change of lepton fraction (dot{Ye}). Fine-tuning of this parameter is one of the key for simulating a successful supernova explosion. The (anti)neutrinos produced as a result of electron capture and β-decay are transparent to stellar matter during presupernova phases. They carry away energy and this result in cooling the stellar core. In this paper we present the calculations of Gamow-Teller strength distributions and (anti)neutrino energy loss rates due to weak interactions on chromium isotopes of astrophysical importance. We compare our results with measured data and previous calculations wherever available.

  19. Sharp low-energy feature in single-particle spectra due to forward scattering in d-wave cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Hwan; Bok, Jin Mo; Zhang, Wentao; He, Junfeng; Zhou, X J; Varma, C M; Choi, Han-Yong

    2014-08-01

    There is an enormous interest in the renormalization of the quasiparticle (qp) dispersion relation of cuprate superconductors both below and above the critical temperature T_{c} because it enables the determination of the fluctuation spectrum to which the qp's are coupled. A remarkable discovery by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a sharp low-energy feature (LEF) in qp spectra well below the superconducting energy gap but with its energy increasing in proportion to T_{c} and its intensity increasing sharply below T_{c}. This unexpected feature needs to be reconciled with d-wave superconductivity. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of ARPES data from Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} (Bi2212) using Eliashberg equations to show that the qp scattering rate due to the forward scattering impurities far from the Cu-O planes is modified by the energy gap below T_{c} and shows up as the LEF. This is also a necessary step to analyze ARPES data to reveal the spectrum of fluctuations promoting superconductivity. PMID:25126930

  20. Sharp low-energy feature in single-particle spectra due to forward scattering in d-wave cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Hwan; Bok, Jin Mo; Zhang, Wentao; He, Junfeng; Zhou, X J; Varma, C M; Choi, Han-Yong

    2014-08-01

    There is an enormous interest in the renormalization of the quasiparticle (qp) dispersion relation of cuprate superconductors both below and above the critical temperature T_{c} because it enables the determination of the fluctuation spectrum to which the qp's are coupled. A remarkable discovery by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a sharp low-energy feature (LEF) in qp spectra well below the superconducting energy gap but with its energy increasing in proportion to T_{c} and its intensity increasing sharply below T_{c}. This unexpected feature needs to be reconciled with d-wave superconductivity. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of ARPES data from Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} (Bi2212) using Eliashberg equations to show that the qp scattering rate due to the forward scattering impurities far from the Cu-O planes is modified by the energy gap below T_{c} and shows up as the LEF. This is also a necessary step to analyze ARPES data to reveal the spectrum of fluctuations promoting superconductivity.

  1. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  2. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  3. Incomplete activation of Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) due to mutations in the 3' region of hlyC.

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Verri, C; García, F; Arvidson, S

    1997-01-01

    Mutational analysis of the carboxy-terminal region of Escherichia coli HlyC was performed by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of residue Val-127 or Lys-129 reduced the activity of HlyC to about 30 or 60%, respectively, of that of the wild type, while replacement of Gly-128 reduced the activity to less than 1% of the wild-type level. Complete inactivation of HlyC was caused by a double mutation, replacement of Gly-128 with valine and of Lys-129 with isoleucine. Analysis of culture supernatants from mutants with reduced hemolytic activity by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed the production and simultaneous secretion of nonacylated, monoacylated, and fully acylated HlyA forms, demonstrating impairment of the acylation reaction, possibly due to a decreased affinity of HlyC for the individual HlyA acylation sites. PMID:9294460

  4. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity.

  5. Radiative forcing due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from Finland: methods for estimating forcing of a country or an activity.

    PubMed

    Monni, Suvi; Korhonen, Riita; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiative forcing due to Finnish anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in three scenarios. All the Kyoto Protocol gases, i.e., CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, and fluorinated gases, were included. The calculations showed that forcing due to Finnish emissions will increase in the case of all gases except methane by the year 2100. In 1990, radiative forcing due to Finland's emission history of all Kyoto Protocol gases was 3.2 mW/m(2), of which 71% was due to carbon dioxide, 17% to methane, and the rest to nitrous oxide. In 1990 the share of fluorinated gases was negligible. The share of methane in radiative forcing is decreasing, whereas the shares of carbon dioxide and of fluorinated gases are increasing and that of nitrous oxide remains nearly constant. The nonlinear features concerning additional concentrations in the atmosphere and radiative forcing due to emissions caused by a single country or activity are also considered. Radiative forcing due to Finnish emissions was assessed with two different approaches, the marginal forcing approach and the averaged forcing approach. The impact of the so-called background scenario, i.e., the scenario for concentration caused by global emissions, was also estimated. The difference between different forcing models at its highest was 40%, and the averaged forcing approach appeared to be the more recommendable. The effect of background concentrations in the studied cases was up to 11%. Hence, the choice of forcing model and background scenario should be given particular attention.

  6. Measurements of thermal electron heating and the formation of a non-Maxwellian energy distribution due to ion acoustic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of intense microwaves with an inhomogeneous plasma is studied in the U.C. Davis Prometheus III Device. P-polarized microwaves (f = 1.2 GHz, P/sub 0/ less than or equal to 5 KW) are incident on an essentially collisionless plasma with a long scale length in an oversized waveguide. For modest powers, large amplitude ion acoustic turbulence is observed on the underdense plasma shelf due to a combination of the parametric decay and the electron drift instabilities. Suprathermal and thermal electrons are strongly heated in this region with the thermal heating due to scattering with the ion turbulence. Since the cross section for interaction decreases rapidly as the electron energy increases, the low energy electrons are preferentially heated. The electron distribution function is measured and agrees with theory; the power absorption is reduced by up to a factor of two compared to a Maxwellian distribution. After the microwaves have been measured to decay, the electron distribution function is seen to relax back to its initial Maxwellian form. This occurs, as theory predicts, roughly on the electron-electron collision time scale.

  7. Mode- and Direction-Dependent Mechanical Energy Dissipation in Single-Crystal Resonators due to Anharmonic Phonon-Phonon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Srikanth S.; Candler, Robert N.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we determine the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer (Ω τ ≪1 ) regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction- and polarization-dependent mode-Grüneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. This expression reveals the fundamental differences among the internal friction limits for different types of bulk-mode elastic waves. For cubic crystals, 2D-extensional modes have increased dissipation compared to width-extensional modes because the biaxial deformation opposes the natural Poisson contraction of the solid. Additionally, we show that shear-mode vibrations, which preserve volume, have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to pure-shear phonon branches, indicating that Lamé- or wineglass-mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, we employ key simplifications to evaluate the quality factor limits for common mode shapes in single-crystal silicon devices, explicitly including the correct effective elastic storage moduli for different vibration modes and crystal orientations. Our expression satisfies the pressing need for a reliable analytical model that can predict the phonon-phonon dissipation limits for modern resonant microelectromechanical systems, where precise manufacturing techniques and accurate finite-element methods can be used to select particular vibrational mode shapes and crystal orientations.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultra-high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires due to Cu induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Ramu; Duy Dao, Thang; Nanda, Karuna Kar; Nagao, Tadaaki; Hishita, Shunichi; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires in ambient air at 650°C by a single-step vapor transport method using two different sources Zn (ZnO nanowires-I) and Zn:Cu (ZnO nanowires-II). The Zn:Cu mixed source co-vaporize Zn with a small amount of Cu at temperatures where elemental Cu source does not vaporize. This method provides us a facile route for Cu doping into ZnO. The aspect ratio of the grown ZnO nanowires-II was found to be higher by more than five times compared ZnO nanowires-I. Photocatalytic activity was measured by using a solar simulator and its ultraviolet-filtered light. The ZnO nanowires-II shows higher catalytic activity due to increased aspect ratio and higher content of surface defects because of incorporation of Cu impurities.

  9. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  10. On the variation of the ionospheric potential due to large-scale radioactivity enhancement and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyunyaev, Nikolay N.; Mareev, Evgeny A.; Zhidkov, Artem A.

    2015-08-01

    Sensitivity of the global electric circuit (GEC) to variations of atmospheric conductivity and current sources is analyzed and discussed. When the undisturbed exponential conductivity profile is assumed all over the Earth, the most substantial changes in the ionospheric potential (IP) are caused by conductivity perturbations inside thunderstorms; if, in addition, conductivity reduction inside thunderstorms and nonelectrified clouds is assumed, the IP becomes less sensitive to conductivity perturbations; besides, the IP is even more sensitive to source current variations than to conductivity. Current source and voltage source descriptions of GEC generators are compared; it is shown that the IP variation may critically depend on the chosen description. As an application, the IP variation due to nuclear weapons testing is studied; it is shown that neither local nor global increase of conductivity in the stratosphere could alone explain the observed 40% IP increase in the 1960s; at the same time this increase might be accounted for by a 40% increase in the source current density or a 46% reduction of the conductivity inside thunderstorms, provided that it was not reduced initially. The IP variation due to solar activity and, in particular, due to solar modulation of galactic cosmic ray flux is also discussed and modeled, which required an adequate parameterization of the rate of atmospheric ion pair production over the solar cycle. It is estimated that the maximum IP variation on the scale of the solar cycle does not exceed 5% of the mean value, unless source current perturbations are taken into account.

  11. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  13. Activation of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex due to task-related interference in an auditory Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Sven; Axmacher, Nikolai; Cohen, Michael X; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    Successful information processing requires the focusing of attention on a certain stimulus property and the simultaneous suppression of irrelevant information. The Stroop task is a useful paradigm to study such attentional top-down control in the presence of interference. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of an auditory Stroop task using fMRI. Subjects focused either on tone pitch (relatively high or low; phonetic task) or on the meaning of a spoken word (high/low/good; semantic task), while ignoring the other stimulus feature. We differentiated between task-related (phonetic incongruent vs. semantic incongruent) and sensory-level interference (phonetic incongruent vs. phonetic congruent). Task-related interference activated similar regions as in visual Stroop tasks, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the presupplementary motor-area (pre-SMA). More specifically, we observed that the very caudal/posterior part of the ACC was activated and not the dorsal/anterior region. Because identical stimuli but different task demands are compared in this contrast, it reflects conflict at a relatively high processing level. A more conventional contrast between incongruent and congruent phonetic trials was associated with a different cluster in the pre-SMA/ACC which was observed in a large number of previous studies. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed that activity within the regions activated in the phonetic incongruent vs. semantic incongruent contrast was more strongly interrelated during semantically vs. phonetically incongruent trials. Taken together, we found (besides activation of regions well-known from visual Stroop tasks) activation of the very caudal and posterior part of the ACC due to task-related interference in an auditory Stroop task. PMID:19180558

  14. Acoustic waves from mechanical impulses due to fluorescence resonant energy (Förster) transfer: Blowing a whistle with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita-Sánchez, J. R.; Henkel, C.

    2012-02-01

    We present a momentum transfer mechanism mediated by electromagnetic fields that originates in a system of two nearby molecules: one excited (donor D*) and the other in ground state (acceptor A). An intermolecular force related to fluorescence resonant energy or Förster transfer (FRET) arises in the unstable D*A molecular system, which differs from the equilibrium van der Waals interaction. Due to the its finite lifetime, a mechanical impulse is imparted to the relative motion in the system. We analyze the FRET impulse when the molecules are embedded in free space and find that its magnitude can be much greater than the single recoil photon momentum, getting comparable with the thermal momentum (Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution) at room temperature. In addition, we propose that this FRET impulse can be exploited in the generation of acoustic waves inside a film containing layers of donor and acceptor molecules, when a picosecond laser pulse excites the donors. This acoustic transient is distinguishable from that produced by thermal stress due to laser absorption, and may therefore play a role in photoacoustic spectroscopy. The effect can be seen as exciting a vibrating system like a string or organ pipe with light; it may be used as an opto-mechanical transducer.

  15. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  16. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  17. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  18. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Levy A; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2015-09-15

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.

  19. An energy-based approach to estimate seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow in heterogeneous poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzi, Santiago G.; Rubino, J. Germán; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) due to the presence of mesoscopic heterogeneities is considered as one of the main seismic attenuation mechanisms in the shallower parts of the Earth's crust. For this reason, several models have been developed to quantify seismic attenuation in the presence of heterogeneities of varying complexity, ranging from periodically layered media to rocks containing fractures and highly irregular distributions of fluid patches. Most of these models are based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and make use of the assumption that the upscaled counterpart of a heterogeneous poroelastic medium can be represented by a homogeneous viscoelastic solid. Under this dynamic-equivalent viscoelastic medium (DEVM) assumption, attenuation is quantified in terms of the ratio of the imaginary and real parts of a frequency-dependent, complex-valued viscoelastic modulus. Laboratory measurements on fluid-saturated rock samples also rely on this DEVM assumption when inferring attenuation from the phase shift between the applied stress and the resulting strain. However, whether it is correct to use an effective viscoelastic medium to represent the attenuation arising from WIFF at mesoscopic scales in heterogeneous poroelastic media remains largely unexplored. In this work, we present an alternative approach to estimate seismic attenuation due to WIFF. It is fully rooted in the framework of poroelasticity and is based on the quantification of the dissipated power and stored strain energy resulting from numerical oscillatory relaxation tests. We employ this methodology to compare different definitions of the inverse quality factor for a set of pertinent scenarios, including patchy saturation and fractured rocks. This numerical analysis allows us to verify the correctness of the DEVM assumption in the presence of different kinds of heterogeneities. The proposed methodology has the key advantage of providing the local contributions of energy dissipation to the overall

  20. An energy-based approach to estimate seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow in heterogeneous poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzi, Santiago G.; Rubino, J. Germán; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) due to the presence of mesoscopic heterogeneities is considered as one of the main seismic attenuation mechanisms in the shallower parts of the Earth's crust. For this reason, several models have been developed to quantify seismic attenuation in the presence of heterogeneities of varying complexity, ranging from periodically-layered media to rocks containing fractures and highly-irregular distributions of fluid patches. Most of these models are based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and make use of the assumption that the upscaled counterpart of a heterogeneous poroelastic medium can be represented by a homogeneous viscoelastic solid. Under this dynamic-equivalent viscoelastic medium (DEVM) assumption, attenuation is quantified in terms of the ratio of the imaginary and real parts of a frequency-dependent, complex-valued viscoelastic modulus. Laboratory measurements on fluid-saturated rock samples also rely on this DEVM assumption when inferring attenuation from the phase shift between the applied stress and the resulting strain. However, whether it is correct to use an effective viscoelastic medium to represent the attenuation arising from WIFF at mesoscopic scales in heterogeneous poroelastic media remains largely unexplored. In this work, we present an alternative approach to estimate seismic attenuation due to WIFF. It is fully rooted in the framework of poroelasticity and is based on the quantification of the dissipated power and stored strain energy resulting from numerical oscillatory relaxation tests. We employ this methodology to compare different definitions of the inverse quality factor for a set of pertinent scenarios, including patchy saturation and fractured rocks. This numerical analysis allows us to verify the correctness of the DEVM assumption in the presence of different kinds of heterogeneities. The proposed methodology has the key advantage of providing the local contributions of energy dissipation to the overall

  1. The Recent Increase in North Atlantic Hurricane Activity: Is it a Cycle or is it due to Global Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelliah, M.; Bell, G.

    2006-12-01

    There has been a noticeable increase in North Atlantic hurricane activity since 1995. The devastating 2005 hurricane season broke many records with 27 tropical storms (TS), 15 hurricanes (H) and four category-5 major hurricanes (MH). This season also featured a record 15 landfalling storms in the Atlantic basin and four landfalling US major hurricanes (MH, defined as categories 3-5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale). Since 1995, North Atlantic hurricane seasons have averaged 13.1 TS, 7.4 H and 3.7 MH and according to NOAA, 9 of the 11 seasons have been termed above normal (active) seasons except for the two El Nino years 1997 and 2002. Prior to 1995, the North Atlantic basin experienced an overall inactive hurricane era from about 1971 to 1994 with an average 7.8 TS, 4.5H and 1.5 MH. But, prior to this inactive era (1971-1994) during the decades of the 1950's and 1960's (and in fact back to 1930's but with less reliable data) a typical season averaged about 8.0 TS, 5.4 H and 2.8 MH. As can be seen from these numbers, the seasonal averages for the number of TS, H, and MH during the recent active period since 1995 are overall higher than those during the earlier active decades of the 1950's and 1960's. These are no major disputes in these numbers. But there are differing views in the scientific community on the causal mechanisms (attribution) behind the recent increase in the North Atlantic hurricane activity. One view suggests that the recent increase is a return of the active hurricane cycle experienced in the past (such as the 1950's and 60's) and the other view suggesting that the increase could be due to global warming. This talk will focus on explaining, at least an attempt to explain, why there has been an increase in the overall hurricane activity since 1995. Based on recent published studies conducted at the Climate Prediction Center and elsewhere, it will be demonstrated that the answers to the ongoing debate, at least in the North Atlantic basin, is not as

  2. Experimental evaluation of decrease in the activities of polyphosphate/glycogen-accumulating organisms due to cell death and activity decay in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Cao, Yali; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-06-15

    Decrease in bacterial activity (biomass decay) in activated sludge can result from cell death (reduction in the amount of active bacteria) and activity decay (reduction in the specific activity of active bacteria). The goal of this study was to experimentally differentiate between cell death and activity decay as the cause of decrease in bacterial activity. By means of measuring maximal anaerobic phosphate release rates, verifying membrane integrity by live/dead staining and verifying presence of 16S rRNA with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the decay rates and death rates of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system and a laboratory phosphate removing sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system were determined, respectively, under famine conditions. In addition, the decay rate and death rate of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in a SBR system with an enrichment culture of GAOs were also measured under famine conditions. Hereto the maximal anaerobic volatile fatty acid uptake rates, live/dead staining, and FISH were used. The experiments revealed that in the BNR and enriched PAO-SBR systems, activity decay contributed 58% and 80% to the decreased activities of PAOs, and that cell death was responsible for 42% and 20% of decreases in their respective activities. In the enriched GAOs system, activity decay constituted a proportion of 74% of the decreased activity of GAOs, and cell death only accounted for 26% of the decrease of their activity.

  3. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  4. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation. PMID:27382033

  5. Differential activity in Heschl's gyrus between deaf and hearing individuals is due to auditory deprivation rather than language modality.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Velia; Smittenaar, Rebecca C; Orfanidou, Eleni; Rönnberg, Jerker; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary; Woll, Bencie

    2016-01-01

    Sensory cortices undergo crossmodal reorganisation as a consequence of sensory deprivation. Congenital deafness in humans represents a particular case with respect to other types of sensory deprivation, because cortical reorganisation is not only a consequence of auditory deprivation, but also of language-driven mechanisms. Visual crossmodal plasticity has been found in secondary auditory cortices of deaf individuals, but it is still unclear if reorganisation also takes place in primary auditory areas, and how this relates to language modality and auditory deprivation. Here, we dissociated the effects of language modality and auditory deprivation on crossmodal plasticity in Heschl's gyrus as a whole, and in cytoarchitectonic region Te1.0 (likely to contain the core auditory cortex). Using fMRI, we measured the BOLD response to viewing sign language in congenitally or early deaf individuals with and without sign language knowledge, and in hearing controls. Results show that differences between hearing and deaf individuals are due to a reduction in activation caused by visual stimulation in the hearing group, which is more significant in Te1.0 than in Heschl's gyrus as a whole. Furthermore, differences between deaf and hearing groups are due to auditory deprivation, and there is no evidence that the modality of language used by deaf individuals contributes to crossmodal plasticity in Heschl's gyrus. PMID:26348556

  6. Factors Predicting Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors Due to Cardiovascular Disease in Tehran University Students: Application of Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease preventing methods focus mostly on lifestyle factors such as physical activity, healthy diet and not smoking. Previous studies verified using theory and models to change unhealthy behaviors, so that health belief model (HBM) is a useful framework for describing the healthy nutrition behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to predict factors related to unhealthy nutrition and inactive life in students of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, proportional quota sampling from three different educational levels was conducted from October to December 2012. A self-administered validated instrument based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) with 69 items and four sections was used to collect data. In this study through using linear and logistic regression, the effect of body mass index, age, gender, marriage, self-efficacy, cues to action, knowledge, perceived severity, susceptibility, benefits and barriers on nutrition and physical activity behavior were assessed. SPSS version 18 was used to analyze data. Results: Totally, 368 students including 318 female students (86.4%) and 50 male students (13.6%) with a mean age of 24.9 years (SD = 4.55) took part in the study. Among all independent variables, gender (P < 0.001), knowledge (P = 0.023) and perceived barriers (P = 0.004) predicted nutrition behavior. In case of physical activity, knowledge (P = 0.011), perceived severity (P = 0.009), perceived barriers (P = 0.019) and self-efficacy (P = 0.033) had significance association with physical activity behavior. Conclusions: This study indicated that health belief model contrasts could predict the risky behavior of university students due to heart disease. However, more researches are needed to verify the predictors of high risky behaviors in students. PMID:26019896

  7. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  8. [Survival by a young woman with malnutrition due to alcoholism and eating disorders and with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to severe pneumonia who showed increased serum neutrophil elastase activity].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hirokazu; Sawaguchi, Hirochiyo; Nakajima, Shigenori

    2006-11-01

    A 30-year-old woman with malnutrition due to alcoholism and eating disorders was found to have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis due to severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. S. pneumoniae was detected by an in vitro rapid immunochromatographic assay for S. pneumoniae antigen in urine on the day of admission and by blood culture 2 days after admission. Symptoms and laboratory findings improved after treatment with sivelestat sodium hydrate, antibiotics, and mechanical ventilation. Treatment with sivelestat sodium hydrate also decreased serum neutrophil elastase activity. This case demonstrates the usefulness of early treatment with sivelestat sodium hydrate in ARDS due to severe pneumonia.

  9. Heterogeneity between triple negative breast cancer cells due to differential activation of Wnt and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Revollar, Gabriela; Garay, Erika; Martin-Tapia, Dolores; Nava, Porfirio; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Segovia, José; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2015-11-15

    The lack of a successful treatment for triple-negative breast cancer demands the study of the heterogeneity of cells that constitute these tumors. With this aim, two clones from triple negative breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were isolated: One with fibroblast-like appearance (F) and another with semi-epithelial (SE) morphology. Cells of the F clone have a higher migration and tumorigenesis capacity than SE cells, suggesting that these cells are in a more advanced stage of epithelial to mesenchymal transformation. In agreement, F cells have a diminished expression of the tight junction proteins claudins 1 and 4, and an increased content of β-catenin. The latter is due to an augmented activity of the canonical Wnt route and of the EGFR/PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway favoring the cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin and its transcriptional activity. In addition, F cells display increased phosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr654 by Src. These changes favor in F cells, the over-expression of Snail that promotes EMT. Finally, we observe that both F and SE cells display markers of cancer stem cells, which are more abundant in the F clone.

  10. Delayed glial clearance of degenerating axons in aged Drosophila is due to reduced PI3K/Draper activity.

    PubMed

    Purice, Maria D; Speese, Sean D; Logan, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms that render the senescent brain vulnerable to disease are unclear. Glial immune responses provide neuroprotection in a variety of contexts. Thus, we explored how glial responses to neurodegeneration are altered with age. Here we show that glia-axon phagocytic interactions change dramatically in the aged Drosophila brain. Aged glia clear degenerating axons slowly due to low phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and, subsequently, reduced expression of the conserved phagocytic receptor Draper/MEGF10. Importantly, boosting PI3K/Draper activity in aged glia significantly reverses slow phagocytic responses. Moreover, several hours post axotomy, early hallmarks of Wallerian degeneration (WD) are delayed in aged flies. We propose that slow clearance of degenerating axons is mechanistically twofold, resulting from deferred initiation of axonal WD and reduced PI3K/Draper-dependent glial phagocytic function. Interventions that boost glial engulfment activity, however, can substantially reverse delayed clearance of damaged neuronal debris. PMID:27647497

  11. Delayed glial clearance of degenerating axons in aged Drosophila is due to reduced PI3K/Draper activity

    PubMed Central

    Purice, Maria D.; Speese, Sean D.; Logan, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms that render the senescent brain vulnerable to disease are unclear. Glial immune responses provide neuroprotection in a variety of contexts. Thus, we explored how glial responses to neurodegeneration are altered with age. Here we show that glia–axon phagocytic interactions change dramatically in the aged Drosophila brain. Aged glia clear degenerating axons slowly due to low phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and, subsequently, reduced expression of the conserved phagocytic receptor Draper/MEGF10. Importantly, boosting PI3K/Draper activity in aged glia significantly reverses slow phagocytic responses. Moreover, several hours post axotomy, early hallmarks of Wallerian degeneration (WD) are delayed in aged flies. We propose that slow clearance of degenerating axons is mechanistically twofold, resulting from deferred initiation of axonal WD and reduced PI3K/Draper-dependent glial phagocytic function. Interventions that boost glial engulfment activity, however, can substantially reverse delayed clearance of damaged neuronal debris. PMID:27647497

  12. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  13. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg(-1) nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg(-1) nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI.

  14. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg(-1) nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg(-1) nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI. PMID:26803790

  15. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  16. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  17. Chemical trends in the activation energies of DX centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, O.; Kawai, H.; Mori, Y.; Kaneko, K.

    1984-12-01

    The activation energies of DX centers in AlGaAs doped with six different impurities (S, Se, Te, Si, Ge, and Sn) are measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Remarkable trends are established, in which the activation energies of DX centers with group IV impurities become shallower as the mass number of the impurity increases, while those with group VI impurities remain constant.

  18. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  19. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  20. In the Early Stages of Diabetes, Rat Retinal Mitochondria Undergo Mild Uncoupling due to UCP2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Salceda, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain high transmembrane ionic gradients, retinal tissues require a large amount of energy probably provided by a high rate of both, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, little information exists on retinal mitochondrial efficiency. We analyzed the retinal mitochondrial activity in ex vivo retinas and in isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina and from short-term streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal ex vivo retinas, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6mM to 30mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO2 production. Retina from diabetic rats accumulated similar amounts of glucose. However, CO2 production was not as high. Isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina exhibited a resting rate of oxygen consumption of 14.6 ± 1.1 natgO (min.mg prot)-1 and a respiratory control of 4.0. Mitochondria from 7, 20 and 45 days diabetic rats increased the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the activity of the electron transport complexes; under these conditions the mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreased. In spite of this, the ATP synthesis was not modified. GDP, an UCP2 inhibitor, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production in controls and at 45 days of diabetes. The role of UCP2 is discussed. The results suggest that at the early stage of diabetes we studied, retinal mitochondria undergo adaptations leading to maintain energetic requirements and prevent oxidative stress. PMID:25951172

  1. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  2. Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: haemolytic anaemia, myopathy with altered mitochondria and mental retardation due to a new variant with accelerated enzyme catabolism and diminished specific activity.

    PubMed

    Eber, S W; Pekrun, A; Bardosi, A; Gahr, M; Krietsch, W K; Krüger, J; Matthei, R; Schröter, W

    1991-09-01

    A new triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) variant is described in an 8-year-old Turkish girl suffering from chronic haemolytic anaemia, myopathy and developmental retardation since early infancy. The enzyme activity profile revealed a generalized deficiency in erythrocytes, granulocytes, mononuclear blood cells, skeletal muscle tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The concentration of enzyme substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate was distinctly elevated. Biochemical examination showed accelerated enzyme deamidation, the first step in the normal catabolism of TPI during aging of the erythrocyte. The specific activity of the variant TPI, determined by antibody titration, was reduced to 61% of normal. Its heat stability was markedly decreased. Muscle biopsy and neuropsychological testing further clarified the pathogenesis of the disorder. A prevalent alteration of mitochondria similar to that seen in mitochondrial myopathy and an elevated amount of intracellular glycogen were found. The patient's retarded intellectual development was mainly due to impaired visual perception and sensory-motor co-ordination in addition to a lack of syllogistic reasoning. The findings indicate that the low TPI activity leads to a metabolic block of the glycolytic pathway and hence to a generalized impairment of cellular energy supply.

  3. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  4. Ethanolic extracts of Alstonia Scholaris and Bacopa Monniera possess neuroleptic activity due to anti-dopaminergic effect

    PubMed Central

    Jash, Rajiv; Chowdary, K. Appana

    2014-01-01

    Background: An increased inclination has been observed for the use of herbal drugs in chronic and incurable diseases. Treatment of psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia is largely palliative and more importantly, a prominent adverse effect prevails with the majority of anti-psychotic drugs, which are the extrapyramidal motor disorders. Existing anti-psychotic drug therapy is not so promising, and their adverse effect is a matter of concern for continuing the therapy for long duration. Objective: This experimental study was done to evaluate the neuroleptic activity of the ethanolic extracts of two plants Alstonia Scholaris and Bacopa Monnieri with different anti-psychotic animal models with a view that these plant extracts shall have no or at least reduced adverse effect so that it can be used for long duration. Materials and Methods: Two doses of both the extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) and also standard drug haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were administered to their respective groups once daily with 5 different animal models. After that, the concentration of the dopamine neurotransmitter was estimated in two different regions of the brain viz. frontal cortex and striatum. Results: The result of the study indicated a significant reduction of amphetamine-induced stereotype and conditioned avoidance response for both the extracts compared with the control group, but both did not have any significant effect in phencyclidine-induced locomotor activity and social interaction activity. However, both the extracts showed minor signs of catalepsy compared to the control group. The study also revealed that the neuroleptic effect was due to the reduction of the dopamine concentration in the frontal cortex region of the rat brain. The results largely pointed out the fact that both the extract may be having the property to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by reducing the dopamine levels of dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Conclusion: The estimation of dopamine in the

  5. Response of the turbidity maximum zone in the Yangtze River Estuary due to human activities during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Yang, Ye

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between a river and the sea results in a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) within the estuary, which has a great impact on the local ecosystem. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the magnitude and extent of the TMZ vary with water discharge. In this study, the cumulative human activity altered the water discharge regime from the river to the estuary. In the post-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) period, water discharge increased by 35.10 % at Datong in February compared with that in the pre-TGD period. The effects of water discharge variation on the characteristics of the TMZ were analyzed during spring and neap tidal periods using the three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) model. The area of the TMZ decreased by 3.11 and 17.39 % during neap and spring tides, respectively. In addition, the upper limit of the TMZ moved 11.68 km seaward during neap tide, whereas the upper limit of the TMZ in the upstream and downstream areas moved seaward 9.65 and 2.34 km, respectively, during spring tide. These findings suggest that the area and location of the TMZ are more sensitive to upstream runoff during spring tide than during neap tide. These changes in the TMZ will impact the biochemical processes in the Yangtze River Estuary. In the foreseeable future, the distribution characteristic of TMZ will inevitably change due to variations in the Yangtze River discharge resulting from new human activities (i.e., new dams), which are being constructed upstream in the Yangtze River system.

  6. Response of the turbidity maximum zone in the Yangtze River Estuary due to human activities during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Yang, Ye

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between a river and the sea results in a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) within the estuary, which has a great impact on the local ecosystem. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the magnitude and extent of the TMZ vary with water discharge. In this study, the cumulative human activity altered the water discharge regime from the river to the estuary. In the post-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) period, water discharge increased by 35.10 % at Datong in February compared with that in the pre-TGD period. The effects of water discharge variation on the characteristics of the TMZ were analyzed during spring and neap tidal periods using the three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) model. The area of the TMZ decreased by 3.11 and 17.39 % during neap and spring tides, respectively. In addition, the upper limit of the TMZ moved 11.68 km seaward during neap tide, whereas the upper limit of the TMZ in the upstream and downstream areas moved seaward 9.65 and 2.34 km, respectively, during spring tide. These findings suggest that the area and location of the TMZ are more sensitive to upstream runoff during spring tide than during neap tide. These changes in the TMZ will impact the biochemical processes in the Yangtze River Estuary. In the foreseeable future, the distribution characteristic of TMZ will inevitably change due to variations in the Yangtze River discharge resulting from new human activities (i.e., new dams), which are being constructed upstream in the Yangtze River system. PMID:27287491

  7. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    mining. These events occur in lockstep with the longwall advance and exhibit a high b value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation (GR) of about 1.5 to 2.5 and consist of small magnitude events. Thus, these events represent the immediate energy release adjacent to the mined out area. The second group consists of clusters located either slightly above or below the depth of active mining and occurring at the current position of the longwall face within the confines of the longwall. They consist of generally stronger events and do not follow GR. This activity might be linked to the failure of more competent layers above and below the mined out seam resulting in larger magnitude events. Finally, one cluster represents seismic activity with a rather low b value below 1 and events located partly towards the north of the longwall which are delayed with respect to the advance of the longwall face. These events are interpreted as brittle failure on pre-existing tectonic structures reactivated by the mining activity.

  8. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-05-01

    mining. These events occur in lockstep with the longwall advance and exhibit a high b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation of about 1.5-2.5 and consist of small magnitude events. Thus, these events represent the immediate energy release adjacent to the mined out area. The second group consists of clusters locating either slightly above or below the depth of active mining occurring at the current position of the longwall face within the confines of the longwall. They consist of generally stronger events and do not follow a Gutenberg-Richter relation. This activity might be linked to the failure of more competent layers above and below the mined out seam resulting in larger events. Finally, one cluster represents seismic activity with a rather low b-value below 1 and events located partly towards the north of the longwall which are delayed with respect to the advance of the longwall face. These events are interpreted brittle failure on pre-existing tectonic structures reactivated by the mining activity.

  9. Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, M. C.

    1980-12-01

    Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects, and a list of projects having multiple utility participants. Project categories include solar heating and cooling of buildings, wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric power, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, process heat, and ocean energy conversion.

  10. Active load path adaption in a simple kinematic load-bearing structure due to stiffness change in the structure's supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehb, C. M.; Platz, R.; Melz, T.

    2016-09-01

    Load-bearing structures with kinematic functions enable and disable degrees of freedom and are part of many mechanical engineering applications. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for load-bearing systems with defined kinematics. In most cases, the load is transmitted through a predetermined load path to the structural support interfaces. However, unexpected load peaks or varying health condition of the system's supports, which means for example varying damping and stiffness characteristics, may require an active adjustment of the load path. However, load paths transmitted through damaged or weakened supports can be the reason for reduced comfort or even failure. In this paper a simplified 2D two mass oscillator with two supports is used to numerically investigate the potential of controlled adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a load-bearing structure to adapt the load path depending on the stiffness change, representing damage of the supports. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements for two reasons. On the one hand, one of the two supports that may become weaker through stiffness change will be relieved from higher loading. On the other hand, tilting due to different compliance in the supports will be minimized. Therefore, shifting load between the supports during operation could be an effective option.

  11. Relevance of watershed modelling to assess the contamination of coastal waters due to land-based sources and activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollo, Nicolas; Robin, Marc

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a watershed modelling for assessing the contamination of coastal waters due to land-based sources and activities, a modelling approach, using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model, was implemented on the watersheds of Pen-Bé estuary and Le Croisic bay. For the past few years, various dysfunctions occurred in these shellfish farming areas located on the West coast of France. Therefore, it seemed critical to estimate the coastal watershed loadings in order to get a better understanding of the dysfunctions. In the same way, an empiric method based on water quality samplings was also carried out in order to evaluate the potential pollutant attenuation of the coastal wetlands. The results presented in this paper focus on simulated streamflows and phosphorus flows. Despite the limited existing data, which involved to integrate aggregated or averaged values for several aspects, according to the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency criterion, the simulated flows seem close to the measurements. The simulated continuous flows appeared as a useful complement to intermittent water quality samplings and streamflow measures resulting from water monitoring networks. Moreover, by identifying the most contributory sub-watersheds, the simulations could be used to suggest priority areas of intervention for decreasing the coastal watershed loadings.

  12. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA.

  13. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  14. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  15. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is occurring in part because modern air-conditioner and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than three cycles (0.05 s) when a fault, for example, on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage on the distribution system to sag to 70% or less of nominal. We completed a new test system for A/C compressor motor stall testing at the DECC Lab. The A/C Stall test system is being used to characterize when and how compressor motors stall under low voltage and high compressor pressure conditions. However, instead of using air conditioners, we are using high efficiency heat pumps. We have gathered A/C stall characterization data for both sustained and momentary voltage sags of the test heat pump. At low enough voltage, the heat pump stalls (compressor motor stops and draws 5-6 times normal current in trying to restart) due to low inertia and low torque of the motor. For the momentary sag, we are using a fast acting contactor/switch to quickly switch from nominal to the sagged voltage in cycles.

  16. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  17. Utilizing an Extraterrestrial Analogue to Predict Sediment Migration on Frenchman Flat due to Convective Vortex (Dust Devil) Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    data from the NTS, and combining them with measurements of sediment loading and erosive strength in terrestrial dust devils, it is possible to both illustrate the potential significance of dust devils to currently-accepted radionuclide residence time on Frenchman Flat playa, as well as predict areas of unexpected radionuclide migration and/or attenuation due to dust devil activity.

  18. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  19. Fermentation of xylose causes inefficient metabolic state due to carbon/energy starvation and reduced glycolytic flux in recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  20. The Miscoding Potential of 5-Hydroxycytosine Arises Due to Template Instability in the Replicative Polymerase Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Karl E.; Averill, April; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2012-07-18

    5-Hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) is a stable oxidation product of cytosine associated with an increased frequency of C {yields} T transition mutations. When this lesion escapes recognition by the base excision repair pathway and persists to serve as a templating base during DNA synthesis, replicative DNA polymerases often misincorporate dAMP at the primer terminus, which can lead to fixation of mutations and subsequent disease. To characterize the dynamics of DNA synthesis opposite 5-OHC, we initiated a comparison of unmodified dCMP to 5-OHC, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), and 5-methylcytosine (5-MEC) in which these bases act as templates in the active site of RB69 gp43, a high-fidelity DNA polymerase sharing homology with human replicative DNA polymerases. This study presents the first crystal structure of any DNA polymerase binding this physiologically important premutagenic DNA lesion, showing that while dGMP is stabilized by 5-OHC through normal Watson-Crick base pairing, incorporation of dAMP leads to unstacking and instability in the template. Furthermore, the electronegativity of the C5 substituent appears to be important in the miscoding potential of these cytosine-like templates. While dAMP is incorporated opposite 5-OHC {approx}5 times more efficiently than opposite unmodified dCMP, an elevated level of incorporation is also observed opposite 5-FC but not 5-MEC. Taken together, these data imply that the nonuniform templating by 5-OHC is due to weakened stacking capabilities, which allows dAMP incorporation to proceed in a manner similar to that observed opposite abasic sites.

  1. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  2. Renal sodium retention in cirrhotic rats depends on glucocorticoid-mediated activation of mineralocorticoid receptor due to decreased renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity.

    PubMed

    Thiesson, Helle C; Jensen, Boye L; Bistrup, Claus; Ottosen, Peter D; McNeilly, Alison D; Andrew, Ruth; Seckl, Jonathan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of the renal glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2) during liver cirrhosis may allow activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by glucocorticoids and contribute to sodium retention. We tested this hypothesis in male Wistar rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites 7 wk after bile duct ligation (BDL). Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA, protein, and activity were significantly decreased in decompensated rats. The urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio was reduced by 40%. Renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNA and immunostaining were only slightly affected. Complete metabolic studies, including fecal excretion, showed that the BDL rats had avid renal sodium retention. Treatment of the BDL rats with dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid production, normalized total sodium balance and renal sodium excretion, and reduced ascites formation to the same degree as direct inhibition of MR with K-canrenoate. Total potassium balance was negative in the BDL rats, whereas renal potassium excretion was unchanged. In the distal colon, expression of ENaC was increased in BDL rats. Fecal potassium excretion was increased in cirrhotic rats, and this was corrected by treatment with K-canrenoate but not dexamethasone. We conclude that development of sodium retention and decompensation in cirrhotic rats is associated with downregulation of renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity and inappropriate activation of renal sodium reabsorption by endogenous glucocorticoids. In addition, the overall potassium loss in the BDL model is due to increased fecal potassium excretion, which is associated with upregulation of ENaC in distal colon. PMID:16917017

  3. Justification of the canonical quantization of the Josephson effect and its modifications due to high capacitance energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomorski, Krzysztof; Bednorz, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Quantum devices based on the Josephson effect in superconductors are usually described by a Hamiltonian obtained by commonly used canonical quantization. However, this recipe has not yet been rigorously and systematically justified. We show that this approach is indeed correct in a certain range of parameters. We find the condition of validity of such quantization and the systematic corrections to the Josephson energy E J: namely, the capacitance energy {E}C={e}2/2C must be much smaller than the superconducting gap Δ. Moreover, we find an experimentally testable modification of Josephson energy at large capacitance energy also with nonlinear capacitance.

  4. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  5. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  6. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  7. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-01

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  8. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  9. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  10. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  11. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  12. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  13. Monitoring integrin activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Craig T; Hyun, Young-Min; Kim, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant integrin activation is associated with several immune pathologies. In leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), the absence or inability of β(2) integrins to undergo affinity upregulation contributes to recurrent infectious episodes and impaired wound healing, while excessive integrin activity leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage. Therefore, integrin activation is an attractive target for immunotherapies, and monitoring the effect of agents on integrin activation is necessary during preclinical drug development. The activation of integrins involves the structural rearrangement of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. Here, we describe methods for monitoring integrin conformational activation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

  14. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  15. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  16. Corrections to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift due to the insertion of the two-loop electron self-energy with overlapping divergences in the electron line

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-12-01

    Contributions on the order of {alpha}{sup 2}(Z{alpha}){sup 5} to hyperfine splitting (HFS) and the Lamb shift due to the insertion of the two-loop electron self-energy diagram with overlapping divergences in the electron line are considered. An explicit expression for the two-loop self-energy diagram with overlapping divergences is obtained in the Fried-Yennie gauge. Contributions to HFS and the Lamb shift due to the diagram containing this subgraph are calculated. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  18. In-vitro suppression of metabolic activity in malignant human glioblastomas due to pulsed - low frequency electric potential exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Abby; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    The role of pulsed - low repetition frequency electric potential was investigated in suppressing the metabolic activities of aggressive human brain cancer cells. Twenty four hours post exposure the glioblastomas were found to be significantly inhibited in their metabolic activity. The findings herein reveal a near complete inhibition of glioblastoma's metabolic activity through selective applications of low frequency pulsed electric potentials.

  19. Active surveillance of visual impairment due to adverse drug reactions: findings from a national study in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-01-01

    As visual impairment (VI) due to adverse drug reactions (ADR) is rare in adults and children, there is an incomplete evidence base to inform guidance for screening and for counseling patients on the potential risks of medications. We report on suspected drugs and the eye conditions found in a national study of incidence of diagnosis of visual impairment due to suspected ADR. Case ascertainment was via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU), between March 2010 and February 2012, with follow-up after 6 months. Case definition: any child or adult with bilateral or unilateral visual impairment due to a suspected ADR, using distance acuity worse than Snellen 6/18 (logMAR 0.48) in the better eye (bilateral) or affected eye (unilateral). Anonymized patient information on potential cases was provided by managing ophthalmologists, comprising visual status before and after suspected ADR, ophthalmic condition attributable to the ADR, preexisting eye disease and prescribed medications at the time of the ADR. Permanency and causality of the visual impairment were confirmed by the managing clinician, after 6 months, using the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Committee criteria. Over 2 years, 36 eligible cases were reported of whom 23 had permanent VI. While most cases were due to drugs known to have adverse side-effects, some were unanticipated sporadic cases. Visual impairment due to ADRs is rare. However, with for example, increasing polypharmacy in the elderly, monitoring of ocular ADRs, although challenging, is necessary. PMID:25692024

  20. A review of UK wind energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind power activities in Great Britain are reviewed, including a brief summary of historical windmill usage and details of developmental efforts in large and small wind turbines. An annual average resource of 5 m/sec at 10 m has been extrapolated to predict an 8-10 m/sec resource at the hub heights of large wind turbines. Initial estimates indicate that at least half of Great Britain's annual electricity consumption can be produced from windpowered generators. The potential of offshore large WECS siting is being examined, although the wind-derived electricity from those regions are projected to cost three times that of land-based operation. Recorded wind patterns with 12-48 hr. duration have indicated that at least 20% penetration into the national grid is acceptable. A test 250 kW machine is being built as a model for a 3.7 MW machine, both intended for installation at Orkney, Scotland. Additionally, construction has begun on a 25-m diameter, vertical axis, variable geometry Musgrove wind turbine. The straight-bladed machine will produce a maximum of 130 kW, and is a prototype of multi-MW offshore units.

  1. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  2. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  3. Research on Social Stability Mechanisms Based on Activation Energy and Gradual Activation Reaction Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Miao; Gu, Jifa

    This paper draws a comparison between social stability and chemical reaction process, and brings forward the concept of “social temperature” and “activation energy of social agent”. It is considered that social temperature turns out to be the macro symptom of social average energy, and its unceasing up-climbing roots in the energy accumulation of “inferiorization” process of social system; that “activation energy of social agent” stands for the social energy or temperature where individuals or groups reach the limit of their psychological bearing ability. This paper, basing on above concepts, elaborates on and demonstrates the gradual activation reaction mechanisms of social stability by a lot of concrete examples. It is thought that there is a threshold value for social stability, and the society will be unstable if social temperature goes higher than this value; that the larger the social average activation energy is, the higher the temperature threshold value of social stability will be; and considering that different groups have different activation energy, those fragile groups with low activation energy are often the risk source which might pose a threat to social stability.

  4. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles and their burrowing into Si due to synergistic effects of ion beam energy losses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravin; Singh, Udai Bhan; Mal, Kedar; Ojha, Sunil; Sulania, Indra; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Singh, Dinesh; Singh, Vidya Nand

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles and their burrowing into silicon upon irradiation of a Pt-Si thin film with medium-energy neon ions at constant fluence (1.0 × 10(17) ions/cm(2)). Several values of medium-energy neon ions were chosen in order to vary the ratio of the electronic energy loss to the nuclear energy loss (S e/S n) from 1 to 10. The irradiated films were characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A TEM image of a cross section of the film irradiated with S e/S n = 1 shows ≈5 nm Pt NPs were buried up to ≈240 nm into the silicon. No silicide phase was detected in the XRD pattern of the film irradiated at the highest value of S e/S n. The synergistic effect of the energy losses of the ion beam (molten zones are produced by S e, and sputtering and local defects are produced by S n) leading to the synthesis and burrowing of Pt NPs is evidenced. The Pt NP synthesis mechanism and their burrowing into the silicon is discussed in detail. PMID:25383298

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  6. ENERGY-DEPENDENT GAMMA-RAY BURST PULSE WIDTH DUE TO THE CURVATURE EFFECT AND INTRINSIC BAND SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Z. Y.; Ma, L.; Zhao, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Bao, Y. Y.

    2012-06-20

    Previous studies have found that the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulse is energy dependent and that it decreases as a power-law function with increasing photon energy. In this work we have investigated the relation between the energy dependence of the pulse and the so-called Band spectrum by using a sample including 51 well-separated fast rise and exponential decay long-duration GRB pulses observed by BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory). We first decompose these pulses into rise and decay phases and find that the rise widths and the decay widths also behave as a power-law function with photon energy. Then we investigate statistically the relations between the three power-law indices of the rise, decay, and total width of the pulse (denoted as {delta}{sub r}, {delta}{sub d}, and {delta}{sub w}, respectively) and the three Band spectral parameters, high-energy index ({alpha}), low-energy index ({beta}), and peak energy (E{sub p} ). It is found that (1) {alpha} is strongly correlated with {delta}{sub w} and {delta}{sub d} but seems uncorrelated with {delta}{sub r}; (2) {beta} is weakly correlated with the three power-law indices, and (3) E{sub p} does not show evident correlations with the three power-law indices. We further investigate the origin of {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha}. We show that the curvature effect and the intrinsic Band spectrum could naturally lead to the energy dependence of the GRB pulse width and also the {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha} correlations. Our results hold so long as the shell emitting gamma rays has a curved surface and the intrinsic spectrum is a Band spectrum or broken power law. The strong {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} correlation and inapparent correlations between {delta}{sub r} and the three Band spectral parameters also suggest that the rise and decay phases of the GRB pulses have different origins.

  7. Kinetic energy budget during strong jet stream activity over the eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic energy budgets are computed during a cold air outbreak in association with strong jet stream activity over the eastern United States. The period is characterized by large generation of kinetic energy due to cross-contour flow. Horizontal export and dissipation of energy to subgrid scales of motion constitute the important energy sinks. Rawinsonde data at 3 and 6 h intervals during a 36 h period are used in the analysis and reveal that energy fluctuations on a time scale of less than 12 h are generally small even though the overall energy balance does change considerably during the period in conjunction with an upper level trough which moves through the region. An error analysis of the energy budget terms suggests that this major change in the budget is not due to random errors in the input data but is caused by the changing synoptic situation. The study illustrates the need to consider the time and space scales of associated weather phenomena in interpreting energy budgets obtained through use of higher frequency data.

  8. Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Mohammad; Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2014-05-15

    We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system. -- Highlights: •Energy ranges for CC and CPA are obtained explicitly for complex WS potential. •Analytical conditions for CC and CPA for PT symmetric WS potential are obtained. •Conditions for left and right CC are shown to be different. •Conditions for CC and CPA are shown to be that of SS for the time reversed system. •Our model shows the great flexibility of frequencies for CC and CPA.

  9. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-29

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  10. Fish Swimming: Patternsin the Mechanical Energy Generation, Transmission and Dissipation from Muscle Activation to Body Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Yu, Y. L.; Tong, B. G.

    2011-09-01

    The power consumption of the undulatory fish swimming is produced by active muscles. The mechanical energy generated by stimulated muscles is dissipated partly by the passive tissues of fish while it is being transmitted to the fluid medium. Furthermore, the effective energy, propelling fish movement, is a part of that delivered by the fish body. The process depends on the interactions of the active muscles, the passive tissues, and the water surrounding the fish body. In the previous works, the body-fluid interactions have been investigated widely, but it is rarely considered how the mechanical energy generates, transmits and dissipates in fish swimming. This paper addresses the regular patterns of energy transfer process from muscle activation to body movement for a cruising lamprey (LAMPREY), a kind of anguilliform swimmer. It is necessary to propose a global modelling of the kinematic chain, which is composed of active muscle force-moment model, fish-body dynamic model and hydrodynamic model in order. The present results show that there are traveling energy waves along the fish body from anterior to posterior, accompanied with energy storing and dissipating due to the viscoelastic property of internal tissues. This study is a preliminary research on the framework of kinematic chain coordination performance in fish swimming.

  11. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  12. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.

  13. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant. PMID:16841690

  14. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  15. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  16. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC

    PubMed Central

    Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice. PMID:26392334

  17. Optimizing the Activation of Chlorin e6 Utilizing Upconversion Energy Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avalos, Julio C.; Pedraza, Francisco J.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Current cancer therapy techniques, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, possess several drawbacks including lack of selectivity resulting in harmful side effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the fastest emerging techniques due to its many advantages, including the use of nonionizing radiation, targeted delivery, and controlled doses. In PDT, photosensitizers (PSs) are activated inside targeted cells to produce irreversible damage inducing cell death. Since most PSs operate in the visible range, it is difficult to activate them due to the high attenuation of soft tissue. Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNP) are able to absorb in the NIR region, where light is less attenuated, and emit in the visible range, resulting in deeper tissue penetration. UCNPs are able to assist with the activation of the PS by energy transfer when the PS is conjugated onto the UCNP. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) is a commonly used PSs due to its ability to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is one of the main processes utilized in PDT. The UCNP studied contain a combination of rare earth doped ions including Erbium, Thulium, and Holmium precisely doped into the host nanocrystal to improve upconversion emission and energy transfer. The work presented will focus on exploring the factors that affect the activation of Ce6. The results will include the enhancement of Ce6 activation and ROS release when conjugated onto a rare earth-doped UCNP. This research was funded by NSF-PREM Grant No. DMR -0934218 and RISE Grant No. GM 060655.

  18. SIMPLE estimate of the free energy change due to aliphatic mutations: superior predictions based on first principles.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marta; Camacho, Carlos J; Sancho, Javier

    2007-09-01

    The bioinformatics revolution of the last decade has been instrumental in the development of empirical potentials to quantitatively estimate protein interactions for modeling and design. Although computationally efficient, these potentials hide most of the relevant thermodynamics in 5-to-40 parameters that are fitted against a large experimental database. Here, we revisit this longstanding problem and show that a careful consideration of the change in hydrophobicity, electrostatics, and configurational entropy between the folded and unfolded state of aliphatic point mutations predicts 20-30% less false positives and yields more accurate predictions than any published empirical energy function. This significant improvement is achieved with essentially no free parameters, validating past theoretical and experimental efforts to understand the thermodynamics of protein folding. Our first principle analysis strongly suggests that both the solute-solute van der Waals interactions in the folded state and the electrostatics free energy change of exposed aliphatic mutations are almost completely compensated by similar interactions operating in the unfolded ensemble. Not surprisingly, the problem of properly accounting for the solvent contribution to the free energy of polar and charged group mutations, as well as of mutations that disrupt the protein backbone remains open.

  19. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Kenneth W; Stovall, Therese K

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  20. The effects on community college student physics achievement and attitudes about learning physics due to inquiry-based laboratory activities versus cookbook laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, George Allen Brittingham

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effects on community college student physics conceptual achievement and attitudes about learning physics due to the use of inquiry-based laboratory activities versus cookbook laboratory activities. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to test for differences in mean post-test Force Concept Inventory (FCI) score for two different types of physics lab instruction (IL versus CBL). Results of the ANCOVA, F (1, 35) = 0.761, p < 0.389, supported the null hypothesis that no significant difference was found in the post-test FCI scores of the two groups. An ANCOVA was performed to test for differences in mean post-test Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) score for two different types of physics lab instruction (IL versus CBL)., however, the covariate and the dependent variable were shown to not be linearly related. Therefore, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare MBT scores. The results of the ANOVA, F (1, 36) = 0.066, p < 0.798, supported the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in MBT scores of the two groups. A step-wise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between the FCI post-test score and the type of instruction, FCI pre-test score, and American College Test (ACT) science reasoning sub-scores. The FCI pre-test score and ACT science score were shown to be the best predictors of FCI post-test score. Another step-wise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between the MBT post-test score and type of instruction, MBT pre-test score, and ACT science reasoning sub-scores. The ACT Science sub-scores were determined to be the best predictor of MBT post-test score. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean lecture test grades for the lab groups taught using inquiry and cookbook methods. The mean lecture test scores of the inquiry-based lab group (M = 81.39, S.D. = 8.15) were found to be significantly

  1. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  2. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  3. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  4. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  5. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  6. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  7. Active co-infection with HBV and/or HCV in South African HIV positive patients due for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Andrew M; Msibi, Thembeni L; Motswaledi, Mojakgomo H; Selabe, Selokela G; Monokoane, Tshweu S; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) share routes of transmission. There is limited data on the incidence of active co-infection with HBV and/or HCV in cancer patients infected with HIV in Africa. This was a prospective study based on 34 patients with varied cancer diagnosis, infected with HIV and awaiting cancer therapy in South Africa. HIV viral load, CD4+ cell counts, Alanine-aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were tested. Exposure to HBV and HCV was assessed serologically using commercial kits. Active HBV and/or HCV co-infection was detected using viral specific nested PCR assays. HCV 5'-UTR PCR products were sequenced to confirm active HCV infection. Active viral infection was detected in 64.7% of patients for HBV, 38.2% for HCV, and 29.4% for both HBV and HCV. Occult HBV infection was observed in 63.6% of the patients, while seronegative HCV infection was found in 30.8% of patients. In addition, CD4+ cell count < 350 cells/µl was not a risk factor for increased active HBV, HCV or both HBV and HCV co-infections. A total of 72.7%, 18.2% and 9.1% of the HCV sequences were assigned genotype 5, 1 and 4 respectively.The study revealed for the first time a high active HBV and/or HCV co-infection rate in cancer patients infected with HIV. The findings call for HBV and HCV testing in such patients, and where feasible, appropriate antiviral treatment be indicated, as chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been associated with reactivation of viral hepatitis and termination of cancer therapy. PMID:25156907

  8. The decrease in body fat in mice fed conjugated linoleic acid is due to increases in energy expenditure and energy loss in the excreta.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H M; Beynen, A C; Everts, H; Kocsis, S; Katan, M B; Zock, P L

    2002-05-01

    We carried out energy balance studies in four groups of young, growing, 5-wk-old Balb-C mice (n = 12/group) that were either food restricted or nonrestricted and fed high fat diets (38 energy%) with or without 0.93 g/100 g conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 39 d. The energy in carcasses, excreta and food was measured in a bomb calorimeter. CLA lowered the percentage of the energy intake that was stored in the body from 1.9 +/- 0.8 to -2.3 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SD, P < 0.05) in the nonrestricted mice and from 1.4 +/- 1.3 to -2.9 +/- 0.7% (P < 0.05) in the restricted mice. Thus, the CLA-treated mice had a net loss of body energy. The percentage of the energy intake eliminated in the excreta increased from 7.6 +/- 0.9% in controls to 8.7 +/- 1.0% (P < 0.05) in the CLA-treated mice that were nonrestricted and from 7.3 +/- 0.8 to 8.4 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.05) in the restricted mice. The amount of energy ingested minus the amount retained in carcasses and excreta equals the energy expenditure. The percentage of the energy intake that was expended as heat increased from 90.5 +/- 1.2 in controls to 93.6 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.05) in the CLA-treated nonrestricted mice and from 91.3 +/- 1.5 to 94.5 +/- 1.0% (P < 0.05) in the restricted mice. The lower energy storage in the CLA-fed mice was accounted for by an increase in the energy expenditure (74%) and by an increase in energy lost in the excreta (26%). Feeding CLA also increased liver weight, which may warrant further studies on the safety of CLA. PMID:11983818

  9. Interruption pf physcial activity due to illness in the Lifestyle Interventions and Indepencence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) compared to a health education control on measures of disability in sedentary older adults. Medical suspensions were examined for the first 12 months of the trial in th...

  10. Improving Active and Passive Avoidance Memories Deficits Due to Permanent Cerebral Ischemia by Pomegranate Seed Extract in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Rezaiei, Moslem; Gharib naseri, MohammadKazem; Rafieirad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on active and passive avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) to induce permanent cerebral ischemia in adult female rats. Methods: Seventy adult female Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were used. Animals were divided randomly into seven groups with 10 in each: 1) Sham-operated; 2) Ischemic; 3–6) Ischemic received PGSE (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/2mL/kg, orally) for 14 days; 7) Ischemic received vehicle. In order to create 2CCAO, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. Active and passive avoidance task were measured using criterion condition responses (CCRs) in Y-maze and step-through latency (STL) in two-way shuttle box in all female rats. Results: Both active and passive avoidance memories were significantly impaired in rats after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (CHI) (P < 0.001). PGSE treatment significantly improved passive and active memory impairments with 2CCAO (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001). No toxicity was observed even with high-dose PGSE consumption (800 mg/kg, for 14 days). Conclusion: PGSE exhibits therapeutic potential for avoidance memories, which is most likely related at least in part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions. PMID:23983574

  11. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force of mouse fast skeletal muscle and ameliorates weakness due to nebulin-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; De Winter, Josine M; Buck, Danielle; Jasper, Jeffrey R; Malik, Fady I; Labeit, Siegfried; Ottenheijm, Coen A; Granzier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT) and nebulin deficient (NEB KO) mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse) or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM) patients with NEB mutations) causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension-pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ∼60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold) at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ∼6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM), CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring k(tr) (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch). CK-2066260 greatly increased k(tr) at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm) and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength. PMID:23437068

  12. Plasma-Sheath Instability in Hall Thrusters Due to Periodic Modulation of the Energy of Secondary Electrons in Cyclotron Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2008-04-23

    Particle-in-cell simulation of Hall thruster plasmas reveals a plasma-sheath instability manifesting itself as a rearrangement of the plasma sheath near the thruster channel walls accompanied by a sudden change of many discharge parameters. The instability develops when the sheath current as a function of the sheath voltage is in the negative conductivity regime. The major part of the sheath current is produced by beams of secondary electrons counter-streaming between the walls. The negative conductivity is the result of nonlinear dependence of beam-induced secondary electron emission on the plasma potential. The intensity of such emission is defined by the beam energy. The energy of the beam in crossed axial electric and radial magnetic fields is a quasi-periodical function of the phase of cyclotron rotation, which depends on the radial profile of the potential and the thruster channel width. There is a discrete set of stability intervals determined by the final phase of the cyclotron rotation of secondary electrons. As a result, a small variation of the thruster channel width may result in abrupt changes of plasma parameters if the plasma state jumps from one stability interval to another.

  13. The potential impact on socio-economic groups of rising energy prices due to the Kuwaiti crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L. ); Poyer, D.; Teotia, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Iraqi invasion of the kingdom of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, triggered immediate increases in the world price of petroleum. With US imports of petroleum and residential, commercial, and industrial consumption of petroleum products on the rise, these price increases are already evident in the US. The differential impact of these increases on poor and minority households raises significant and potentially long-term research and policy issues for various government agencies, including the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of the nature and extent of the potential impact of Iraqi-induced petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and non-poor households. As this paper is written, the US is continuing the deployment of several hundred thousand troops, aircraft, naval vessels, and other equipment to the Persian Gulf. The objectives of this deployment are to deter Iraqi invasion of Saudi Arabia and to encourage Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait. The outcome of these initiatives, particularly the response of the government of Iraq, could stimulate additional changes in world petroleum prices and subsequent impacts on the household energy consumption and expenditure patterns of US black, Hispanic, and poor households. 8 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welford, David; Rines, David M.; Dinerman, Bradley J.; Martinsen, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The authors report operation of a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a novel pumping geometry that ensures efficient conversion of pump energy into the TEM00 mode. Significant enhancement of thermally induced lensing due to the near-Gaussian energy deposition profile of the pump radiation was observed. An induced lens of approximately 3.2-m focal length was measured at average incident pump powers of only 3.2 W (corresponding to a 0.6 W heat load).

  15. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  16. Studies on chemical composition and energy transformation in river Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi due to environmental degradation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2009-05-01

    Impact of effluents discharged in Ganga through various sources on chemical composition, energy transformation rate and level of heavy metals was studied at Kanpur and Varanasi. The effluents were found to be nil in oxygen with acidic in oxygen with acidic to neutral pH (6.8-7.0) and having very high values of free CO2 (40-68 mg l(-1)), alkalinity (300.0-412.0 mg l(-1)), conductance (1082.0-1824.0 micromhos), total dissolved solids (542.0-912.0 mg l(-1)), hardness (228.0-330.0 mg l(-1)), chloride (42.0-60.0 mg l(-1)), organic matter (8.4-18.2 mg l(-1)) and BOD load (98.0-248.0 mg l(-1)). The heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn were also quite high in the effluents (48.6-78.4, 54.0-84.6, 9.8-12.4, 72.4-84.0 and 148.6-284.0 microg l(-1) respectively). The discharged effluents induced severe reduction in oxygen (av. 0.82-3.4 mg l(-1)) and sharp increase in the level of free CO2 (av. 10.8-24.8 mg l(-1)), alkalinity (182.4-288.4 mg l(-1)), conductance (480.0- 628.0 mmhos), total dissolved solids (254.0-315.0 mg l(-1)), hardness (170.0-259.0 mg l(-1)), chloride (36.0-52.0 mg l(-1)), organic matter (4.8-6.8 mg l(-1)) and BOD load (36.4-58.4 mg l(-1)) at the discharge point (OF zones) from their comparatively much lower values before discharge (AOF zone). The rate of energy transformation and photosynthetic efficiency also reduced considerably at the discharge point (av. 1060-2101 calm(-2)day(-1) and 0.09-0.18%) from high values before discharged point (av. 4045-4733 calm(-2)day(-1) and 0.34-0.42%). The level of Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn also showed higher values at the discharged point (20.4-38.0, 22.4-54.8, 5.2-7.8, 30.8-72.0 and 64.8-120.8 microg l(-1) respectively). Considerable improvement was observed below the discharge (BOF zone). Comparison with earlier observation revealed that the magnitude of impact has reduced considerably after the regulation in the discharge both in he respect of chemical composition and energy transformation rates.

  17. Studies on chemical composition and energy transformation in river Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi due to environmental degradation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2009-05-01

    Impact of effluents discharged in Ganga through various sources on chemical composition, energy transformation rate and level of heavy metals was studied at Kanpur and Varanasi. The effluents were found to be nil in oxygen with acidic in oxygen with acidic to neutral pH (6.8-7.0) and having very high values of free CO2 (40-68 mg l(-1)), alkalinity (300.0-412.0 mg l(-1)), conductance (1082.0-1824.0 micromhos), total dissolved solids (542.0-912.0 mg l(-1)), hardness (228.0-330.0 mg l(-1)), chloride (42.0-60.0 mg l(-1)), organic matter (8.4-18.2 mg l(-1)) and BOD load (98.0-248.0 mg l(-1)). The heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn were also quite high in the effluents (48.6-78.4, 54.0-84.6, 9.8-12.4, 72.4-84.0 and 148.6-284.0 microg l(-1) respectively). The discharged effluents induced severe reduction in oxygen (av. 0.82-3.4 mg l(-1)) and sharp increase in the level of free CO2 (av. 10.8-24.8 mg l(-1)), alkalinity (182.4-288.4 mg l(-1)), conductance (480.0- 628.0 mmhos), total dissolved solids (254.0-315.0 mg l(-1)), hardness (170.0-259.0 mg l(-1)), chloride (36.0-52.0 mg l(-1)), organic matter (4.8-6.8 mg l(-1)) and BOD load (36.4-58.4 mg l(-1)) at the discharge point (OF zones) from their comparatively much lower values before discharge (AOF zone). The rate of energy transformation and photosynthetic efficiency also reduced considerably at the discharge point (av. 1060-2101 calm(-2)day(-1) and 0.09-0.18%) from high values before discharged point (av. 4045-4733 calm(-2)day(-1) and 0.34-0.42%). The level of Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn also showed higher values at the discharged point (20.4-38.0, 22.4-54.8, 5.2-7.8, 30.8-72.0 and 64.8-120.8 microg l(-1) respectively). Considerable improvement was observed below the discharge (BOF zone). Comparison with earlier observation revealed that the magnitude of impact has reduced considerably after the regulation in the discharge both in he respect of chemical composition and energy transformation rates. PMID:20120476

  18. Study of the function of sarcoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle during activation due to depolarization-induced calcium influx

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in vascular smooth muscle was evaluated with respect to regulation of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} during the Ca{sup 2+} entry induced by depolarization. Calcium agonist, Bay K8644, stimulated Ca{sup 2+} influx as well as tension in physiological salt solution, (PSS) in contrast to the priming effects due to the depolarization originally reported. Disparity, however, was found between the Ca{sup 2+} entered and tension developed. Correlation between the tension and {sup 45}Ca influx showed a typical threshold phenomenon; the basal Ca{sup 2+} influx can be raised to a certain level (25%) without tension induction, after which a minor increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx produced significant tension. This subthreshold Ca{sup 2+} influx was found accumulated in the caffeine-sensitive Ca stores, the SR. This confirmed the dependency of tension on the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry demonstrated by a previous report.

  19. Prevalence and work-related risk factors for reduced activities and absenteeism due to low back symptoms.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Stevenson, Mark; Devereux, Jason; Eng, Amanda; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil

    2012-07-01

    Although quite a lot is known about the risk factors for low back symptoms (LBS), less is known about the risk factors for the consequences of LBS. A sample of 3003 men and women randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll, were interviewed by telephone about self reported physical, psychosocial, organizational, environmental factors and the consequences of LBS (i.e. self-reported reduced activities and absenteeism). The 12-month period prevalence of reduced activities and absenteeism were 18% and 9%, respectively. Lifting (OR 1.79 95% CI 1.16-2.77) increased the risk of reduced activities. Working in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.11 95% CI 1.20-3.70) and in a cold/damp environment (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.11-4.28) increased the risk of absenteeism. Among those with LBS, reduced activities increased with working in a hot/warm environment (OR 2.14 95% CI 1.22-3.76) and absenteeism was increased with work in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.06 95% CI 1.13-3.77), tight deadlines (OR 1.89 95% CI 1.02-3.50), and a hot/warm environment (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.68-6.68). Interventions to reduce the consequences of LBS should aim to reduce awkward/tiring positions, lifting and work in a cold/damp environment. For individuals with LBS, additional focus should be to reduce tight deadlines, and work in hot/warm environments. PMID:22123534

  20. Prevalence and work-related risk factors for reduced activities and absenteeism due to low back symptoms.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Stevenson, Mark; Devereux, Jason; Eng, Amanda; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil

    2012-07-01

    Although quite a lot is known about the risk factors for low back symptoms (LBS), less is known about the risk factors for the consequences of LBS. A sample of 3003 men and women randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll, were interviewed by telephone about self reported physical, psychosocial, organizational, environmental factors and the consequences of LBS (i.e. self-reported reduced activities and absenteeism). The 12-month period prevalence of reduced activities and absenteeism were 18% and 9%, respectively. Lifting (OR 1.79 95% CI 1.16-2.77) increased the risk of reduced activities. Working in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.11 95% CI 1.20-3.70) and in a cold/damp environment (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.11-4.28) increased the risk of absenteeism. Among those with LBS, reduced activities increased with working in a hot/warm environment (OR 2.14 95% CI 1.22-3.76) and absenteeism was increased with work in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.06 95% CI 1.13-3.77), tight deadlines (OR 1.89 95% CI 1.02-3.50), and a hot/warm environment (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.68-6.68). Interventions to reduce the consequences of LBS should aim to reduce awkward/tiring positions, lifting and work in a cold/damp environment. For individuals with LBS, additional focus should be to reduce tight deadlines, and work in hot/warm environments.

  1. Effective coordination number: A simple indicator of activation energies for NO dissociation on Rh(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Prasenjit; Pushpa, Raghani; Gironcoli, Stefano de

    2009-12-15

    We have used density-functional theory to compute the activation energy for the dissociation of NO on two physical and two hypothetical systems: unstrained and strained Rh(100) surfaces and monolayers of Rh atoms on strained and unstrained MgO(100) surfaces. We find that the activation energy, relative to the gas phase, is reduced when a monolayer of Rh is placed on MgO, due both to the chemical nature of the substrate and the strain imposed by the substrate. The former effect is the dominant one, though both effects are of the same order of magnitude. We find that both effects are encapsulated in a simple quantity which we term as the 'effective coordination number'(n{sub e}); the activation energy is found to vary linearly with n{sub e}. We have compared the performance of n{sub e} as a predictor of activation energy of NO dissociation on the above-mentioned Rh surfaces with the two well-established indicators, namely, the position of the d-band center and the coadsorption energy of N and O. We find that for the present systems n{sub e} performs as well as the other two indicators.

  2. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 3; Wavefront Aberrations due to Alignment and Figure Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part three of a series describing the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The work here investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The optical design of the telescope is a three-mirror anastigmat, with an active fold mirror at the exit pupil for fine guiding. The primary mirror is over 6.5 meters in diameter, and is composed of 18 hexagonal segments that can individually positioned on hexapods, as well as compensated for radius of curvature. This effectively gives both alignment and figure control of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror can be moved in rigid body only, giving alignment control of the telescope. The tertiary mirror is fixed, however, as well as the location of the science instrumentation. Simulations are performed of various combinations of active alignment corrections of component figure errors, and of primary mirror figure corrections of alignment errors. Single field point and moderate field knowledge is assumed in the corrections. Aberrations over the field are reported for the varying cases, and examples presented.

  3. Evidence of 131I and (134,137)Cs activities in Bordeaux, France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Perrot, F; Hubert, Ph; Marquet, Ch; Pravikoff, M S; Bourquin, P; Chiron, H; Guernion, P-Y; Nachab, A

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, low-background gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with HPGe detectors at the PRISNA platform located at the CENBG laboratory in Bordeaux, France. Different kinds of samples were collected and measured between March 26 and May 14, 2011. The first fission product observed was (131)I with maximum activity values of 2.4 mBq/m(3) in atmospheric dusts in air, 3.5 Bq/L in rain water, 15 Bq/kg in grass and 0.9 Bq/L in cow milk. The (134,137)Cs isotopes were also detected in air and in grass at a maximum level of 0.2 mBq/m(3) and 0.7 Bq/kg respectively, around one order of magnitude less than (131)I activity, but they were below detection limits in the other samples. All these activity values were consistent with others measured in France by IRSN and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:22257694

  4. Climate warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2 - Simulations with a multilayer coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal energy balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Peng; Chou, Ming-Dah; Arking, Albert

    1987-01-01

    The transient response of the climate to increasing CO2 is studied using a modified version of the multilayer energy balance model of Peng et al. (1982). The main characteristics of the model are described. Latitudinal and seasonal distributions of planetary albedo, latitude-time distributions of zonal mean temperatures, and latitudinal distributions of evaporation, water vapor transport, and snow cover generated from the model and derived from actual observations are analyzed and compared. It is observed that in response to an atmospheric doubling of CO2, the model reaches within 1/e of the equilibrium response of global mean surface temperature in 9-35 years for the probable range of vertical heat diffusivity in the ocean. For CO2 increases projected by the National Research Council (1983), the model's transient response in annually and globally averaged surface temperatures is 60-75 percent of the corresponding equilibrium response, and the disequilibrium increases with increasing heat diffusivity of the ocean.

  5. Investigation of a passenger car's dynamic response due to a flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischof, Günter; Reisinger, Karl; Singraber, Thomas; Summer, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    With the advent of flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery systems in automotive applications new safety issues arise as a consequence of the flywheel's high rotational speed. While the special structural safety requirements of the components are well discussed in the literature, there is still little research on the influence of gyroscopic effects on vehicle dynamics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of a typical high-speed flywheel on the driving dynamics of an average passenger car. To this end the equations of motion of a gyroscope are derived, which relate the vehicle's roll, pitch and yaw rate with the transverse torque acting on the flywheel. These equations are implemented in a commercial vehicle dynamics simulation program in order to determine the reaction torques acting on the vehicle within a representative range of driving situations. Numerical simulations indicate that the gyroscopic effect can be considered insignificant in standard driving situations.

  6. Ruthenium Dihydroxybipyridine Complexes are Tumor Activated Prodrugs Due to Low pH and Blue Light Induced Ligand Release

    PubMed Central

    Hufziger, Kyle T.; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Charboneau, David J.; Nieto, Ismael; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; Dudley, Timothy J.; Merino, Edward J.; Papish, Elizabeth T.; Paul, Jared J.

    2013-01-01

    Ruthenium drugs are potent anti-cancer agents, but inducing drug selectivity and enhancing their modest activity remain challenging. Slow Ru ligand loss limits the formation of free sites and subsequent binding to DNA base pairs. Herein, we designed a ligand that rapidly dissociates upon irradiation at low pH. Activation at low pH can lead to cancer selectivity, since many cancer cells have higher metabolism (and thus lower pH) than non-cancerous cells. We have used the pH sensitive ligand, 6,6′-dihydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine (66′bpy(OH)2), to generate [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, which contains two acidic hydroxyl groups with pKa1 = 5.26 and pKa2 = 7.27. Irradiation when protonated leads to photo-dissociation of the 66′bpy(OH)2 ligand. An in-depth study of the structural and electronic properties of the complex was carried out using X-Ray crystallography, electrochemistry, UV/visible spectroscopy, and computational techniques. Notably, Ru-N bond lengths in the 66′bpy(OH)2 complex are longer (by ~0.3 Å) than in polypyridyl complexes that lack 6 and 6′ substitution. Thus, the longer bond length predisposes the complex for photo-dissociation and leads to the anti-cancer activity. When the complex is deprotonated, the 66′bpy(O−)2 ligand molecular orbitals mix heavily with the ruthenium orbitals, making new mixed metal-ligand orbitals that lead to a higher bond order. We investigated the anti-cancer activities of [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, [Ru(bpy)2(44′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (44′(bpy(OH)2 = 4,4′-dihydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine) in HeLa cells, which have a relatively low pH. It is found that [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+ is more cytotoxic than the other ruthenium complexes studied. Thus, we have identified a pH sensitive ruthenium scaffold that can be exploited for photo-induced anti-cancer activity. PMID:24184694

  7. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities since 1986. (76 FR 55278) The NOPR reflected a need.... ] DATES: DOE will continue to accept written comments on the SNOPR published August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46829... a second opportunity to comment. (78 FR 46829) II. Second Public Meeting A public meeting on...

  8. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  9. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  10. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  11. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  12. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  13. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Go J. Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  14. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  15. Thermodynamic derivation of the activation energy for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  16. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  17. Stochastic simulation of fission product activity in primary coolant due to fuel rod failures in typical PWRs under power transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Iqbal, M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mirza, Sikander M.

    2008-01-01

    During normal operation of PWRs, routine fuel rods failures result in release of radioactive fission products (RFPs) in the primary coolant of PWRs. In this work, a stochastic model has been developed for simulation of failure time sequences and release rates for the estimation of fission product activity in primary coolant of a typical PWR under power perturbations. In the first part, a stochastic approach is developed, based on generation of fuel failure event sequences by sampling the time dependent intensity functions. Then a three-stage model based deterministic methodology of the FPCART code has been extended to include failure sequences and random release rates in a computer code FPCART-ST, which uses state-of-the-art LEOPARD and ODMUG codes as its subroutines. The value of the 131I activity in primary coolant predicted by FPCART-ST code has been found in good agreement with the corresponding values measured at ANGRA-1 nuclear power plant. The predictions of FPCART-ST code with constant release option have also been found to have good agreement with corresponding experimental values for time dependent 135I, 135Xe and 89Kr concentrations in primary coolant measured during EDITHMOX-1 experiments.

  18. Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kukke, Sahana N.; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Damiano, Diane; Alter, Katharine E.; Patronas, Nicholas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dystonia is a disabling motor disorder often without effective therapies. To better understand the genesis of dystonia after childhood stroke, we analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in this population. Methods Resting spectral power of EEG signals over bilateral sensorimotor cortices (Powrest), resting inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence (Cohrest), and task-related changes in power (TRPow) and coherence (TRCoh) during wrist extension were analyzed in individuals with dystonia (age 20±3 years) and healthy volunteers (age 17±5 years). Results Ipsilesional TRPow decrease was significantly lower in patients than controls during the more affected wrist task. Force deficits of the affected wrist correlated with reduced alpha TRPow decrease on the ipsilesional and not the contralesional hemisphere. Cohrest was significantly lower in patients than controls, and correlated with more severe dystonia and poorer hand function. Powrest and TRCoh were similar between groups. Conclusions The association between weakness and cortical activation during wrist extension highlights the importance of ipsilesional sensorimotor activation on function. Reduction of Cohrest in patients reflects a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity that may result from structural changes and neuroplasticity, potentially contributing to the development of dystonia. Significance Cortical and motor dysfunction are correlated in patients with childhood stroke and may in part explain the genesis of dystonia. PMID:25499610

  19. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  20. Energy transport and secondary circulations due to vertically-propagating Yanai waves observed in the equatorial Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, W.; Durland, T.; Moum, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Shipboard current measurements in the equatorial Indian Ocean in October and November of 2011 revealed oscillations in the meridional velocity with amplitude ~0.10m/s. These were clearest in a layer extending from ~300 to 600 m depth and had periods near 3 weeks. Phase propagation was upward. Measurements from a time series at the equator, four meridional transects and one zonal transect are used to identify the oscillation as a Yanai wave packet and to establish its dominant frequency and vertical wavelength. The Doppler shift is accounted for, so that measured wave properties are translated into the reference frame of the mean zonal flow. We take advantage of the fact that, in the depth range where the wave signal was clearest, the time-averaged current and buoyancy frequency were nearly uniform with depth, allowing application of the classical theoretical representation of vertically propagating waves. Using the theory, we estimate wave properties that are not directly measured, such as the group velocity and the zonal wavelength and phase speed. The theory predicts a vertical energy flux that is comparable to that carried by midlatitude near-inertial waves. Also predicted is an equatorward heat flux that is balanced, in the limit of a linear plane wave, by a wave-driven Eulerian mean flow. The volume transport carried by this mean flow is in turn balanced by the Stokes drift.

  1. Estimation of landslides activities evolution due to land-use and climate change in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Bernardie, Séverine; Houet, Thomas; Grémont, Marine; Grandjean, Gilles; Thiery, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Global changes would have impacts worldwide, but their effects should be even more exacerbated in areas particularly vulnerable. Mountainous areas are among these vulnerable territories. Ecological systems are often at a fragile equilibrium, socio-economical activities are often climate-dependent and climate-driven natural hazards can be a major threat for human activities. In order to estimate the capacity of such mountainous valleys to face global changes (climate, but also climate- and human- induced land-use changes), it is necessary to be able to evaluate the evolution of the different threats. The present work shows a method to evaluate the influences of the evolution of both vegetation cover and climate on landslides activities over a whole valley until 2100, to propose adequate solutions for current and future forestry management. Firstly, the assessment of future land use is addressed through the construction of four prospective socio-economic scenarios up to 2050 and 2100, which are then spatially validated and modeled with LUCC models. Secondly, the climate change inputs of the project correspond to 2 scenarios of emission of greenhouse gases. The used simulations available on the portal DRIAS (http://www.drias-climat.fr) were performed with the GHG emissions scenarios (RCP: Representative concentration pathways, according to the standards defined by the GIEC) RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The impact of land use and climate change is then addressed through the use of these scenarios into hazards computations. For that we use a large-scale slope stability assessment tool ALICE which combines a mechanical stability model (using finite slope analysis), a vegetation module which interfere with the first model, to take into account the effects of vegetation on the mechanical soil properties (cohesion and over-load), and an hydrogeological model. All these elements are interfaced within a GIS-based solution. In that way, future changes in temperature, precipitation and

  2. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  3. DCP-LA stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis through CaMKII activation due to PP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2009-10-01

    The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) activated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by inhibiting protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). DCP-LA induced a transient huge facilitation of synaptic transmission monitored from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, which was largely inhibited by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. DCP-LA potentiated kainate-evoked whole-cell membrane currents for Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors composed of the GluR1, GluR3, GluR1/GluR2, GluR1/GluR3, and GluR1/GluR2/GluR3 subunits, and the potentiation was significantly inhibited by KN-93. A similar potentiation was still found with mutant GluR1 (S831A) receptor lacking CaMKII phosphorylation site. The GluR1 and GluR2 subunits formed AMPA receptors in the rat hippocampus, and DCP-LA increased expression of both the subunits on the plasma membrane. The DCP-LA action was blocked by KN-93 and the exocytosis inhibitor botulinum toxin type A, but not by the endocytosis inhibitor phenylarsine oxide. DCP-LA, thus, appears to activate CaMKII through PP-1 inhibition, that stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis to increase expression of the receptors on the plasma membrane, responsible for potentiate AMPA receptor responses and facilitation of hippocampal synaptic transmission.

  4. Loss of Subcellular Lipid Transport Due to ARV1 Deficiency Disrupts Organelle Homeostasis and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response*

    PubMed Central

    Shechtman, Caryn F.; Henneberry, Annette L.; Seimon, Tracie A.; Tinkelenberg, Arthur H.; Wilcox, Lisa J.; Lee, Eunjee; Fazlollahi, Mina; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Tabas, Ira; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The ARV1-encoded protein mediates sterol transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. Yeast ARV1 mutants accumulate multiple lipids in the ER and are sensitive to pharmacological modulators of both sterol and sphingolipid metabolism. Using fluorescent and electron microscopy, we demonstrate sterol accumulation, subcellular membrane expansion, elevated lipid droplet formation, and vacuolar fragmentation in ARV1 mutants. Motif-based regression analysis of ARV1 deletion transcription profiles indicates activation of Hac1p, an integral component of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accordingly, we show constitutive splicing of HAC1 transcripts, induction of a UPR reporter, and elevated expression of UPR targets in ARV1 mutants. IRE1, encoding the unfolded protein sensor in the ER lumen, exhibits a lethal genetic interaction with ARV1, indicating a viability requirement for the UPR in cells lacking ARV1. Surprisingly, ARV1 mutants expressing a variant of Ire1p defective in sensing unfolded proteins are viable. Moreover, these strains also exhibit constitutive HAC1 splicing that interacts with DTT-mediated perturbation of protein folding. These data suggest that a component of UPR induction in arv1Δ strains is distinct from protein misfolding. Decreased ARV1 expression in murine macrophages also results in UPR induction, particularly up-regulation of activating transcription factor-4, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and apoptosis. Cholesterol loading or inhibition of cholesterol esterification further elevated CHOP expression in ARV1 knockdown cells. Thus, loss or down-regulation of ARV1 disturbs membrane and lipid homeostasis, resulting in a disruption of ER integrity, one consequence of which is induction of the UPR. PMID:21266578

  5. Loss of subcellular lipid transport due to ARV1 deficiency disrupts organelle homeostasis and activates the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Caryn F; Henneberry, Annette L; Seimon, Tracie A; Tinkelenberg, Arthur H; Wilcox, Lisa J; Lee, Eunjee; Fazlollahi, Mina; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Tabas, Ira; Sturley, Stephen L

    2011-04-01

    The ARV1-encoded protein mediates sterol transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. Yeast ARV1 mutants accumulate multiple lipids in the ER and are sensitive to pharmacological modulators of both sterol and sphingolipid metabolism. Using fluorescent and electron microscopy, we demonstrate sterol accumulation, subcellular membrane expansion, elevated lipid droplet formation, and vacuolar fragmentation in ARV1 mutants. Motif-based regression analysis of ARV1 deletion transcription profiles indicates activation of Hac1p, an integral component of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accordingly, we show constitutive splicing of HAC1 transcripts, induction of a UPR reporter, and elevated expression of UPR targets in ARV1 mutants. IRE1, encoding the unfolded protein sensor in the ER lumen, exhibits a lethal genetic interaction with ARV1, indicating a viability requirement for the UPR in cells lacking ARV1. Surprisingly, ARV1 mutants expressing a variant of Ire1p defective in sensing unfolded proteins are viable. Moreover, these strains also exhibit constitutive HAC1 splicing that interacts with DTT-mediated perturbation of protein folding. These data suggest that a component of UPR induction in arv1Δ strains is distinct from protein misfolding. Decreased ARV1 expression in murine macrophages also results in UPR induction, particularly up-regulation of activating transcription factor-4, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and apoptosis. Cholesterol loading or inhibition of cholesterol esterification further elevated CHOP expression in ARV1 knockdown cells. Thus, loss or down-regulation of ARV1 disturbs membrane and lipid homeostasis, resulting in a disruption of ER integrity, one consequence of which is induction of the UPR.

  6. Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10.

    PubMed

    Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Putterill, Jo; Stevenson, David E; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Allan, Andrew C

    2007-02-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is an important determinant of the colour of many fruits. In apple (Malus x domestica), centuries of breeding have produced numerous varieties in which levels of anthocyanin pigment vary widely and change in response to environmental and developmental stimuli. The apple fruit cortex is usually colourless, although germplasm does exist where the cortex is highly pigmented due to the accumulation of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. From studies in a diverse array of plant species, it is apparent that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the level of transcription. Here we report the transcript levels of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in a red-fleshed apple compared with a white-fleshed cultivar. We also describe an apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10, that is similar in sequence to known anthocyanin regulators in other species. We further show that this transcription factor can induce anthocyanin accumulation in both heterologous and homologous systems, generating pigmented patches in transient assays in tobacco leaves and highly pigmented apple plants following stable transformation with constitutively expressed MdMYB10. Efficient induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in transient assays by MdMYB10 was dependent on the co-expression of two distinct bHLH proteins from apple, MdbHLH3 and MdbHLH33. The strong correlation between the expression of MdMYB10 and apple anthocyanin levels during fruit development suggests that this transcription factor is responsible for controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple fruit; in the red-fleshed cultivar and in the skin of other varieties, there is an induction of MdMYB10 expression concurrent with colour formation during development. Characterization of MdMYB10 has implications for the development of new varieties through classical breeding or a biotechnological approach.

  7. Temperature-dependent surface modification of Ta due to high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakowski, T. J.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-12-01

    This work examines the response of Tantalum (Ta) as a potential candidate for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in future nuclear fusion reactors. Tantalum samples were exposed to high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation at different temperatures in the range of 823-1223 K. The samples were irradiated at normal incidence with 100 eV He+ ions at constant flux of 1.2 × 1021 ions m-2 s-1 to a total fluence of 4.3 × 1024 ions m-2. An additional Ta sample was also irradiated at 1023 K using a higher ion fluence of 1.7 × 1025 ions m-2 (at the same flux of 1.2 × 1021 ions m-2 s-1), to confirm the possibility of fuzz formation at higher fluence. This higher fluence was chosen to roughly correspond to the lower fluence threshold of fuzz formation in Tungsten (W). Surface morphology was characterized with a combination of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results demonstrate that the main mode of surface damage is pinholes with an average size of ∼70 nm2 for all temperatures. However, significantly larger pinholes are observed at elevated temperatures (1123 and 1223 K) resulting from the agglomeration of smaller pinholes. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information about the oxidation characteristics of irradiated surfaces, showing minimal exfoliation of the irradiated Ta surface. Additionally, optical reflectivity measurements are performed to further characterize radiation damage on Ta samples, showing gradual reductions in the optical reflectivity as a function of temperature.

  8. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  9. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  10. Morphodynamics of Travertine Dam/Waterfall Growth due to the Interaction of Biological Activity, Water Flow and Limestone Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, N.; Parker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Plitvice Lakes in Croatia are characterized by a step-like train of lakes and waterfalls. The waterfalls are located at the crests of naturally-emplaced dams. The top of each dam grows upward at the rate of a few millimeters per year. It is thought that the upward growth of these dams is caused by the interaction of water flow and biological activity, resulting in the precipitation of dissolved limestone. Dam evolution is initiated by the growth of mosses that favor swift, shallow water. Bacteria that inhabit the roots of the moss excrete solid limestone (travertine) from the water. The limestone fossilizes the moss, and then more moss grows on top of the travertine deposit. In this way, the natural dam can grow over to 10 m high, impounding the water behind it to form a lake. We propose a simple model to explain the formation of natural limestone dams by the interaction between water flow and biologically-mediated travertine deposition. We assume for simplicity that light is the only factor determining the growth of moss, which is then colonized by travertine-emplacing bacteria. We also assume that the water is saturated with dissolved limestone, so that the process is not limited by limestone availability. Photosynthesis, and thus the growth rate of moss are crudely approximated as decreasing linearly with depth. We employ the shallow water equations to describe water flow over the dam. In order to obtain a profile of permanent form for a dam migrating upward and downstream at constant speed, we solve the problem in a moving coordinate system. When water flows over the dam, it is accelerated in the streamwise direction, and the water surface forms a backwater curve. The flow regime changes from Froude-subcritical to Froude-supercritical at a point slightly downstream of the crest of the dam. Farther downstream, the flow attains a threshold velocity beyond which moss is detached. This threshold point defines the downstream end of the active part of the dam. The

  11. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  12. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  13. [Daptomycin: revitalizing a former drug due to the need of new active agents against grampositive multiresistant bacterias].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martí, V; Romá Sánchez, E; Salavert Lletí, M; Bosó Ribelles, V; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2007-09-01

    The development of mechanisms of resistance of many Gram-positive bacterial strains that cause complicated skin and soft tissue infections, as well as sepsis and bacteremia, has necessitated the search for new drugs that will improve treatment strategies. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibacterial that was launched for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. The drug's mechanism of action is different from that of any other antibiotic. It binds to bacterial membranes and causes a rapid depolarization of membrane potential. This loss of membrane potential causes inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death. The in vitro spectrum of activity of daptomycin encompasses most clinically relevant aerobic Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Compared to other antibiotics with a similar antibacterial spectrum, daptomycin does not cause nephrotoxicity. Taking these and other characteristics into consideration, daptomycin appears to be a good alternative to other drugs used in the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and in Gram-positive bacteremial infections.

  14. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  15. Earthquake response reduction of mid-story isolated system due to semi-active control using magnetorheological rotary inertia mass damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mai; Yoshida, Shohei; Fujitani, Hideo; Sato, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics of mid-story isolated buildings and seismic response reduction due to a semi-active control system were investigated using a three-lumped-mass model that simplified the sixteen story building with an isolation layer in the sixth story. A semi-active control method using a rotary inertia mass damper filled with magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) was proposed. The damper shows both mass amplification effect due to rotational inertia and variable damping effect due to the MR fluid. The damping force is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field that is applied to the MR fluid. It is determined by using the electric current, which is calculated by the proposed semi-active control method based on the velocity of the isolation layer relative to the layer just underneath it. Real-time hybrid tests using an actual damper and simulations using a building model were conducted to check the damper model; the test results were in good agreement with the simulation results. The simulation results suggest that the response displacement of the structure above the isolation layer is significantly reduced, without increasing the response acceleration of the entire structure against near-fault pulse and long-period ground motions. The proposed semi-active control using an MR rotary inertia mass damper was confirmed to be effective for mid-story isolated buildings.

  16. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  17. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  18. True polar wander of a quasi-fluid planet with a fossil shape: Effect of strain energy due to tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, temporal variation of a paleo-pole position due to TPW is formulated and calculated based on strain energy in a previous study. Especially, quasi-fluid approximation is suitable to deal with large-scale and long-term variation of a paleo-pole position. Thus, an orientation of a paleo-rotation axis in each time step is estimated in here by following conventional formulation with the quasi-fluid approximation for TPW, and simultaneously by taking total energy minimization into account. In practice, this procedure is physically same as to incorporate elastic torque due to tidal deformation of a lithosphere into the Liouville equation including the quasi-fluid approximation. In this study, like the previous one, only one symmetric surface load is regarded as a driving force of TPW for convenience sake. In this calculation, variable parameters are defined as follows: a location of emplacement, duration of formation, and maximum of intensity of a load. The result with strain energy is compared with that without strain energy. As a result, the case with the strain energy indicates different characteristics from that without the strain energy in the following points. First, the paleo-poles under steady states are different each other in the cases for same parameters. These results are not consistent even with the previous results concerning just the final condition. Second, also in the cases for same parameters, time scales when the paleo-poles reach the static limits are different. These results demonstrate the fact that strain energy within a lithosphere effectively weakens influence of a load on TPW. Although this kind of influence has already been pointed out by the previous results just in the cases of the steady states, the present results further revealed similar effect also on a characteristic time scale of TPW. Strictly speaking, however, it is impossible to estimate this exact time scale only by reducing an effective size of a load. This is

  19. Intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus due to alteration of cellular activity in arsenic and lead intoxicated mature Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, Biswadev; Sengupta, Mahuya

    2003-02-14

    The role of heavy metals like arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) as environmental toxicants is established. However, the exact mechanism of their effect on immunocompetent cell activity is not well known. Staphylococcus aureus is a virulent pathogen that has the ability to cause a variety of potentially life-threatening infections. The objective of our study was to demonstrate in an experimental mouse model of bacteremic S. aureus infection, bacterial clearance from blood and spleen in arsenic, lead treated and control group of mice. Bacterial density was measured in blood and spleen after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. Our findings show a significant increase in bacterial load in blood (P<0.025 for arsenic and P<0.01 for lead) and delayed bacterial clearance by spleen in both arsenic (P<0.05) and lead (P<0.025) treated groups as compared to control, thus highlighting an immuno-compromised state following heavy metal exposure. To further elucidate immunomodulatory effects of both arsenic and lead, cell function studies were performed on splenic macrophages (M(phi)) isolated from lead and arsenic treated as well as control group of mice. Our findings show a decrease in cell adhesion property (P<0.005) of splenic M(phi)s from 2.9925+/-0.053 in control to 1.395+/-0.106 in arsenic and 0.8835+/-0.0106 in lead treated mice at 60 min. Morphologic alteration of the splenic M(phi)s showed an increase (As: P<0.05, Pb: P<0.0005) in both arsenic (6.876+/-0.3287%) and lead (16.55+/-1.051%) treated mice to control (2.649+/-1.238%) which may be responsible for the formers' reduced functional status. The chemotactic index, a measure of chemotactic migration of the macrophages toward immune serum, was 16.43+/-1.007 in control cell and was reduced (P<0.0005) to 4.19+/-0.393 in arsenic and 2.92+/-0.649 in lead treated mice at 60 min. These altered cell functions could probably explain the intracellular survival of S. aureus but such a causal relationship awaits further detailed

  20. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  1. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  2. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. PMID:25982790

  3. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  4. Gsα activity is reduced in erythrocyte membranes of patients with psedohypoparathyroidism due to epigenetic alterations at the GNAS locus.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Celia; Thiele, Susanne; Martín, Cesar; Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Werner, Ralf; Garin, Intza; Hiort, Olaf; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar

    2011-08-01

    In pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), PTH resistance results from impairment of signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors caused by a deficiency of the Gsα-cAMP signaling cascade due to diminished Gsα activity in maternally imprinted tissues. In PHP-Ia, inactivating mutations of the GNAS gene lead to haploinsufficiency in some tissues with biallelic expression, so in addition to PHP, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is also present. In PHP-Ib, caused by methylation defects at the GNAS locus, diminished Gsα activity was thought to be limited to maternally imprinted tissues, such as the renal proximal tubule and the thyroid, leading to a lack of AHO. Recently, we demonstrated methylation defects in patients with AHO signs, indicating a connection between epigenetic changes and AHO. Our objective was to determine Gsα activity in erythrocyte membranes in patients with epigenetic defects at the GNAS locus compared to normal controls and patients with inactivating GNAS mutations. Gsα activity and expression, mutation of the GNAS locus, and methylation status were studied in patients with PHP and mild signs of AHO (PHP-Ia: 12; PHP-Ib: 17, of which 8 had some features of AHO). Then, we statistically compared the Gsα activity of the different PHP subtypes. Patients with methylation defects at the GNAS locus show a significant decrease in erythrocyte Gsα activity compared to normal controls (PHP-Ib versus controls, p < .001). This was significantly lower in patients with AHO signs (PHP-Ib + mild-AHO versus PHP-Ib, p < .05). Our research shows that PHP-Ia and PHP-Ib classification is not only overlapped genetically, as reported, but also in terms of Gsα activity. Reduced expression of GNAS due to methylation defects could downregulate Gsα activity in other tissues beyond those described and could also be causative of AHO.

  5. Activation energy associated with the electromigration of oligosaccharides through viscosity modifier and polymeric additive containing background electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kerékgyártó, Márta; Járvás, Gábor; Novák, Levente; Guttman, András

    2016-02-01

    The activation energy related to the electromigration of oligosaccharides can be determined from their measured electrophoretic mobilities at different temperatures. The effects of a viscosity modifier (ethylene glycol) and a polymeric additive (linear polyacrylamide) on the electrophoretic mobility of linear sugar oligomers with α1-4 linked glucose units (maltooligosaccharides) were studied in CE using the activation energy concept. The electrophoretic separations of 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate-labeled maltooligosaccharides were monitored by LIF detection in the temperature range of 20-50°C, using either 0-60% ethylene glycol (viscosity modifier) or 0-3% linear polyacrylamide (polymeric additive) containing BGEs. Activation energy curves were constructed based on the slopes of the Arrhenius plots. With the use of linear polyacrylamide additive, solute size-dependent activation energy variations were found for the maltooligosaccharides with polymerization degrees below and above maltoheptaose (DP 7), probably due to molecular conformation changes and possible matrix interaction effects.

  6. Impurity-to-band activation energy in phosphorus doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, I.; Pinault-Thaury, M.-A.; Kociniewski, T.; Lusson, A.; Chikoidze, E.; Jomard, F.; Dumont, Y.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.

    2013-08-01

    The value of the impurity-to-band activation energy EA of a dopant is a basic feature of the electrical conductivity of semiconductors. Various techniques were used to determine EA in n-type diamond doped with phosphorus, giving values of EA varying from 0.43 eV to 0.63 eV, the value EA of 0.6 eV being commonly accepted for the ionization energy of phosphorus donors in diamond. Nevertheless, up to now, the dispersion of the experimental values of EA remains unexplained. In this work, we investigate the electrical properties of a set of n-type diamond homoepitaxial films with different phosphorus concentrations by Hall effect measurements in order to deduce EA and to understand the evolution of this energy with the dopant concentration. We show that, below 2 × 1019 cm-3 phosphorus, the decrease of EA is mainly controlled by the concentration of ionized defects resulting from the donor compensation. The role of ionized defects in the decrease of EA is analyzed on the basis of existing models adapted to the case of diamond. The proposed model provides a correct description of the experimental data. It can be used to quantitatively predict the activation energy of phosphorus in n-type diamond for given donor and compensating acceptor concentrations.

  7. Magnetic helicity and free energy in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, K.; Georgoulis, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Archontis, V.

    2013-09-01

    We study the evolution of the non-potential free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in solar active regions (ARs). For this we use a time-series of a three-dimensional, synthetic AR produced by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. As a first step, we calculate the potential magnetic field that has the same normal components with the MHD field along all boundaries of the AR, by solving Laplace's equation. The free magnetic energy of the AR is then easily derived. From the two fields, MHD and potential one, we calculate the corresponding vector potentials with a recently proposed integration method. The knowledge of both fields and their respective vector potentials throughout the AR, allows us to estimate the relative magnetic helicity budget of the AR. Following this procedure for each snapshot of the AR, we reconstruct the evolution of free energy and helicity in the AR. Our method reproduces, for a synthetic AR, the energy/helicity relations known to hold in real active regions.

  8. Nerve growth factor-mediated inhibition of apoptosis post-caspase activation is due to removal of active caspase-3 in a lysosome-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Mnich, K; Carleton, L A; Kavanagh, E T; Doyle, K M; Samali, A; Gorman, A M

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is well characterised as an important pro-survival factor in neuronal cells that can inhibit apoptotic cell death upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation. Here we addressed the question of whether NGF can also protect against apoptosis downstream of caspase activation. NGF treatment promoted a rapid reduction in the level of the p17 subunit of active caspase-3 in PC12 cells that had been induced to undergo apoptosis by various cytotoxins. The mechanism involved TrkA-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and de novo protein synthesis. Involvement of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and proteasomal degradation were ruled out. In contrast, inhibition of lysosome function using chloroquine and concanamycin A reversed NGF-induced removal of p17. Moreover, in NGF-treated cells, active caspases were found to be localised to lysosomes. The involvement of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy were ruled out. Taken together, these findings suggest an anti-apoptotic mechanism by which NGF induces removal of active caspase-3 in a lysosome-dependent manner. PMID:24787014

  9. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games (p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  10. Energy Loss of Solar p Modes due to the Excitation of Magnetic Sausage Tube Waves: Importance of Coupling the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W.

    2014-07-01

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = -z 0).

  11. Energy loss of solar p modes due to the excitation of magnetic sausage tube waves: Importance of coupling the upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W. E-mail: r.jain@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-07-10

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z{sub 0}).

  12. On the Periodicity of Energy Release in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldvarg, T. B.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Solov'Ev, A. A.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the periodic regimes of energy release on the Sun, namely, the recurrence of solar flares in active regions using the Solar Geophysical Data Journal on Hα flares from 1979 until 1981, which corresponds to the maximum of solar cycle 21. We obtained the following series of periods in the manifestation of flare activity bymeans of a correlation periodogram analysis, a self-similarity function, and a wavelet analysis: ˜1, 2, 3 h as well as ˜0.4, 1, 2, 5 days. We suggest a diffusive model for the quasi-periodic transfer of toroidal magnetic fields from under the photosphere to interpret the retrieved sequence of periods in the enhancement of flare activity. We estimated the typical spatial scales of the magnetic field variations in the solar convection zone: ˜17 000 km.

  13. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  15. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  16. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  17. Energy expenditure, physical activity, and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Goran, M I; Treuth, M S

    2001-08-01

    Although there are physiologic and genetic influences on the various components of energy metabolism and body weight regulation, and a major portion of individual differences in body weight can be explained by genetic differences, it seems unlikely that the increased global prevalence of obesity has been driven by a dramatic change in the gene pool. It is more likely and more reasonable that acute changes in behavior and environment have contributed to the rapid increase in obesity and that genetic factors may be important in the deferring individual susceptibilities to these changes. The most striking behavioral changes that have occurred have been an increased reliance on high-fat and energy-dense "fast foods," with larger portion sizes, coupled with an ever-increasing sedentary lifestyle. The more sedentary lifestyle is caused by an increased reliance on technology and labor-saving devices, which has reduced the need for physical exertion for everyday activities. Examples of energy-saving devices that have resulted in a secular decline in physical activity include: Increased use of automated transport rather than walking or biking Central heating and use of automated equipment, such as washing machines, in the household. Reduction in physical activity in the workplace because of computers, automated equipment, and electronic mail. Increased use of television and computers for entertainment and leisure activities. Use of elevators and escalators rather than stairs. Increased concern for crime, which has reduced the likelihood of outdoor playing. Poor urban planning that does not provide adequate biking paths or even sidewalks in some communities. Thus, the increasing prevalence, numerous health risks, and astounding economic costs of obesity clearly justify widespread efforts toward prevention efforts. These prevention efforts should begin in childhood because the behaviors are learned and continue through the lifetime.

  18. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  19. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  20. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  1. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  2. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  4. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  5. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  6. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  7. Heat and mass transfer in unsteady rotating fluid flow with binary chemical reaction and activation energy.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faiz G; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

  8. Heat and Mass Transfer in Unsteady Rotating Fluid Flow with Binary Chemical Reaction and Activation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faiz G.; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

  9. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  10. Free energy landscape of activation in a signaling protein at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pontiggia, F.; Pachov, D.V.; Clarkson, M.W.; Villali, J.; Hagan, M.F.; Pande, V.S.; Kern, D.

    2015-01-01

    The interconversion between inactive and active protein states, traditionally described by two static structures, is at the heart of signaling. However, how folded states interconvert is largely unknown due to the inability to experimentally observe transition pathways. Here we explore the free energy landscape of the bacterial response regulator NtrC by combining computation and NMR, and discover unexpected features underlying efficient signaling. We find that functional states are defined purely in kinetic and not structural terms. The need of a well-defined conformer, crucial to the active state, is absent in the inactive state, which comprises a heterogeneous collection of conformers. The transition between active and inactive states occurs through multiple pathways, facilitated by a number of nonnative transient hydrogen bonds, thus lowering the transition barrier through both entropic and enthalpic contributions. These findings may represent general features for functional conformational transitions within the folded state. PMID:26073309

  11. Free energy landscape of activation in a signalling protein at atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiggia, F.; Pachov, D. V.; Clarkson, M. W.; Villali, J.; Hagan, M. F.; Pande, V. S.; Kern, D.

    2015-06-01

    The interconversion between inactive and active protein states, traditionally described by two static structures, is at the heart of signalling. However, how folded states interconvert is largely unknown due to the inability to experimentally observe transition pathways. Here we explore the free energy landscape of the bacterial response regulator NtrC by combining computation and nuclear magnetic resonance, and discover unexpected features underlying efficient signalling. We find that functional states are defined purely in kinetic and not structural terms. The need of a well-defined conformer, crucial to the active state, is absent in the inactive state, which comprises a heterogeneous collection of conformers. The transition between active and inactive states occurs through multiple pathways, facilitated by a number of nonnative transient hydrogen bonds, thus lowering the transition barrier through both entropic and enthalpic contributions. These findings may represent general features for functional conformational transitions within the folded state.

  12. The thiocarbamate disulphide drug, disulfiram induces osteopenia in rats by inhibition of osteoblast function due to suppression of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Monika; Khan, Kainat; Pal, Subhashis; Porwal, Konica; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Barbhuyan, Tarun K; Baghel, Khemraj S; Rawat, Tara; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhadauria, Smrati; Sharma, Vishnu L; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2014-05-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTC), a sulfhydryl group containing compounds, are extensively used by humans that include metam and thiram due to their pesticide properties, and disulfiram (DSF) as an alcohol deterrent. We screened these DTC in an osteoblast viability assay. DSF exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 488nM). Loss in osteoblast viability and proliferation was due to induction of apoptosis via G1 arrest. DSF treatment to osteoblasts reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and exogenous addition of GSH prevented DSF-induced reactive oxygen species generation and osteoblast apoptosis. DSF also inhibited osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and the effect was associated with inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Out of various ALDH isozymes, osteoblasts expressed only ALDH2 and DSF downregulated its transcript as well as activity. Alda-1, a specific activator of ALDH2, stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Subcutaneous injection of DSF over the calvarium of new born rats reduced the differentiation phenotype of calvarial osteoblasts but increased the mRNA levels of Runx-2 and osteocalcin. DSF treatment at a human-equivalent dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. to adult Sprague Dawley rats caused trabecular osteopenia and suppressed the formation of mineralized nodule by bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, DSF diminished bone regeneration at the fracture site. In growing rats, DSF diminished growth plate height, primary and secondary spongiosa, mineralized osteoid and trabecular strength. Substantial decreased bone formation was also observed in the cortical site of these rats. We conclude that DSF has a strong osteopenia inducing effect by impairing osteoblast survival and differentiation due to the inhibition of ALDH2 function. PMID:24496638

  13. Characteristic changes in brain electrical activity due to chronic hypoxia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): a combined EEG study using LORETA and omega complexity.

    PubMed

    Toth, Marton; Faludi, Bela; Wackermann, Jiri; Czopf, Jozsef; Kondakor, Istvan

    2009-11-01

    EEG background activity of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25) was compared to that of normal controls (N = 14) to reflect alterations of brain electrical activity caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia in OSAS. Global and regional (left vs. right, anterior vs. posterior) measures of spatial complexity (Omega) were used to characterize the degree of spatial synchrony of EEG. Low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to localize generators of EEG activity in separate frequency bands. Comparing patients to controls, lower Omega complexity was found globally and in the right hemisphere. Using LORETA, an increased medium frequency activity was seen bilaterally in the precuneus, paracentral and posterior cingulate cortex. These findings indicate that alterations caused by chronic hypoxia in brain electrical activity in regions associated with influencing emotional regulation, long-term memory and the default mode network. Global synchronization (lower Omega complexity) may indicate a significantly reduced number of relatively independent, parallel neural processes due to chronic global hypoxic state in apneic patients as well as over the right hemisphere.

  14. Secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF is due predominantly to the induction of JE/MCP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, M.; Hsu, W. C.; Bogdanov, V. Y.; Taubman, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    Inflammation is a critical feature of atherosclerosis and is characterized in part by the migration of circulating monocytes to the atherosclerotic plaque. These monocytes, together with macrophages, are a source of cytokines, growth factors, proteases, and procoagulants, which contribute to the progression of the atherosclerosis lesion. This study employed a modified Boyden chamber to examine the secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in response to growth factors and cytokines. The induction of monocyte chemotactic activity showed a surprising specificity for platelet-derived growth factor-BB. This activity was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide and thus required de novo transcription and protein synthesis. The ability to stimulate monocyte migration appeared to be solely due to the secretion of the monocyte chemoattractant protein JE/MCP-1 and was completely blocked by antisense oligonucleotides and antibodies to JE/MCP-1. The induction of chemotactic activity was also blocked by dexamethasone, an inhibitor of JE mRNA accumulation. This study suggests that the secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by vascular smooth muscle cells is a highly regulatable and specific event and underscores the importance of JE/MCP-1 in the inflammatory response of the vessel wall. Images Figure 5 PMID:8686755

  15. The Energy Challenge: An Activity Master Program About our Energy Past, Present, and Future for Grades 5 Through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents 24 spirit duplicating activity masters and background materials for energy education in grades 5 through 8. These interdisciplinary materials are arranged in 6 units. Unit titles are: (1) Energy Overview; (2) Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas; (3) Energy Resources for Today and Tomorrow; (4) Energy Conservation;…

  16. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  17. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  18. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  19. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  20. False-positive myeloperoxidase binding activity due to DNA/anti-DNA antibody complexes: a source for analytical error in serologic evaluation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, H S; Nachman, P H; Falk, R J; Jennette, J C

    2000-09-01

    Anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies (anti-MPO) are a major type of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). While evaluating anti-MPO monoclonal antibodies from SCG/Kj mice, we observed several hybridomas that appeared to react with both MPO and DNA. Sera from some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) also react with MPO and DNA. We hypothesized that the MPO binding activity is a false-positive result due to the binding of DNA, contained within the antigen binding site of anti-DNA antibodies, to the cationic MPO. Antibodies from tissue culture supernatants from 'dual reactive' hybridomas were purified under high-salt conditions (3 M NaCl) to remove any antigen bound to antibody. The MPO and DNA binding activity were measured by ELISA. The MPO binding activity was completely abrogated while the DNA binding activity remained. The MPO binding activity was restored, in a dose-dependent manner, by the addition of increasing amount of calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) to the purified antibody. Sera from six patients with SLE that reacted with both MPO and DNA were treated with DNase and showed a decrease in MPO binding activity compared with untreated samples. MPO binding activity was observed when CT-DNA was added to sera from SLE patients that initially reacted with DNA but not with MPO. These results suggest that the DNA contained within the antigen binding site of anti-DNA antibodies could bind to the highly cationic MPO used as substrate antigen in immunoassays, resulting in a false-positive test.

  1. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  2. Increased Variation in Adh Enzyme Activity in Drosophila Mutation-Accumulation Experiment Is Not Due to Transposable Elements at the Adh Structural Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Tachida, H.; Langley, C. H.; Harada, K.; Mukai, T.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a molecular analysis of the region surrounding the structural gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in 47 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that have each accumulated mutations for 300 generations. While these lines show a significant increase in variation of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity compared to control lines, we found no restriction map variation in a 13-kb region including the complete Adh structural gene and roughly 5 kb of both 5' and 3' sequences. Thus, the rapid accumulation of ADH activity variation after 28,200 allele generations does not appear to have been due to the mobilization of transposable elements into or out of the Adh structural gene region. PMID:1963870

  3. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  4. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  5. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A L

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  6. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  7. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  8. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  9. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj S

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6) was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v). The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6) lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387(T), Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766(T) and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478(T) with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6) can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6) showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6).

  10. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj S.

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6) was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27–37°C, pH 8–10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v). The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6) lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6) can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6) showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6). PMID:25191320

  11. Measurements and evaluation of the risks due to external radiation exposures and to intake of activated elements for operational staff engaged in the maintenance of medical cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Parisi, R; Todde, S; De Felice, P; Savi, A; Pepe, A; Mrskova, A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the activation phenomena and to evaluate the risk of external exposure and intake doses for the maintenance staff of two medical cyclotrons. Two self-shielded cyclotrons are currently operating in the facility for the routine production of (11)C and (18)F. Four radiochemistry laboratories are linked to the cyclotrons by means of shielded radioisotope delivery lines. Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared both for the PET Diagnostic Department, where four CT-PET scanners are operating with a mean patient workload of 40 d(-1) and for [(18)F]FDG external distribution, to provide radiopharmaceuticals for other institutions. In spite of the fact that air contamination inside the radiochemistry laboratories during the synthesis represents the largest 'slice of the pie' in the evaluation of annual intake dose, potential contamination due to the activated particulate, generated during cyclotron irradiation by micro-corrosion of targets and other components potentially struck by the proton beam and generated neutrons, should be considered. In this regard, the most plausible long-lived (T(1/2) > 30 d) radioisotopes formed are: (97)Tc, (56)Co, (57)Co, (58)Co, (60)Co, (49)V, (55)Fe, (109)Cd, (65)Zn and (22)Na. The results for the operating personnel survey has revealed only low-level contamination for (65)Zn in one test, together with minor (18)F intake, probably due to the environmental dispersion of the radioisotope during the [(18)F]FDG synthesis.

  12. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis depends on functional RsbU, an activator of the sigB operon: differential activation mechanisms due to ethanol and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, J K; Bartscht, K; Sabottke, A; Rohde, H; Feucht, H H; Mack, D

    2001-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in medical device-associated infections. Its major pathogenetic factor is the ability to form adherent biofilms. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), which is synthesized by the products of the icaADBC gene cluster, is essential for biofilm accumulation. In the present study, we characterized the gene locus inactivated by Tn917 insertions of two isogenic, icaADBC-independent, biofilm-negative mutants, M15 and M19, of the biofilm-producing bacterium S. epidermidis 1457. The insertion site was the same in both of the mutants and was located in the first gene, rsbU, of an operon highly homologous to the sigB operons of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Supplementation of Trypticase soy broth with NaCl (TSB(NaCl)) or ethanol (TSB(EtOH)), both of which are known activators of sigB, led to increased biofilm formation and PIA synthesis by S. epidermidis 1457. Insertion of Tn917 into rsbU, a positive regulator of alternative sigma factor sigma(B), led to a biofilm-negative phenotype and almost undetectable PIA production. Interestingly, in TSB(EtOH), the mutants were enabled to form a biofilm again with phenotypes similar to those of the wild type. In TSB(NaCl), the mutants still displayed a biofilm-negative phenotype. No difference in primary attachment between the mutants and the wild type was observed. Similar phenotypic changes were observed after transfer of the Tn917 insertion of mutant M15 to the independent and biofilm-producing strain S. epidermidis 8400. In 11 clinical S. epidermidis strains, a restriction fragment length polymorphism of the sigB operon was detected which was independent of the presence of the icaADBC locus and a biofilm-positive phenotype. Obviously, different mechanisms are operative in the regulation of PIA expression in stationary phase and under stress induced by salt or ethanol.

  13. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis depends on functional RsbU, an activator of the sigB operon: differential activation mechanisms due to ethanol and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, J K; Bartscht, K; Sabottke, A; Rohde, H; Feucht, H H; Mack, D

    2001-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in medical device-associated infections. Its major pathogenetic factor is the ability to form adherent biofilms. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), which is synthesized by the products of the icaADBC gene cluster, is essential for biofilm accumulation. In the present study, we characterized the gene locus inactivated by Tn917 insertions of two isogenic, icaADBC-independent, biofilm-negative mutants, M15 and M19, of the biofilm-producing bacterium S. epidermidis 1457. The insertion site was the same in both of the mutants and was located in the first gene, rsbU, of an operon highly homologous to the sigB operons of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Supplementation of Trypticase soy broth with NaCl (TSB(NaCl)) or ethanol (TSB(EtOH)), both of which are known activators of sigB, led to increased biofilm formation and PIA synthesis by S. epidermidis 1457. Insertion of Tn917 into rsbU, a positive regulator of alternative sigma factor sigma(B), led to a biofilm-negative phenotype and almost undetectable PIA production. Interestingly, in TSB(EtOH), the mutants were enabled to form a biofilm again with phenotypes similar to those of the wild type. In TSB(NaCl), the mutants still displayed a biofilm-negative phenotype. No difference in primary attachment between the mutants and the wild type was observed. Similar phenotypic changes were observed after transfer of the Tn917 insertion of mutant M15 to the independent and biofilm-producing strain S. epidermidis 8400. In 11 clinical S. epidermidis strains, a restriction fragment length polymorphism of the sigB operon was detected which was independent of the presence of the icaADBC locus and a biofilm-positive phenotype. Obviously, different mechanisms are operative in the regulation of PIA expression in stationary phase and under stress induced by salt or ethanol. PMID:11274123

  14. Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis Depends on Functional RsbU, an Activator of the sigB Operon: Differential Activation Mechanisms Due to Ethanol and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Bartscht, Katrin; Sabottke, Axel; Rohde, Holger; Feucht, Heinz-Hubert; Mack, Dietrich

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in medical device-associated infections. Its major pathogenetic factor is the ability to form adherent biofilms. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), which is synthesized by the products of the icaADBC gene cluster, is essential for biofilm accumulation. In the present study, we characterized the gene locus inactivated by Tn917 insertions of two isogenic, icaADBC-independent, biofilm-negative mutants, M15 and M19, of the biofilm-producing bacterium S. epidermidis 1457. The insertion site was the same in both of the mutants and was located in the first gene, rsbU, of an operon highly homologous to the sigB operons of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Supplementation of Trypticase soy broth with NaCl (TSBNaCl) or ethanol (TSBEtOH), both of which are known activators of sigB, led to increased biofilm formation and PIA synthesis by S. epidermidis 1457. Insertion of Tn917 into rsbU, a positive regulator of alternative sigma factor ςB, led to a biofilm-negative phenotype and almost undetectable PIA production. Interestingly, in TSBEtOH, the mutants were enabled to form a biofilm again with phenotypes similar to those of the wild type. In TSBNaCl, the mutants still displayed a biofilm-negative phenotype. No difference in primary attachment between the mutants and the wild type was observed. Similar phenotypic changes were observed after transfer of the Tn917 insertion of mutant M15 to the independent and biofilm-producing strain S. epidermidis 8400. In 11 clinical S. epidermidis strains, a restriction fragment length polymorphism of the sigB operon was detected which was independent of the presence of the icaADBC locus and a biofilm-positive phenotype. Obviously, different mechanisms are operative in the regulation of PIA expression in stationary phase and under stress induced by salt or ethanol. PMID:11274123

  15. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  16. Defective Initiation of Liver Regeneration in Osteopontin-Deficient Mice after Partial Hepatectomy due to Insufficient Activation of IL-6/Stat3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yankai; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong; Liu, Wenjun; Li, Hongjie; Wang, Fang; Xia, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2015-01-01

    The initial process in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy involves the recruitment of immune cells and the release of cytokines. Osteopontin (OPN), a pro-inflammatory protein, plays critical roles in immune cell activation and migration. Although OPN has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many liver diseases, the role of OPN in liver regeneration remains obscure. In the present study, we found that serum and hepatic OPN protein levels were significantly elevated in wild-type (WT) mice after partial hepatectomy (PHx) and that bile ductal epithelia were the major cell source of hepatic OPN. Compared to WT mice, OPN knockout (KO) mice exhibited delayed liver regeneration after PHx. This delay in OPN(-/-) mice was attributed to impaired hepatic infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, decreased serum and hepatic IL-6 levels, and blunted activation of macrophages after PHx. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the attenuated activation of macrophages is at least partially due to decreased hepatic and portal vein LPS levels in OPN(-/-) mice. In response to decreased IL-6 levels, the activation of signal transducer and transcription (Stat) 3 was reduced in hepatocytes of OPN(-/-) mice compared to WT mice after PHx. Consequently, hepatic activation of the downstream direct targets of IL6/Stat3, such as c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc, was also suppressed post-PHx in OPN(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results support a unique role for OPN during the priming phase of liver regeneration, in which OPN enhances the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils, and triggers hepatocyte proliferation through Kupffer cell-derived IL-6 release and the downstream activation of Stat3.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  18. On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

    2008-05-14

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the

  19. Towards energy neutrality by optimising the activated sludge process of the WWTP Bochum-Ölbachtal.

    PubMed

    Marner, S T; Schröter, D; Jardin, N

    2016-01-01

    As a result of Ruhrverband's regularly performed energy audits the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Bochum-Ölbachtal shows substantial deficits concerning energy efficiency. Due to the energy consumption of internal recirculation, mixers and return activated sludge (RAS) pumping the existing pre-denitrification process configuration offers a specific energy consumption for biological treatment of 23 kWh (PE · a)(-1). In order to optimise the energy situation and to improve the treatment efficiency, the process layout was changed completely to a three-stage step-feed process. By optimising the hydraulic conditions, it was possible to reconstruct the plant with a free flow throughout the whole biological treatment system without any additional pumping. The total investment costs for this process scheme were 3.9 million €. These costs could be partly offset against the wastewater charge paid (2.9 million €). Compared to the overall energy consumption before the process modification, today the energy consumption for biological treatment amounts to 12.4 kWh (PE · a)(-1). The highest saving potential has been achieved by optimising mixing and reducing the energy demand for internal recirculation and RAS pumping. In the case of the WWTP Bochum-Ölbachtal, the modification of the treatment process not only results in an improved energy situation but also increased the treatment efficiency in such a way that the nitrogen concentration in the effluent could be constantly kept below 5 mg L(-1) N(tot), which provides the basis for being exempted from the wastewater discharge for nitrogen. As a result of all these measures, the rate of self-sufficiency by using biogas from the digester in combined heat and power units has been increased substantially from 60% before process modifications to 97%. With the upcoming optimisation measures, a further increase of self-sufficiency is expected to finally achieve energy neutrality based on yearly averages. The example of the

  20. Towards energy neutrality by optimising the activated sludge process of the WWTP Bochum-Ölbachtal.

    PubMed

    Marner, S T; Schröter, D; Jardin, N

    2016-01-01

    As a result of Ruhrverband's regularly performed energy audits the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Bochum-Ölbachtal shows substantial deficits concerning energy efficiency. Due to the energy consumption of internal recirculation, mixers and return activated sludge (RAS) pumping the existing pre-denitrification process configuration offers a specific energy consumption for biological treatment of 23 kWh (PE · a)(-1). In order to optimise the energy situation and to improve the treatment efficiency, the process layout was changed completely to a three-stage step-feed process. By optimising the hydraulic conditions, it was possible to reconstruct the plant with a free flow throughout the whole biological treatment system without any additional pumping. The total investment costs for this process scheme were 3.9 million €. These costs could be partly offset against the wastewater charge paid (2.9 million €). Compared to the overall energy consumption before the process modification, today the energy consumption for biological treatment amounts to 12.4 kWh (PE · a)(-1). The highest saving potential has been achieved by optimising mixing and reducing the energy demand for internal recirculation and RAS pumping. In the case of the WWTP Bochum-Ölbachtal, the modification of the treatment process not only results in an improved energy situation but also increased the treatment efficiency in such a way that the nitrogen concentration in the effluent could be constantly kept below 5 mg L(-1) N(tot), which provides the basis for being exempted from the wastewater discharge for nitrogen. As a result of all these measures, the rate of self-sufficiency by using biogas from the digester in combined heat and power units has been increased substantially from 60% before process modifications to 97%. With the upcoming optimisation measures, a further increase of self-sufficiency is expected to finally achieve energy neutrality based on yearly averages. The example of the

  1. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  2. Yeast growth in raffinose results in resistance to acetic-acid induced programmed cell death mostly due to the activation of the mitochondrial retrograde pathway.

    PubMed

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Zdralević, Maša; Lattanzio, Paolo; Marzulli, Domenico; Pracheil, Tammy; Liu, Zhengchang; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate whether and how a modification of mitochondrial metabolism can affect yeast sensitivity to programmed cell death (PCD) induced by acetic acid (AA-PCD), yeast cells were grown on raffinose, as a sole carbon source, which, differently from glucose, favours mitochondrial respiration. We found that, differently from glucose-grown cells, raffinose-grown cells were mostly resistant to AA-PCD and that this was due to the activation of mitochondrial retrograde (RTG) response, which increased with time, as revealed by the up-regulation of the peroxisomal isoform of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoform 1, RTG pathway target genes. Accordingly, the deletion of RTG2 and RTG3, a positive regulator and a transcription factor of the RTG pathway, resulted in AA-PCD, as shown by TUNEL assay. Neither deletion in raffinose-grown cells of HAP4, encoding the positive regulatory subunit of the Hap2,3,4,5 complex nor constitutive activation of the RTG pathway in glucose-grown cells due to deletion of MKS1, a negative regulator of RTG pathway, had effect on yeast AA-PCD. The RTG pathway was found to be activated in yeast cells containing mitochondria, in which membrane potential was measured, capable to consume oxygen in a manner stimulated by the uncoupler CCCP and inhibited by the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A. AA-PCD resistance in raffinose-grown cells occurs with a decrease in both ROS production and cytochrome c release as compared to glucose-grown cells en route to AA-PCD. PMID:23906793

  3. Yeast growth in raffinose results in resistance to acetic-acid induced programmed cell death mostly due to the activation of the mitochondrial retrograde pathway.

    PubMed

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Zdralević, Maša; Lattanzio, Paolo; Marzulli, Domenico; Pracheil, Tammy; Liu, Zhengchang; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate whether and how a modification of mitochondrial metabolism can affect yeast sensitivity to programmed cell death (PCD) induced by acetic acid (AA-PCD), yeast cells were grown on raffinose, as a sole carbon source, which, differently from glucose, favours mitochondrial respiration. We found that, differently from glucose-grown cells, raffinose-grown cells were mostly resistant to AA-PCD and that this was due to the activation of mitochondrial retrograde (RTG) response, which increased with time, as revealed by the up-regulation of the peroxisomal isoform of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoform 1, RTG pathway target genes. Accordingly, the deletion of RTG2 and RTG3, a positive regulator and a transcription factor of the RTG pathway, resulted in AA-PCD, as shown by TUNEL assay. Neither deletion in raffinose-grown cells of HAP4, encoding the positive regulatory subunit of the Hap2,3,4,5 complex nor constitutive activation of the RTG pathway in glucose-grown cells due to deletion of MKS1, a negative regulator of RTG pathway, had effect on yeast AA-PCD. The RTG pathway was found to be activated in yeast cells containing mitochondria, in which membrane potential was measured, capable to consume oxygen in a manner stimulated by the uncoupler CCCP and inhibited by the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A. AA-PCD resistance in raffinose-grown cells occurs with a decrease in both ROS production and cytochrome c release as compared to glucose-grown cells en route to AA-PCD.

  4. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called "blazars". The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future "Cherenkov Telescope Array", in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  5. Impacts of vigorous and non-vigorous activity on daily energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2003-08-01

    Activity intensity is a potential determinant of activity-induced energy expenditure. Tri-axial accelerometery is the most objective measurement technique for the assessment of activity intensity, in combination with doubly-labelled water for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. Data on the effects of subject characteristics, including body size and age, and exercise training on the relationship between activity intensity and daily energy expenditure are reviewed. Average daily metabolic rate and non-basal energy expenditure are positively related to body size. The duration and intensity of physical activities do not need to be equivalent to the energy spent on activity. Obese subjects spend more energy on physical activity but can perform fewer activities, especially high-intensity (weight-bearing) activities, because of their higher body weight. Physical activity generally declines gradually from about 60 years of age onwards. Most subjects > 80 years have an activity level well below the level defined for sedentary middle-aged adults. Spending relatively more time on low-intensity activities has a negative effect on the mean physical activity level. To obtain a higher physical activity level does not necessarily imply high-intensity activities. In an average subject 25% of the activity-induced energy expenditure may be attributed to high-intensity activities. Exercise training, as a form of high-intensity activity, affects the physical activity level more in younger subjects than in elderly subjects.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  7. Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Carrie L.; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V. Koneti; Su, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110δ catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110δ-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85α, p55α, and p50α regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434–475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85α protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85α–p110δ complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110δ catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

  8. Disruption of BCATm in mice leads to increased energy expenditure associated with the activation of a futile protein turnover cycle

    PubMed Central

    She, Pengxiang; Reid, Tanya M.; Bronson, Sarah K.; Vary, Thomas C.; Hajnal, Andras; Lynch, Christopher J; Hutson, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Leucine is recognized as a nutrient signal, however the long-term in vivo consequences of leucine signaling and the role of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in this signaling remains unclear. To investigate these questions, the BCATm gene encoding the enzyme catalyzing the first step in peripheral BCAA metabolism was disrupted. BCATm−/− mice exhibited elevated plasma BCAAs, decreased adiposity and body weight, despite eating more food, along with increased energy expenditure, remarkable improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance, and protection from diet induced obesity. The increased energy expenditure did not seem to be due to altered locomotor activity, uncoupling proteins, sympathetic activity, and thyroid hormones but was strongly associated with food consumption and an active futile cycle of increased protein degradation and synthesis. These observations suggest that either elevated BCAAs and/or loss of BCAA catabolism in peripheral tissues play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. PMID:17767905

  9. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  10. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms.

  11. Activation Energy for Grain Growth in Aluminum Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Ferreira, J L; Hayes, J P

    2004-10-14

    To produce a specific grain size in metallic coatings requires precise control of the time at temperature during the deposition process. Aluminum coatings are deposited using electron-beam evaporation onto heated substrate surfaces. The grain size of the coating is determined upon examination of the microstructure in plan view and cross-section. Ideal grain growth is observed over the entire experimental range of temperature examined from 413 to 843 K. A transition in the activation energy for grain growth from 0.7 to 3.8 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} is observed as the temperature increases from <526 K to >588 K. The transition is indicative of the dominant mechanism for grain growth shifting with increasing temperature from grain boundary to lattice diffusion.

  12. An assessment of selected solar energy industry activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessner, J. D.

    1980-11-01

    The past, present, and near-term conditions of four industries based on solar energy technologies are examined-solar heating; photovoltaics; concentrating solar collectors for process heat and electric power applications; and passive components such as skylights and greenhouses. The report identifies key, unresolved issues for government policies intended to influence future solar industrial development; assesses the past and current federal role in these industries; and draws tentative conclusions about how government policies have affected their evolution. This evolution is compared to the evolution of typical, innovation-based industries. For each of the four solar industries researched, the collected data are discussed as follows: characteristics of sales; the government role; investment strategies and R & D activities; near-term trends; and comparisons with other industries.

  13. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  14. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  15. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  16. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  17. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  18. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  19. Communication: Activation energy of tension-induced pore formation in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Karal, Mohammad Abu Sayem; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-08-28

    Tension plays a vital role in pore formation in biomembranes, but the mechanism of pore formation remains unclear. We investigated the temperature dependence of the rate constant of constant tension (σ)-induced pore formation in giant unilamellar vesicles of lipid membranes using an experimental method we developed. By analyzing this result, we determined the activation energy (Ua) of tension-induced pore formation as a function of tension. A constant (U0) that does not depend on tension was found to contribute significantly to Ua. Analysis of the activation energy clearly indicated that the dependence of Ua on σ in the classical theory is correct, but that the classical theory of pore formation is not entirely correct due to the presence of U0. We can reasonably consider that U0 is a nucleation free energy to form a hydrophilic pre-pore from a hydrophobic pre-pore or a region with lower lateral lipid density. After obtaining U0, the evolution of a pre-pore follows a classical theory. Our data provide valuable information that help explain the mechanism of tension-induced pore formation in biomembranes and lipid membranes.

  20. Energy Crisis. Teaching Resources. A Special Publication Suggesting School Activities Which Stress Individual Responsibility Towards Energy Crisis Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Wendell; And Others

    This handbook provides public school teachers and administrators of Oregon with teaching ideas and information about the energy crisis. Suggested activities are intended to inform students (kindergarten through community college) about their responsibility toward the energy crisis and to motivate energy conservation. The handbook is divided into…

  1. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles. PMID:25184988

  2. Photoemission from activated gallium arsenide. II. Spin polarization versus kinetic energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouhin, H.-J.; Hermann, C.; Lampel, G.

    1985-03-01

    The spin polarization of the electrons emitted by a GaAs photocathode under circularly polarized light excitation is investigated as a function of the electron kinetic energy. The photocathode is activated by cesium and oxygen coadsorption under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions to achieve a negative electron affinity. The spin polarization is measured by Mott scattering. The study is performed with a very-high-energy resolution (20 meV), at 300 and 120 K, under well-focused Kr+-laser light excitation (photon energy ranging from 1.55 to 2.60 eV). The polarization-versus-energy distribution curves show typical features related to those observed in the energy distribution curves, which are analyzed in detail in the preceding paper [H.-J. Drouhin, C. Hermann, and G. Lampel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 3859 (1985)]. A model is developed to account for the largest measured polarization, which arises from electrons excited from the heavy-hole band and emitted without suffering any collision: A (2/3) maximum value is expected, which is reduced by spin precession in the internal D'yakonov and Perel' (DP) field, due to the absence of space-inversion symmetry in GaAs. An estimation of the hot-electron mean free path (~0.1 μm for photon energy above 1.96 eV) is deduced. The photoemission polarizations of the electrons excited from each of the two other valence bands are also calculated using a nonparabolic Kane band model. The L and X subsidiary minima give rise to polarization plateaus originating from energy relaxation in the band-bending region. The main contribution to the photocurrent is due to electrons which were thermalized in the central minimum of the bulk crystal and have relaxed their energy in the band-bending region prior to emission into vacuum. Their polarization is studied in relation with the luminescence polarization, measured on the same samples, in the framework of a one-dimensional diffusion model. An additional depolarization, occurring during the escape process, is

  3. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    centers are adequately separated by the linking molecules and constitute promising candiates for heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in synthesis, characterization, and catalytic performance of metal-organic networks are highlighted in this Account. Experimental results like structure determination of the networks, charge and spin distribution in the metal centers, and catalytic mechanisms for electrochemical reactions are presented. In particular, we describe the activity of two networks for the oxygen reduction reaction in a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical study. The similarities and differences of the networks compared to metallo-enzymes will be discussed, such as the metal surface that operates as a geometric template and concomitantly functions as an electron reservoir, and how this leads to a new class of bioinspired catalysts. The possibility to create functional two-dimensional coordination complexes at surfaces taking inspiration from nature opens up a new route for the design of potent nanocatalyst materials for energy conversion.

  4. Optimal Time-Resource Allocation for Energy-Efficient Physical Activity Detection

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Gautam; Li, Ming; Lee, Sangwon; Emken, B. Adar; Annavaram, Murali; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Mitra, Urbashi

    2011-01-01

    The optimal allocation of samples for physical activity detection in a wireless body area network for health-monitoring is considered. The number of biometric samples collected at the mobile device fusion center, from both device-internal and external Bluetooth heterogeneous sensors, is optimized to minimize the transmission power for a fixed number of samples, and to meet a performance requirement defined using the probability of misclassification between multiple hypotheses. A filter-based feature selection method determines an optimal feature set for classification, and a correlated Gaussian model is considered. Using experimental data from overweight adolescent subjects, it is found that allocating a greater proportion of samples to sensors which better discriminate between certain activity levels can result in either a lower probability of error or energy-savings ranging from 18% to 22%, in comparison to equal allocation of samples. The current activity of the subjects and the performance requirements do not significantly affect the optimal allocation, but employing personalized models results in improved energy-efficiency. As the number of samples is an integer, an exhaustive search to determine the optimal allocation is typical, but computationally expensive. To this end, an alternate, continuous-valued vector optimization is derived which yields approximately optimal allocations and can be implemented on the mobile fusion center due to its significantly lower complexity. PMID:21796237

  5. Socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; van Haastregt, Jolanda CM; McKee, Kevin J; Delbaere, Kim; Zijlstra, GA Rixt

    2009-01-01

    Background Fear of falling and avoidance of activity are common in old age and are suggested to be (public) health problems of equal importance to falls. Earlier studies of correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity did hardly differentiate between severe and mild levels of fear of falling and avoidance of activity which may be relevant from clinical point of view. Furthermore, most studies focused only on socio-demographics and/or health-related variables and hardly incorporated an extensive range of potential correlates of fear of falling including psychosocial variables. This study analyzes the univariate and multivariate associations between five socio-demographic, seven health-related and six psychosocial variables and levels of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling. Methods Cross-sectional study in 540 community-living older people aged ≥ 70 years with at least mild fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Chi-squares, t-tests and logistics regression analyses were performed to study the associations between the selected correlates and both outcomes. Results Old age, female sex, limitations in activity of daily living, impaired vision, poor perceived health, chronic morbidity, falls, low general self-efficacy, low mastery, loneliness, feelings of anxiety and symptoms of depression were identified as univariate correlates of severe fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Female sex, limitations in activity of daily living and one or more falls in the previous six months correlated independently with severe fear of falling. Higher age and limitations in activity of daily living correlated independently with severe avoidance of activity. Conclusion Psychosocial variables did not contribute independently to the difference between mild and severe fear of falling and to the difference between mild and severe avoidance of activity due to fear of falling. Although knowledge about the

  6. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-01

    Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3), 70% (15.3 ± 3.5) and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.05, respectively), PA(3.1 ± 0.8 and 1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 and 2.4 ± 0.4; p < 0.05) and RQ (0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.85 ± 0.5; vs. 0.95 ± 0.03 and 0.91 ± 0.05 p < 0.05). In contrast, both light (7.1 ± 1.4) and dark period (6.2 ± 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 ± 0.9 and 2.5 ± 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE

  7. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  8. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  9. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  10. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  11. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  12. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four multidisciplinary activities for grades seven through twelve are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I helps students understand energy and the current crisis by studying laws which govern energy flow and using examples of how these laws illustrate stable energy utilization…

  13. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  14. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  15. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  16. Conserve & Renew. An Energy Education Activity Package for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourtillot, Leeann

    This teaching guide contains a collection of energy education activities written and organized so that they might be used either as a unit on energy, or as individual activities to complement existing curricula in grades 4-6. The focus in on conservation and renewables. Most of 23 activities are designed as cooperative learning experiences and are…

  17. Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu.

    PubMed

    Kim, HoKwon; Mattevi, Cecilia; Calvo, M Reyes; Oberg, Jenny C; Artiglia, Luca; Agnoli, Stefano; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F; Chhowalla, Manish; Saiz, Eduardo

    2012-04-24

    The synthesis of wafer-scale single crystal graphene remains a challenge toward the utilization of its intrinsic properties in electronics. Until now, the large-area chemical vapor deposition of graphene has yielded a polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries are detrimental to its electrical properties. Here, we study the physicochemical mechanisms underlying the nucleation and growth kinetics of graphene on copper, providing new insights necessary for the engineering synthesis of wafer-scale single crystals. Graphene arises from the crystallization of a supersaturated fraction of carbon-adatom species, and its nucleation density is the result of competition between the mobility of the carbon-adatom species and their desorption rate. As the energetics of these phenomena varies with temperature, the nucleation activation energies can span over a wide range (1-3 eV) leading to a rational prediction of the individual nuclei size and density distribution. The growth-limiting step was found to be the attachment of carbon-adatom species to the graphene edges, which was independent of the Cu crystalline orientation.

  18. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  19. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  20. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian; Donakowski, Jough; Hays, David

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  1. Model Vestibular Nuclei Neurons Can Exhibit a Boosting Nonlinearity Due to an Adaptation Current Regulated by Spike-Triggered Calcium and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model's phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914

  2. Model Vestibular Nuclei Neurons Can Exhibit a Boosting Nonlinearity Due to an Adaptation Current Regulated by Spike-Triggered Calcium and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model’s phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914

  3. Classification of prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and music imagery using hidden Markov models and frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Sarah D.; Falk, Tiago H.; Chau, Tom

    2010-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI). In particular, previous research has shown that NIRS signals recorded from the motor cortex during left- and right-hand imagery can be distinguished, providing a basis for a two-choice NIRS-BCI. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an alternative two-choice NIRS-BCI paradigm based on the classification of prefrontal activity due to two cognitive tasks, specifically mental arithmetic and music imagery. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while ten able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and music imagery within a synchronous shape-matching paradigm. With the 18 filtered AC signals, we created task- and subject-specific maximum likelihood classifiers using hidden Markov models. Mental arithmetic and music imagery were classified with an average accuracy of 77.2% ± 7.0 across participants, with all participants significantly exceeding chance accuracies. The results suggest the potential of a two-choice NIRS-BCI based on cognitive rather than motor tasks.

  4. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A. S.; Cagle, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  5. Active flow control integrated diffuser (afcid) for increased energy efficiency in variable air volume systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Schijff, Hermanus P.

    Variable air volume (VAV) air terminals are designed to save energy by reducing airflow into a given space based on occupancy and required load. Systems are typically designed to operate at peak load, however as load is reduced, performance is compromised due to inadequate throw. As a result, fans are installed to adjust for the losses, negating many of the energy savings. Additionally flow is vectored by the use of vanes, a basic passive type of flow control. An experimental investigation was performed to study the application of flow control on that of a HVAC diffuser using synthetic jets distributed evenly along the diffuser edge parallel to the flow field. The study was conducted on a 1:3 scale typical office space (150 ft2), which included a simulated scale HVAC system supplied by compressed air. Two different jet blowing ratios were investigated for system loads of 60% and 90%. The flow field was established using hot wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of synthetic jet based active flow control at controlling airflow, showing ability to affect throw parameters for changing flow rates within the test chamber. Vectoring of up to 20% and improvement in jet spread of 200% was demonstrated. The use of such devices has the potential to improve air quality and air distribution in building while simultaneously lowering energy demands of HVAC systems.

  6. The sensitivity of Cockayne's syndrome cells to DNA-damaging agents is not due to defective transcription-coupled repair of active genes.

    PubMed

    van Oosterwijk, M F; Versteeg, A; Filon, R; van Zeeland, A A; Mullenders, L H

    1996-08-01

    Two of the hallmarks of Cockayne's syndrome (CS) are the hypersensitivity of cells to UV light and the lack of recovery of the ability to synthesize RNA following exposure of cells to UV light, in spite of the normal repair capacity at the overall genome level. The prolonged repressed RNA synthesis has been attributed to a defect in transcription-coupled repair, resulting in slow removal of DNA lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. This model predicts that the sensitivity of CS cells to another DNA-damaging agent, i.e., the UV-mimetic agent N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF), should also be associated with a lack of resumption of RNA synthesis and defective transcription-coupled repair of NA-AAF-induced DNA adducts. We tested this by measuring the rate of excision of DNA adducts in the adenosine deaminase gene of primary normal human fibroblasts and two CS (complementation group A and B) fibroblast strains. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of DNA adducts revealed that N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) was the main adduct induced by NA-AAF in both normal and CS cells. No differences were found between normal and CS cells with respect to induction of this lesion either at the level of the genome overall or at the gene level. Moreover, repair of dG-C8-AF in the active adenosine deaminase gene occurred at similar rates and without strand specificity in normal and CS cells, indicating that transcription-coupled repair does not contribute significantly to repair of dG-C8-AF in active genes. Yet CS cells are threefold more sensitive to NA-AAF than are normal cells and are unable to recover the ability to synthesize RNA. Our data rule out defective transcription-coupled repair as the cause of the increased sensitivity of CS cells to DNA-damaging agents and suggest that the cellular sensitivity and the prolonged repressed RNA synthesis are primarily due to a transcription defect. We hypothesize that upon treatment of cells

  7. [Heart rate and energy expenditure during extravehicular activity in different time of day].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, S I; Katuntsev, V P; Osipov, Iu Iu; Galichiĭ, V A

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the comparative heart rate (HR) characteristics associated with day and night extravehicular activities (EVA). HR was commonly higher in the night but not in the daytime. Presumably, the reason is psychological and physiological challenges of the night work on the background of natural performance decrement. These circumstances could lead to elevation of psychic tension and, consequently, increase of heartbeats to a greater extent as compared with daytime EVA. According to the correlation analysis data, the pattern of HR relation to physical loads evaluated by energy expenditure in the daytime was other than at night, i.e. it was positive unlike the nighttime correlation. We cannot exclude it that in the daytime increase in cardiac output (CO) in response to physical work was largely due to increase in HR, whereas it was stroke volume that dominated during night work; at least, it could support CO fully in the periods of low loading.

  8. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  9. Tuning active Brownian motion with shot-noise energy pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ebeling, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to explore the possibility of modeling the biological energy support mediated by absorption of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as an energetic shot noise. We develop a general model with discrete input of energy pulses and study shot-noise-driven ratchets. We consider these ratchets as prototypes of Brownian motors driven by energy-rich ATP molecules. Our model is a stochastic machine able to acquire energy from the environment and convert it into kinetic energy of motion. We present characteristic features and demonstrate the possibility of tuning these motors by adapting the mean frequency of the discrete energy inputs, which are described as a special shot noise. In particular, the effect of stochastically driven directionality and uphill flux in systems acquiring energy from the shot noise is analyzed. As a possible application we consider the motion of kinesin on a microtubule under a constant load force.

  10. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  11. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  12. THE LIMIT OF MAGNETIC-SHEAR ENERGY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-05-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  13. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  14. Energy Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Due to increasing energy demands and decreasing supplies, it is important for teachers to provide students with a solid foundation for energy decision making. Activities are presented which offer hands-on experiences with four sources of energy: wind, water, sun, and fossil fuels. (JN)

  15. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  16. [Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages after administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in a patient with acute ischemicstroke due to anterior cerebral artery dissection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Ken; Koyama, Seigo; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2011-06-01

    A 45-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of right hemiparesis. At admission, he was alert and well oriented. His verbal comprehension seemed good, but his speech was not fluent. He could not stand or walk owing to the right hemiparesis, which was severe in the lower extremity. Computed tomographic (CT) scans on admission showed no abnormality. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging performed after the CT showed a high-intensity lesion in the left cingulate gyrus. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed occlusion and irregularity of the left A2 portion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). At 1 h 50 min after the onset of the hemiparesis, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 0.6 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. At 1 h after the administration of rt-PA, he became drowsy and his right hemiparesis deteriorated. CT scans performed again showed a hematoma in the left frontal lobe and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the anterior interhemispheric fissure. He was treated conservatively. MRA performed on the 18th day after admission showed recanalization of the left ACA and abnormal dilatation of the left A2 segment. The abnormal dilatation was also depicted by 3D-CT angiography (3D-CTA) performed on the 26th day after admission and even on the 33rd and 77th days. As seen in our case, the definite diagnosis of dissection confined to the ACA frequently needs serial angiographies; therefore, its diagnosis immediately after the onset is often difficult. Thrombolytic therapy by intravenous administration of rt-PA for cerebral infarction caused by dissection of the ACA may recanalize the occluded site and facilitate the progression of the dissection, resulting in intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages. In patients with cerebral infarction due to ACA dissection, strict control of blood pressure and careful observation are necessary after thrombolytic therapy by rt-PA.

  17. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  18. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water's tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water's fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte's concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water's fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  19. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  20. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  1. Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    1997-08-01

    Students often invoke Murphy's Law when inanimate "things go wrong", when skis break or fires occur or instruments fail due to corrosion or tires unexpectedly wear out. But why don't similar upsetting events happen to everyone every minute? Unwanted combustion and corrosion of common materials, although energetically favored, are not kinetically instantaneous. (The second law of thermodynamics is time's arrow but chemical kinetics is time's clock.) Chemistry students learn that chemical changes are usually obstructed by activation energy barriers whose origins lie in the energy required for bond breaking as new bonds are formed. Thus, activation energies act as obstacles to Murphy's Law in being deterrents to undesirable reactions and, lightly, as our "Maxwell's Angels". The fracture of solids - whether surfboards or car fenders - also involves breaking chemical bonds. However, such incidents are classed as physical changes because the free energy of the fragments is not notably different from the unbroken whole. The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.

  2. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Sharapov, S.; Alper, B.; Gondhalekar, A.; McDonald, D. C.

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilization at very high fast-ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density ne decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing ne due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on ne, the threshold in ne corresponds to a threshold in the fast-ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast-ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55 and 65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes (White 1989 Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (Amsterdam: North-Holland)), exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast-ion population.

  3. Geographic Information Systems in Support of Wind Energy Activities at NREL: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D. M.; Haymes, S. R.

    2001-09-18

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to further the development of wind energy resources in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program and its Wind Powering America Initiative. Some of the elements of NREL's GIS data used in wind energy activities include wind measurement sites, transmission lines, federal facility information, and modeled wind resources. More complex GIS analyses can define relationships among the mapped wind energy resources, potential energy load characterization, and utility integration problems. A GIS is an outstanding tool for wind energy activities because data can be readily updated and the results of the GIS analyses can be expressed as charts, tables, and maps. These outputs are in digital formats that allow the results of GIS analyses to be quickly and efficiently distributed to the wind energy industry.

  4. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  5. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  6. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  7. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  8. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Science component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also contained in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE…

  9. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Introduction for the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681),…

  10. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics…

  11. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Industrial Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  12. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  13. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  14. Language and Creative Arts. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    Intended for teachers of grades 6 through 12 who wish to incorporate information on energy and energy conservation into drama, poetry, literature, or research instruction, this guide offers lesson plans to educate elementary or secondary students about energy through class activities. An introduction explains the need for such instruction, and…

  15. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  16. Logistic distributed activation energy model--Part 1: Derivation and numerical parametric study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Jin, Chuan; Yang, Songyuan; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new distributed activation energy model is presented using the logistic distribution to mathematically represent the pyrolysis kinetics of complex solid fuels. A numerical parametric study of the logistic distributed activation energy model is conducted to evaluate the influences of the model parameters on the numerical results of the model. The parameters studied include the heating rate, reaction order, frequency factor, mean of the logistic activation energy distribution, standard deviation of the logistic activation energy distribution. The parametric study addresses the dependence on the forms of the calculated α-T and dα/dT-T curves (α: reaction conversion, T: temperature). The study results would be very helpful to the application of the logistic distributed activation energy model, which is the main subject of the next part of this series.

  17. Concept of variable activation energy and its validity in nonisothermal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guanglei; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Zhongsuo

    2011-06-01

    The concept of variable activation energy in solid-state kinetics under nonisothermal conditions has been suffering from doubt and controversy. Rate equations of nonisothermal kinetics of solid decomposition, which involve the factors of thermodynamics conditions, pressure of gaseous product, structure parameters of solid, and/or extent of conversion, are derived from the models of the interface reaction, the diffusion of gaseous product, and the nuclei growth of the solid product, respectively. The definition of the validity function in the rate equations represents the influence of the factors on the reaction rate. A function of variable activation energy depending on the validity function is also developed. The changing trend and degree of activation energy are extrapolated from the function of variable activation energy and based on the data of nonisothermal thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. It is shown that the concept of variable activation energy is meaningfully applicable to solid-state reactions under nonisothermal conditions.

  18. Enhanced parasympathetic activity of sportive women is paradoxically associated to enhanced resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Vicidomini, C; Viggiano, An; Tafuri, D; Cozza, V; Cibelli, G; Devastato, A; De Luca, B; Monda, M

    2012-08-16

    The resting energy expenditure and the adaptation of the autonomic nervous system induced by sport activities in sedentary women and in female professional basketball players have been studied. Resting energy expenditure, body composition and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in resting energy expenditure and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that resting energy expenditure is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure.

  19. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  20. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    interpret the concentration of OH- to be influenced by water activity within the rocks, and temperature. Our results confirm that oxy-biotite is a non-negligible component, but in the case of prograde metamorphism we do not interpret this as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange only, but also as the consequence of a decrease in water activity due to partial melting. Bauer, K. K., & Vennemann, T. W. (2014). Analytical methods for the measurement of hydrogen isotope composition and water content in clay minerals by TC/EA. Chemical Geology, 363(C), 229-240. Cesare, B., Satish-Kumar, M., Cruciani, G., Pocker, S., & Nodari, L. (2008). Mineral chemistry of Ti-rich biotite from pegmatite and metapelitic granulites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt (southeast India): Petrology and further insight into titanium substitutions. American Mineralogist, 93(2-3), 327-338. Floess, D., & Baumgartner, L. (2013). Formation of garnet clusters during polyphase metamorphism. Terra Nova, 25(2), 144-150. Munoz, J. L. (1984). F-OH and Cl-OH Exchange in Micas with Applications to Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 13, 469-493.