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Sample records for activation energy equal

  1. Equal velocity rule in heavy hadron production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazoe, T. ); Inazawa, H.; Morii, T. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a production mechanism of heavy particles in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilations is studied on a field theoretical basis using the bound state wave functions. The requirement that wave functions of hadrons overlap maximally with each other leads to the conclusion that the model predicts a 2-jet structure in a one-loop diagram and heavy hadrons in a jet have an equal velocity. Heavy particle production cross sections and their characteristic energy distributions are calculated for some typical reactions.

  2. Equalizer system and method for series connected energy storing devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ross, Guy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the charge voltage of a number of electrochemical cells connected in series is disclosed. Equalization circuitry is provided to control the amount of charge current supplied to individual electrochemical cells included within the series string of electrochemical cells without interrupting the flow of charge current through the series string. The equalization circuitry balances the potential of each of the electrochemical cells to within a pre-determined voltage setpoint tolerance during charging, and, if necessary, prior to initiating charging. Equalization of cell potentials may be effected toward the end of a charge cycle or throughout the charge cycle. Overcharge protection is also provided for each of the electrochemical cells coupled to the series connection. During a discharge mode of operation in accordance with one embodiment, the equalization circuitry is substantially non-conductive with respect to the flow of discharge current from the series string of electrochemical cells. In accordance with another embodiment, equalization of the series string of cells is effected during a discharge cycle.

  3. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  4. Electron-impact ionization of helium for equal-energy-sharing kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Stelbovics, A.T.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.V.; Bartschat, K.

    2005-05-15

    The close-coupling approach to electron-helium single ionization is analyzed and several ways of defining the scattering amplitudes are determined, for both equal- and unequal-energy outgoing electrons. Nevertheless, the various definitions all lead to the same cross section. The convergent close-coupling (CCC) method with Laguerre (CCC-L) and box-based (CCC-B) target functions is applied to calculate electron-impact ionization of helium for the cases where the two outgoing electrons have equal energy. Excellent absolute agreement with experiment is obtained for all available cases of comparison.

  5. 78 FR 43969 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review Correction Notice document 2013-17006, appearing on page 42593, in the issue of Tuesday, July 16, 2013 was withdrawn by...

  6. 78 FR 42593 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of... abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission...: Submit written comments on the collection of information through www.Regulations.gov ; or to VA's...

  7. 78 FR 42821 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of... abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission...: Submit written comments on the collection of information through www.Regulations.gov ; or to VA's...

  8. 75 FR 9489 - Proposed Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OA&L), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for...

  9. 78 FR 21711 - Proposed Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OA&L), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for...

  10. 75 FR 26345 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the... Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs, has submitted the collection of...

  11. Cultural variations in the sexual marketplace: gender equality correlates with more sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.

  12. Cultural variations in the sexual marketplace: gender equality correlates with more sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex. PMID:21675186

  13. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  14. Theoretical L-shell Coster-Kronig energies 11 or equal to z or equal to 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1976-01-01

    Relativistic relaxed-orbital calculations of L-shell Coster-Kronig transition energies have been performed for all possible transitions in atoms with atomic numbers. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first-order approximation to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. Each transition energy was computed as the difference between results of separate self-consistent-field calculations for the initial, singly ionized state and the final two-hole state. The following quantities are listed: total transition energy, 'electric' (Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater) contribution, magnetic and retardation contributions, and contributions due to vacuum polarization and self energy.

  15. Generation of Equal-Energy Orbital Angular Momentum Beams via Photopatterned Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Ge, Shi-Jun; Ma, Ling-Ling; Hu, Wei; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been extensively studied to date and has become topical in the last few years due to its potential for increasing bandwidth in optical communications. The so-called Dammann vortex grating (DVG) can generate a series of equal-energy OAM beams and satisfactorily realize OAM parallel detection, an important challenge in this field. However, previously reported DVGs suffer from polarization sensitivity, low efficiency, or the lack of tunability and mode variety. Here, a design of liquid-crystal DVGs is proposed and demonstrated for the generation of various equal-energy OAM beams. The DVGs, featured by alternative orthogonally planar-aligned regions, are carried out via photopatterning technology. Beam arrays composed of arbitrary OAM modes, as well as two-dimensional ones, are generated in good quality and high efficiency. The liquid-crystal DVGs exhibit merits of excellent polarization independency, electrical switchability, and tunability. This supplies a promising approach towards OAM generation, manipulation, and detection.

  16. Are All Active Galactic Nuclei Born Equal? The Silicate Dust Mineralogy Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    Dust is the cornerstone of the unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This theory proposes that all AGNs are essentially the same object or "born equal" but viewed from different lines of sight; much of the observed diversity arises from different viewing angles toward the central engine and a dusty toroidal structure around it. When the dusty torus is viewed face-on, both the central engine and the broad-line regions can be seen directly causing objects to appear as type 1 AGNs; when the dusty torus is viewed edge- on, the anisotropic obscuration created by the torus causes objects to appear as type 2 AGNs. It is this crucial role played by dust in the unified model of AGNs that makes understanding dust properties very important in understanding AGNs. Little is known about the dust in the circumnuclear torus of AGNs. There is evidence suggesting that the size and composition of the dust in AGNs may differ substantially from that of the Galactic interstellar dust, as reflected by the flat or "gray" extinction, and the anomalous silicate emission or absorption features observed respectively in type 1 and type 2 AGNs. The silicate feature profiles of AGNs are rather diverse in peak wavelengths, widths, strengths, and band ratios of the 18 micrometer O--Si--O feature to the 9.7 micrometer Si--O feature, suggesting that the AGN silicate grains are diverse in composition and size (or probably not "born equal"). We propose a two-year project to study the size and composition of the dust in AGNs, with special attention paid to the silicate mineralogy. We will obtain constraints on the silicate composition and size by modeling the Spitzer IRS spectra of >100 AGNs of various types. We will examine whether (and how) the silicate composition and size properties vary with the properties of an AGN (e.g. type, luminosity). This research will improve our understanding of the physical properties of the dust torus and the origin of the observed silicate emission

  17. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  18. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  19. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Physical Society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agui, Akane; Tanida, Kiyoshi; Torikai, Eiko

    2005-10-01

    The Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) was established as a result of the First International IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002). It is a gender-balanced team of 12 full members and a group of net-commentators. The former chairperson of the committee, Masako Bando, was selected to be the president of JPS between September 2006 and August 2007. Based on the survey on the present status of the gender equality and the research environment of the JPS members in 2001, JPS advanced two recommendations to the governmental authorities, academic institutes, and organizations: for flexible childcare supports and for improved research granting systems for post-doctoral fellows and part-time researchers in August 2003. Now these activities have become nationwide with the establishment in October 2002 of the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). It has 44 member societies, including 19 observers, from various academic fields. An extended survey was carried out by EPMEWSE in November 2003; 20,000 respondents revealed diverse visions of scientists and engineers. These activities effectively help foster public understanding and awareness of the state of women in physics, especially among policy-making authorities. In 2005 the Cabinet is drawing up two Basic Plans for 2006-2010: the Science and Technology Basic Plan for the third term and the Basic Plan for the Gender-Equal Society for the second term. To attract girls into science and engineering, JPS is organizing the Girls Science Summer School to be held in August 2005 in collaboration with the National Women Education Center and EPMEWSE.

  20. Open Minds to Equality: A Source Book of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equity. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schniedewind, Nancy; Davidson, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    "Open Minds to Equality" is an educator's sourcebook of activities to help students understand and change inequalities based on: race, gender, class, age, language, sexual orientation, physical/mental ability, and religion. The activities promote respect for diversity and interpersonal equality among students, fostering a classroom that is…

  1. Daring to Marry: Marriage Equality Activism After Proposition 8 as Challenge to the Assimilationist/Radical Binary in Queer Studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    I analyze three case studies of marriage equality activism and marriage equality-based groups after the passage of Proposition 8 in California. Evaluating the JoinTheImpact protests of 2008, the LGBTQ rights group GetEQUAL, and the group One Struggle One Fight, I argue that these groups revise queer theoretical arguments about marriage equality activism as by definition assimilationist, homonormative, and single-issue. In contrast to such claims, the cases studied here provide a snapshot of heterogeneous, intersectional, and coalition-based social justice work in which creative methods of protest, including direct action and flash mobs, are deployed in militant ways for marriage rights and beyond.

  2. DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. THE CASE OF EQUAL PEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.; Stevens, A. C.; Rosario, D. J. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: acs0196@mail.utexas.edu

    2012-06-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked narrow lines (DPAGNs) may be caused by kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs, bipolar outflows, or rotating gaseous disks. We examine the class of DPAGNs in which the two narrow-line components have closely similar intensity as being especially likely to involve disks or jets. Two spectroscopic indicators support this likelihood. For DPAGNs from Smith et al., the 'equal-peaked' objects (EPAGNs) have [Ne V]/[O III]ratios lower than for a control sample of non-double-peaked AGNs. This is unexpected for a pair of normal AGNs in a galactic merger, but may be consistent with [O III] emission from a rotating ring with relatively little gas at small radii. Also, [O III]/H{beta} ratios of the redshifted and blueshifted systems in the EPAGN are more similar to each other than in a control sample, suggestive of a single ionizing source and inconsistent with the binary interpretation.

  3. Equal Opportunities for Women in Marine Sciences in Kiel: Activities and Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Women are still largely underrepresented in geosciences in general. Particularly at the level of professorships and permanent research staff positions this also applies to marine science institutions in Kiel, i.e. the research focus Kiel Marine Sciences at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Both institutions are closely collaborating, for instance in the frame of two major third-party funded collaborative projects: The Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean', funded within the German Excellence Initiative, and the Collaborative Research Centre 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' (SFB 754) financed through the German Research Foundation (DFG). Both funding schemes request for measures to increase the participation of female scientists in leading positions. As an innovative approach, The Future Ocean and SFB 754 jointly finance the position of a coordinator for gender measures who is based at the university's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family since 2012. This allows for the coordinated development and implementation of programmes to support female marine scientists, with a focus on the postdoctoral phase, and to offer a broader spectrum of activities to raise awareness of gender imbalance in the research community. The aim of this presentation is to give insight into activities and achievements, among them the mentoring programme via:mento_ocean for female postdocs in marine sciences. The programme via:mento_ocean has been acknowledged as a best practice instrument to support women scientists in a close disciplinary but international setting and was incorporated into the DFG's online toolbox of gender equality measures.

  4. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kusma, Bianca; Scutaru, Cristian; Quarcoo, David; Welte, Tobias; Fischer, Tanja C.; Groneberg-Kloft, Beatrix

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms. Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometric approach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters. PMID:19578464

  5. Daring to Marry: Marriage Equality Activism After Proposition 8 as Challenge to the Assimilationist/Radical Binary in Queer Studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    I analyze three case studies of marriage equality activism and marriage equality-based groups after the passage of Proposition 8 in California. Evaluating the JoinTheImpact protests of 2008, the LGBTQ rights group GetEQUAL, and the group One Struggle One Fight, I argue that these groups revise queer theoretical arguments about marriage equality activism as by definition assimilationist, homonormative, and single-issue. In contrast to such claims, the cases studied here provide a snapshot of heterogeneous, intersectional, and coalition-based social justice work in which creative methods of protest, including direct action and flash mobs, are deployed in militant ways for marriage rights and beyond. PMID:25848693

  6. Jarzynski matrix equality: Calculating the free-energy difference by nonequilibrium simulations with an arbitrary initial distribution.

    PubMed

    Wan, Biao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-04-01

    The Jarzynski equality (JE) method, which relates the work of a nonequilibrium process to the free-energy difference between its initial and final states, provides an efficient way to calculate free energies of thermodynamic systems in simulations or experiments. However, more extensive applications of the JE are hindered by the requirement that the initial state must be in equilibrium. In this work we extend the JE method to be the Jarzynski matrix equality (JME) method, which relates the work of trajectories connecting metastable conformational regions to their local free energies, and thus we can estimate the free energy from the nonequilibrium trajectories starting from an almost arbitrary initial distribution. We then apply the JME to toy models, Lennard-Jones fluids, and polymer chain models, demonstrating its efficiency in free-energy calculations with satisfactory accuracy. The JME extends the applicability of the nonequilibrium methods to complex systems whose initial equilibrium states are difficult to reach. PMID:27176433

  7. Jarzynski matrix equality: Calculating the free-energy difference by nonequilibrium simulations with an arbitrary initial distribution.

    PubMed

    Wan, Biao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-04-01

    The Jarzynski equality (JE) method, which relates the work of a nonequilibrium process to the free-energy difference between its initial and final states, provides an efficient way to calculate free energies of thermodynamic systems in simulations or experiments. However, more extensive applications of the JE are hindered by the requirement that the initial state must be in equilibrium. In this work we extend the JE method to be the Jarzynski matrix equality (JME) method, which relates the work of trajectories connecting metastable conformational regions to their local free energies, and thus we can estimate the free energy from the nonequilibrium trajectories starting from an almost arbitrary initial distribution. We then apply the JME to toy models, Lennard-Jones fluids, and polymer chain models, demonstrating its efficiency in free-energy calculations with satisfactory accuracy. The JME extends the applicability of the nonequilibrium methods to complex systems whose initial equilibrium states are difficult to reach.

  8. Jarzynski matrix equality: Calculating the free-energy difference by nonequilibrium simulations with an arbitrary initial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Biao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-04-01

    The Jarzynski equality (JE) method, which relates the work of a nonequilibrium process to the free-energy difference between its initial and final states, provides an efficient way to calculate free energies of thermodynamic systems in simulations or experiments. However, more extensive applications of the JE are hindered by the requirement that the initial state must be in equilibrium. In this work we extend the JE method to be the Jarzynski matrix equality (JME) method, which relates the work of trajectories connecting metastable conformational regions to their local free energies, and thus we can estimate the free energy from the nonequilibrium trajectories starting from an almost arbitrary initial distribution. We then apply the JME to toy models, Lennard-Jones fluids, and polymer chain models, demonstrating its efficiency in free-energy calculations with satisfactory accuracy. The JME extends the applicability of the nonequilibrium methods to complex systems whose initial equilibrium states are difficult to reach.

  9. 76 FR 623 - Proposed Information Collection (Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Report) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Federal financial assistance comply with the applicable civil rights law and regulations. DATES: Written... approved collection. Abstract: Executive Order 12250, Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws... agencies of various equal opportunity laws prohibiting discriminatory practices in Federal programs...

  10. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  11. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  12. From Absent to Active Voices: Securing Disability Equality within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp-Pryor, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the representation and participation of disabled students in the development of higher education policy and provision within the UK, at both a national and institutional level. Findings are drawn from a doctoral study, which identified the importance of student participation in securing equality and inclusion. Power…

  13. 24 CFR 5.109 - Equal Participation of Religious Organizations in HUD Programs and Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... program beneficiary or prospective program beneficiary on the basis of religion or religious belief. (g... December 12, 2002, 67 FR 77141, 3 CFR, 2002 Comp., p. 258), entitled “Equal Protection of the Laws for... the definition, practice, and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not engage...

  14. A novel active battery equalization control with on-line unhealthy cell detection and cell change decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2015-12-01

    Battery Equalization systems are necessary as cell imbalance can lead to poor performance and safety hazards. In this paper we present a novel active battery equalization control, based on the Shunt Transistor method, which is feasible for EV battery equalization. Unlike the actual Shunt Transistor control methods that can only operate at the end of the charging process, the proposed smart control is able to accomplish the equalization during both driving and charging EV operations (optimizing time and performance) with a high final efficiency. Balancing is not enough when battery aging manifests; therefore, health management is essential. By taking advantage of the proposed system, a novel on-line unhealthy cell detection and cell change decision function is implemented. The proposed health analysis can be performed during normal driving, without the need for numerous charging/discharging cycles, a considerable data set, or complex models or estimations. Simulation results and experimental validation, in a battery pack made up with three cells, first prove the correct equalization during driving (with a real driving profile) and charging/discharging operations, with high efficiency (over 95%); and secondly, validates the cell health analysis, obtaining a cell health map and detecting the unhealthy cell placed on purpose.

  15. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  16. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  17. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  18. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  19. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  20. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  1. Searching for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, James; Miller, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Offers an activity designed to illustrate the historical context of current legal questions relating to equal rights. The activity shows how the definition of equality has been expanded as a result of the continuous hard work of individuals and civil rights groups. (JDH)

  2. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  3. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  4. 180/sup 0/-correlated equal-energy photons from 5. 9-MeV/nucleon U + Th collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Danzmann, K.; Meyerhof, W.E.; Montenegro, E.C.; Xu, X.; Dillard, E.; Huelskotter, H.P.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.

    1987-10-26

    We have found a narrow line (intrinsic width less than or equal to2.5 keV) at 1062 +- 1 keV in the summed-energy 180/sup 0/-c.m.-correlated two-photon spectrum from 5.95-MeV/nucleon U+Th collisions. Including possible systematic uncertainties, the production cross section is found to be 50 +- 25 ..mu..b, averaged over the 1-mg/cm/sup 2/ Th target thickness. This line may belong to the decay of a neutral system which also produces correlated electron-positron pairs found by others in the same reaction.

  5. Neutron-photon multigroup cross sections for neutron energies less than or equal to400 MeV. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    For a variety of applications, e.g., accelerator shielding design, neutrons in radiotherapy, radiation damage studies, etc., it is necessary to carry out transport calculations involving medium-energy (greater than or equal to20 MeV) neutrons. A previous paper described neutron-photon multigroup cross sections in the ANISN format for neutrons from thermal to 400 MeV. In the present paper the cross-section data presented previously have been revised to make them agree with available experimental data. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  7. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  8. Energy density in small systems equal to the one in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paić, G.; Cuautle, E.

    2016-07-01

    The recent developments in the study of quark-gluon matter at high densities have shown that there are many similarities between the behavior of the observables in light and heavy systems, especially when the light systems are observed at high multiplicities. Contrary to what was previously thought, the small systems do exhibit collective effects that could indicate that small droplets of strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma are possible. The results infer that the energy densities can be computed in light systems in the same way as in heavy systems and hence, the energy density should be considered when comparing systems with different sizes. We review some of the aspects as well as the existing main models and the way to disentangle them using experimental data.

  9. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  10. Lateral distribution of high energy muons in EAS of sizes Ne approximately equals 10(5) and Ne approximately equals 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhutov, Y. N.; Ermakov, G. G.; Fomin, G. G.; Isaev, V. I.; Jarochkina, Z. V.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Khrenov, B. A.; Khristiansen, G. B.; Kulikov, G. V.; Motova, M. V.

    1985-01-01

    Muon energy spectra and muon lateral distribution in EAS were investigated with the underground magnetic spectrometer working as a part of the extensive air showers (EAS) array. For every registered muon the data on EAS are analyzed and the following EAS parameters are obtained, size N sub e, distance r from the shower axis to muon, age parameter s. The number of muons with energy over some threshold E associated to EAS of fixed parameters are measured, I sub reg. To obtain traditional characteristics, muon flux densities as a function of the distance r and muon energy E, muon lateral distribution and energy spectra are discussed for hadron-nucleus interaction model and composition of primary cosmic rays.

  11. Are There Numbers, Which Equal Their Logarithms? A Computer-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toumasis, Charalampos

    2006-01-01

    Problem solving and exploratory activities using technology as a tool continue to receive attention in recommendations for school mathematics. This article presents an experience in pre-college level type of teaching aiming at familiarizing students with the process of mathematical research. Students discovered a result based on a computer…

  12. Hearing loss from interrupted, intermittent, and time varying non-Gaussian noise exposure: The applicability of the equal energy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamernik, Roger P; Qiu, Wei; Davis, Bob

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen groups of chinchillas (N=140) were exposed to various equivalent energy noise paradigms at 100 dB(A) or 103 dB(A) SPL. Eleven groups received an interrupted, intermittent, and time varying (IITV) non-Gaussian exposure quantified by the kurtosis statistic. The IITV exposures, which lasted for 8 hday, 5 daysweek for 3 weeks, were designed to model some of the essential features of an industrial workweek. Five equivalent energy reference groups were exposed to either a Gaussian or non-Gaussian 5 days, 24 hday continuous noise. Evoked potentials were used to estimate hearing thresholds and surface preparations of the organ of Corti quantified the sensory cell population. For IITV exposures at an equivalent energy and kurtosis, the temporal variations in level did not alter trauma and in some cases the IITV exposures produced results similar to those found for the 5 day continuous exposures. Any increase in kurtosis at a fixed energy was accompanied by an increase in noise-induced trauma. These results suggest that the equal energy hypothesis is an acceptable approach to evaluating noise exposures for hearing conservation purposes provided that the kurtosis of the amplitude distribution is taken into consideration. Temporal variations in noise levels seem to have little effect on trauma. PMID:17902860

  13. Hyperspherical partial-wave theory applied to electron-hydrogen-atom ionization calculation for equal-energy-sharing kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.

    2003-04-01

    Hyperspherical partial-wave theory has been applied here in a new way in the calculation of the triple differential cross sections for the ionization of hydrogen atoms by electron impact at low energies for various equal-energy-sharing kinematic conditions. The agreement of the cross section results with the recent absolute measurements of [J. Roeder, M. Baertschy, and I. Bray, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2951 (2002)] and with the latest theoretical results of the ECS and CCC calculations [J. Roeder, M. Baertschy, and I. Bray, Phys. Rev. A (to be published)] for different kinematic conditions at 17.6 eV is very encouraging. The other calculated results, for relatively higher energies, are also generally satisfactory, particularly for large {theta}{sub ab} geometries. In view of the present results, together with the fact that it is capable of describing unequal-energy-sharing kinematics [J. N. Das, J. Phys. B 35, 1165 (2002)], it may be said that the hyperspherical partial-wave theory is quite appropriate for the description of ionization events of electron-hydrogen-type systems. It is also clear that the present approach in the implementation of the hyperspherical partial-wave theory is very appropriate.

  14. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  15. Effects of muscle action type with equal impulse of conditioning activity on postactivation potentiation.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of muscle action type during conditioning activity (half-squat) on subsequent vertical jump performance. Fourteen track and field athletes (relative half-squat of 2.3 ± 0.3 times their body weight) completed 4 main trials in a randomized and counterbalanced order 5-7 days apart: (a) concentric (CON) half-squats: 7.5 ± 1.2 repetitions against 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), (b) eccentric (ECC) half-squats: 9.3 ± 1.5 repetitions against 70% of 1RM, and (c) 3 sets of 3-second maximal isometric (ISO) half-squats, (d) a control (CTRL) trial, where subjects rested for 10 minutes. The number of repetitions in CON and ECC was adjusted so that the impulse of the vertical ground reaction force was similar to ISO. Countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance was evaluated for 21 minutes after each main trial. Countermovement vertical jump performance in ISO was higher than CTRL from the second to the 10th minute of recovery, whereas CMJ performance in ECC was higher than CTRL from the sixth and 10th minute of recovery. Analysis of the peak individual responses revealed an increase in CMJ performance compared with baseline only in ISO (3.0 ± 1.2%; p = 0.045), whereas no significant increases were observed in ECC and CON. Peak CMJ performance for all subjects in ISO and ECC was achieved within 2-10 minutes after the conditioning muscle actions. Isometric were more effective than CON and ECC muscle actions in increasing explosive leg performance when the impulse of the ground reaction force of the conditioning exercise was equated.

  16. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  17. Experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy final state electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek; Ozer, Zehra N.; Dogan, Mevlut; Yavuz, Murat; Varol, Onur; Madison, Don

    2016-09-01

    There have been several studies of electron-impact ionization of inert gases for asymmetric final state energy sharing and normally one electron has an energy significantly higher than the other. However, there have been relatively few studies examining equal energy final state electrons. Here we report experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy sharing of the outgoing electrons. Previous experimental results combined with some new measurements are compared with distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) results, DWBA results using the Ward-Macek (WM) approximation for the post collision interaction (PCI), and three-body distorted wave (3DW) which includes PCI without approximation. The results show that it is crucially important to include PCI in the calculation particularly for lower energies and that the WM approximation is valid only for high energies. The 3DW, on the other hand, is in reasonably good agreement with data down to fairly low energies.

  18. Experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy final state electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek; Ozer, Zehra N.; Dogan, Mevlut; Yavuz, Murat; Varol, Onur; Madison, Don

    2016-09-01

    There have been several studies of electron-impact ionization of inert gases for asymmetric final state energy sharing and normally one electron has an energy significantly higher than the other. However, there have been relatively few studies examining equal energy final state electrons. Here we report experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy sharing of the outgoing electrons. Previous experimental results combined with some new measurements are compared with distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) results, DWBA results using the Ward–Macek (WM) approximation for the post collision interaction (PCI), and three-body distorted wave (3DW) which includes PCI without approximation. The results show that it is crucially important to include PCI in the calculation particularly for lower energies and that the WM approximation is valid only for high energies. The 3DW, on the other hand, is in reasonably good agreement with data down to fairly low energies.

  19. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    PubMed

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  20. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  1. Electronegativity Equalization and Partial Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article elaborates the relationship between covalent radius, homonuclear bond energy, and electronegativity, and sets the background for bond energy calculation by discussing the nature of heteronuclear covalent bonding on the basis of electronegativity equalization and particle charge. (DT)

  2. EQUALS Investigations: Remote Rulers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Karen; Whitlow, Robert

    EQUALS is a teacher education program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. It supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics which has students working in groups, uses active assessment methods, and incorporates a broad mathematics curriculum…

  3. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  4. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z equals 5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  5. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  6. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  7. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  8. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  9. Forget about equality.

    PubMed

    Powers, Madison

    1996-06-01

    Justice is widely thought to consist in equality. For many theorists, the central question has been: Equality of what? The author argues that the ideal of equality distorts practical reasoning and has deeply counterintuitive implications. Moreover, an alternative view of distributive justice can give a better account of what egalitarians should care about than can any of the competing ideals of equality.

  10. Concurrent Supermassive Black Hole and Galazy Growth: Linking Environment and Nuclear Activity in Zeta Equals 2.23 H Alpha Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Lucy, A. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P. N.; Geach, J. E.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Sobral, D.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from an approximately equal 100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 structure at z = 2.23 (hereafter 2QZ Clus). 2QZ Clus was originally identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected QSOs at z = 2.23 within a 15 × 15 arcmin square region. Narrow-band imaging in the near-IR (within the K band) revealed that the structure contains an additional overdensity of 22 z = 2.23 H alpha-emitting galaxies (HAEs), resulting in 23 unique z = 2.23 HAEs/QSOs (22 within the Chandra field of view). Our Chandra observations reveal that three HAEs in addition to the four QSOs harbor powerfully accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with 2-10 keV luminosities of approximately equal (8-60) × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp-1) and X-ray spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a large comparison sample of 210 z = 2.23 HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), we find suggestive evidence that the AGN fraction increases with local HAE galaxy density. The 2QZ Clus HAEs reside in a moderately overdense environment (a factor of approximately equal 2 times over the field), and after excluding optically-selected QSOs, we find that the AGN fraction is a factor of approximately equal 3.5(+3.8/ -2.2) times higher than C-COSMOS HAEs in similar environments. Using stacking analyses of the Chandra data and Herschel SPIRE observations at 250micrometers, we respectively estimate mean SMBH accretion rates ( M(BH)) and star formation rates (SFRs) for the 2QZ Clus and C-COSMOS samples. We find that the mean 2QZ Clus HAE stacked X-ray luminosity is QSO-like (L(2-10 keV) approximately equal [6-10] × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1)), and the implied M(BH)/SFR approximately equal (1.6-3.2) × 10(exp -3) is broadly consistent with the local M(BH)/Stellar Mass relation and z approximately equal 2 X-ray selected AGN. In contrast, the C-COSMOS HAEs are on average an order of magnitude less X-ray luminous and have M(BH)/SFR approximately

  11. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  12. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH

  13. Few-particles generation channels in inelastic hadron-nuclear interactions at energy approximately equals 400 GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsomaya, P. V.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of the few-particles generation channels in interaction of hadrons with nuclei of CH2, Al, Cu and Pb at mean energy 400 GeV was investigated. The values of coherent production cross-sections beta coh at the investigated nuclei are given. A dependence of coherent and noncoherent events is investigated. The results are compared with the simulations on additive quark model (AQM).

  14. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  15. “Obese Equals Lazy?” Analysis of the Association between Weight Status and Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kreuser, F.; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K.; Gollhofer, A.; Korsten-Reck, U.; Röttger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Literature provides evidence that overweight children are more sedentary. To verify this generalized statement behavior patterns of overweight and nonoverweight children needs to be understood. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of sedentary and activity levels in a quantitative and qualitative way. Methods. Data was collected from 37 randomly selected nonoverweight and 55 overweight children. They were 8 to 11 years of age. Height and weight were measured and weight status was characterized by BMI (BMI-percentile, BMI-SDS). Daily PA (physical activity) was measured by direct accelerometry. Spare time and screen time entertainment were obtained by questionnaires. Results. The amount of time spent “passive” was significantly higher in overweight children, while nonoverweight children were more “active.” The multiple regression model shows a significant association between weight status (BMI-SDS) and activity parameters. Additionally, screen time entertainment was significantly related to BMI-SDS. Conclusion. The results support the statement that overweight children are less active than nonoverweight children. The high amount of PA seems to be an important factor to prevent overweight in children given that PA shows the highest correlation to weight status. Quantitative and qualitative measurements are needed for further analysis. PMID:23533723

  16. Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN GALAXIES AT z {approx_equal} 1.2 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Ideue, Y.; Nagao, T.; Sasaki, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Saito, T.; Murayama, T.; Trump, J. R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Sanders, D. B.; McCracken, H.; Mobasher, B.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the relation between the star formation activity in galaxies and environment at z {approx_equal} 1.2 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field, using the fraction of [O II] emitters and the local galaxy density. The fraction of [O II] emitters appears to be almost constant over the surface density of galaxies between 0.2 and 10 Mpc{sup -2}. This trend is different from that seen in the local universe where the star formation activity is weaker in higher density regions. To understand this difference between z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 0, we study the fraction of non-isolated galaxies as a function of local galaxy density. We find that the fraction of non-isolated galaxies increases with increasing density. Our results suggest that the star formation in galaxies at z {approx} 1 is triggered by galaxy interaction and/or mergers.

  18. Energy Activities for the Classroom: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Bowman, Mary Lynne

    This resource book contains descriptions of over 100 classroom activities designed to illustrate concepts relating to energy, its production, characteristics, use, and conservations. Each activity integrates the energy lesson into a concept that relates to one or more subject areas common to public school curricula. Many of the activities included…

  19. X-ray studies of structure defects in recycled aluminum alloy during equal channel angular extrusion: Dislocation density and stored energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, T.; Njah, N.

    2012-02-01

    A recycled aluminum alloy was severely deformed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) using the processing route Bc, to study the evolution of the micro structure and associated changes of mechanical properties. XRD patterns were analyzed to determine crystallite size, lattice strain and lattice parameter. As a result, ultrafine grains material has been obtained with microstructure showing a mixture of highly strained crystallites. High density of dislocations is achieved as a result of severe plastic deformation through the die. This can explain an important decrease of the lattice parameter observed after the first passage. Changes in mechanical behavior are also reveled after ECAE. This is due to strain hardening. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results show overlapped exothermic peaks indicating the succession of the recovery, recrystallization and grain growth phenomena's. Moreover, we demonstrate that the energy stored during ECAE can be related to the dislocation density introduced by severe plastic deformation.

  20. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  1. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  2. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  3. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  4. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  5. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  6. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  7. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  8. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  9. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  10. Happiness as Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Arline Sakuma

    1974-01-01

    A review of six monographs in the American Sociological Association Rose Monograph Series that examine attitudes toward self as they relate to the pervasiveness of American values concerning happiness and equality of opportunity. (EH)

  11. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  12. Channeling Children's Energy through Vocabulary Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares vocabulary development activities for young learners. These activities channel students' energy and make learning more effective and fun. The author stresses the importance of giving young learners a good language-learning experience, and the challenges of teaching young learners who are not literate in their L1.…

  13. Observations of proton spectra (1.0 less than or equal to proton energy less than or equal to 300 keV) and pitch angle distributions at the plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Fritz, T. A.; Konradi, A.

    1972-01-01

    Detailed proton spectral and pitch angle distribution observations were obtained from two proton detectors and a fluxgate magnetometer flown on Small Scientific Satellite A (Explorer 45). The data of interest are from orbit 99 in-bound occurring on 17 December 1971, some 8 hours prior to the sudden commencement of a magnetic storm. The data are consistent with the initiation of ion cyclotron instability when certain requirements are met. These criteria are met initially at the altitude at which the sudden intensity decrease occurs. However, after the initiation of the instability, the linear theory is unable to explain the further evolution of intensities, pitch angle distributions, and energy spectra of the ring current particles.

  14. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…

  15. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  16. Education and Economic Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1972-01-01

    Argues that the present reliance on education as the ultimate policy for curing all problems, economic and social, is unwarranted at best and in all probability, ineffective. Suggests that any time a consensus emerges on the need for more equality, it can be at least partly achieved by making a frontal attack on wage differentials. (RJ)

  17. Equality of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoyer, Jesse O.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central…

  18. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  19. Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    A consideration of the use of the phrase "equality of educational opportunity" and of the educational models used to attempt its implementation suggest the following recommendations. If education is to devise learning models that will maximize individual potential and aid in matching human abilities to the work required by societies, then (1) we…

  20. Defining Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ronald E.

    1977-01-01

    Defines equality of education in three areas: 1) by the degree of integration of school systems; 2) by a comparison of material resources and assets in education; and 3) by the effects of schooling as measured by the mean scores of groups on standardized tests. Available from: College of Education, 107 Quadrangle, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa…

  1. Equality Versus Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)

  2. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  3. THE ROLE OF GALAXY INTERACTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT z {approx_equal} 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Ideue, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Kajisawa, M.; Nagao, T.; Trump, J. R.; Iovino, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Fevre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand environmental effects on star formation in high-redshift galaxies, we investigate the physical relationships between the star formation activity, stellar mass, and environment for z {approx_equal} 1.2 galaxies in the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field. We estimate star formation using the [O II]{lambda}3727 emission line and environment from the local galaxy density. Our analysis shows that for massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }), the fraction of [O II] emitters in high-density environments ({Sigma}{sub 10th} {approx}> 3.9 Mpc{sup -2}) is 1.7 {+-} 0.4 times higher than in low-density environments ({Sigma}{sub 10th} {approx}< 1.5 Mpc{sup -2}), while the [O II] emitter fraction does not depend on environment for low-mass M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} galaxies. In order to understand what drives these trends, we investigate the role of companion galaxies in our sample. We find that the fraction of [O II] emitters in galaxies with companions is 2.4 {+-} 0.5 times as high as that in galaxies without companions at M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. In addition, massive galaxies are more likely to have companions in high-density environments. However, although the number of star-forming galaxies increases for massive galaxies with close companions and in dense environments, the average star formation rate of star-forming galaxies at a given mass is independent of environment and the presence/absence of a close companion. These results suggest that interactions and/or mergers in a high-density environment could induce star formation in massive galaxies at z {approx} 1.2, increasing the fraction of star-forming galaxies with M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }.

  4. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  5. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-01

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  6. The length-dependent activation of contraction is equally impaired in impuberal male and female rats in monocrotaline-induced right ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Lookin, Oleg; Balakin, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Daniil; Protsenko, Yuri

    2015-11-01

    The length-dependent activation of contraction is attenuated in the failing myocardium of adult male rats. This pathological change is not seen in adult female rats, possibly because of a protective effect of sex hormones. The present study evaluated length-dependent changes in isometric twitch, Ca(2+) transient (CaT) and action potential (AP) in the right ventricular myocardium of impuberal healthy male and female rats (control) and in rats treated with a single injection of 50 mg/kg monocrotaline (MCT). Compared with sex-matched control rats, MCT-treated male and female rats exhibited increased right ventricular weight (134% and 142% of control, respectively), decreased left ventricular weight (72% and 79%), twitch attenuation (48.8 ± 2.7% and 57.5 ± 1.2%) and prolongation (125 ± 3% and 127 ± 2%), CaT attenuation (37.8 ± 0.4% and 39.1 ± 1.1%) and prolongation (114 ± 1% and 116 ± 1%) and AP prolongation at 90% repolarization (195 ± 2% and 203 ± 1%). The MCT-treated male rats exhibited a 50% lower integral magnitude and an approximately 25% larger time-to-peak 'bump' compared with control male rats. These parameters in MCT-treated female rats tended to show similar changes to those seen in the control female rats, with no significant difference between the two groups. In all groups, integral magnitude and time-to-peak 'bump' increased with length. In conclusion, the length-dependent activation of contraction was equally blunted in the failing right ventricular myocardium of impuberal male and female rats. This was related to changes in CaT and AP, which were similar between male and female rats. Therefore, puberty is necessary for manifestation of the protective effects of sex hormones on this remodelling.

  7. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  8. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  9. Equality in Education: An Equality of Condition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Baker, John

    2005-01-01

    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of "equality of condition", we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition;…

  10. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  11. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  12. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  13. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  14. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  15. Equal area rule methods for ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, G.S.; Hanif, N.S.M.; Alvarado, J.F.J.; Hall, K.R.; Eubank, P.T.

    1995-12-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior of fluid mixtures is an important design consideration for both chemical processes and oil production. Eubank and Hall have recently shown the equal area rule (EAR) applies to the composition derivative of the Gibbs energy of a binary system at fixed pressure and temperature regardless of derivative continuity. A sufficient condition for equilibria, EAR is faster and simpler than either the familiar tangent-line method or the area method of Eubank et al. Here, the authors show that EAR can be extended to ternary systems exhibiting one, two, or three phases at equilibrium. A single directional vector is searched in composition space; at equilibrium, this vector is the familiar tie line. A sensitive criterion for equilibrium under EAR is equality of orthogonal derivatives such as ({partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}x{sub 1}){sub x{sub 2}P,T} at the end points ({alpha} and {beta}), where g {equivalent_to} ({Delta}{sub m}G/RT). Repeated use of the binary algorithm published in the first reference allows rapid, simple solution of ternary problems, even with hand-held calculations for cases where the background model is simple (e.g., activity coefficient models) and the derivative continuous.

  16. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND INFRARED LUMINOSITIES OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES FROM Herschel AND Spitzer

    SciTech Connect

    Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Armus, Lee; Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Bussmann, R. S. E-mail: bts@submm.caltech.edu E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: pope@astro.umass.edu E-mail: jannuzi@noao.edu

    2012-05-15

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z Almost-Equal-To 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} ). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10{sup 11.6} L{sub Sun} 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with 'power-law' SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 {mu}m flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar 'bump' in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 {mu}m flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC 6240. None show 250/24 {mu}m flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 {mu}m flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within {approx}25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 {mu}m luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 {mu}m luminosity (the IR8 = L{sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m)/{nu}L{sub {nu}}(8 {mu}m) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 'infrared main sequence' of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of

  17. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  18. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  19. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  20. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  1. NE-213-scintillator-based neutron detection system for diagnostic measurements of energy spectra for neutrons having energies greater than or equal to 0.8 MeV created during plasma operations at the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, J. K.; Hill, N. W.; Hou, F. S.; McConnell, J. W.; Spencer, R. R.; Tsang, F. Y.

    1985-08-01

    A system for making diagnostic measurements of the energy spectra of greater than or equal to 0.8-MeV neutrons produced during plasma operations of the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been fabricated and tested and is presently in operation in the TFTR Test Cell Basement. The system consists of two separate detectors, each made up of cells containing liquid NE-213 scintillator attached permanently to RCA-8850 photomultiplier tubes. Pulses obtained from each photomultiplier system are amplified and electronically analyzed to identify and separate those pulses due to neutron-induced events in the detector from those due to photon-induced events in the detector. Signals from each detector are routed to two separate Analog-to-Digital Converters, and the resulting digitized information, representing: (1) the raw neutron-spectrum data; and (2) the raw photon-spectrum data, are transmited to the CICADA data-acquisition computer system of the TFTR. Software programs have been installed on the CICADA system to analyze the raw data to provide moderate-resolution recreations of the energy spectrum of the neutron and photon fluences incident on the detector during the operation of the TFTR. A complete description of, as well as the operation of, the hardware and software is given in this report.

  2. NE-213-scintillator-based neutron detection system for diagnostic measurements of energy spectra for neutrons having energies greater than or equal to 0. 8 MeV created during plasma operations at the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.; Hill, N.W.; Hou, F.S.; McConnell, J.W.; Spencer, R.R.; Tsang, F.Y.

    1985-08-01

    A system for making diagnostic measurements of the energy spectra of greater than or equal to 0.8-MeV neutrons produced during plasma operations of the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been fabricated and tested and is presently in operation in the TFTR Test Cell Basement. The system consists of two separate detectors, each made up of cells containing liquid NE-213 scintillator attached permanently to RCA-8850 photomultiplier tubes. Pulses obtained from each photomultiplier system are amplified and electronically analyzed to identify and separate those pulses due to neutron-induced events in the detector from those due to photon-induced events in the detector. Signals from each detector are routed to two separate Analog-to-Digital Converters, and the resulting digitized information, representing: (1) the raw neutron-spectrum data; and (2) the raw photon-spectrum data, are transmited to the CICADA data-acquisition computer system of the TFTR. Software programs have been installed on the CICADA system to analyze the raw data to provide moderate-resolution recreations of the energy spectrum of the neutron and photon fluences incident on the detector during the operation of the TFTR. A complete description of, as well as the operation of, the hardware and software is given in this report.

  3. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  4. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  5. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  6. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  7. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  8. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  9. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  10. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  11. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-26 - Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal Opportunity. 52.222... Equal Opportunity. As prescribed in 22.810(e), insert the following clause: Equal Opportunity (MAR 2007... particular religion to perform work connected with the carrying on of the Contractor's activities (41 CFR...

  13. All Things Being Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putti, Alice

    2012-01-01

    This guided inquiry activity was developed to help students "view" an equilibrium system from the particulate level and make connections to their macroscopic observations. Part I helps students observe a physical equilibrium system in which water is transferred between two larger containers. In Part II, students examine what happens to a chemical…

  14. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  15. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. PMID:27196999

  16. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality.

  17. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  18. Democracy, Equal Citizenship, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Two appealing principles of educational distribution--equality and sufficiency--are comparatively assessed. The initial point of comparison is the distribution of civic educational goods. One reason to favor equality in educational distribution rather than sufficiency is the elimination of undeserved positional advantage in access to labor…

  19. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  20. Are all hands-on activities equally effective? Effect of using plastic models, organ dissections, and virtual dissections on student learning and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Sara A; Hicks, Reimi E; Thompson, Katerina V; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or plastic models). Each group received a 15-min lecture followed by a 45-min activity with one of the treatments. Immediately after the lesson and then 2 mo later, students were tested on anatomy and physiology knowledge and completed an attitude survey. Students who used plastic models achieved significantly higher overall scores on both the initial and followup exams than students who performed organ or virtual dissections. On the initial exam, students in the plastic model and organ dissection treatments scored higher on anatomy questions than students who performed virtual dissections. Students in the plastic model group scored higher than students who performed organ dissections on physiology questions. On the followup exam, when asked anatomy questions, students in the plastic model group scored higher than dissection students and virtual dissection students. On attitude surveys, organ dissections had higher perceived value and were requested for inclusion in curricula twice as often as any other activity. Students who performed organ dissections were more likely than the other treatment groups to agree with the statement that "science is fun," suggesting that organ dissections may promote positive attitudes toward science. The findings of this study provide evidence for the importance of multiple types of hands-on activities in anatomy laboratory courses.

  1. Are All Hands-On Activities Equally Effective? Effect of Using Plastic Models, Organ Dissections, and Virtual Dissections on Student Learning and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Sara A.; Hicks, Reimi E.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or…

  2. Public Schools and Equal Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses several steps necessary to obtaining equal educational opportunities. These include placing better teaching staffs in urban schools, providing extensive field work for student teachers interested in teaching minority children, reevaluating the current curriculum for occurrences of racism and devising extracurricular activities for…

  3. Three Utilities for the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2005-01-01

    We compare the activity of young children using a microworld and a JavaScript relational calculator with the literature on children using traditional calculators. We describe how the children constructed different meanings for the equal sign in each setting. It appears that the nature of the meaning constructed is highly dependent on specificities…

  4. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  5. Are all hands-on activities equally effective? Effect of using plastic models, organ dissections, and virtual dissections on student learning and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Sara A; Hicks, Reimi E; Thompson, Katerina V; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or plastic models). Each group received a 15-min lecture followed by a 45-min activity with one of the treatments. Immediately after the lesson and then 2 mo later, students were tested on anatomy and physiology knowledge and completed an attitude survey. Students who used plastic models achieved significantly higher overall scores on both the initial and followup exams than students who performed organ or virtual dissections. On the initial exam, students in the plastic model and organ dissection treatments scored higher on anatomy questions than students who performed virtual dissections. Students in the plastic model group scored higher than students who performed organ dissections on physiology questions. On the followup exam, when asked anatomy questions, students in the plastic model group scored higher than dissection students and virtual dissection students. On attitude surveys, organ dissections had higher perceived value and were requested for inclusion in curricula twice as often as any other activity. Students who performed organ dissections were more likely than the other treatment groups to agree with the statement that "science is fun," suggesting that organ dissections may promote positive attitudes toward science. The findings of this study provide evidence for the importance of multiple types of hands-on activities in anatomy laboratory courses. PMID:24585474

  6. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  7. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  8. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  9. Equal Education and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Hershel

    1970-01-01

    A number of court cases are cited which trace the development of various definitions and interpretations of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution as would be applicable to inadequate" schools. (DM)

  10. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  11. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Nancy Lloyd; Rothman, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the legal battleground upon which one struggle for the equality of women is being fought. Updates a civil rights decision of crucial importance to nursing--Lemons v City and County of Denver. (JOW)

  12. Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.

  13. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  14. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  15. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  16. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  17. Chemical trends in the activation energies of DX centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, O.; Kawai, H.; Mori, Y.; Kaneko, K.

    1984-12-01

    The activation energies of DX centers in AlGaAs doped with six different impurities (S, Se, Te, Si, Ge, and Sn) are measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Remarkable trends are established, in which the activation energies of DX centers with group IV impurities become shallower as the mass number of the impurity increases, while those with group VI impurities remain constant.

  18. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  19. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  20. Energy/IAQ: In Equal Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenette, Edward; Dion, Martine; Halm, Patrick; Ferzacca, Nick; Oldeman, Andy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing K-12 and college students with a high quality, comfortable educational environment that is conducive to learning, focusing on the range of spaces comprising a typical campus: general studies classrooms, larger spaces, special spaces (e.g., laboratories and museums), gymnasiums, natatoriums, and ice arenas. (SM)

  1. Equal Employment + Equal Pay = Multiple Problems for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot; Reback, Joyce E.

    1974-01-01

    Issues involved in government regulation of university employment practices are discussed: confidentiality of records, pregnancy as a disability, alleged discrimination in benefits, tests and other employment criteria, seniority and layoff, reverse discrimination, use of statistics for determination of discrimination, and the Equal Pay Act. (JT)

  2. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  3. rp Process and Masses of N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Schury, P.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Folden, C. M. III; Guenaut, C.; Kwan, E.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A.; Ringle, R.; Schatz, H.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.

    2009-04-03

    High-precision Penning-trap mass measurements of the N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 nuclides {sup 68}Se, {sup 70}Se, {sup 70m}Br, and {sup 71}Br were performed, reaching experimental uncertainties of 0.5-15 keV. The new and improved mass data together with theoretical Coulomb displacement energies were used as input for rp process network calculations. An increase in the effective lifetime of the waiting point nucleus {sup 68}Se was found, and more precise information was obtained on the luminosity during a type I x-ray burst along with the final elemental abundances after the burst.

  4. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  5. Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, M. C.

    1980-12-01

    Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects, and a list of projects having multiple utility participants. Project categories include solar heating and cooling of buildings, wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric power, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, process heat, and ocean energy conversion.

  6. Equal Time for Creationism? No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Gerald

    1983-01-01

    Legal decisions and other arguments support the argument that the exclusion of creationism from school curricula is not the result of censorship or bias. Equal-time legislation for creationism has the potential to entangle the state and religion and to make the task of teachers, textbook authors, and publishers nearly impossible. (PP)

  7. Higher Education and Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, John J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the Bakke case, in which the courts first encountered the question of legality of reverse discrimination, is explored; its constitutional significance is examined. It is concluded that the virtue of the decision is in its support of affirmative action and its equal protection implications. (MSE)

  8. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  9. The Road to Racial Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he was born in 1954, just four months after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision outlawed the "separate but equal" doctrine of school segregation. He discusses how that fact has shaped his life immeasurably. Beginning with entering the world in Tallahassee, Fla., where his father taught…

  10. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  11. Extending Understanding of Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Elisabeth T.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four strategies for teaching secondary students about equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. To be taught by the classroom teacher or a visiting lawyer, these strategies use such methods as a panel discussion and examination of Fourteenth Amendment court cases to accomplish their goals. (GEA)

  12. Promote Equality in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions to help physical educators treat all students equally and avoid unconsciously making inequitable gender-based statements and practicing other gender discrimination. Suggestions include encouraging girls to talk more, praising girls' performance and boys' appearance, using gender-neutral language, not stereotyping either sex,…

  13. Equalization among Florida School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Shiver, Lee

    1983-01-01

    This statistical analysis of funding equalization from 1970 to 1981 evaluates the distributional equity achieved by Florida's school finance plan and examines the relationship between selected per pupil revenue measures and variables thought to influence school district spending, concluding that greater equity has not been attained. (MJL)

  14. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  15. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA.

  16. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  17. Planning Human Resource Development through Equal Opportunities. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jill

    This handbook is intended for managers who wish to develop human resources in their organizations, particularly where women are currently underrepresented. It provides a positive model for the successful equal opportunities manager and a checklist of activities that will lead to the successful implementation of equal opportunities. The handbook…

  18. Jarzynski equality: connections to thermodynamics and the second law.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Benoit; Ronis, David

    2007-01-01

    The one-dimensional expanding ideal gas model is used to compute the exact nonequilibrium distribution function. The state of the system during the expansion is defined in terms of local thermodynamics quantities. The final equilibrium free energy, obtained a long time after the expansion, is compared against the free energy that appears in the Jarzynski equality. Within this model, where the Jarzynski equality holds rigorously, the free energy change that appears in the equality does not equal the actual free energy change of the system at any time of the process. More generally, the work bound that is obtained from the Jarzynski equality is an upper bound to the upper bound that is obtained from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The cancellation of the dissipative (nonequilibrium) terms that result in the Jarzynski equality is shown in the framework of response theory. This is used to show that the intuitive assumption that the Jarzynski work bound becomes equal to the average work done when the system evolves quasistatically is incorrect under some conditions. PMID:17358136

  19. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  20. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  1. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  2. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  3. Racial equity or racial equality.

    PubMed

    Daymont, T N

    1980-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between racial equity in labor market processes and racial equality in future labor market rewards. In particular, a regression standardization procedure is used to project the degree of racial inequality in earnings that would exist among men at various future points in time based on three different sets of assumptions about attainment processes in labor market and educational institutions. The most important results suggest that even if racial discrimination were eliminated immediately in labor market and educational institutions, it would take almost 50 years for the black-white earnings ratio to reach .95. This incompatibility between equity and equality needs to be considered more explicitly both by those who advocate a color-blind labor market and those who advocate preferential treatment for blacks.

  4. Equal opportunity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1992-04-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  5. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  6. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  7. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined.

  8. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  9. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  10. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  11. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  12. A comparison of energy expenditure estimates from the Actiheart and Actical physical activity monitors during low intensity activities, walking, and jogging.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew; Pappas, Evangelos

    2011-04-01

    Combining accelerometry with heart rate monitoring has been suggested to improve energy estimates, however, it remains unclear whether the single, currently existing commercially available device combining these data streams (Actiheart) provides improved energy estimates compared to simpler and less expensive accelerometry-only devices. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of the heart rate (HR), accelerometry (ACC), and combined ACC/HR estimates of the Actiheart to the ACC estimates of the Actical during low and moderate intensity activities. Twenty-seven participants (mean age 26.3 ± 7.3) wore an Actical, Actiheart and indirect calorimeter (K4b(2)) while performing card playing, sweeping, lifting weights, walking and jogging activities. All estimates tended to underestimate energy, sometimes by substantial amounts. Viewed across all activities studied, there was no significant difference in the ability of the waist-mounted Actical and torso-mounted Actiheart (ACC, HR, ACC/HR) estimates to predict energy expenditure. However, the Actiheart provided significantly better estimates than the Actical for the activities in which acceleration of the pelvis is not closely related to energy expenditure (card playing, sweeping, lifting weights) and the Actical provided significantly better estimates for level walking and level jogging. Similar to a previous study, the ACC component of the Actiheart was found to be the weakest predictor of energy suggesting it may be responsible for the failure of the combined ACC/HR estimate to equal or better the estimates derived solely from a waist mounted ACC device.

  13. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  14. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  15. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  16. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-01

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  17. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  18. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  19. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  20. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  1. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  2. Monitoring integrin activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Craig T; Hyun, Young-Min; Kim, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant integrin activation is associated with several immune pathologies. In leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), the absence or inability of β(2) integrins to undergo affinity upregulation contributes to recurrent infectious episodes and impaired wound healing, while excessive integrin activity leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage. Therefore, integrin activation is an attractive target for immunotherapies, and monitoring the effect of agents on integrin activation is necessary during preclinical drug development. The activation of integrins involves the structural rearrangement of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. Here, we describe methods for monitoring integrin conformational activation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

  3. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  4. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  5. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination. PMID:27044191

  6. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  7. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  8. A review of UK wind energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind power activities in Great Britain are reviewed, including a brief summary of historical windmill usage and details of developmental efforts in large and small wind turbines. An annual average resource of 5 m/sec at 10 m has been extrapolated to predict an 8-10 m/sec resource at the hub heights of large wind turbines. Initial estimates indicate that at least half of Great Britain's annual electricity consumption can be produced from windpowered generators. The potential of offshore large WECS siting is being examined, although the wind-derived electricity from those regions are projected to cost three times that of land-based operation. Recorded wind patterns with 12-48 hr. duration have indicated that at least 20% penetration into the national grid is acceptable. A test 250 kW machine is being built as a model for a 3.7 MW machine, both intended for installation at Orkney, Scotland. Additionally, construction has begun on a 25-m diameter, vertical axis, variable geometry Musgrove wind turbine. The straight-bladed machine will produce a maximum of 130 kW, and is a prototype of multi-MW offshore units.

  9. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  10. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  11. Gender equality and human rights.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This editorial introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This introduction notes that the lead article in the journal expresses optimism about potential progress towards achieving gender equity and human rights because 1) industrialized countries are undergoing a "powershift" to an information society that will offer more and better jobs for women and give women greater access to the power of information, 2) women's earnings have increased worldwide, 3) more and more women are organizing on their own behalf, and 4) a public discourse is being created that promotes the mainstreaming of women's rights and their equality. In addition, several of the UN's international treaties promote gender equality and women's human rights. Foremost among these are 1) the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; 2) the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights; 3) the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women; and 4) the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on women. Counteracting these positive steps is a trend towards defining identity and rights on the basis of community membership only, which ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral. Given the challenges ahead, the partnership model of society created by women when they have political power is more likely to result in sustainable solutions than the dominator model that men have forwarded for the past 6000 years.

  12. Research on Social Stability Mechanisms Based on Activation Energy and Gradual Activation Reaction Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Miao; Gu, Jifa

    This paper draws a comparison between social stability and chemical reaction process, and brings forward the concept of “social temperature” and “activation energy of social agent”. It is considered that social temperature turns out to be the macro symptom of social average energy, and its unceasing up-climbing roots in the energy accumulation of “inferiorization” process of social system; that “activation energy of social agent” stands for the social energy or temperature where individuals or groups reach the limit of their psychological bearing ability. This paper, basing on above concepts, elaborates on and demonstrates the gradual activation reaction mechanisms of social stability by a lot of concrete examples. It is thought that there is a threshold value for social stability, and the society will be unstable if social temperature goes higher than this value; that the larger the social average activation energy is, the higher the temperature threshold value of social stability will be; and considering that different groups have different activation energy, those fragile groups with low activation energy are often the risk source which might pose a threat to social stability.

  13. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  14. Optimal Time-Resource Allocation for Energy-Efficient Physical Activity Detection

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Gautam; Li, Ming; Lee, Sangwon; Emken, B. Adar; Annavaram, Murali; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Mitra, Urbashi

    2011-01-01

    The optimal allocation of samples for physical activity detection in a wireless body area network for health-monitoring is considered. The number of biometric samples collected at the mobile device fusion center, from both device-internal and external Bluetooth heterogeneous sensors, is optimized to minimize the transmission power for a fixed number of samples, and to meet a performance requirement defined using the probability of misclassification between multiple hypotheses. A filter-based feature selection method determines an optimal feature set for classification, and a correlated Gaussian model is considered. Using experimental data from overweight adolescent subjects, it is found that allocating a greater proportion of samples to sensors which better discriminate between certain activity levels can result in either a lower probability of error or energy-savings ranging from 18% to 22%, in comparison to equal allocation of samples. The current activity of the subjects and the performance requirements do not significantly affect the optimal allocation, but employing personalized models results in improved energy-efficiency. As the number of samples is an integer, an exhaustive search to determine the optimal allocation is typical, but computationally expensive. To this end, an alternate, continuous-valued vector optimization is derived which yields approximately optimal allocations and can be implemented on the mobile fusion center due to its significantly lower complexity. PMID:21796237

  15. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  16. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-29

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  17. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349

  18. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  19. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  20. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  1. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  2. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  3. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  4. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  5. Race equality and health service management: the professional interface.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Penny

    2007-04-01

    The Amicus/CPHVA Equalities Committee is working to educate and support the workforce on equity and diversity. There is a strong focus on the race equality agenda. A work pack has been developed to help members challenge racism in the work place. It can be argued that racism remains endemic within the NHS and within professional employment structures. Policy and strategic development has so far done little to challenge the situation. Practitioners must be accountable for challenging their own stance on race equality and must be active in supporting equity within the work place.

  6. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  7. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  8. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  9. A Fluorescent Reporter of AMPK activity and Cellular Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Peiling; Zheng, Bin; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the AMP/ATP ratio in cells is elevated due to energy stress. Here we describe a biosensor, AMPKAR, which exhibits enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in response to phosphorylation by AMPK, allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of AMPK activity in single cells. We show that this reporter responds to a variety of stimuli that are known to induce energy stress and that the response is dependent on AMPK α1 & α2 and on the upstream kinase, LKB1. Interestingly we found that AMPK activation is confined to the cytosol in response to energy stress but can be observed in both the cytosol and nucleus in response to calcium elevation. Finally, using this probe with U2OS cells in a microfluidics device, we observed a very high cell-to-cell variability in the amplitude and time course of AMPK activation and recovery in response to pulses of glucose deprivation. PMID:21459332

  10. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  11. On the energy conservation during the active deformation in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we examined the energy conservation for the current schemes of applying active deformation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Specifically, two methods are examined. One is scaling the dimension of the simulation box and the atom positions via an affine transformation, suitable for the periodic system. The other is moving the rigid walls that interact with the atoms in the system, suitable for the non-periodic system. Based on the calculation of the external work and the internal energy change, we present that the atom velocities also need to be updated in the first deformation method; otherwise the energy conservation cannot be satisfied. The classic updating scheme is examined, in which any atom crossing the periodic boundary experiences a velocity delta that is equal to the velocity difference between the opposite boundaries. In addition, a new scheme which scales the velocities of all the atoms according to the strain increment is proposed, which is more efficient and realistic than the classic scheme. It is also demonstrated that the Virial stress instead of its interaction part is the correct stress definition that corresponds to Cauchy stress in the continuum mechanics.

  12. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  13. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities since 1986. (76 FR 55278) The NOPR reflected a need.... ] DATES: DOE will continue to accept written comments on the SNOPR published August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46829... a second opportunity to comment. (78 FR 46829) II. Second Public Meeting A public meeting on...

  14. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  16. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  17. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  18. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  19. Citizenship, Leisure and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between gender, citizenship and leisure activities for youth. The purpose with the article is to describe, explore and discuss whether meeting places for youth such as youth clubs support their citizenship. Based on a case study of young people place, space and activities are explored and discussed from a…

  20. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  1. Thermodynamic derivation of the activation energy for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  2. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  3. Gandhigram: fostering equality through development.

    PubMed

    Devi, R K

    1991-12-01

    A noticeable trend towards 1-child families reveals the success of Gandhigram, an integrated rural development program in Tamil Nadu, India. Founded in 1947 by T.S. Soundram, Gandhigram has adhered to Gandhian principles of truth, nonviolence, castlessness, and equality between the sexes. The program has combined health and family planning with social welfare, education, and economic development. From the outset, Gandhigram has sought community participation, including the involvement of women. Girls have been encouraged to attend school up to at least the 10th level, and employment opportunities for women have been increased. Women's increased economic independence and level of education have influenced their decision to delay marriage by about 2 1/2 years, to choose their own partners, and to decide on the number of children they want. And increasingly, women are opting to limit family size to 2 -- and sometimes 1 -- child. Women are choosing to undergo tubectomies at a younger age, partly because of the availability of recanalization surgery, which has allowed mothers who have lost a child to conceive again. Unlike typical government family planning programs, which usually provide only contraception to meet the objective of a small family norm, Gandhigram also offers infertility services. Not all of Gandhigram's efforts have resulted in success. For example, a plan to develop a health insurance program did not succeed. However, Gandhigram's 44 years of experience have revealed the necessary elements for success. These elements include community participation, the participation of women through educational and employment programs, and easy access to services. PMID:12317116

  4. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  5. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  6. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  7. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  8. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  9. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  10. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  11. Impurity-to-band activation energy in phosphorus doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, I.; Pinault-Thaury, M.-A.; Kociniewski, T.; Lusson, A.; Chikoidze, E.; Jomard, F.; Dumont, Y.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.

    2013-08-01

    The value of the impurity-to-band activation energy EA of a dopant is a basic feature of the electrical conductivity of semiconductors. Various techniques were used to determine EA in n-type diamond doped with phosphorus, giving values of EA varying from 0.43 eV to 0.63 eV, the value EA of 0.6 eV being commonly accepted for the ionization energy of phosphorus donors in diamond. Nevertheless, up to now, the dispersion of the experimental values of EA remains unexplained. In this work, we investigate the electrical properties of a set of n-type diamond homoepitaxial films with different phosphorus concentrations by Hall effect measurements in order to deduce EA and to understand the evolution of this energy with the dopant concentration. We show that, below 2 × 1019 cm-3 phosphorus, the decrease of EA is mainly controlled by the concentration of ionized defects resulting from the donor compensation. The role of ionized defects in the decrease of EA is analyzed on the basis of existing models adapted to the case of diamond. The proposed model provides a correct description of the experimental data. It can be used to quantitatively predict the activation energy of phosphorus in n-type diamond for given donor and compensating acceptor concentrations.

  12. Magnetic helicity and free energy in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, K.; Georgoulis, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Archontis, V.

    2013-09-01

    We study the evolution of the non-potential free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in solar active regions (ARs). For this we use a time-series of a three-dimensional, synthetic AR produced by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. As a first step, we calculate the potential magnetic field that has the same normal components with the MHD field along all boundaries of the AR, by solving Laplace's equation. The free magnetic energy of the AR is then easily derived. From the two fields, MHD and potential one, we calculate the corresponding vector potentials with a recently proposed integration method. The knowledge of both fields and their respective vector potentials throughout the AR, allows us to estimate the relative magnetic helicity budget of the AR. Following this procedure for each snapshot of the AR, we reconstruct the evolution of free energy and helicity in the AR. Our method reproduces, for a synthetic AR, the energy/helicity relations known to hold in real active regions.

  13. Constructions of equality and discrimination in professional men's talk.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sarah C E

    2002-09-01

    The contradiction between support for egalitarian employment practices and the maintenance of occupational androcentrism was examined by discursively analysing constructions of equality and discrimination from 46 interviews with professional men. Accounts of equality were produced through the interpretative repertories of 'interchangeability', 'individual ability' and 'pragmatism'. This enables, first, an understanding of discrimination as 'non-individualism', a term used to describe the treatment of social group memberships as salient, and second, defined interventions based on a structural analysis of equality as discrimination. These repertoires minimized the gendered nature of men and women's experiences and negated the use of context in favour of an abstract principle of individualism. Participants warranted their accounts through feminist arguments, two-sided argument formulations, and the construction of a dichotomy between individualist-equality and structuralist-discrimination-supporting the material practice of 'affirmative non-action', the active support of non-action. Relating the findings to equal opportunity policy, occupational cultural analyses and the discursive production of 'new sexism', the article identifies the absence of an account that conceptualizes both individual and structural facets of equality. PMID:12419012

  14. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games (p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  15. On the Periodicity of Energy Release in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldvarg, T. B.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Solov'Ev, A. A.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the periodic regimes of energy release on the Sun, namely, the recurrence of solar flares in active regions using the Solar Geophysical Data Journal on Hα flares from 1979 until 1981, which corresponds to the maximum of solar cycle 21. We obtained the following series of periods in the manifestation of flare activity bymeans of a correlation periodogram analysis, a self-similarity function, and a wavelet analysis: ˜1, 2, 3 h as well as ˜0.4, 1, 2, 5 days. We suggest a diffusive model for the quasi-periodic transfer of toroidal magnetic fields from under the photosphere to interpret the retrieved sequence of periods in the enhancement of flare activity. We estimated the typical spatial scales of the magnetic field variations in the solar convection zone: ˜17 000 km.

  16. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  17. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  18. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  19. Energy expenditure, physical activity, and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Goran, M I; Treuth, M S

    2001-08-01

    Although there are physiologic and genetic influences on the various components of energy metabolism and body weight regulation, and a major portion of individual differences in body weight can be explained by genetic differences, it seems unlikely that the increased global prevalence of obesity has been driven by a dramatic change in the gene pool. It is more likely and more reasonable that acute changes in behavior and environment have contributed to the rapid increase in obesity and that genetic factors may be important in the deferring individual susceptibilities to these changes. The most striking behavioral changes that have occurred have been an increased reliance on high-fat and energy-dense "fast foods," with larger portion sizes, coupled with an ever-increasing sedentary lifestyle. The more sedentary lifestyle is caused by an increased reliance on technology and labor-saving devices, which has reduced the need for physical exertion for everyday activities. Examples of energy-saving devices that have resulted in a secular decline in physical activity include: Increased use of automated transport rather than walking or biking Central heating and use of automated equipment, such as washing machines, in the household. Reduction in physical activity in the workplace because of computers, automated equipment, and electronic mail. Increased use of television and computers for entertainment and leisure activities. Use of elevators and escalators rather than stairs. Increased concern for crime, which has reduced the likelihood of outdoor playing. Poor urban planning that does not provide adequate biking paths or even sidewalks in some communities. Thus, the increasing prevalence, numerous health risks, and astounding economic costs of obesity clearly justify widespread efforts toward prevention efforts. These prevention efforts should begin in childhood because the behaviors are learned and continue through the lifetime.

  20. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  1. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  2. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  3. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  4. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  6. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  7. Equal Cell Size and Nonorthogonality in ANCOVA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llabre, Maria M.; Ware, William B.

    1980-01-01

    Computer programs for analysis of covariance use classical experimental, regression, or hierarchical methods of least squares. In a 3 X 3 factorial experiment with equal cell frequencies, three solutions yielded different sums of squares for main effects although correlation between variables was negligible and cell frequencies were equal.…

  8. Continuing Controversy in Equal Employment Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Carl W.; Robles, Martin J.

    1980-01-01

    Some current controversies in the growing body of equal employment law are examined: wage comparability in the context of sex discrimination; procedural sections of the laws and related litigation; class actions by the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission; the scope of litigation; and the criteria for conferring standing on the plaintiff.…

  9. Equal Opportunity in the Air Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Wade S.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that the Affirmative Action Plan of the Air Force is built on the premise that equal opportunity and treatment is everyone's responsibility. Unit Commanders, on-the-job training monitors, recreation centers directors, and others are involved in specific facets of the Plan to insure equality. (Author/AM)

  10. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  11. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  12. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  13. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  15. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  16. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  17. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  18. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  19. Individuality, Equality, and Creative Democracy--The Task before Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Education is ubiquitous and inevitable; schooling is an institutionalized activity usually confined to designated times and places. Public schooling is subject to public regulation and control, presumably for the common good. The author contends that true democratic education seeks educational equality as a way to educate individuals capable of…

  20. Targeting Energy Metabolic and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Triple-negative Breast Cancer by a Novel Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activator*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, En-Chi; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor activities of the novel adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, OSU-53, were assessed in in vitro and in vivo models of triple-negative breast cancer. OSU-53 directly stimulated recombinant AMPK kinase activity (EC50, 0.3 μm) and inhibited the viability and clonogenic growth of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells with equal potency (IC50, 5 and 2 μm, respectively) despite lack of LKB1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Nonmalignant MCF-10A cells, however, were unaffected. Beyond AMPK-mediated effects on mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and lipogenesis, OSU-53 also targeted multiple AMPK downstream pathways. Among these, the protein phosphatase 2A-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt is noteworthy because it circumvents the feedback activation of Akt that results from mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition. OSU-53 also modulated energy homeostasis by suppressing fatty acid biosynthesis and shifting the metabolism to oxidation by up-regulating the expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and the transcription factor nuclear respiratory factor 1. Moreover, OSU-53 suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production, thereby blocking subsequent Stat3 activation, and inhibited hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in association with the silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a and the E-cadherin repressor Snail. In MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice, daily oral administration of OSU-53 (50 and 100 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth by 47–49% and modulated relevant intratumoral biomarkers of drug activity. However, OSU-53 also induced protective autophagy that attenuated its antiproliferative potency. Accordingly, cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine increased the in vivo tumor-suppressive activity of OSU-53. OSU-53 is a potent, orally bioavailable AMPK activator that acts through a broad spectrum of antitumor activities. PMID

  1. The Energy Challenge: An Activity Master Program About our Energy Past, Present, and Future for Grades 5 Through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents 24 spirit duplicating activity masters and background materials for energy education in grades 5 through 8. These interdisciplinary materials are arranged in 6 units. Unit titles are: (1) Energy Overview; (2) Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas; (3) Energy Resources for Today and Tomorrow; (4) Energy Conservation;…

  2. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  3. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  4. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  5. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  6. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  7. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  8. Equality Assurance: Self-Assessment for Equal Opportunities in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella, Comp.

    This manual is intended as a tool kit for further education (FE) colleges to use to develop their own approaches to equal opportunities policy development and implementation. The following topics are discussed in the eight sections: the manual's development; the case for equality; things an equal opportunities policy should cover; strategic and…

  9. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  10. Jarzynski equality for quantum stochastic maps.

    PubMed

    Rastegin, Alexey E; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Jarzynski equality and related fluctuation theorems can be formulated for various setups. Such an equality was recently derived for nonunitary quantum evolutions described by unital quantum operations, i.e., for completely positive, trace-preserving maps, which preserve the maximally mixed state. We analyze here a more general case of arbitrary quantum operations on finite systems and derive the corresponding form of the Jarzynski equality. It contains a correction term due to nonunitality of the quantum map. Bounds for the relative size of this correction term are established and they are applied for exemplary systems subjected to quantum channels acting on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  11. Jarzynski equality for quantum stochastic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Jarzynski equality and related fluctuation theorems can be formulated for various setups. Such an equality was recently derived for nonunitary quantum evolutions described by unital quantum operations, i.e., for completely positive, trace-preserving maps, which preserve the maximally mixed state. We analyze here a more general case of arbitrary quantum operations on finite systems and derive the corresponding form of the Jarzynski equality. It contains a correction term due to nonunitality of the quantum map. Bounds for the relative size of this correction term are established and they are applied for exemplary systems subjected to quantum channels acting on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  12. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  13. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  14. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  15. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  16. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  17. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  18. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  19. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  20. Publicly Supported, Universally Available Education and Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    It was once thought that publicly supported, universally available education would produce socioeconomic equality. Family inheritance--financial, cultural, social--explains much of its failure to do so. (Author)

  1. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe pressure regardless of the length of the train. Cross Reference: Rocker, see § 236.755....

  2. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  3. The Equality Act 2010 and mental health.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Graeme; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-03-01

    One aim of the Equality Act 2010 is to protect people with disabilities and prevent disability discrimination. We review the key provisions of the Act relevant to disability discrimination with respect to mental illness.

  4. Summary of the second equal opportunity conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Reports and recommendations are included for: Hispanic Employment Program; Federal Women's Program; Equal Employment Opportunity Program; complaint processing workshop; Affirmative Actions Program Workshop; EEO programs in the Office of Personnel Management; and an overall evaluation of the program. (PSB)

  5. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchon, Carles Navarro; Sun, Peng; Guo, Qinghua; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with turbo-equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation-propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator-decoder to the equalizer and computes messages returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach leads to a significant performance improvement compared to state-of-the-art turbo-equalizers and allows for trading performance with complexity. We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to significantly reduce the complexity of the PGA compared to that considered in the initial paper proposing the method.

  6. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called "blazars". The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future "Cherenkov Telescope Array", in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  7. Impacts of vigorous and non-vigorous activity on daily energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2003-08-01

    Activity intensity is a potential determinant of activity-induced energy expenditure. Tri-axial accelerometery is the most objective measurement technique for the assessment of activity intensity, in combination with doubly-labelled water for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. Data on the effects of subject characteristics, including body size and age, and exercise training on the relationship between activity intensity and daily energy expenditure are reviewed. Average daily metabolic rate and non-basal energy expenditure are positively related to body size. The duration and intensity of physical activities do not need to be equivalent to the energy spent on activity. Obese subjects spend more energy on physical activity but can perform fewer activities, especially high-intensity (weight-bearing) activities, because of their higher body weight. Physical activity generally declines gradually from about 60 years of age onwards. Most subjects > 80 years have an activity level well below the level defined for sedentary middle-aged adults. Spending relatively more time on low-intensity activities has a negative effect on the mean physical activity level. To obtain a higher physical activity level does not necessarily imply high-intensity activities. In an average subject 25% of the activity-induced energy expenditure may be attributed to high-intensity activities. Exercise training, as a form of high-intensity activity, affects the physical activity level more in younger subjects than in elderly subjects.

  8. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  9. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  11. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  14. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  15. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms.

  16. Activation Energy for Grain Growth in Aluminum Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Ferreira, J L; Hayes, J P

    2004-10-14

    To produce a specific grain size in metallic coatings requires precise control of the time at temperature during the deposition process. Aluminum coatings are deposited using electron-beam evaporation onto heated substrate surfaces. The grain size of the coating is determined upon examination of the microstructure in plan view and cross-section. Ideal grain growth is observed over the entire experimental range of temperature examined from 413 to 843 K. A transition in the activation energy for grain growth from 0.7 to 3.8 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} is observed as the temperature increases from <526 K to >588 K. The transition is indicative of the dominant mechanism for grain growth shifting with increasing temperature from grain boundary to lattice diffusion.

  17. An assessment of selected solar energy industry activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessner, J. D.

    1980-11-01

    The past, present, and near-term conditions of four industries based on solar energy technologies are examined-solar heating; photovoltaics; concentrating solar collectors for process heat and electric power applications; and passive components such as skylights and greenhouses. The report identifies key, unresolved issues for government policies intended to influence future solar industrial development; assesses the past and current federal role in these industries; and draws tentative conclusions about how government policies have affected their evolution. This evolution is compared to the evolution of typical, innovation-based industries. For each of the four solar industries researched, the collected data are discussed as follows: characteristics of sales; the government role; investment strategies and R & D activities; near-term trends; and comparisons with other industries.

  18. The MAPK cascade in equally cleaving spiralian embryos.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

    2003-11-15

    Spiralian development is shared by several protostome phyla and characterized by regularities in early cleavage, fate map, and larva. Experimental evidence from multiple spiralian species implicates cells in the D quadrant lineage as the organizer of future axial development of the embryo. However, the mechanisms by which the D quadrant is specified differ between species with equal and unequal spiral cleavage. Equally cleaving mollusc embryos establish the D quadrant via cell-cell interactions between the micromeres and macromeres at the 24- to 36-cell stage. In unequally cleaving embryos, the D quadrant is established at the 4-cell stage via asymmetries in the first 2 cell divisions. We have begun to explore the molecular mechanisms of D quadrant patterning in spiralians. Previously, we showed that, in the unequally cleaving embryo of the mollusc Ilyanassa obsoleta, the MAPK pathway is activated and functionally required in 3D and also in the micromeres known to require a signal from 3D. Here, we examine the role of MAPK signaling in 4 spiralians with equal cleavage. In 3 equally cleaving molluscs, the chiton Chaetopleura, the limpet Tectura, and the snail Lymnaea, the MAPK pathway is activated in the 3D cell but not in the overlying micromeres. In the equally cleaving embryo of the polychaete annelid Hydroides, MAPK activation was not detected in the 3D macromere but was observed in one of its daughter cells, 4d. In addition, inhibiting Tectura MAPK activation disrupts differentiation of 3D and cells induced by it, supporting a functional role for MAPK in axis specification in equally cleaving spiralians. Thus, MAPK signaling may have a conserved role in the D quadrant organizer cell 3D in molluscs. However, there have been at least 2 evolutionary changes in the activation of the MAPK pathway during spiralian evolution. MAPK function in the Ilyanassa micromeres is a recent cooption and, since the divergence of annelids and molluscs, there has been a shift in

  19. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  20. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  1. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  2. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  3. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  4. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  5. Energy Crisis. Teaching Resources. A Special Publication Suggesting School Activities Which Stress Individual Responsibility Towards Energy Crisis Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Wendell; And Others

    This handbook provides public school teachers and administrators of Oregon with teaching ideas and information about the energy crisis. Suggested activities are intended to inform students (kindergarten through community college) about their responsibility toward the energy crisis and to motivate energy conservation. The handbook is divided into…

  6. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles. PMID:25184988

  7. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    centers are adequately separated by the linking molecules and constitute promising candiates for heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in synthesis, characterization, and catalytic performance of metal-organic networks are highlighted in this Account. Experimental results like structure determination of the networks, charge and spin distribution in the metal centers, and catalytic mechanisms for electrochemical reactions are presented. In particular, we describe the activity of two networks for the oxygen reduction reaction in a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical study. The similarities and differences of the networks compared to metallo-enzymes will be discussed, such as the metal surface that operates as a geometric template and concomitantly functions as an electron reservoir, and how this leads to a new class of bioinspired catalysts. The possibility to create functional two-dimensional coordination complexes at surfaces taking inspiration from nature opens up a new route for the design of potent nanocatalyst materials for energy conversion.

  8. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  9. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  10. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-01

    Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3), 70% (15.3 ± 3.5) and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.05, respectively), PA(3.1 ± 0.8 and 1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 and 2.4 ± 0.4; p < 0.05) and RQ (0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.85 ± 0.5; vs. 0.95 ± 0.03 and 0.91 ± 0.05 p < 0.05). In contrast, both light (7.1 ± 1.4) and dark period (6.2 ± 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 ± 0.9 and 2.5 ± 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE

  11. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  12. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  13. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  14. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  15. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  16. Pterostilbene Is Equally Potent as Resveratrol in Inhibiting 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate Activated NFkappaB, AP-1, COX-2 and iNOS in Mouse Epidermis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes, has been reported to inhibit multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Recent studies showed that topically applied resveratrol significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) induced by tumor promoter...

  17. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four multidisciplinary activities for grades seven through twelve are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I helps students understand energy and the current crisis by studying laws which govern energy flow and using examples of how these laws illustrate stable energy utilization…

  18. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  19. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  20. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  1. Conserve & Renew. An Energy Education Activity Package for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourtillot, Leeann

    This teaching guide contains a collection of energy education activities written and organized so that they might be used either as a unit on energy, or as individual activities to complement existing curricula in grades 4-6. The focus in on conservation and renewables. Most of 23 activities are designed as cooperative learning experiences and are…

  2. Equal Opportunity and Racial Differences in IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph F.; Holland, Cynthia R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered an intelligence test to blacks and whites in 2 studies involving 254 community college students and 2 more studies involving 115 community college students. Results show that differences in knowledge between blacks and whites for items on an intelligence test, the meanings of words, can be eliminated when equal opportunities for…

  3. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  4. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  5. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... ladies'' in the ``new code of laws'' of our fledgling country. It has taken the collective efforts of... Constitution. Standing on the shoulders of these trailblazers, we pay tribute to the brave women who dot the... remains committed to advancing women's equality in all areas of our society and around the world. I...

  6. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  7. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  8. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  9. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  10. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  11. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  12. Equality by Default: Women in Dual Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ena

    1978-01-01

    The struggle for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the American Constitution is one of the most controversial issues of this era. Discusses the changing role of women amidst a fast-changing society, the styles of those opposing the women's revolution, the debate over women as persons, women in dual roles, and the implications of ERA for the world…

  13. Hawkins' Swan Song: Equalize Funding Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Representative Augustus Hawkins, outgoing chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Education and Labor, stunned state governments and the education community in January by introducing a bill requiring each state to certify that its public education funds are or will be equalized by 1996, contingent on federal funding redistribution penalties. (MLH)

  14. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  15. The Path to Equal Rights in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The litigant in a historic reverse-discrimination case against the University of Michigan, and subsequently the leader of a Michigan ballot initiative that carried the day against long odds, recounts how her simple call for equal treatment under the law persuaded the people of her state that color-conscious preferences are wrong.

  16. Equal Educational Opportunity for Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary

    Puerto Ricans as a group are more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than any other ethnic minority. This marginalization is partly due to the educational system's discriminatory practices which deprive the vast majority of Puerto Rican children of equal educational opportunities. The educational problems of Puerto Ricans stem…

  17. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  18. Transversal filter for parabolic phase equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Larry R. (Inventor); Waugh, Geoffrey S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An equalizer (10) for removing parabolic phase distortion from an analog signal (3), utilizing a pair of series connected transversal filters. The parabolic phase distortion is cancelled by generating an inverse parabolic approximation using a sinusoidal phase control filter (18). The signal (3) is then passed through an amplitude control filter (21) to remove magnitude ripple components.

  19. When Equal Masses Don't Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these…

  20. Equalizing Multi-School Curriculum by Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etowah County Board of Education, Gadsden, AL.

    A three year project aimed at providing equal educational opportunity for all students in the seven high schools of Etowah County, Alabama by implementing a county-wide curriculum using a flexible, rotating schedule, audio-graphic network, instructional television, a learning center, and individualized instruction. The report rates the project as…

  1. An American Perspective on Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles; Perkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court ushered in a new era in American history on May 17, 1954 in its monumental ruling in "Brown v Board of Education," Topeka, Kansas. "Brown" is not only the Court's most significant decision on race and equal educational opportunities, but also ranks among the most important cases it has ever decided. In "Brown" a…

  2. The Circle and Sphere as Great Equalizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1991-01-01

    From the equality of the ratios of the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and its circumscribed cylinder, the exploration of theorems relating the ratios of surface areas and volumes of a sphere and other circumscribed solids in three dimensions, and analogous questions relating two-dimensional concepts of perimeter and area is recounted. (MDH)

  3. How the Equality Act affects you.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Wendy

    This article examines what the Equality Act 2010 covers and how it affects nurses and healthcare organisations. It outlines the main groups the act sets out to protect and the protection it offers, and describes how this law differs from previous legislation.

  4. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that literacy is of…

  5. An Equal Employment Opportunity Sensitivity Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Thomas H., Jr.; Dorey, Lester E.

    1972-01-01

    The equal employment opportunity sensitivity workshop seems to be a useful training device for getting an organization started on developing black and white change agents. A report on the establishment of such a workshop at the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM). Includes charts of design, characteristics, analysis of results, program…

  6. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  7. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  8. The Equal Access Act: Recent Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines court decisions which led to the passage of the Equal Access Act of 1984. Although the act was designed to clarify the issue over the legality of permitting religious clubs to meet on school property, it may have created more confusion. Concludes that the Supreme Court may have to decide the issue. (SLM)

  9. Position Paper: NO equals x Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Thomas R.; Shy, Carl M.

    1972-01-01

    Doubts about the accuracy of measured concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in ambient air have led the Environmental Protection Agency to reassess both the analytical technique and the extent to which nitrogen oxides (NO equals x) control will need to satisfy federal laws. (BL)

  10. Precise Phase Comparator for Nearly Equal Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Adams, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    New circuit precisely compares phases of two RF signals nearly equal in frequency, such as two hydrogen-maser frequency standards. Measuring circuit minimizes interactions between two sources. Also stabilized against thermal effects and against noise that could produce erroneous readings. Heat sinking, buffer amplifiers, and low-noise zero-crossing detector make picosecond precision possible.

  11. Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu.

    PubMed

    Kim, HoKwon; Mattevi, Cecilia; Calvo, M Reyes; Oberg, Jenny C; Artiglia, Luca; Agnoli, Stefano; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F; Chhowalla, Manish; Saiz, Eduardo

    2012-04-24

    The synthesis of wafer-scale single crystal graphene remains a challenge toward the utilization of its intrinsic properties in electronics. Until now, the large-area chemical vapor deposition of graphene has yielded a polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries are detrimental to its electrical properties. Here, we study the physicochemical mechanisms underlying the nucleation and growth kinetics of graphene on copper, providing new insights necessary for the engineering synthesis of wafer-scale single crystals. Graphene arises from the crystallization of a supersaturated fraction of carbon-adatom species, and its nucleation density is the result of competition between the mobility of the carbon-adatom species and their desorption rate. As the energetics of these phenomena varies with temperature, the nucleation activation energies can span over a wide range (1-3 eV) leading to a rational prediction of the individual nuclei size and density distribution. The growth-limiting step was found to be the attachment of carbon-adatom species to the graphene edges, which was independent of the Cu crystalline orientation.

  12. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  13. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  14. Spectral Energy Distribution Models for Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) represent the bulk of the AGN population in the present-day universe and they trace the low-level accreting supermassive black holes. In order to probe the accretion and jet physical properties in LLAGNs as a class, we model the broadband radio to X-rays spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 21 LLAGNs in low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) with a coupled accretion-jet model. The accretion flow is modeled as an inner ADAF outside of which there is a truncated standard thin disk. We find that the radio emission is severely underpredicted by ADAF models and is explained by the relativistic jet. The origin of the X-ray radiation in most sources can be explained by three distinct scenarios: the X-rays can be dominated by emission from the ADAF, or the jet, or the X-rays can arise from a jet-ADAF combination in which both components contribute to the emission with similar importance. For 3 objects both the jet and ADAF fit equally well the X-ray spectrum and can be the dominant source of X-rays whereas for 11 LLAGNs a jet-dominated model accounts better than the ADAF-dominated model for the data. The individual and average SED models that we computed can be useful for different studies of the nuclear emission of LLAGNs. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine powering LLAGNs in LINERs, such as the mass accretion rate and the mass-loss rate in the jet and the jet power - relevant for studies of the kinetic feedback from jets.

  15. Evaluating Faculty Performance Under the Equal Pay for Equal Work Doctrine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzan, Bert Carl; Hunt, Thomas Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Faculty promotion and salary policies at the University of Texas at Austin are analyzed to determine whether male and female faculty members are rewarded equally for equal academic qualifications and performances. This regression analysis tends to support the discrimination hypothesis with respect to both promotion and salary policies. (Author/LBH)

  16. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A. S.; Cagle, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  17. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  18. Tuning active Brownian motion with shot-noise energy pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ebeling, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to explore the possibility of modeling the biological energy support mediated by absorption of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as an energetic shot noise. We develop a general model with discrete input of energy pulses and study shot-noise-driven ratchets. We consider these ratchets as prototypes of Brownian motors driven by energy-rich ATP molecules. Our model is a stochastic machine able to acquire energy from the environment and convert it into kinetic energy of motion. We present characteristic features and demonstrate the possibility of tuning these motors by adapting the mean frequency of the discrete energy inputs, which are described as a special shot noise. In particular, the effect of stochastically driven directionality and uphill flux in systems acquiring energy from the shot noise is analyzed. As a possible application we consider the motion of kinesin on a microtubule under a constant load force.

  19. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  20. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  1. THE LIMIT OF MAGNETIC-SHEAR ENERGY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-05-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  2. Gender equality and well-being of rural women.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, N

    1996-01-01

    Social, cultural, and religious attitudes have led to the development of discriminatory laws and/or practices which prevent women from participating as equal members of society. Rural women in poor households therefore have enormous workloads and responsibilities with little to no control over resources and decision making. The ability of poor women to provide for their families is significantly affected by such limited and declining resources. The author presents cases from Krishna Rakshit Chak and Kalsigeriya villages to describe how gender-equality affects poverty and well-being, and the related policy implications. The author acknowledges that government organizations support programs to improve poor women's accessibility to credit, land, water, and technology. She stresses, however, that considerable investment and clean implementation are crucial to social sector activities such as health care, child care, family planning, and literacy.

  3. Perceptions of power equality among drug-using women.

    PubMed

    Fenaughty, Andrea M

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the associations between perceptions of the power equality in a current sexual relationship and each of several alternative indicators of power in a sample of drug-using women. Using targeted sampling, 262 women were recruited from the streets of Anchorage, Alaska. A battery of face-to-face questionnaires was administered to adult women who gave evidence of recent drug use (track marks or positive urinalysis) and had been recently sexually active. Perceived power equality was associated with physical, verbal, and sexual abuse, self-efficacy, sexual communication, and income for main partners, and the trade of sex and traditionalism of her views on home and family for casual partners. These findings suggest that power is a complex, multifaceted construct, and that type of relationship must be considered when trying to understand the meaning of power within drug-using women's lives. Implications for risk behavior interventions are discussed.

  4. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  5. New equal-area map projections for noncircular regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, John P.

    1988-01-01

    A series of new equal-area map projections has been devised. Called Oblated Equal-Area, its lines of constant distortion follow approximately oval or rectangular paths instead of the circles of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection or the straight lines of the Cylindrical Equal-Area projection. The projection series permits design of equal-area maps of oblong regions with less overall distortion of shape and scale than equal-area maps on other projections.

  6. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst`s task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  7. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  8. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  9. When equal masses don't balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these applications the analysis does not require calculus, so the ideas are accessible even to first-year students.

  10. Employing trapped cold ions to verify the quantum Jarzynski equality.

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerhard; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Deffner, Sebastian; Lutz, Eric

    2008-08-15

    We propose a scheme to investigate the nonequilibrium work distribution of a quantum particle under well controlled transformations of the external potential, exploiting the versatility of a single ion in a segmented linear Paul trap. We describe in detail how the motional quantum state of a single ion can be prepared, manipulated, and finally readout to fully determine the free energy difference in both harmonic and anharmonic potentials. Uniquely to our system, we show how an ion may be immersed in an engineered laser-field reservoir. Trapped ions therefore represent an ideal tool for investigating the Jarzynski equality in open and closed quantum systems.

  11. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  12. SDWFS-MT-1: A SELF-OBSCURED LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA AT z {approx_equal} 0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Thompson, T. A.; Assef, R. J.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Prieto, J. L.; Drake, A. J.; Harrison, F.; Madsen, K.; Wozniak, P. R.; Nugent, P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Beshore, E.; Larson, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.

    2010-10-20

    We report the discovery of a 6 month long mid-infrared transient, SDWFS-MT-1 (aka SN 2007va), in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. The transient, located in a z = 0.19 low-luminosity (M{sub [4.5]} {approx_equal} -18.6 mag, L/L{sub *} {approx_equal} 0.01) metal-poor (12 + log(O/H) {approx_equal} 7.8) irregular galaxy, peaked at a mid-infrared absolute magnitude of M{sub [4.5]} {approx_equal} -24.2 in the 4.5 {mu}m Spitzer/IRAC band and emitted a total energy of at least 10{sup 51} erg. The optical emission was likely fainter than the mid-infrared, although our constraints on the optical emission are poor because the transient peaked when the source was 'behind' the Sun. The Spitzer data are consistent with emission by a modified blackbody with a temperature of {approx}1350 K. We rule out a number of scenarios for the origin of the transient such as a Galactic star, active galactic nucleus activity, {gamma}-ray burst, tidal disruption of a star by a black hole, and gravitational lensing. The most plausible scenario is a supernova (SN) exploding inside a massive, optically thick circumstellar medium, composed of multiple shells of previously ejected material. If the proposed scenario is correct, then a significant fraction ({approx}10%) of the most luminous SN may be self-enshrouded by dust not only before but also after the SN occurs. The spectral energy distribution of the progenitor of such an SN would be a slightly cooler version of {eta} Carinae peaking at 20-30 {mu}m.

  13. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  14. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water's tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water's fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte's concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water's fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  15. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  16. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  17. Kinetic energy budgets during the life cycle of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic-scale data at three- and six-hour intervals are employed to study the relationship between changing kinetic energy variables and the life cycles of two severe squall lines. The kinetic energy budgets indicate a high degree of kinetic energy generation, especially pronounced near the jet-stream level. Energy losses in the storm environment are due to the transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion; large-scale upward vertical motion carries aloft the kinetic energy generated by storm activity at lower levels. In general, the time of maximum storm intensity is also the time of maximum energy conversion and transport.

  18. Geographic Information Systems in Support of Wind Energy Activities at NREL: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D. M.; Haymes, S. R.

    2001-09-18

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to further the development of wind energy resources in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program and its Wind Powering America Initiative. Some of the elements of NREL's GIS data used in wind energy activities include wind measurement sites, transmission lines, federal facility information, and modeled wind resources. More complex GIS analyses can define relationships among the mapped wind energy resources, potential energy load characterization, and utility integration problems. A GIS is an outstanding tool for wind energy activities because data can be readily updated and the results of the GIS analyses can be expressed as charts, tables, and maps. These outputs are in digital formats that allow the results of GIS analyses to be quickly and efficiently distributed to the wind energy industry.

  19. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  20. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  1. Caffeine Intake, Short Bouts of Physical Activity, and Energy Expenditure: A Double-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Júdice, Pedro B.; Matias, Catarina N.; Santos, Diana A.; Magalhães, João P.; Hamilton, Marc T.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2013-01-01

    PA energy expenditure (PAEE) is the most variable component of Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and largely due to the balance of sedentary time (SedT) and low intensity physical activity (LIPA). There has been an emergence for seeking an understanding of factors which determine variations in SedT, LIPA, and PAEE. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are relatively resistant to change by experimental dietary treatments and significant body weight changes. Although caffeine (Caf) is by far the most heavily used nutritional agent ingested to promote a sense of vigor/alertness, it is still unknown if Caf is effective in increasing PAEE and physical activity. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that 2 daily doses of Caf (as a capsule to blind the treatment and divided equally during breakfast and lunch) increase PAEE and TEE, and it would do so through increasing the frequent and brief bouts of physical activity (~1-5 min long) through the day as measured by accelerometry. In 21 low Caf users (<100 mg day-1), we used a double-blind crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.govID;NCT01477294) with two conditions (4-day each with a 3-day washout period) randomly ordered as 5 mg kg-1 day-1 of Caf and maltodextrin as placebo (Plc). Resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure (TEE) from doubly labeled water, PAEE calculated as TEE-(REE+0.1TEE), and accelerometry measurements of both LIPA and MVPA were not different between conditions. However, regardless of caffeine or placebo, there were several significant relationships between brief bouts of LIPA and MVPA with PAEE. In conclusion, this double-blind study found that low and moderate-vigorous activity as well as the total volume of PAEE in free-living conditions is resistant to dietary caffeine intake that was equivalent to 5 cups of espresso or 7 cups of tea. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01477294 PMID:23869233

  2. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  3. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  4. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Science component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also contained in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE…

  5. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Introduction for the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681),…

  6. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics…

  7. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Industrial Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  8. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  9. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  10. Language and Creative Arts. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    Intended for teachers of grades 6 through 12 who wish to incorporate information on energy and energy conservation into drama, poetry, literature, or research instruction, this guide offers lesson plans to educate elementary or secondary students about energy through class activities. An introduction explains the need for such instruction, and…

  11. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  12. Logistic distributed activation energy model--Part 1: Derivation and numerical parametric study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Jin, Chuan; Yang, Songyuan; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new distributed activation energy model is presented using the logistic distribution to mathematically represent the pyrolysis kinetics of complex solid fuels. A numerical parametric study of the logistic distributed activation energy model is conducted to evaluate the influences of the model parameters on the numerical results of the model. The parameters studied include the heating rate, reaction order, frequency factor, mean of the logistic activation energy distribution, standard deviation of the logistic activation energy distribution. The parametric study addresses the dependence on the forms of the calculated α-T and dα/dT-T curves (α: reaction conversion, T: temperature). The study results would be very helpful to the application of the logistic distributed activation energy model, which is the main subject of the next part of this series.

  13. Concept of variable activation energy and its validity in nonisothermal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guanglei; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Zhongsuo

    2011-06-01

    The concept of variable activation energy in solid-state kinetics under nonisothermal conditions has been suffering from doubt and controversy. Rate equations of nonisothermal kinetics of solid decomposition, which involve the factors of thermodynamics conditions, pressure of gaseous product, structure parameters of solid, and/or extent of conversion, are derived from the models of the interface reaction, the diffusion of gaseous product, and the nuclei growth of the solid product, respectively. The definition of the validity function in the rate equations represents the influence of the factors on the reaction rate. A function of variable activation energy depending on the validity function is also developed. The changing trend and degree of activation energy are extrapolated from the function of variable activation energy and based on the data of nonisothermal thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. It is shown that the concept of variable activation energy is meaningfully applicable to solid-state reactions under nonisothermal conditions.

  14. Enhanced parasympathetic activity of sportive women is paradoxically associated to enhanced resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Vicidomini, C; Viggiano, An; Tafuri, D; Cozza, V; Cibelli, G; Devastato, A; De Luca, B; Monda, M

    2012-08-16

    The resting energy expenditure and the adaptation of the autonomic nervous system induced by sport activities in sedentary women and in female professional basketball players have been studied. Resting energy expenditure, body composition and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in resting energy expenditure and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that resting energy expenditure is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure.

  15. Local structure of equality constrained NLP problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, J.

    1994-12-31

    We show that locally around a feasible point, the behavior of an equality constrained nonlinear program is described by the gradient and the Hessian of the Lagrangian on the tangent subspace. In particular this holds true for reduced gradient approaches. Applying the same ideas to the control of nonlinear ODE:s, one can device first and second order methods that can be applied also to stiff problems. We finally describe an application of these ideas to the optimization of the production of human growth factor by fed-batch fermentation.

  16. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  17. Mergers of equals: understanding the dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rovner, J

    1997-06-01

    The current wave of mergers in the healthcare field is marked by demands from staff that their organizations not lose autonomy--and one way leaders are getting agreements signed is to assert that each merging group will be treated as equal in power. But such mergers, says consultant Stephen L. Ummel, can lead to "inertia, indecisiveness and confusion". Leaders of three healthcare systems--Partners in Boston, BJC in St. Louis and Lifespan in Rhode Island--cite four major lessons that others planning mergers should take to heart.

  18. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linda; Block, Gladys; Mandel, Shelly

    2004-01-01

    Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. PMID:15169563

  19. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  20. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  1. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  2. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  3. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  4. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  5. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  6. Spearman's g and the Problem of Educational Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes approach to equal education that seeks equality of outcome as well as equality of opportunity. Discusses Spearman's theory of g that attempts to explain individual differences in intelligence. Contrasts efforts at genuinely reducing equality of outcome, including Aptitude X Treatment Interaction, Mastery Learning, and Thinking Skills…

  7. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access equipment. 36.191 Section 36.191... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Telecommunications Property Equal Access Equipment § 36.191 Equal access equipment. (a) Equal access investment includes only initial...

  8. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  9. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  10. How Much Energy Can Be Stored in Solar Active Region Magnetic Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Torok, T.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Major solar eruptions such as X-class flares and very fast coronal mass ejections usually originate in active regions on the Sun. The energy that powers these events is believed to be stored as free magnetic energy (energy above the potential field state) prior to eruption. While coronal magnetic fields are not in general force-free, active regions have very strong magnetic fields and at low coronal heights the plasma beta is therefore very small, making the field (in equilibrium) essentially force-free. The Aly-Sturrock theorem shows that the energy of a fully force-free field cannot exceed the energy of the so-called open field. If the theorem holds, this places an upper limit on the amount of free energy that can be stored: the maximum free energy (MFE) is the difference between the open field energy and the potential field energy of the active region. In thermodynamic MHD simulations of a major eruption (the July 14, 2000 'Bastille' day event) and a modest event (February 13, 2009, we have found that the MFE indeed bounds the energy stored prior to eruption. We compute the MFE for major eruptive events in cycles 23 and 24 to investigate the maximum amount of energy that can be stored in solar active regions.Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  11. Marginal instability threshold condition of the aperiodic ordinary mode in equal-mass plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-10-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability for counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distribution functions has recently received renewed attention due to its importance for the solar wind plasma. Here, the analytical marginal instability condition is derived for magnetized plasmas consisting of equal-mass charged particles, distributed in counter-streams with equal temperatures. The equal-mass composition assumption enormously facilitates the theoretical analysis due to the equality of the values of the electron and positron (positive and negative ion) plasma and gyrofrequencies. The existence of a new instability domain of the O-mode at small plasma beta values is confirmed, when the parallel counter-stream free energy exceeds the perpendicular bi-Maxwellian free energy.

  12. Race and Equality in the Academy: Rethinking Higher Education Actors and the Struggle for Equality in the Post-World War II Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Philo; Gasman, Marybeth; Sanders-McMurtry, Kijua

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on three separate historical case studies in the 1940s and 1950s in order to challenge common assumptions about who has been active, and when, in the struggle for racial equality in U.S. higher education. Although scholars have traditionally argued that the late 1950s represent the beginning of the activities and naming of the…

  13. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  14. Evolution of equal division among unequal partners.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of human fairness is its insensitivity to power: although strong individuals are often in a position to coerce weak individuals, fairness requires them to share the benefits of cooperation equally. The existence of such egalitarianism is poorly explained by current evolutionary models. We present a model based on cooperation and partner choice that can account for the emergence of a psychological disposition toward fairness, whatever the balance of power between the cooperative partners. We model the evolution of the division of a benefit in an interaction similar to an ultimatum game, in a population made up of individuals of variable strength. The model shows that strong individuals will not receive any advantage from their strength, instead having to share the benefits of cooperation equally with weak individuals at the evolutionary equilibrium, a result that is robust to variations in population size and the proportion of weak individuals. We discuss how this model suggests an explanation for why egalitarian behaviors toward everyone, including the weak, should be more likely to evolve in humans than in any other species.

  15. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  16. Research Status on Equalization of Public Sports Service for Nationwide Fitness in Hebei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ruixue; Su, lina

    Public physical service equalization is a general term of all kinds of sports activity and service which are provided for satisfying the public demand of public sports. It has become social focus that how to meet the people's needs in all aspects based on "people-oriented" and make public sports service equal access to everyone. This article proposed several ways to ensure all citizens' equal right to share national fitness public sports service though research of equal access to public sports fitness in Hebei province, like changing and strengthening the public service function of sports departments, establishing the basic contents and service standards of public sports fitness, coordination of urban and rural and regional public sports fitness service development, strengthening the construction of sports organizations and perfecting specific operation mechanism. It needs processes to realize the target of public sports service equalization gradually.

  17. Light wave transmission through free space using atmospheric laser links with adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Gamal A.; Mohamed, Abd El-Naser A.; Oraby, Osama A.; Hassan, Emad S.; Eldokany, Ibrahim M.; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of adaptive equalization in the design of atmospheric laser link transceiver architectures that can be used for television and broadcast signal interconnect between the external place of event and the master control room is suggested. At the transmitter side of the proposed transceiver; an array of atmospheric laser sources, digital signal processing, and optical radiators are used to send light waves in free space. At the receiver side, an adaptive finite impulse response least mean square (LMS) equalizer with activity detection guidance (ADG) and tap decoupling (TD) is used to mitigate the effect of channel impairments. The performance of the suggested adaptive equalizer is compared with that of the conventional adaptive equalizer based only on the standard LMS algorithm. The simulation results revealed that the adaptive LMS equalizer with ADG and TD is a promising solution for the inter-symbol interference problem in optical wireless communication systems.

  18. A primer on equalization, decoding and non-iterative joint equalization and decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myburgh, Hermanus C.; Olivier, Jan C.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, a general model for non-iterative joint equalization and decoding is systematically derived for use in systems transmitting convolutionally encoded BPSK-modulated information through a multipath channel, with and without interleaving. Optimal equalization and decoding are discussed first, by presenting the maximum likelihood sequence estimation and maximum a posteriori probability algorithms and relating them to equalization in single-carrier channels with memory, and to the decoding of convolutional codes. The non-iterative joint equalizer/decoder (NI-JED) is then derived for the case where no interleaver is used, as well as for the case when block interleavers of varying depths are used, and complexity analyses are performed in each case. Simulation results are performed to compare the performance of the NI-JED to that of a conventional turbo equalizer (CTE), and it is shown that the NI-JED outperforms the CTE, although at much higher computational cost. This article serves to explain the state-of-the-art to students and professionals in the field of wireless communication systems, presenting these fundamental topics clearly and concisely.

  19. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  20. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  1. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  2. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  3. Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

  4. Verification of energy's role as a determinant of US economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    A series of single-equation dynamic regression models are constructed to test the hypotheses that both ''thermodynamic'' and economic-efficiency (t-efficiency and e-efficiency, respectively) configurations of lagged energy variables are statistically informative separately and jointly about subsequent changes in real gross national product (GNP) per capita and in unemployment rate. Separately, t-efficiency is based on quantity of energy used per unit of GNP, while e-efficiency is based on real price of tested energy variables. Used jointly, the two measure real energy cost per unit of real GNP. Tested subperiods are within the 1890-1985 period. Macroeconomic activity is found to be much less informative about energy variables that are energy variables about macroeconomic activity. One-way tests are conducted in which the informativeness of major e-efficiency (wholesale price) variables and budget-share variables about subsequent macroeconomic activity are compared to the informativeness of the e-efficiency energy variable and the combined e- and t-efficiencies energy variable respectively. The energy variables are found to represent the only major category of expenditure whose statistical tests for informativeness about subsequent macroeconomic activity result in coefficient signs that consistently imply a statistically significant negative effect on subsequent macroeconomic activity in the full 1890-1985 period. 64 refs., 14 tabs.

  5. Influence of intense physical activity on energy balance and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Doucet, E

    1999-02-01

    The reduced contribution of physical activity to daily energy expenditure and the accessibility to high-fat foods have put an excessive burden on energy balance, resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world. In this context, fat gain can be seen as a natural adaptation to deal with a fattening lifestyle, since the hormonal adaptations that accompany fat gain favour the readjustment of energy expenditure to energy intake. Intense physical activity would also seem to facilitate the regulation of energy balance, since it increases the energy cost of exercise, increases post-exercise energy expenditure and the potential of skeletal muscles to utilize lipids, and also favours a decrease in post-exercise intake. Moreover, the effects of intense exercise seem to be mediated by an activation of sympathetic nervous system activity that seems to be specific to skeletal muscle. It is also important to manipulate macronutrient composition in order to reduce fat intake, because unhealthy food habits can favour overfeeding and thus overcome the energy deficit caused by regular physical activity. Under free-living conditions, the combination of vigorous activity and healthy food practices can amount to a substantial weight loss which is comparable with that of other non-surgical approaches to treat obesity.

  6. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  7. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  8. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  9. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are LWLSG, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and LΦ, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 RSun central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size LΦ of the active region, (2) in (Log LWLSG, Log LΦ) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active-region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: áBñ ≡ ΦA ≈ 300 G, where Φ is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (< 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division, NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences, and AFOSR's MURI Program.

  10. Public hospital care: equal for all or equal for some? Evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Hanson, Kara; Solon, Orville

    2015-03-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, government budgets are rarely sufficient to cover a public hospital's operating costs. Shortfalls are typically financed through a combination of health insurance contributions and user charges. The mixed nature of this financing arrangement potentially creates financial incentives to treat patients with equal health need unequally. Using data from the Philippines, the authors analyzed whether doctors respond to such incentives. After controlling for a patient's condition, they found that patients using insurance, paying more for hospital accommodation, and being treated in externally monitored hospitals were likely to receive more care. This highlights the worrying possibility that public hospital patients with equal health needs are not always equally treated.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  13. A Distributed Activation Energy Model of Thermodynamically Inhibited Nucleation and Growth Reactions and its Application to the beta-delta Phase Transition of HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Weeks, B L

    2004-06-18

    Detailed and global models are presented for thermodynamically inhibited nucleation-growth reactions and applied to the {beta}-{delta} Phase Transition of HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). The detailed model contains separate kinetic parameters for the nucleation process, including an activation energy distribution resulting from a distribution of defect energies, and for movement of the resulting reaction interface within a single particle. A thermodynamic inhibition term is added to both processes so that the rates go to zero at the transition temperature. The global model adds the thermodynamic inhibition term to the extended Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth formalism for single particles or powders. Model parameters are calibrated from differential scanning calorimetry data. The activation energy for nucleation (333 kJ/mol) is substantially higher than that for growth (29.3 kJ/mol). Use of a small activation energy distribution ({approx}400 J/mol) for the defects improves the fit to a powered sample for both the early and late stages of the transition. The effective overall activation energy for the global model (208.8 kJ/mol) is in between that of nucleation and growth. Comparison of the two models with experiment indicates the thermodynamic inhibition term is more important than the energy distribution feature for this transition. Based on the applicability of the Prout-Tompkins kinetics approach to a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, both models should have equally broad applicability for thermodynamically constrained reactions.

  14. A Distributed Activation Energy Model of Thermodynamically Inhibited Nucleation and Growth Reactions and its Application to the Phase Transition of HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Weeks, B L

    2004-07-20

    Detailed and global models are presented for thermodynamically inhibited nucleation-growth reactions and applied to the {beta}-{delta} Phase Transition of HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). The detailed model contains separate kinetic parameters for the nucleation process, including an activation energy distribution resulting from a distribution of defect energies, and for movement of the resulting reaction interface within a single particle. A thermodynamic inhibition term is added to both processes so that the rates go to zero at the transition temperature. The global model adds the thermodynamic inhibition term to the extended Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth formalism for single particles or powders. Model parameters are calibrated from differential scanning calorimetry data. The activation energy for nucleation (333 kJ/mol) is substantially higher than that for growth (29.3 kJ/mol). Use of a small activation energy distribution ({approx}400 J/mol) for the defects improves the fit to a powered sample for both the early and late stages of the transition. The effective overall activation energy for the global model (208.8 kJ/mol) is in between that of nucleation and growth. Comparison of the two models with experiment indicates the thermodynamic inhibition term is more important than the energy distribution feature for this transition. Based on the applicability of the Prout-Tompkins kinetics approach to a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, both models should have equally broad applicability for thermodynamically constrained reactions.

  15. Calculation of activation energies for hydrogen-atom abstractions by radicals containing carbon triple bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Laufer, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Activation energies are calculated by the bond-energy-bond-order (BEBO) and the bond-strength-bond-length (BSBL) methods for the reactions of C2H radicals with H2, CH4, and C2H6 and for the reactions of CN radicals with H2 and CH4. The BSBL technique accurately predicts the activation energies for these reactions while the BEBO method yields energies averaging 9 kcal higher than those observed. A possible reason for the disagreement is considered.

  16. Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-05-27

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  17. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  18. Acoustical numerology and lucky equal temperaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald E.

    1988-04-01

    Equally tempered musical scales with N steps per octave are known to work especially well in approximating justly tuned intervals for such values as N=12, 19, 31, and 53. A quantitative measure of the closeness of such fits is suggested, in terms of the probabilities of coming as close to randomly chosen intervals as to the justly tuned targets. When two or more harmonic intervals are considered simultaneously, this involves a Monte Carlo evaluation of the probabilities. The results can be used to gauge how much advantage the special values of N mentioned above have over others. This article presents the rationale and method of computation, together with illustrative results in a few of the most interesting cases. References are provided to help relate these results to earlier works by music theorists.

  19. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Michele; Del Savio, Lorenzo; Stupka, Elia

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. Rather than a complete outline of the debate, we single out those theories that rest on the principle of equality of opportunity and analyze the consequences of DOHaD and epigenetics for these particular conceptions of justice. We argue that DOHaD and epigenetics reshape the conceptual distinction between natural and acquired traits on which these theories rely and might provide important policy tools to tackle unjust distributions of health. PMID:23864907

  20. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  1. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  2. 20 CFR 667.275 - What are a recipient's obligations to ensure nondiscrimination and equal opportunity, and what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... opportunity provisions of WIA section 188 and its implementing regulations, codified at 29 CFR part 37. Under... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity, and what are a recipient's obligations with respect to religious activities... and equal opportunity, and what are a recipient's obligations with respect to religious activities?...

  3. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  4. 78 FR 46829 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., Russia, and Canada having emerged to serve customers in these emerging markets. DOE believes the..., 2011, DOE issued a NOPR to propose the updating of part 810 (76 FR 55278). The NOPR listed destinations... activities subject to part 810. 48 FR 2518 (Feb. 4, 1983); 40 FR 44846 (Sep. 30, 1975); 21 FR 418 (Jan....

  5. 76 FR 55278 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... thorium mining and milling and nuclear fusion reactors when not used in support of systems involving... activities related to uranium and thorium mining and milling and nuclear fusion reactors, per se, are not...; and (4) Nuclear fusion reactors per se, except for supporting systems involving hydrogen...

  6. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  7. Energy from the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  9. Equalization of loudspeaker response using balanced model truncation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansheng; Cai, Zhibo; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional loudspeaker equalization algorithms cannot decide the order of an equalizer before the whole equalization procedure has been completed. Designers have to try many times before they determine a proper order of the equalization filter. A method which solves this drawback is presented for loudspeaker equalization using balanced model truncation. The order of the equalizer can be easily decided using this algorithm and the error between the model and the loudspeaker can also be readily controlled. Examples are presented and the performance of the proposed method is discussed with comparative experiments.

  10. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  11. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  12. The Equal Rights Amendment: Guaranteeing Equal Rights for Women Under the Constitution. Clearinghouse Publication 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the effects that the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment will have on laws concerning women. The amendment's impacts on divorced, married, and employed women, on women in the military and in school, and on women dependent on pensions, insurance, and social security are all analyzed. A discussion of the Constitutional…

  13. School Finance, Equivalent Educational Expenditure, and the Income Distribution: Equal Dollars or Equal Chances for Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathryn; Lambright, Kristina; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article breaks new ground in the debate on school finance and equality of per pupil school expenditures. We are able to merge school district data with the individual and family data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). This allows us to examine both student and school district characteristics and to assess several measures of…

  14. Equality, Adequacy, and Stakes Fairness: Retrieving the Equal Opportunities in Education Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    Two approaches to making judgments about moral urgency in educational policy have prevailed in American law and public policy. One approach holds that educational policy should aspire to realizing equal opportunities in education for all. The other approach holds that educational policy should aspire to realizing adequate opportunities in…

  15. Temperature adaptation of enzymes: roles of the free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy of activation.

    PubMed

    Low, P S; Bada, J L; Somero, G N

    1973-02-01

    The enzymic reactions of ectothermic (cold-blooded) species differ from those of avian and mammalian species in terms of the magnitudes of the three thermodynamic activation parameters, the free energy of activation (DeltaG()), the enthalpy of activation (DeltaH()), and the entropy of activation (DeltaS()). Ectothermic enzymes are more efficient than the homologous enzymes of birds and mammals in reducing the DeltaG() "energy barrier" to a chemical reaction. Moreover, the relative importance of the enthalpic and entropic contributions to DeltaG() differs between these two broad classes of organisms.

  16. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  17. Firearm homicide and firearm suicide: opposite but equal.

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Schwab, C. William

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Homicide and suicide are intentional acts of violence that disproportionately involve firearms. Much more effort has been devoted to the ecological study of homicide; methods that have been developed to better understand and subsequently prevent homicide may be applicable to suicide. The purpose of the present study was to compare the occurrence of firearm homicide and firearm suicide using routine activity theory as a framework for analysis. METHODS: Detailed mortality data pertaining to decedents, their neighborhoods, and use of firearms were collected from 1994 to 1998 for the counties containing and surrounding three small to medium-sized U.S. cities. Data from a total of 468 neighborhoods that collectively experienced 1,025 intentional deaths from firearms (396 firearm homicides and 629 firearm suicides) were analyzed. RESULTS: Firearm homicide was consistently associated with out-of-home, nighttime activity in neighborhoods where many people were likely to be coming and going. In an opposite-but-equal fashion, firearm suicide was consistently associated with in-home, daytime activity in out-of-the-way neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Firearm homicide and firearm suicide were found to be consistently associated with markers of routine activity in all three cities, albeit in an opposite-but-equal manner. Because firearm suicides very often occur as lonely events in lonely neighborhoods, they may go under-noticed relative to firearm homicides. More awareness and additional public health studies of firearm suicide, in tandem with firearm homicide, should be pursued to better identify individuals and neighborhoods that are at greatest risk of experiencing each event. PMID:15192897

  18. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  19. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  20. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  1. The study of exotic N approx equal 82 nuclei using the Daresbury recoil mass separator

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, J.H.; Chishti, A.A.; Gelletly, W.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Varley, B.J.; Blomqvist, J.; Daly, P.J.; Piiparinen, M.; Woods, P.J.; Manchester Univ. . Schuster Lab.; Manne Siegbahn Inst.; Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN . Dept. of Chemistry; Jyvaeskylae Univ. . Dept. of Physics; Edinburgh Univ. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using the Daresbury Recoil Mass Separator have identified microsecond isomers in the exotic N {equals} 82, 83 nuclei {sup 153}Yb, {sup 153}Lu, {sup 154}Hf, and have established their decay schemes. The results for {sup 153}Lu and {sup 154}Hf, together with those for lighter N {equals} 82 isotones, provide an outstanding illustration of the dependence of E2 transition rates between J{sup n} states on the subshell occupation, and demonstrate that half-filling of the {pi}h{sub 11/2} subshell in the N {equals} 82 series occurs just below Z {equals} 71 {sup 153}Lu. The result of the isomer in the even-odd N {equals} 83 nucleus {sup 153}Yb shows that the isomerism is due to a low-energy E2 transition rather than an E3 transition as in lighter N {equals} 83 even-odd isotones, which is another consequence of the {pi}h{sub 11/2} subshell being about half-filled. Furthermore, the long-lived isomer observed in the odd-odd N {equals} 83 nucleus {sup 154}Lu also reflects that the {pi}h{sub 11/2} subshell is close to being half-filled. 23 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Activation energy and entropy for viscosity of wormlike micelle solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, H D

    2013-11-01

    The viscosities of two surfactant solutions which form wormlike micelles (WLMs) were studied over a range of temperatures and strain rates. WLM solutions appear to differ from many other shear thinning systems in that, as the shear rate increases, stress-shear rate curves tend to converge with temperature rather than diverge and this can sometimes lead to higher temperature curves crossing those at lower. Behaviour was analysed in terms of activation kinetics. It is suggested that two mechanisms are involved: Newtonian flow, following an Arrhenius law superimposed on a non-Newtonian flow described by a stress assisted kinetic law, this being a more general form of the Arrhenius law. Anomalous flow is introduced into the kinetic equation via a stress dependent activation entropy term.

  3. An investigation of the energy consumption and conversion of piezoelectric actuators integrated in active structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, C.; Sun, F.; Rogers, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper quantifies the energy consumption and conversion of an active structure driven by piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) actuators. The principle and methodology discussed in this paper may also be applied to other active structures with different types of actuators. The paper first discusses the energy conversion of PZT actuator materials, including the energy dissipation and electro-mechanical energy conversion. The energy conversion efficiency for the static and dynamic applications of PZT actuator is then defined and discussed. A numerical case study has also been conducted. One of the major conclusions from the investigation is that the physical process of energy conversion (electrical to mechanical and vice versa) within an induced strain actuator depends on the operating conditions of the actuator, namely, the type of structure it interacts, as well as the structural impedance.

  4. Applying an FSK Based Transmission Scheme to Broadband Channels Using Frequency Domain Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, Sebastian, Dr.; Peissig, Dr. Jürgen, Prof.

    2012-05-01

    Equalization of broadband signals can be efficiently realized in frequency domain. One prominent example is the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission technique. With the introduction of a cyclic prefix and a modulation onto orthogonal subcarriers the equalization can be performed in frequency domain with one tap only. However the extremely high peak to average power ratio of OFDM modulated transmit signals and the demand of linearity inside the signal transmission chain results in a poor energy efficiency at the power amplifier. This paper claims, that as long as a cyclic prefix exists, any receive signal can be equalized in frequency domain. In this paper a transmission scheme with constant envelope is chosen for energy efficiency reasons. Therefore an FSK modulation and gaussian pulse shaping is used to create the transmit signal. Equalization at the receiver is done in frequency domain as known in OFDM. To simplify the equalization, a cyclic prefix is added to the transmit signal as well. This transmission scheme is introduced and evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency and bit error rate (BER) performance in this paper. The comparison is done with a typical OFDM system. In particular the characteristics of a nonlinear power amplifier are considered. It will be shown, that signals with constant envelope such as FSK modulated signals can also make use of an OFDM like equalization procedure with comparable BER performance and spectral requirements.

  5. Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

  6. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  7. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  8. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  9. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  10. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  11. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  12. Award Winning Energy Education Activities for Elementary and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Helen H., Ed.

    This publication contains descriptions of the winning entries to the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Teacher Participation Contest conducted in 1976. This was a nationwide contest for the design of activities around energy themes at any grade level, K-12. The ten winning entries described here are: (1) Energy Units for Primary Grades;…

  13. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  14. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  15. A time to search: finding the meaning of variable activation energy.

    PubMed

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2016-07-28

    This review deals with the phenomenon of variable activation energy frequently observed when studying the kinetics in the liquid or solid phase. This phenomenon commonly manifests itself through nonlinear Arrhenius plots or dependencies of the activation energy on conversion computed by isoconversional methods. Variable activation energy signifies a multi-step process and has a meaning of a collective parameter linked to the activation energies of individual steps. It is demonstrated that by using appropriate models of the processes, the link can be established in algebraic form. This allows one to analyze experimentally observed dependencies of the activation energy in a quantitative fashion and, as a result, to obtain activation energies of individual steps, to evaluate and predict other important parameters of the process, and generally to gain deeper kinetic and mechanistic insights. This review provides multiple examples of such analysis as applied to the processes of crosslinking polymerization, crystallization and melting of polymers, gelation, and solid-solid morphological and glass transitions. The use of appropriate computational techniques is discussed as well.

  16. Differential Trends Toward Equality Between Whites and Nonwhites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman; Whittington, Frank J.

    1970-01-01

    By using an equality index to measure the amount of overlap between percentage distributions of whites and nonwhites, it is shown that nonwhites have substantially progressed toward equality in income, education, occupation, employment, and housing. (JM)

  17. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  18. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  19. The Shadow of Equality: Some Notes on Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Eleanor

    1973-01-01

    This article presents a critique of Christopher Jencks' concept of equality as detailed in Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and School in America.'' The article claims that Jencks' concept of equality in education as equality of relative incomes, has serious educational consequences. (JA)

  20. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1071 RIN 3170-AA27 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule AGENCY: Bureau of... Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA or the Act) requires agencies ] that conduct adversary adjudications..., Credit, Credit unions, Equal access to justice, Law enforcement, National banks, Savings...