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Sample records for activation energy levels

  1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  2. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  3. The relationship between active ghrelin levels and human obesity involves alterations in resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Paolo; Verti, Barbara; Savia, Giulio; Walker, Gillian E; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Mariantonella; Di Blasio, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and fat accumulation. Ser(3) octanoylation is regarded as a prerequisite for ghrelin biological activity, although des-octanoylated forms may retain biological functions in vitro. Circulating ghrelin levels are usually low in obesity and in states of positive energy balance. Hence, the aim of our study was to analyze plasma active and serum total ghrelin levels in 20 obese (ages, 22-42 yr; body mass index, 41.3 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) and 20 lean subjects (ages, 22-43 yr; body mass index, 22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)) as well as their relationship to measures of glucose homeostasis, body fat, and resting energy expenditure (REE). The measured/predicted REE percentage ratio was calculated to subdivide groups into those with positive (> or = 100% ) and negative (<100%) ratio values. In obese patients, plasma active (180 +/- 18 vs. 411 +/- 57 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and serum total ghrelin levels (3650 +/- 408 vs. 5263 +/- 643 pg/ml; P < 0.05) were significantly lower when compared with lean subjects. Hence, ghrelin activity, defined as the proportion of active over total ghrelin levels, was similarly reduced in the obese state (6.1 +/- 0.9% vs. 8.4 +/- 1%; P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between active and total ghrelin (r = 0.62; P < 0.001), and between total ghrelin and insulin (r = -0.53; P < 0.001) or insulin resistance using the homeostatis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r = -0.49; P < 0.001) approach. Significantly higher active ghrelin levels (214 +/- 22 vs. 159 +/- 30 pg/ml; P < 0.05) and ghrelin activity (8 +/- 1.7% vs. 4.9 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05) were observed in patients with positive compared with negative measured/predicted REE ratio values. Our study shows that obesity is associated with an impairment of the entire ghrelin system. The observation that ghrelin is further decreased in cases of abnormal energy profit adds new evidence to the relationship between ghrelin activity and

  4. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  5. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  6. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  7. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  8. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use. PMID:26610562

  9. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  10. Accelerometry predicts daily energy expenditure in a bird with high activity levels.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Speakman, John R; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-02-23

    Animal ecology is shaped by energy costs, yet it is difficult to measure fine-scale energy expenditure in the wild. Because metabolism is often closely correlated with mechanical work, accelerometers have the potential to provide detailed information on energy expenditure of wild animals over fine temporal scales. Nonetheless, accelerometry needs to be validated on wild animals, especially across different locomotory modes. We merged data collected on 20 thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from miniature accelerometers with measurements of daily energy expenditure over 24 h using doubly labelled water. Across three different locomotory modes (swimming, flying and movement on land), dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of daily energy expenditure as measured independently by doubly labelled water (R(2) = 0.73). The most parsimonious model suggested that different equations were needed to predict energy expenditure from accelerometry for flying than for surface swimming or activity on land (R(2) = 0.81). Our results demonstrate that accelerometers can provide an accurate integrated measure of energy expenditure in wild animals using many different locomotory modes. PMID:23256182

  11. Accelerometry predicts daily energy expenditure in a bird with high activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kyle H.; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Speakman, John R.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Animal ecology is shaped by energy costs, yet it is difficult to measure fine-scale energy expenditure in the wild. Because metabolism is often closely correlated with mechanical work, accelerometers have the potential to provide detailed information on energy expenditure of wild animals over fine temporal scales. Nonetheless, accelerometry needs to be validated on wild animals, especially across different locomotory modes. We merged data collected on 20 thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from miniature accelerometers with measurements of daily energy expenditure over 24 h using doubly labelled water. Across three different locomotory modes (swimming, flying and movement on land), dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of daily energy expenditure as measured independently by doubly labelled water (R2 = 0.73). The most parsimonious model suggested that different equations were needed to predict energy expenditure from accelerometry for flying than for surface swimming or activity on land (R2 = 0.81). Our results demonstrate that accelerometers can provide an accurate integrated measure of energy expenditure in wild animals using many different locomotory modes. PMID:23256182

  12. Novel method to determine capture cross-section activation energies by deep-level transient spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, J.; Gomez, A.; Calleja, E.; Muñoz, E.

    1988-02-01

    Deep-center characterization by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) allows a direct determination of the trap thermal emission activation energy. However, capture barrier energy measurements, based on trap partial filling by pulses of increasing width, require a quite different experimental processing and pose some hardware difficulties. In this letter we present a new method to determine the trap capture barrier energy, one that requires constant-width filling pulses and obtains capture information from standard DLTS data. This technique has been applied to Te-, Sn-, and Si-related DX centers in AlGaAs alloys.

  13. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1, 5.4±3.0 MJ. day−1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in was explained by sex (partial R2 = 54.7%) and body mass index (partial R2 = 15.9%). Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success. PMID:23805234

  14. Cortical energy demands of signaling and nonsignaling components in brain are conserved across mammalian species and activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Bennett, Maxwell R.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous need for ion gradient restoration across the cell membrane, a prerequisite for synaptic transmission and conduction, is believed to be a major factor for brain’s high oxidative demand. However, do energy requirements of signaling and nonsignaling components of cortical neurons and astrocytes vary with activity levels and across species? We derived oxidative ATP demand associated with signaling (Ps) and nonsignaling (Pns) components in the cerebral cortex using species-specific physiologic and anatomic data. In rat, we calculated glucose oxidation rates from layer-specific neuronal activity measured across different states, spanning from isoelectricity to awake and sensory stimulation. We then compared these calculated glucose oxidation rates with measured glucose metabolic data for the same states as reported by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography. Fixed values for Ps and Pns were able to predict the entire range of states in the rat. We then calculated glucose oxidation rates from human EEG data acquired under various conditions using fixed Ps and Pns values derived for the rat. These calculated metabolic data in human cerebral cortex compared well with glucose metabolism measured by PET. Independent of species, linear relationship was established between neuronal activity and neuronal oxidative demand beyond isoelectricity. Cortical signaling requirements dominated energy demand in the awake state, whereas nonsignaling requirements were ∼20% of awake value. These predictions are supported by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy results. We conclude that mitochondrial energy support for signaling and nonsignaling components in cerebral cortex are conserved across activity levels in mammalian species. PMID:23319606

  15. Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the Take 10![R] In-Class Physical Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James A.; Dennison, David A.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Doyle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative, classroom-based physical activity prevention program designed to integrate academic curriculum elements along with a physical activity program in providing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. A convenience sample of three public school classrooms (one first, third, and fifth…

  16. Seasonal variation in energy expenditure is not related to activity level or water temperature in a large diving bird.

    PubMed

    Guillemette, Magella; Butler, Patrick J

    2012-09-15

    There is considerable interest in understanding how the energy budget of an endotherm is modulated from a physiological and ecological point of view. In this paper, we used daily (24 h) heart rate (f(H24)), as a proxy of daily energy expenditure (DEE) across seasons, to test the effect of locomotion activity and water temperature on the energy budget of a large diving bird. f(H24) was monitored continuously in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during 7 months together with measures of time spent flying and time spent feeding. f(H24) varied substantially during the recording period, with numerous increases and decreases that occurred across seasons, although we did not find any relationship between f(H24) and the time spent active (feeding and flying). However, inactive heart rate (f(H,inactive)) decreased as locomotion activity increased, suggesting that common eiders were using some form of compensation when under a high work load. We were also unable to detect a negative relationship between water temperature and resting heart rate, a proxy of resting metabolic rate. This was unexpected, based on the assumption that high thermoregulation costs would be associated with cold waters. We showed instead that a high level of energy expenditure coincided with feather moult and warm waters, which suggests that the observed variable pattern of seasonal DEE was driven by these two factors. Nevertheless, our results indicate that compensation and possibly the timing of moult may be used as mechanisms to reduce seasonal variation in energy expenditure. PMID:22660783

  17. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  18. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  19. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-energy Blazar Emission in Low-level Activity States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grandi, P.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sambruna, R.; Sander, A.; Sato, R.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Sikora, M.; Schady, P.; Roming, P.; Chester, M. M.; Maraschi, L.

    2010-06-01

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208-512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127-145, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3. All these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. We constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208-512, PKS 1127-145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.

  20. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  1. Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.

    PubMed

    Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Yeste, Marc; Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Estrada, Efrén; Rocha, Luiz; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Concha, Ilona I; Ramírez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE.

  2. Approaches to the Organization of the Energy Efficient Activity at the Regional Level in the Context of Limited Budget Resources during the Transformation of Energy Market Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, Ihor; Myroshnychenko, Iuliia

    2015-12-01

    The research is devoted to the problem of the assessment of the integrated projects investment efficiency, energy saving and energy efficiency measures for social and municipal buildings within the course aimed at the reduction of the natural gas consumption and its replacement by alternative fuel types, that is important for a number of European countries, and Ukraine in particular. The objectives of the research are as follows: comparative assessment of the quality of integrated and element-by-element approaches to energy saving encompassing investment, environmental, social and organizational aspects; the formulation of practical recommendations to improve the efficiency of development and implementation of integrated programs in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency. It is proposed to use the methodology of system analysis with the elements of deduction that is practical and that allows to set key factors that influence the processes of energy replacement and energy efficiency increase, as well as factors that constrain them.

  3. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  4. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  5. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  6. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  7. Defect energy levels from current transient recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momayezi, Michael

    1991-07-01

    Silicon detectors are widely used in high energy physics in vertexing and calorimetry applications. The radiative environment will introduce defects with energy levels in the bandgap into the crystals. At the high levels of radiation present at proton accelerators the defect concentration will easily approach or exceed the doping concentration of the usual high ohmic material. DLTS, the most common technique for defect characterization is known to fail under these conditions. To study heavy radiation damage in silicon detectors a new method has been developed. Using a DLTS-like pulser setup, the current transient from trap emptying is recorded on a fast digital scope being read out by a microcomputer. This is repeatedly done during a temperature scan. The time integral of the current transient equals the number of traps present and the activation enthalpy is found from the temperature dependence of the emission life time. If there is more than one energy level present the individual components may be extracted by a fitting procedure from the then multiexponential current transient. The sensitivity reached so far is, noise and systematics considered, ˜10 9 traps. Lifetimes between 5 μs and 5 ms are covered.

  8. ACTIVITY LEVEL AND LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…

  9. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  10. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  13. Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that combines the concepts of quantum numbers and probability locations, energy levels, and electron configurations in a concrete, hands-on way. Uses model houses constructed out of foam board and colored beads to represent electrons. (JRH)

  14. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  15. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  16. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  17. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  18. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  19. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  20. Energy levels for F-16 (Fluorine-16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-16 (fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 16).

  1. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  2. Fermi level stabilization energy in cadmium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Speaks, D. T.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-04-08

    We have studied the effects of high concentrations of native point defects on the electrical and optical properties of CdO. The defects were introduced by irradiation with high energy He+, Ne+, Ar+ and C+ ions. Increasing the irradiation damage with particles heavier than He+ increases the electron concentration until a saturation level of 5x1020 cm-3 is reached. In contrast, due to the ionic character and hence strong dynamic annealing of CdO, irradiation with much lighter He+ stabilizes the electron concentration at a much lower level of 1.7x1020 cm-3. A large shift of the optical absorption edge with increasing electron concentration in irradiated samples is explained by the Burstein-Moss shift corrected for electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. The saturation of the electron concentration and the optical absorption edge energy are consistent with a defect induced stabilization of the Fermi energy at 1 eV above the conduction band edge. The result is in a good agreement with previously determined Fermi level pinning energies on CdO surfaces. The results indicate that CdO shares many similarities with InN, as both materials exhibit extremely large electron affinities and an unprecedented propensity for n-type conductivity.

  3. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Sleep and brain energy levels: ATP changes during sleep.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Markus; McCarley, Robert W; Kim, Tae; Kalinchuk, Anna V; Basheer, Radhika

    2010-06-30

    Sleep is one of the most pervasive biological phenomena, but one whose function remains elusive. Although many theories of function, indirect evidence, and even common sense suggest sleep is needed for an increase in brain energy, brain energy levels have not been directly measured with modern technology. We here report that ATP levels, the energy currency of brain cells, show a surge in the initial hours of spontaneous sleep in wake-active but not in sleep-active brain regions of rat. The surge is dependent on sleep but not time of day, since preventing sleep by gentle handling of rats for 3 or 6 h also prevents the surge in ATP. A significant positive correlation was observed between the surge in ATP and EEG non-rapid eye movement delta activity (0.5-4.5 Hz) during spontaneous sleep. Inducing sleep and delta activity by adenosine infusion into basal forebrain during the normally active dark period also increases ATP. Together, these observations suggest that the surge in ATP occurs when the neuronal activity is reduced, as occurs during sleep. The levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK), well known for its role in cellular energy sensing and regulation, and ATP show reciprocal changes. P-AMPK levels are lower during the sleep-induced ATP surge than during wake or sleep deprivation. Together, these results suggest that sleep-induced surge in ATP and the decrease in P-AMPK levels set the stage for increased anabolic processes during sleep and provide insight into the molecular events leading to the restorative biosynthetic processes occurring during sleep.

  5. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.

  6. Energy-level alignment at organic heterointerfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oehzelt, Martin; Akaike, Kouki; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Today’s champion organic (opto-)electronic devices comprise an ever-increasing number of different organic-semiconductor layers. The functionality of these complex heterostructures largely derives from the relative alignment of the frontier molecular-orbital energies in each layer with respect to those in all others. Despite the technological relevance of the energy-level alignment at organic heterointerfaces, and despite continued scientific interest, a reliable model that can quantitatively predict the full range of phenomena observed at such interfaces is notably absent. We identify the limitations of previous attempts to formulate such a model and highlight inconsistencies in the interpretation of the experimental data they were based on. We then develop a theoretical framework, which we demonstrate to accurately reproduce experiment. Applying this theory, a comprehensive overview of all possible energy-level alignment scenarios that can be encountered at organic heterojunctions is finally given. These results will help focus future efforts on developing functional organic interfaces for superior device performance. PMID:26702447

  7. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  8. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  9. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  10. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Context: A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. Aims: To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Methods: Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Results: Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability. PMID:26865776

  11. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  12. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  13. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  14. Chemical trends in the activation energies of DX centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, O.; Kawai, H.; Mori, Y.; Kaneko, K.

    1984-12-01

    The activation energies of DX centers in AlGaAs doped with six different impurities (S, Se, Te, Si, Ge, and Sn) are measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Remarkable trends are established, in which the activation energies of DX centers with group IV impurities become shallower as the mass number of the impurity increases, while those with group VI impurities remain constant.

  15. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  16. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country. PMID:24910313

  17. Energy Flux in A-Level Electromagentism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, S. F.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests an approach which treats the electric circuit as a channel through which energy flows and to which the application of energy conservation makes the distinction between electromotive force and potential difference unnecessary. Equations, examples, and visual representations are included. (RT)

  18. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  19. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  20. Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)

  1. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  2. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  3. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  4. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  6. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies entering service in 2018, 2022, and 2040 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Reference case.

  7. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  8. Energy Activities for the Classroom: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Bowman, Mary Lynne

    This resource book contains descriptions of over 100 classroom activities designed to illustrate concepts relating to energy, its production, characteristics, use, and conservations. Each activity integrates the energy lesson into a concept that relates to one or more subject areas common to public school curricula. Many of the activities included…

  9. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  10. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  11. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  12. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-19

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  13. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  14. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  15. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  17. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  19. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-01

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  20. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  1. Theory of Energy Level Tuning in Quantum Dots by Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Wang, Lin-Wang; Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2015-03-01

    Besides quantum confinement that provides control of the quantum dot (QD) band gap, surface ligands allow control of the absolute energy levels. We theoretically investigate energy level tuning in PbS QD by surfactant exchange. We perform direct calculations of real-size QD with various surfactants within the frame of the density functional theory and explicitly analyze the influence of the surfactants on the electronic properties of the QD. This work provides a hint for predictable control of the absolute energy levels and their fine tuning within 3 eV range by modification of big and small surfactants that simultaneously passivate the QD surface.

  2. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  3. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  4. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  5. "Piekara's Chair": Mechanical Model for Atomic Energy Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golab-Meyer, Zofia

    1991-01-01

    Uses the teaching method of models or analogies, specifically the model called "Piekara's chair," to show how teaching classical mechanics can familiarize students with the notion of energy levels in atomic physics. (MDH)

  6. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  7. Calibration of Electric Field Induced Energy Level Shifts in Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, Greg

    1999-10-01

    Argon is a commonly used gas in a number of discharges. As such it is an ideal candidate for spectroscopic based electric field measurements within the sheath and bulk discharge regions. Recently, measurements demonstrated the use of the Stark induced shifts of high lying energy levels in Argon to make spatially and temporally resolved electric field measurements [1]. However, that method relied on the cross calibration of known and calculable shifts in helium discharges to calibrate, in-situ, the energy level shifts in Argon. This poster shows the use of an atomic beam system to calibrate the electric field induced shift of high lying energy levels directly. In addition, data on very high lying argon levels, up to the 20 F manifold, were obtained. Comparison of our electric field induced energy level shift calibration curves with previous work will be shown. The possibility of using this system to calibrate energy level shifts in other gases of technological interest to the microelectronics and lighting industry will be discussed. [1]. J. B. Kim, K. Kawamura, Y. W. Choi, M. D. Bowden, K. Muraoka and V. Helbig, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 26(5), 1556 (1998). This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories and supported by the United States Department of Energy (DE-AC04-94AL85000).

  8. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  9. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  10. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  11. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J. E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu; Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C. E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  12. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  13. Study of the crossing of quasi-energy levels in a four-level system

    SciTech Connect

    Arushanyan, S; Melikyan, A; Saakyan, S

    2011-05-31

    It was shown previously that in taking into account only dipole transitions, the crossing of quasi-energy levels is possible in the system if any of the transitions forms a closed loop. It followed herefrom that for the analysis of the crossing conditions, it is necessary to consider a system which has at least four levels. In this paper we show that we can uniquely specify which quasi-energy levels cross at the given values of the parameters of the atomic system and radiation field, without solving an algebraic quartic equation. It was found that the most suitable system for the implementation of the crossing is the group of energy levels {sup 5}S{sub 1/2}, {sup 5}P{sub 1/2}, {sup 5}P{sub 3/2} and {sup 5}D{sub 3/2} of a rubidium atom. The performed calculations of the laser field intensity and frequency values at which crossing takes place in this system show that they are easily attainable. It turned out that in this system there occur crossing of quasi-energy levels corresponding to the excited atomic levels. (intersection of quasi-energy levels)

  14. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  15. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  16. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-31

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to "address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction." (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to "include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction." (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  17. Impacts of vigorous and non-vigorous activity on daily energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2003-08-01

    Activity intensity is a potential determinant of activity-induced energy expenditure. Tri-axial accelerometery is the most objective measurement technique for the assessment of activity intensity, in combination with doubly-labelled water for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. Data on the effects of subject characteristics, including body size and age, and exercise training on the relationship between activity intensity and daily energy expenditure are reviewed. Average daily metabolic rate and non-basal energy expenditure are positively related to body size. The duration and intensity of physical activities do not need to be equivalent to the energy spent on activity. Obese subjects spend more energy on physical activity but can perform fewer activities, especially high-intensity (weight-bearing) activities, because of their higher body weight. Physical activity generally declines gradually from about 60 years of age onwards. Most subjects > 80 years have an activity level well below the level defined for sedentary middle-aged adults. Spending relatively more time on low-intensity activities has a negative effect on the mean physical activity level. To obtain a higher physical activity level does not necessarily imply high-intensity activities. In an average subject 25% of the activity-induced energy expenditure may be attributed to high-intensity activities. Exercise training, as a form of high-intensity activity, affects the physical activity level more in younger subjects than in elderly subjects.

  18. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  19. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  20. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  1. Channeling Children's Energy through Vocabulary Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares vocabulary development activities for young learners. These activities channel students' energy and make learning more effective and fun. The author stresses the importance of giving young learners a good language-learning experience, and the challenges of teaching young learners who are not literate in their L1.…

  2. First principle prediction of shallow defect level binding energies and deep level nonradiative recombination rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linwang

    2014-03-01

    Accurate calculation of defect level energies in semiconductors and their carrier capturing rate is an important issue in ab initio prediction of semiconductor properties. In this talk, I will present our result work in ab initio shallow level calculation and deep level caused nonradiative recombination rate calculation. In the shallow acceptor level calculation, a large system up to 64,000 atoms needs to be used to properly describe the weakly bounded hole wave functions. The single particle Hamiltonian of that system is patched from bulk potential and central potential. Furthermore, GW calculation is used to correct the one site potential of the impurity atom. The resulting binding energy agrees excellently with the experiments within 10 meV. To calculate the nonradiative decay rate, the electron-phonon coupling constants in the defect system are calculated all at once using a new variational algorithm. Multiphonon process formalism is used to calculate the nonradiative decay rate. It is found that the transition is induced by the electron and the optical phonon coupling, but the energy conservation is mostly satisfied by the acoustic phonons. The new algorithm allows fast calculation of such nonradiative decay rate for any defect levels, as well as other multiphonon processes in nanostructures. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Science (BES)/Materials Science and Engineering Division (MSED) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Chertova, Nadezhda V.; Psakhie, Sergei G.

    2015-10-27

    An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.

  4. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  5. Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Martínez, María Elena; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Roe, Denise J.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Alberts, David S.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. While likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared to the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (< 136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (≥ 136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels. PMID:19383885

  6. Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of Ba XXVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Aggarwal, Sunny; Sharma, Rinku; Mohan, Man

    2016-05-01

    We report an extensive and an elaborate theoretical study of atomic data for Ba XXVI by considering Singlet, Doublet and Triplet (SDT) electron excitations within N-shell and single excitations from N-shell to O-shell. We have calculated energy levels and lifetimes for lowest 110 fine structure levels by using Multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method (MCDF). We have also considered Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections in our calculations. We have presented the radiative data for electric and magnetic dipole (E1, M1) and quadrupole (E2, M2) transitions among lowest 110 levels. We have made comparisons of our calculated excitation energies and EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) transition wavelengths with experimentally observed energy levels and wavelengths and achieved good agreement. We have also computed energy levels by performing similar relativistic distorted wave calculations using Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). Additionally, we have provided new atomic data for Ba XXVI which are not published elsewhere in the literature. We believe that our results may be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical investigations and applications.

  7. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  8. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  9. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  10. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  11. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  12. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  13. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  14. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  16. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-01

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  17. Efficiencies of thermodynamics when temperature-dependent energy levels exist.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Takuya

    2016-03-14

    Based on a generalized form of the second law of thermodynamics, in which the temperature-dependent energy levels of a system are appropriately included in entropy generation, we show that the effect reasonably appears in efficiencies of thermodynamic processes. PMID:26890276

  18. Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina

    2015-12-07

    We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found.

  19. Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous GaN and ZnO Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark S.; Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.

    2014-03-01

    Electronic energy level alignment at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces is fundamental to electrochemical activity. Motivated in particular by the search for new materials that can be more efficient for photocatalysis, we develop a first principles method to calculate this alignment at aqueous interfaces and demonstrate it for the specific case of non-polar GaN and ZnO interfaces with water. In the first step, density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics is used to sample the physical interface structure and to evaluate the electrostatic potential step at the interface. In the second step, the GW approach is used to evaluate the reference electronic energy level separately in the bulk semiconductor (valence band edge energy) and in bulk water (the 1b1 energy level), relative to the internal electrostatic energy reference. Use of the GW approach naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. With this predicted interface alignment, specific redox levels in water, with potentials known relative to the 1b1 level, can then be compared to the semiconductor band edge positions. Our results will be discussed in the context of experiments in which photoexcited GaN and ZnO drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. Research carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Mo uc(v) Energy Levels and f values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) calculations have been done for the lowest 12 J=0 even parity levels, and the lowest 30 J=1 odd parity levels of Mo uc(v.) For the J=0 4d^2 and 4d 5d energy differences, the average error is 229 cm-1 ( M. I. Cabeza, F. G. Meijer, and L. Iglesias, Phys. Scr. 34), 223 (1986). For the other J=0 levels, the average difference with experiment (A. Tauheed, M. S. Z. Chaghtai, and K. Rahimullah, Phys. Scr. 31), 369 (1985) is considerably greater. Our average energy errors for the 11 known ^2 J=1 levels is 233 cm-1, excluding the 5s 5p ^1 P level, which is 1580 cm-1 higher than observed ^2. We predict positions of 19 4p^5 4d^3 levels, as well as f values for the 360 transitions between the calculated levels. Gauge agreements are good for transitions with f > .01. Details of the methodology have been published elsewhere (D. R. Beck and L. Pan, Phys. Scr. 69), 91 (2004).

  1. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  2. Interaction Determined Electron Energy Levels in One-Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, Kalarikad; Smith, Luke; Creeth, Graham; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Jones, Geraint; Jonathan, Griffiths; UCL Collaboration; Cavendish Laboratory Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated electron transport in a quasi-one dimensional electron gas in the GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure designed so that the confinement potential can be progressively weakened. This causes the energy levels to decrease in energy relative to each other, however this decrease occurs at different rates, a feature attributed to the energy being determined by both confinement and the electron-electron repulsion which varies with the shape of the wavefunction. It is found that the initial ground state crosses the higher levels so resulting in missing plateaux of quantised conductance. A change in the nature of the ground state to a more extended form causes an increase in the capacitance between the confining gates and the electrons. Both crossings and anti-crossings of the levels are found and these will be discussed along with other consequences of the form of the level interactions. The effects of level crossing on the spin dependent 0.7 structure will be presented. Supported by EPSRC (UK).

  3. Energy levels of double triangular graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, F. X.; Jiang, Z. T. Zhang, H. Y.; Li, S.; Lv, Z. T.

    2014-09-28

    We investigate theoretically the energy levels of the coupled double triangular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian model. The double GQDs including the ZZ-type, ZA-type, and AA-type GQDs with the two GQDs having the zigzag or armchair boundaries can be coupled together via different interdot connections, such as the direct coupling, the chains of benzene rings, and those of carbon atoms. It is shown that the energy spectrum of the coupled double GQDs is the amalgamation of those spectra of the corresponding two isolated GQDs with the modification triggered by the interdot connections. The interdot connection is inclined to lift up the degeneracies of the energy levels in different degree, and as the connection changes from the direct coupling to the long chains, the removal of energy degeneracies is suppressed in ZZ-type and AA-type double GQDs, which indicates that the two coupled GQDs are inclined to become decoupled. Then we consider the influences on the spectra of the coupled double GQDs induced by the electric fields applied on the GQDs or the connection, which manifests as the global spectrum redistribution or the local energy level shift. Finally, we study the symmetrical and asymmetrical energy spectra of the double GQDs caused by the substrates supporting the two GQDs, clearly demonstrating how the substrates affect the double GQDs' spectrum. This research elucidates the energy spectra of the coupled double GQDs, as well as the mechanics of manipulating them by the electric field and the substrates, which would be a significant reference for designing GQD-based devices.

  4. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age, 11.5 y). Mean total energy expenditure was 2073 kcal/d, which was nearly 500 kcal/d lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies.

  5. Energy levels of exciton in a gapped graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Farhang; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-08-01

    A theory is presented for exciton formation in a graphene sheet using the center-of-mass approximation. The energy levels and wavefunctions of exciton are calculated analytically which show that the exciton can form if the band gap of graphene is not zero. We show that the energy gap of graphene plays the role of the mass which if not zero, leads to formation of the excitons. It is shown that the main quantum number of the exciton ground state changes with the graphene dielectric constant. Also, all of the states are found to be four-fold degenerate. The binding energy of exciton can reach as high as 1/4 of the energy gap of graphene which is notable among the conventional quasi-2D systems. This result can play an important rule in the photonics of graphene.

  6. Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

    DOE PAGES

    Bull, Diana; Jenne, D. Scott; Smith, Christopher S.; Copping, Andrea E.; Copeland, Guild

    2016-07-18

    The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publicly available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied withinmore » the Reference Model Project. Furthermore, comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.« less

  7. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  8. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  9. Accuracy of self-reported physical activity levels in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sarah A; Baxter, Kimberley A; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = -0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  10. Accuracy of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah A.; Baxter, Kimberley A.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2, completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = −0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity. PMID:25247095

  11. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  12. Core level binding energies of functionalized and defective graphene.

    PubMed

    Susi, Toma; Kaukonen, Markus; Havu, Paula; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Ayala, Paola; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2014-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used tool for studying the chemical composition of materials and it is a standard technique in surface science and technology. XPS is particularly useful for characterizing nanostructures such as carbon nanomaterials due to their reduced dimensionality. In order to assign the measured binding energies to specific bonding environments, reference energy values need to be known. Experimental measurements of the core level signals of the elements present in novel materials such as graphene have often been compared to values measured for molecules, or calculated for finite clusters. Here we have calculated core level binding energies for variously functionalized or defected graphene by delta Kohn-Sham total energy differences in the real-space grid-based projector-augmented wave density functional theory code (GPAW). To accurately model extended systems, we applied periodic boundary conditions in large unit cells to avoid computational artifacts. In select cases, we compared the results to all-electron calculations using an ab initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) code. We calculated the carbon and oxygen 1s core level binding energies for oxygen and hydrogen functionalities such as graphane-like hydrogenation, and epoxide, hydroxide and carboxylic functional groups. In all cases, we considered binding energy contributions arising from carbon atoms up to the third nearest neighbor from the functional group, and plotted C 1s line shapes by using experimentally realistic broadenings. Furthermore, we simulated the simplest atomic defects, namely single and double vacancies and the Stone-Thrower-Wales defect. Finally, we studied modifications of a reactive single vacancy with O and H functionalities, and compared the calculated values to data found in the literature.

  13. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  14. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  15. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  17. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  19. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible.

  20. Quantum Mechanics on a Mobius Strip: Energy Levels, Symmetries, and Level Splitting in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehao; Ram-Mohan, Ramdas

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the energy levels of an electron on a M"obius strip. Schr"odinger's equation on this curved surface is shown to have terms that do not have invariance under parity transformation in parameter space for the strip. The double degeneracy of energy levels that exists for flat cylindrical rings is shown to be removed for the pairs of energies in the M"obius strip due to parity symmetry breaking. The orbital angular momentum is found to have approximately not only integer but also half-integer values of . The splitting of the energy levels in an external magnetic field is displayed. The effects of multiple twists are investigated to further clarify that the parity symmetry breaking is the effect of the curved geometry, while the appearance of half-integer angular momentum states is a topological effect. The implications for twisted rings composed of graphene will be discussed, and carrier transport through the M"obius strip will be considered. This work was supported by AFLR/DARPA under grant FA8650-10-1-7046.

  1. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  2. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  3. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Energy levels scheme simulation of divalent cobalt doped bismuth germanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreici, Emiliana-Laura; Petkova, Petya; Avram, Nicolae M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate the energy levels scheme for Bismuth Germanate (BGO) doped with divalent cobalt, in order to give a reliable explanation for spectral experimental data. In the semiempirical crystal field theory we first modeled the Crystal Field Parameters (CFPs) of BGO:Cr2+ system, in the frame of Exchange Charge Model (ECM), with actually site symmetry of the impurity ions after doping. The values of CFPs depend on the geometry of doped host matrix and by parameter G of ECM. First, we optimized the geometry of undoped BGO host matrix and afterwards, that of doped BGO with divalent cobalt. The charges effect of ligands and covalence bonding between cobalt cations and oxygen anions, in the cluster approach, also were taken into account. With the obtained values of the CFPs we simulate the energy levels scheme of cobalt ions, by diagonalizing the matrix of the doped crystal Hamiltonian. Obviously, energy levels and estimated Racah parameters B and C were compared with the experimental spectroscopic data and discussed. Comparison of obtained results with experimental data shows quite satisfactory, which justify the model and simulation schemes used for the title system.

  5. Energy levels scheme simulation of divalent cobalt doped bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Andreici, Emiliana-Laura; Petkova, Petya; Avram, Nicolae M.

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this paper is to simulate the energy levels scheme for Bismuth Germanate (BGO) doped with divalent cobalt, in order to give a reliable explanation for spectral experimental data. In the semiempirical crystal field theory we first modeled the Crystal Field Parameters (CFPs) of BGO:Cr{sup 2+} system, in the frame of Exchange Charge Model (ECM), with actually site symmetry of the impurity ions after doping. The values of CFPs depend on the geometry of doped host matrix and by parameter G of ECM. First, we optimized the geometry of undoped BGO host matrix and afterwards, that of doped BGO with divalent cobalt. The charges effect of ligands and covalence bonding between cobalt cations and oxygen anions, in the cluster approach, also were taken into account. With the obtained values of the CFPs we simulate the energy levels scheme of cobalt ions, by diagonalizing the matrix of the doped crystal Hamiltonian. Obviously, energy levels and estimated Racah parameters B and C were compared with the experimental spectroscopic data and discussed. Comparison of obtained results with experimental data shows quite satisfactory, which justify the model and simulation schemes used for the title system.

  6. Education Finance Legislative Activity and Trends at the State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 1997 school finance legislation, comparing legislative activity levels from 1994 to 1997. In 1997, 32 states passed legislation pertaining to capital-outlay funding, tax bases, and taxation for education funding. Half passed legislation for state aid, technology, special-purpose education, budgeting/fiscal management, and school personnel…

  7. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  8. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  9. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  10. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  11. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  12. Probing Energy Levels of Large Array Quantum Dot Superlattice by Electronic Transport Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisri, S. Z.; Degoli, E.; Spallanzani, N.; Krishnan, G.; Kooi, B.; Ghica, C.; Yarema, M.; Protesescu, L.; Heiss, W.; Kovalenko, M.; Pulci, O.; Ossicini, S.; Iwasa, Y.; Loi, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal quantum dot superlattice (CQDS) emerges as new type of hybrid solids allowing easy fabrication of devices that exploits the quantum confinement properties of individual QD. This materials displays peculiar characters, making investigation of their transport properties nontrivial. Besides the bandgap variations, 0D nature of QD lead to the formation of discrete energy subbands. These subbands are crucial for multiple exciton generation (for efficient solar cell), thermoelectric material and multistate transistor. Full understanding of the CQDS energy level structure is vital to use them in complex devices. Here we show a powerful method to determine the CQDS electronic energy levels from their intrinsic charge transport characteristics. Via the use of ambipolar transistors with CQDS as active materials and gated using highly capacitive ionic liquid gating, Fermi energy can be largely tuned. It can access energy levels beyond QD's HOMO & LUMO. Ability to probe not only the bandgap, but also the discrete energy level from large assembly of QD at room temperature suggests the formation of energy minibands in this system.

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  14. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  15. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  16. Self-energy shift of the energy levels of atomic hydrogen in photonic crystal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, R. Kh; Khamadeev, M. A.; Steryakov, O. V.; Ziyatdinova, K. A.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2016-05-01

    Corrections to the average kinetic energy of atomic electrons caused by the change in electron mass in the photonic crystal medium are investigated. Corresponding shift of energy levels of atoms placed in a photonic crystal is shown to be of order of the ordinary Lamb shift.

  17. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ga XXIV

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sayed, Fatma

    2012-07-15

    Energy levels, transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for Oxygen-like Gallium, Ga XXIV. The configurations 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}, 2s2p{sup 5}, 2p{sup 6}, 2s2p{sup 4}3 Script-Small-L , 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3 Script-Small-L , and 2p{sup 5}3 Script-Small-L were used in calculations and 226 fine-structure levels were obtained. The fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest 226 levels of Ga XXIV, belonging to the n{<=}3 configurations. Comparisons have been made with earlier available theoretical and experimental results.

  18. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Parsons, Susan K.; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J.; Wong, William W.; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure (TEE) in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age 11.5 years). Mean TEE was 2,073 kcal/day, which was nearly 500 kcal/day lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies. PMID:25197775

  19. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  20. Decreased energy levels can cause and sustain obesity.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, Danuta; Gonzales, Michael

    2003-11-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and has become one of the major health problems in developed countries. Current theories consider obesity a result of overeating and sedentary life style and most efforts to treat or prevent weight gain concentrate on exercise and food intake. This approach does not improve the situation as may be seen from the steep increase in the prevalence of obesity. This encouraged us to reanalyse existing information and look for biochemical basis of obesity. Our approach was to ignore current theories and concentrate on experimental data which are described in scientific journals and are available from several databases. We developed and applied a Knowledge Discovery in Databases procedure to analyse metabolic data. We began with the contradictory information: in obesity, more calories are consumed than used up, suggesting that obese people should have excess energy. On the other side, obese people experience fatigue and decreased physical endurance that indicates diminished energy supply in the body. The result of our work is a chain of metabolic events leading to obesity. The crucial event is the inhibition of the TCA cycle at the step of aconitase. It disturbs energy metabolism and results in ATP deficiency with simultaneous fat accumulation. Further steps in obesity development are the consequences of diminished energy supply: inhibition of beta-oxidation, leptin resistance, increase in appetite and food intake and a decrease in physical activity. Thus, our theory shows that obesity does not have to be caused by overeating and sedentary life-style but may be the result of the "obese" change in metabolism which is forcing people to overeat and save energy to sustain metabolic functions of cells. This "obese" change is caused by environmental factors that activate chronic low-grade inflammatory process in the body linking obesity with the environment of developed countries. PMID:14559057

  1. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  2. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  3. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-01

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the `excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  4. Vintage-level energy and environmental performance of manufacturing establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Bock, M.J.; Neifer, M.J.; Karlson, S.H.; Ross, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    This report examines the relationship between an industrial plant`s vintage and its energy and environmental performance. Basic questions related to defining vintage and measuring the effects of the manufacturing industry`s vintage distribution of plant-level capacity and energy intensity are explored in general for six energy-intensive sectors (paper, chlorine, nitrogenous fertilizer, aluminum, steel, and cement) at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level and in detail for two sectors (steel and cement). Results show that greenfield (i.e., newly opened) plants in the paper, steel, and cement industries exhibit low fossil fuel intensities. These results are consistent with expectations. New plants in the paper and steel industries, where processes are undergoing electrification, exhibit high electricity intensities. An analysis of a subsector of the steel industry -- minimills that use scrap-based, electric arc furnaces -- reveals a decline in electricity intensity of 6.2 kilowatt-hours per ton for each newer year of installed vintage. This estimate is consistent with those of engineering studies and raises confidence that analyses of vintage effects in other industries could be conducted. When a vintage measure is assigned on the basis of investment data rather than trade association data, the vintage/performance relationship results for the cement industry are reasonably robust; thus, the analysis of vintage and performance could be extended to sectors for which only US Bureau of the Census data are available.

  5. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-07

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  6. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  7. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  8. Lifestyle determinants for social activity levels among the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Aoki, R; Ohno, Y; Tamakoshi, A; Kawakami, N; Nagai, M; Hashimoto, S; Ikari, A; Shimizu, H; Sakata, K; Kawamura, T; Wakai, K; Senda, M

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey to a total of 5239 elderly persons in four areas in Japan in 1993, which inquired about past lifestyles and present social activities. Based on the survey data, we first developed social activity measures, and then examined associations of the present total social activity measure with past lifestyles and physical conditions. The lifestyles significantly associated with high social activity after 65 years of age were 'high educational attainment'; having been 'healthy', 'plump', 'physically active' and 'having had hobbies' at about 50 years of age; and having 'frequent intake of many kinds of foods' during 30-50 years of age. Intake during 30-50 years of age of Japanese-style foods (rice, soybean paste soup, bean curd, pickles), noodles, beans, plant roots and potatoes was not significantly linked with the social activity levels at old age in either males or females. The same was true for smoking and drinking habits at about 50 years of age. Our findings essentially suggest the importance of a positive attitude at middle age to maintain and promote health status and improve lifestyles in order to attain high social activity at old age.

  9. The analysis and kinetic energy balance of an upper-level wind maximum during intense convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the formation and maintenance of the upper-level wind maximum which formed between 1800 and 2100 GMT, April 10, 1979, during the AVE-SESAME I period, when intense storms and tornadoes were experienced (the Red River Valley tornado outbreak). Radiosonde stations participating in AVE-SESAME I are plotted (centered on Oklahoma). National Meteorological Center radar summaries near the times of maximum convective activity are mapped, and height and isotach plots are given, where the formation of an upper-level wind maximum over Oklahoma is the most significant feature at 300 mb. The energy balance of the storm region is seen to change dramatically as the wind maximum forms. During much of its lifetime, the upper-level wind maximum is maintained by ageostrophic flow that produces cross-contour generation of kinetic energy and by the upward transport of midtropospheric energy. Two possible mechanisms for the ageostrophic flow are considered.

  10. Developing Energy Literacy in US Middle-Level Students Using the Geospatial Curriculum Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Peffer, Tamara E.; Kulo, Violet

    2013-06-01

    This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote energy literacy in an urban school district and examined factors that may account for energy content knowledge achievement. An energy literacy measure was administered to 1,044 eighth-grade students (ages 13-15) in an urban school district in Pennsylvania, USA. One group of students received instruction with a geospatial curriculum approach (geospatial technologies (GT)) and another group of students received 'business as usual' (BAU) curriculum instruction. For the GT students, findings revealed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest (p < 0.001) on knowledge of energy resource acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. The GT students had year-end energy content knowledge scores significantly higher than those who learned with the BAU curriculum (p < 0.001; effect size being large). A multiple regression found that prior energy content knowledge was the only significant predictor to the year-end energy content knowledge achievement for the GT students (p < 0.001). The findings support that the implementation of a geospatial curriculum approach that employs learning activities that focus on the spatial nature of energy resources can improve the energy literacy of urban middle-level education students.

  11. Non-chiral 2d CFT with integer energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, M.; Loran, F.

    2016-09-01

    The partition function of 2d conformal field theory is a modular invariant function. It is known that the partition function of a holomorphic CFT whose central charge is a multiple of 24 is a polynomial in the Klein function. In this paper, by using the medium temperature expansion we show that every modular invariant partition function can be mapped to a holomorphic partition function whose structure can be determined similarly. We use this map to study partition function of CFTs with half-integer left and right conformal weights. We show that the corresponding left and right central charges are necessarily multiples of 4. Furthermore, the degree of degeneracy of high-energy levels can be uniquely determined in terms of the degeneracy in the low energy states.

  12. Characterizing and modeling subarea-level energy transactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kavicky, J. A.

    1998-03-05

    This paper describes the application of an electrical network characterization method to an optimization model that is designed to simulate subarea-level energy transactions. The network characterization method determines subarea clusters of system buses that electrically respond to perturbations in a very similar manner. The method produces a reduced number of transmission constraints and preserves parallel path representations. The least-cost, linear programming (LP) formulation takes advantage of data reduction techniques to simplify model transmission constraints, while supporting parallel path system characteristics and energy tagging of subarea transactions. An overview of the proposed method describes the problem domain and key model features. The paper then presents two model applications that illustrate generator siting and line overload screening analyses.

  13. First-Principles Approach to Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a first principles method to calculate the energy level alignment between semiconductor band edges and reference energy levels at aqueous interfaces. This alignment is fundamental to understand the electrochemical characteristics of any semiconductor electrode in general and the potential for photocatalytic activity in particular. For example, in the search for new photo-catalytic materials, viable candidates must demonstrate both efficient absorption of the solar spectrum and an appropriate alignment of the band edge levels in the semiconductor to the redox levels for the target reactions. In our approach, the interface-specific contribution to the electrostatic step across the interface is evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics to sample the physical interface structure and the corresponding change in the electrostatic potential at the interface. The reference electronic levels in the semiconductor and in the water are calculated using the GW approach, which naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. Taken together, our calculations provide the alignment of the semiconductor valence band edge to the centroid of the highest occupied 1b1 level in water. The known relationship of the 1b1 level to the normal hydrogen electrode completes the connection to electrochemical levels. We discuss specific results for GaN, ZnO, and TiO2. The effect of interface structural motifs, such as different degrees of water dissociation, and of dynamical characteristics, will be presented together with available experimental data. Work supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  14. Accurate energy levels for singly ionized platinum (Pt II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, Joseph; Acquista, Nicolo; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Engleman, Rolf, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    New observations of the spectrum of Pt II have been made with hollow-cathode lamps. The region from 1032 to 4101 A was observed photographically with a 10.7-m normal-incidence spectrograph. The region from 2245 to 5223 A was observed with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Wavelength measurements were made for 558 lines. The uncertainties vary from 0.0005 to 0.004 A. From these measurements and three parity-forbidden transitions in the infrared, accurate values were determined for 28 even and 72 odd energy levels of Pt II.

  15. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  16. Level of independence of motor unit properties from neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pierotti, D J; Roy, R R; Hodgson, J A; Edgerton, V R

    1994-11-01

    Neuromuscular activity was eliminated in the tibialis anterior muscle of adult cats for 6 months by spinal isolation (SI), i.e., complete spinal cord transections at T-12-13 and at L-7-S-1, plus bilateral dorsal rhizotomy between the two transection sites. One motor unit from each muscle was isolated using ventral root teasing procedures and physiologically tested. The fibers belonging to each motor unit were visualized in PAS-stained sections by the loss of glycogen following prolonged repetitive stimulation. Qualitatively, the normal enzymatic interrelationships among fibers identified by myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged by SI. Generally, each motor unit from SI cats were of a single myosin immunohistochemical type. The same physiological motor unit types that typify control muscles were found in SI cats. In SI compared to control cats, there was approximately a 10% increase in the number of muscle fibers expressing fast myosin. Mean fiber activity levels of ATPase and SDH for a given fiber type (based on MHC antibody reactions) decreased by approximately 10% and 25%, whereas GPD activity increased approximately 35%. It is concluded that differential levels or patterns of activity are not essential to maintain the range of histochemical and physiological motor unit types found in the tibialis anterior of normal adult cats.

  17. Energy and antioxidant responses of pacific oyster exposed to trace levels of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Quéré, Claudie; Pernet, Fabrice; Pichereau, Vianney; Corporeau, Charlotte

    2015-09-21

    Here, we assess the physiological effects induced by environmental concentrations of pesticides in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Oysters were exposed for 14 d to trace levels of metconazole (0.2 and 2 μg/L), isoproturon (0.1 and 1 μg/L), or both in a mixture (0.2 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Exposure to trace levels of pesticides had no effect on the filtration rate, growth, and energy reserves of oysters. However, oysters exposed to metconazole and isoproturon showed an overactivation of the sensing-kinase AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), a key enzyme involved in energy metabolism and more particularly glycolysis. In the meantime, these exposed oysters showed a decrease in hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, whereas 2-DE proteomic revealed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (F-1,6-BP), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was up-regulated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in oysters exposed to the highest pesticide concentrations. Both pesticides enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity of oysters. Isoproturon enhanced catalase activity, and metconazole enhanced peroxiredoxin activity. Overall, our results show that environmental concentrations of metconazole or isoproturon induced subtle changes in the energy and antioxidant metabolisms of oysters.

  18. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  19. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  20. Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex.

    PubMed

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2012-12-21

    Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H(2) is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H(2) (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H(2) should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H(2)-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H(2)-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H(2) at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 a(o). The corresponding well depth is -173 cm(-1). The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H(2)-CS and ortho-H(2)-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm(-1) and 49.9 cm(-1), respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H(2)-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  1. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  2. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  3. Rotational Energies in Various Torsional Levels of CH_2DOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.; Hilali, A. El; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Klee, S.

    2012-06-01

    Using an approach accounting for the hindered internal rotation of a monodeuterated methyl group, an analysis of the torsional spectrum of the monodeuterated species of methanol CH_2DOH has been carried out recently and led to the assignment of 76 torsional subbands in its microwave, FIR, and IR spectra. Although this approach also allowed us to account for subband centers, the rotational structure of the torsional subbands is not well understood yet. In this paper, we will deal with the rotational energies of CH_2DOH. Analyses of the rotational structure of the available subbands^b have been performed using the polynomial-type expansion introduced in the case of the normal species of methanol. For each subband, FIR or IR transitions and a-type microwave lines, within the lower torsional level, were fitted. The frequencies of the latters were taken from previous investigations or from new measurements carried out from 50 to 950 GHz with the submillimeterwave solid state spectrometer in Lille. Subbands involving lower levels with v_t=0 and K ≥ 3 could be satisfactorily analyzed. For levels characterized by lower K-values, the expansion fails. In the case of the K=1, v_t=1 level, the frequencies of a-type microwave transitions involving the lower member of the K-type doublet cannot be well reproduced. For K=0 levels with v_t=1 and 2, a large number of terms is needed in the expansion. We will try to understand why the rotational energies of these levels cannot be reproduced. The results of the analyses will be compared to those obtained with a global approach based on the rotation-torsion Hamiltonian of the molecule. [2] El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309. [3] Ioli, Moruzzi, Riminucci, Strumia, Moraes, Winnewisser, and Winnewisser, J. Mol. Spec. 171 (1995) 130. [4] Quade and Suenram, J. Chem. Phys. 73 (1980) 1127; and Su and Quade, J. Mol. Spec. 134 (1989) 290. [5] Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 256 (2009

  4. Kinetic energy budgets during the life cycle of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic-scale data at three- and six-hour intervals are employed to study the relationship between changing kinetic energy variables and the life cycles of two severe squall lines. The kinetic energy budgets indicate a high degree of kinetic energy generation, especially pronounced near the jet-stream level. Energy losses in the storm environment are due to the transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion; large-scale upward vertical motion carries aloft the kinetic energy generated by storm activity at lower levels. In general, the time of maximum storm intensity is also the time of maximum energy conversion and transport.

  5. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA.

  6. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  7. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, W.; Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y.; Onoda, S.; Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y.; Shikata, S.; Makino, T.; Koka, M.; Hanaizumi, O.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  8. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  9. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  10. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  11. Identifying Energy-Efficient Concurrency Levels using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis-Maury, M; Singh, K; Blagojevic, F; Nikolopoulos, D S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; McKee, S A

    2007-07-23

    Multicore microprocessors have been largely motivated by the diminishing returns in performance and the increased power consumption of single-threaded ILP microprocessors. With the industry already shifting from multicore to many-core microprocessors, software developers must extract more thread-level parallelism from applications. Unfortunately, low power-efficiency and diminishing returns in performance remain major obstacles with many cores. Poor interaction between software and hardware, and bottlenecks in shared hardware structures often prevent scaling to many cores, even in applications where a high degree of parallelism is potentially available. In some cases, throwing additional cores at a problem may actually harm performance and increase power consumption. Better use of otherwise limitedly beneficial cores by software components such as hypervisors and operating systems can improve system-wide performance and reliability, even in cases where power consumption is not a main concern. In response to these observations, we evaluate an approach to throttle concurrency in parallel programs dynamically. We throttle concurrency to levels with higher predicted efficiency from both performance and energy standpoints, and we do so via machine learning, specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). One advantage of using ANNs over similar techniques previously explored is that the training phase is greatly simplified, thereby reducing the burden on the end user. Using machine learning in the context of concurrency throttling is novel. We show that ANNs are effective for identifying energy-efficient concurrency levels in multithreaded scientific applications, and we do so using physical experimentation on a state-of-the-art quad-core Xeon platform.

  12. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  13. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Allie K.; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system, however mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. Here we show at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila CNS neuropil is devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrate the neuropil coordinate with synaptogenesis and a strocyte ablation reduces synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses form in earnest, the GABA transporter, GAT, is up-regulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor (GABABR1/2) signaling in astrocytes leads to decreased astrocytic GAT levels. Interestingly, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABABR1/2 signaling suppresses mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling, and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity. PMID:25151265

  14. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  15. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  16. The molecular potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of methyl fluoride. Part II.

    PubMed

    Manson, Steven A; Law, Mark M; Atkinson, Ian A; Thomson, Grant A

    2006-06-28

    New analytical bending and stretching, ground electronic state, potential energy surfaces for CH(3)F are reported. The surfaces are expressed in bond-length, bond-angle internal coordinates. The four-dimensional stretching surface is an accurate, least squares fit to over 2000 symmetrically unique ab initio points calculated at the CCSD(T) level. Similarly, the five-dimensional bending surface is a fit to over 1200 symmetrically unique ab initio points. This is an important first stage towards a full nine-dimensional potential energy surface for the prototype CH(3)F molecule. Using these surfaces, highly excited stretching and (separately) bending vibrational energy levels of CH(3)F are calculated variationally using a finite basis representation method. The method uses the exact vibrational kinetic energy operator derived for XY(3)Z systems by Manson and Law (preceding paper, Part I, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, DOI: 10.1039/b603106d). We use the full C(3v) symmetry and the computer codes are designed to use an arbitrary potential energy function. Ultimately, these results will be used to design a compact basis for fully coupled stretch-bend calculations of the vibrational energy levels of the CH(3)F system.

  17. Energy transfer and energy level decay processes of Er3+ in water-free tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Laercio; Rhonehouse, Daniel; Nguyen, Dan T.; Zong, Jie; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Jackson, Stuart D.

    2015-12-01

    This report details the fundamental spectroscopic properties of a new class of water-free tellurite glasses studied for future applications in mid-infrared light generation. The fundamental excited state decay processes relating to the 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition in singly Er3+-doped Tellurium Zinc Lanthanum glass have been investigated using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The excited state dynamics was analyzed for Er2O3 concentrations between 0.5 mol% and 4 mol%. Selective laser excitation of the 4I11/2 energy level at 972 nm and selective laser excitation of the 4I13/2 energy level at 1485 nm has established that in a similar way to other Er3+-doped glasses, a strong energy-transfer upconversion by way of a dipole-dipole interaction between two excited erbium ions in the 4I13/2 level populates the 4I11/2 upper laser level of the 3 μm transition. The 4I13/2 and 4I11/2 energy levels emitted luminescence with peaks located at 1532 nm and 2734 nm respectively with luminescence efficiencies of 100% and 8% for the higher (4 mol.%) concentration sample. Results from numerical simulations showed that a population inversion is reached at a threshold pumping intensity of ∼57 kW cm-2 for a CW laser pump at 976 nm for [Er2O3] = 2 mol.%.

  18. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities tat the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during Fiscal Year 1996.

  20. Exploring human epileptic activity at the single-neuron level.

    PubMed

    Tankus, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Today, localization of the seizure focus heavily relies on EEG monitoring (scalp or intracranial). However, current technology enables much finer resolutions. The activity of hundreds of single neurons in the human brain can now be simultaneously explored before, during, and after a seizure or in association with an interictal discharge. This technology opens up new horizons to understanding epilepsy at a completely new level. This review therefore begins with a brief description of the basis of the technology, the microelectrodes, and the setup for their implantation in patients with epilepsy. Using these electrodes, recent studies provide novel insights into both the time domain and firing patterns of epileptic activity of single neurons. In the time domain, seizure-related activity may occur even minutes before seizure onset (in its current, EEG-based definition). Seizure-related neuronal interactions exhibit complex heterogeneous dynamics. In the seizure-onset zone, changes in firing patterns correlate with cell loss; in the penumbra, neurons maintain their spike stereotypy during a seizure. Hence, investigation of the extracellular electrical activity is expected to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease; it may, in the future, serve for a more accurate localization of the seizure focus; and it may also be employed to predict the occurrence of seizures prior to their behavioral manifestation in order to administer automatic therapeutic interventions.

  1. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  2. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  3. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  4. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games (p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  5. Radiative lifetime and energy of the low-energy isomeric level in 229Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalya, E. V.; Schneider, Christian; Jeet, Justin; Hudson, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the range of the radiative lifetime and energy of the anomalous, low-energy 3 /2+(7.8 ±0.5 eV) state in the 229Th nucleus. Our phenomenological calculations are based on the available experimental data for the intensities of M 1 and E 2 transitions between excited levels of the 229Th nucleus in the Kπ[N nZΛ ] =5 /2+[633 ] and 3 /2+[631 ] rotational bands. We also discuss the influence of certain branching coefficients, which affect the currently accepted measured energy of the isomeric state. From this work, we establish a favored region, 0.66 ×106seV3/ω3≤τ ≤2.2 ×106seV3/ω3 , where the transition lifetime τ as a function of transition energy ω should lie at roughly the 95% confidence level. Together with the result of Beck et al. [LLNL-PROC-415170 (2009)], we establish a favored area where transition lifetime and energy should lie at roughly the 90% confidence level. We also suggest new nuclear physics measurements, which would significantly reduce the ambiguity in the present data.

  6. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  7. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  8. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  9. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  10. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  11. Energy Use and Power Levels in New Monitors and Personal Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, Judy A.; Homan, Gregory K.; Mahajan, Akshay; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-07-23

    Our research was conducted in support of the EPA ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program, whose goal is to reduce the amount of electricity consumed by office equipment in the U.S. The most energy-efficient models in each office equipment category are eligible for the ENERGY STAR label, which consumers can use to identify and select efficient products. As the efficiency of each category improves over time, the ENERGY STAR criteria need to be revised accordingly. The purpose of this study was to provide reliable data on the energy consumption of the newest personal computers and monitors that the EPA can use to evaluate revisions to current ENERGY STAR criteria as well as to improve the accuracy of ENERGY STAR program savings estimates. We report the results of measuring the power consumption and power management capabilities of a sample of new monitors and computers. These results will be used to improve estimates of program energy savings and carbon emission reductions, and to inform rev isions of the ENERGY STAR criteria for these products. Our sample consists of 35 monitors and 26 computers manufactured between July 2000 and October 2001; it includes cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, Macintosh and Intel-architecture computers, desktop and laptop computers, and integrated computer systems, in which power consumption of the computer and monitor cannot be measured separately. For each machine we measured power consumption when off, on, and in each low-power level. We identify trends in and opportunities to reduce power consumption in new personal computers and monitors. Our results include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, well below the current ENERGY STAR criteria for sleep power consumption. These very low sleep power results mean that energy consumed when monitors are off or in active use has become more important in terms of contribution to the overall unit energy consumption (UEC

  12. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  13. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Allie K; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R

    2014-10-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system; however, mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. We found that at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila melanogaster CNS neuropil was devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrated the neuropil coordinately with synaptogenesis, and astrocyte ablation reduced synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses formed in earnest, GAT was upregulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor 1 and 2 (GABA(B)R1/2) signaling in astrocytes led to a decrease in astrocytic GAT. Notably, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABA(B)R1/2 signaling suppressed mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal that astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity.

  14. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  15. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  16. Energy Conservation Guidelines - 1: District Level Plan for Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Colavita, Leon J., Ed.

    Presented are suggestions written to help local school districts develop an energy conservation program in order to minimize budget problems brought about by rising energy costs. Program areas covered include formation of the district energy conservation team, assignment of duties, operation of energy audit systems, and evaluation procedures. To…

  17. THE HIGH-ENERGY IMPULSIVE GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, K. G.; Moraal, H.; Shea, M. A.

    2012-12-20

    We have studied short-lived (21 minute average duration), highly anisotropic pulses of cosmic rays that constitute the first phase of 10 large ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and which extend to rigidities in the range 5-20 GV. We provide a set of constraints that must be met by any putative acceleration mechanism for this type of solar-energetic-particle (SEP) event. The pulses usually have very short rise-times (three to five minutes) at all rigidities, and exhibit the remarkable feature that the intensity drops precipitously by 50% to 70% from the maximum within another three to five minutes. Both the rising and falling phases exhibit velocity dispersion, which indicates that there are particles with rigidities in the range 1 < P (GV) < 3 in the beam, and the evidence is that there is little scattering en route from the Sun. We name these events the high-energy impulsive ground-level enhancement (HEI GLE). We argue that the time-dependence observed at Earth at {approx}5 GV is a close approximation to that of the SEP pulse injected into the open heliospheric magnetic field in the vicinity of the Sun. We conclude that the temporal characteristics of the HEI GLE impose nine constraints on any putative acceleration process. Two of the HEI GLEs are preceded by short-lived, fast-rising neutron and >90 MeV gamma-ray bursts, indicating that freshly accelerated SEPs had impinged on higher-density matter in the chromosphere prior to the departure of the SEP pulse for Earth. This study was based on an updated archive of the 71 GLEs in the historic record, which is now available for public use.

  18. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  19. Steering quantum transitions between three crossing energy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S. S.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2008-02-15

    We calculate the propagator and the transition probabilities for a coherently driven three-state quantum system. The energies of the three states change linearly in time, whereas the interactions between them are pulse shaped. We derive a highly accurate analytic approximation by assuming independent pairwise Landau-Zener transitions occurring instantly at the relevant avoided crossings, and adiabatic evolution elsewhere. Quantum interferences are identified, which occur due to different possible evolution paths in Hilbert space between an initial and a final state. A detailed comparison with numerical results for Gaussian-shaped pulses demonstrates a remarkable accuracy of the analytic approximation. We use the analytic results to derive estimates for the half-width of the excitation profile, and for the parameters required for creation of a maximally coherent superposition of the three states. These results are of potential interest in ladder climbing in alkali-metal atoms by chirped laser pulses, in quantum rotors, in transitions between Zeeman sublevels of a J=1 level in a magnetic field, and in control of entanglement of a pair of spin-1/2 particles. The results for the three-state system can be generalized, without essential difficulties, to higher dimensions.

  20. Economic evaluations of solar thermal energy systems using a levelized energy cost approach

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    This paper discusses a Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) approach to economic evaluations of solar thermal power plants. Levelized Energy Costs are life cycle costs that include a plant's capital cost, total operation and maintenance cost, taxes, interest, and return on investment. A LEC approach provides an economically correct treatment of these costs and allows an evaluation of alternative solar thermal power systems. In this paper, general economic principals relating to LEC calculations such as the time value of money, discount rate, net present value, and annualized cost are defined and explained. The use of LEC analyses in choosing between alternatives is discussed. Then the simplified approach for calculating an LEC using the standard economic assumptions for solar thermal applications is presented. Finally, a way to easily carry out the LEC calculation on a microcomputer is given.

  1. Interacting Electrons in Parabolic Quantum Dots:. Energy Levels, Addition Energies, and Charge Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Michael; Siewert, Jens; Vojta, Thomas

    We investigate the properties of interacting electrons in a parabolic confinement. To this end we numerically diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the Hartree-Fock based diagonalization method which is related to the configuration interaction approach. We study different types of interactions, Coulomb as well as short range. In addition to the ground state energy we calculate the spatial charge distribution and compare the results to those of the classical calculation. We find that a sufficiently strong screened Coulomb interaction produces energy level bunching for classical as well as for quantum-mechanical dots. Bunching in the quantum-mechanical system occurs due to an interplay of kinetic and interaction energy, moreover, it is observed well before reaching the limit of a Wigner crystal. It also turns out that the shell structure of classical and quantum mechanical spatial charge distributions is quite similar.

  2. Interacting Electrons in Parabolic Quantum Dots:. Energy Levels, Addition Energies, and Charge Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Michael; Siewert, Jens; Vojta, Thomas

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the properties of interacting electrons in a parabolic confinement. To this end we numerically diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the Hartree-Fock based diagonalization method which is related to the configuration interaction approach. We study different types of interactions, Coulomb as well as short range. In addition to the ground state energy we calculate the spatial charge distribution and compare the results to those of the classical calculation. We find that a sufficiently strong screened Coulomb interaction produces energy level bunching for classical as well as for quantum-mechanical dots. Bunching in the quantum-mechanical system occurs due to an interplay of kinetic and interaction energy, moreover, it is observed well before reaching the limit of a Wigner crystal. It also turns out that the shell structure of classical and quantum mechanical spatial charge distributions is quite similar.

  3. Energy levels distribution in supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, E. Castán, H.; García, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.

    2015-01-12

    In the attempt to form an intermediate band in the bandgap of silicon substrates to give it the capability to absorb infrared radiation, we studied the deep levels in supersaturated silicon with titanium. The technique used to characterize the energy levels was the thermal admittance spectroscopy. Our experimental results showed that in samples with titanium concentration just under Mott limit there was a relationship among the activation energy value and the capture cross section value. This relationship obeys to the well known Meyer-Neldel rule, which typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like carrier capture/emission in deep levels, and it is generally observed in disordered systems. The obtained characteristic Meyer-Neldel parameters were Tmn = 176 K and kTmn = 15 meV. The energy value could be associated to the typical energy of the phonons in the substrate. The almost perfect adjust of all experimental data to the same straight line provides further evidence of the validity of the Meyer Neldel rule, and may contribute to obtain a deeper insight on the ultimate meaning of this phenomenon.

  4. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  5. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  6. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  7. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  8. Myocardial signal density levels and beam-hardening artifact attenuation using dual-energy computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston A; Carrascosa, Patricia; Cipriano, Silvina; de Zan, Macarena; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Capunay, Carlos; Cury, Ricardo C

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of myocardial perfusion using single-energy (SE) imaging is influenced by beam-hardening artifacts (BHA). We sought to explore the ability of dual-energy (DE) imaging to attenuate the presence of BHA. Myocardial signal density (SD) was evaluated in 2240 myocardial segments (112 for each energy level) and in 320 American Heart Association segments among the SE group. Compared to DE reconstructions at the best energy level, SE acquisitions showed no significant differences overall regarding myocardial SD or signal-to-noise ratio. The segments most commonly affected by BHA showed significantly lower myocardial SD at the lowest energy levels, progressively normalizing at higher energy levels.

  9. Determining cleanup levels in bioremediation: Quantitative structure activity relationship techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arulgnanendran, V.R.J.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    An important feature in the process of planning and initiating bioremediation is the quantification of the toxicity of either an individual chemical or a group of chemicals when multiple chemicals are involved. A laboratory protocol was developed to test the toxicity of single chemicals and mixtures of organic chemicals in a soil medium. Portions of these chemicals are used as a training set to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. These predictive models are tested using the chemicals in the testing set, i.e., the remaining chemicals. Moreover mixtures with 10 contaminants in each mixture are tested experimentally to determine joint toxicity for mixtures of chemicals. Using the concepts of Toxic Units, Additivity Index, and Mixture Toxicity Index, the laboratory results are tested for additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the contaminants. These concepts are further validated on mixtures containing eight chemicals that are tested in the laboratory. In addition to the use of the predictive models in evaluating cleanup levels for hazardous waste locations, they are useful to predict microbial toxicity in soils of new chemicals from a congeneric group acting by the same mode of toxicity. These models are applicable when the contaminants act singly or jointly in a mixture.

  10. Energy transfer and energy level decay processes in Tm{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Laercio; Lousteau, Joris; Milanese, Daniel; Scarpignato, Gerardo C.; Jackson, Stuart D.

    2012-03-15

    The primary excited state decay and energy transfer processes in singly Tm{sup 3+}-doped TeO{sub 2}:ZnO:Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}:GeO{sub 2} (TZBG) glass relating to the {sup 3}F{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}{approx}1.85 {mu}m laser transition have been investigated in detail using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Selective laser excitation of the {sup 3}H{sub 4} manifold at 794 nm, the {sup 3}H{sub 5} manifold at 1220 nm, and {sup 3}F{sub 4} manifold at 1760 nm has established that the {sup 3}H{sub 5} manifold is entirely quenched by multiphonon relaxation in tellurite glass. The luminescence from the {sup 3}H{sub 4} manifold with an emission peak at 1465 nm suffers strong suppression due to cross relaxation that populates the {sup 3}F{sub 4} level with a near quadratic dependence on the Tm{sup 3+} concentration. The {sup 3}F{sub 4} lifetime becomes longer as the Tm{sup 3+} concentration increases due to energy migration and decreases to 2.92 ms when [Tm{sup 3+}] = 4 mol. % as a result of quasi-resonant energy transfer to free OH{sup -} radicals present in the glass at concentrations between 1 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. Judd-Ofelt theory in conjunction with absorption measurements were used to obtain the radiative lifetimes and branching ratios of the energy levels located below 25 000 cm{sup -1}. The spectroscopic parameters, the cross relaxation and Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}F{sub 4}) {yields} OH{sup -} energy transfer rates were used in a numerical model for laser transitions emitting at 2335 nm and 1865 nm.

  11. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  12. Highlands County Energy Lessons. Middle School Level - Science, Mathematics, Social Studies, Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; Farmer, Richard

    Middle school energy skills (Enerskills) and activities (Eneractivities) are provided in seven sections. Areas addressed include: (1) locating energy information using telephone books, dictionaries, card catalogs, and readers' guides; (2) writing letters for energy information; (3) energy and food (food intake/human performance, calories/energy);…

  13. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  14. Analytic energy-level densities of separable harmonic oscillators including approximate hindered rotor corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döntgen, M.

    2016-09-01

    Energy-level densities are key for obtaining various chemical properties. In chemical kinetics, energy-level densities are used to predict thermochemistry and microscopic reaction rates. Here, an analytic energy-level density formulation is derived using inverse Laplace transformation of harmonic oscillator partition functions. Anharmonic contributions to the energy-level density are considered approximately using a literature model for the transition from harmonic to free motions. The present analytic energy-level density formulation for rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator systems is validated against the well-studied CO+O˙ H system. The approximate hindered rotor energy-level density corrections are validated against the well-studied H2O2 system. The presented analytic energy-level density formulation gives a basis for developing novel numerical simulation schemes for chemical processes.

  15. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L = cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF = N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu3 + in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu3 + ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of 5D0 and triplet state contracts.

  16. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts.

  17. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts. PMID:26802538

  18. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An

  19. Hadron intensity and energy spectrum at 4380 m above level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cananov, S. D.; Chadranyan, E. K.; Khizanishvili, L. A.; Ladaria, N. K.; Roinishvili, N. N.

    1985-01-01

    The flux value of hadrons with E (sup gamma) h or = 5 TeV, where E (sup gamma) h or = is the energy transferred into electromagnetic component is presented. It is shown that the energy spectrum slope beta of hadrons with E h or = 20 TeV is equal to 1.9.

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  1. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  2. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  3. The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakcı; Kitiş, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between 8 and 16 years participated in the study. The physical activity level of cases was evaluated with a physical activity diary (PAD) and one-mile run/walk test (OMR-WT). No difference was found between the PAD and the OMR-WT results of low vision and blind children and adolescents. The visually impaired children and adolescents were detected not to participate in vigorous physical activity. A difference was found in favor of low vision boys in terms of mild, moderate activities and OMR-WT durations. However, no difference was found between physical activity levels of blind girls and boys. The results of our study suggested that the physical activity level of visually impaired children and adolescents was low, and gender affected physical activity in low vision children and adolescents.

  4. New energy levels of atomic niobium by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, I. K.; Başar, Gö; Er, A.; Güzelçimen, F.; Başar, Gü; Kröger, S.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was applied in order to find new energy levels of the niobium atom. A continuous wave tuneable titanium-sapphire laser in the wavelength range from 750 to 865 nm and a hollow-cathode lamp were used. We discovered four energy levels of even parity, three lying levels below 19 000 cm-1 and one at much higher energy. Additionally hyperfine structure data of six levels of odd parity were determined.

  5. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  6. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  7. Award Winning Energy Education Activities for Elementary and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Helen H., Ed.

    This publication contains descriptions of the winning entries to the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Teacher Participation Contest conducted in 1976. This was a nationwide contest for the design of activities around energy themes at any grade level, K-12. The ten winning entries described here are: (1) Energy Units for Primary Grades;…

  8. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  9. Measuring Activity Level with Actometers: Reliability, Validity, and Arm Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    1983-01-01

    The gross-motor activity of 27 three- and four- year-olds was assessed through teacher ratings, parent responses to the activity scale of the Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory, and data from uncalibrated actometers worn by children during free play. Activity scores composited across multiple actometers had high reliability and correlated…

  10. Enhanced parasympathetic activity of sportive women is paradoxically associated to enhanced resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Vicidomini, C; Viggiano, An; Tafuri, D; Cozza, V; Cibelli, G; Devastato, A; De Luca, B; Monda, M

    2012-08-16

    The resting energy expenditure and the adaptation of the autonomic nervous system induced by sport activities in sedentary women and in female professional basketball players have been studied. Resting energy expenditure, body composition and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in resting energy expenditure and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that resting energy expenditure is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure.

  11. City-Level Energy Decision Making. Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, Alexandra; Day, Megan; Doris, Elizabeth; Mathur, Shivani; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2015-07-08

    The Cities-LEAP technical report, City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities, explores how a sample of cities incorporates data into making energy-related decisions. This report provides the foundation for forthcoming components of the Cities-LEAP project that will help cities improve energy decision making by mapping specific city energy or climate policies and actions to measurable impacts and results.

  12. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  13. ORECCL-Oak Ridge energy crop county level database

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Allison, L.J.; Becker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    A database on energy crop potential is being developed. This database will provide, for every county in the United States, information on the availability and cost of cropland and the yields, production costs and projected prices of energy crops. The database will be an EXCEL{copyright} spreadsheet that can be downloaded from an Internet site. The 35 variables in the database are described in the paper.

  14. Energy Levels and the de Broglie Relationship for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2008-01-01

    In this article, four examples of possible lessons on energy levels for high school are described: a particle in a box, a finite square well, the hydrogen atom and a harmonic oscillator. The energy levels are deduced through the use of the steady-state condition and the de Broglie relationship. In particular, the harmonic oscillator energy levels…

  15. Training courses on ''alternative energy technologies'' for middle level workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    The Government of India has given priority to energy in the Sixth Plan. The Department of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy under Government of India and State Units connected with Alternative Energy Sources are taking all possible steps to promote the cause and use of Alternative Energy Sources like Solar, Wind, Biogas etc.. Besides several private Engineering concerns like Central Electronics Ltd., Shahibabad; Solaren Technologz Pvt. Ltd., Bombay; Avanti Fastners Ltd., New Delhi; Jyoti Ltd., Baroda; Voltas Ltd., Bombay; Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology, Allahabad; ORP Ltd., Gazipur etc. are either manufacturing or marketing alternative energy sources products like Solar Cookers, Solar heating systems, Windmills, Windturbines etc.. Kahdi and Village Industries Commission is already involved in a big way in installing Biogas Plants throughout the Country. As the use of Alternative Energy Sources is on the increase, the needfor qualified technical personnel to undertake maintenance and repairs is necessary. There are hundreds of Polytechnic offering Diploma Courses in traditional disciplines like Electrical, Mechanical, Civil etc.. Also Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) offer Certificate Courses in branches like Fitter, Welder, Draftsman etc..

  16. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  17. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  18. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    PubMed

    Rácz, Beáta; Dušková, Michaela; Jandíková, Hana; Hill, Martin; Vondra, Karel; Stárka, Luboslav

    2015-01-01

    The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48±2.99 years; average BMI 21.3±1.3 kg/m2); they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre). Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium), however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels. PMID:26654802

  19. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  20. State-Level Activities: A Plan for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Robert L.

    A variety of specific activities that have been successfully undertaken by the Council for American Private Education (CAPE) are suggested for state members. The activities are related to developing private school communications within states and developing working relationships with local, metropolitan, and state governments and their agencies.…

  1. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  2. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  3. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  4. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  5. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  6. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  7. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ν_4 and 2ν_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4ν_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2ν_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3ν_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ν_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ν_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ν_3 + ν_4 combination.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  9. Body size and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-09-01

    Few studies of physical activity and energy expenditure have been carried out in the Pacific Region. In this study, the physical activity levels (PALs) of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle by age group and occupation category were determined by a 3 day activity recall diary method. The period of observation included the previous Sunday, as a representative non-working day. A volunteer sample of 332 Cook Islanders aged 22 to 86 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga. Older adults are significantly less active than younger adults during the working week, but not during the weekend. Males are more physically active than females during the working week, but not on weekends. The mean weekday PAL of males engaged in traditional subsistence or who are unemployed is 1.88, while the mean weekday PAL of females engaged in traditional subsistence or who are housewives is 1.69. Male manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.96, while female manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.67. The weekday PAL values for those employed in clerical and administrative work are 1.82 (males) and 1.64 (females), while values for professionals are 1.76 (males) and 1.65 (females). Weekday physical activity is negatively associated with age, in nonlinear fashion. The PALs of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle is lower in older age groups but does not vary by occupation category. PMID:11517738

  10. A Quantum Model of Atoms (the Energy Levels of Atoms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafie, Francois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the model for all atoms which was developed on the same basis as Bohr's model for the hydrogen atom. Calculates the radii and the energies of the orbits. Demonstrates how the model obeys the de Broglie's hypothesis that the moving electron exhibits both wave and particle properties. (Author/ASK)

  11. Orbital Energy Levels in Molecular Hydrogen. A Simple Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Christopher J.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the energetics involved in the formation of molecular hydrogen using concepts that should be familiar to students beginning the study of molecular orbital theory. Emphasized are experimental data on ionization energies. Included are two-electron atomic and molecular systems. (CW)

  12. Teaching Field Concept and Potential Energy at A-Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Argues for a greater emphasis on the reality of fields in electronics and gravitation instruction. Advocates that the potential energy in a system be regarded as stored in the field rather than in the material bodies of the system. Provides a rationale and examples for this position. (ML)

  13. Quantum mechanics on a Möbius ring: Energy levels, symmetry, optical transitions, and level splitting in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehao; Ram-Mohan, L. R.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the quantum mechanical energy levels of an electron constrained to motion on a nanoscale Möbius ring by solving the Schrödinger equation on the curved surface. The dimensions of the ring in terms of the lateral and transverse parameters {u,v} for the Möbius ring allow us to identify the quantum numbers for the levels by (nu,nv). We show that the energy levels can still be labeled using the quantum numbers of the cylindrical ring of the same dimensions. While the Hamiltonian has invariance under parity in parameter space, the rotational symmetry about any axis in configuration space is lost, so that the double degeneracy of energy levels for azimuthal quantum number nu≥1, that exists in cylindrical rings, is lifted by a small amount in the Möbius ring. The pattern of level splitting has been identified in terms of the number of twists σ to be 2nu=sσ where s is an integer. The scaling properties of the energy levels with respect to the dimensions of the ring are derived; using these properties, our numerical results which are given for a specific geometry can be extended to rings of other commensurate dimensions. The absence of rotational invariance for the Möbius ring manifests itself through the orbital angular momentum Lz not commuting with the Hamiltonian. Its expectation values are found to have nearly integral as well as half-integral values of ℏ, and its variances are small. The energy levels with half-integral azimuthal quantum numbers (nu) are also close to the approximate formula for the equivalent cylindrical ring, provided such half-integral quantum numbers are allowed for the cylindrical geometry. The Zeeman splitting of the energy levels in an external magnetic field is displayed, together with wave functions at a level anticrossing. The optical transitions between electronic states on the Möbius ring are obtained, and a table of oscillator strengths is provided. The results for energy levels for rings with multiple twists are

  14. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  15. Activity Level from Birth through First Grade: Stability or Inversion of Intensity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses regarding activity level: (1) early appearing stability; and (2) inversion of intensity. Measured behavioral intensity or activity level six times between the neonatal period and first grade. Results indicated that parent ratings supported activity level stability. Observations revealed that intense neonatal activity…

  16. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  17. Energy levels of isoelectronic impurities by large scale LDA calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2002-11-22

    Isoelectronic impurity states are localized states induced by stoichiometric single atom substitution in bulk semiconductor. Photoluminescence spectra indicate deep impurity levels of 0.5 to 0.9eV above the top of valence band for systems like: GaN:As, GaN:P, CdS:Te, ZnS:Te. Previous calculations based on small supercells seemingly confirmed these experimental results. However, the current ab initio calculations based on thousand atom supercells indicate that the impurity levels of the above systems are actually much shallower(0.04 to 0.23 eV), and these impurity levels should be compared with photoluminescence excitation spectra, not photoluminescence spectra.

  18. Atomic level spatial variations of energy states along graphene edges.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jamie H; Lin, Yung-Chang; He, Kuang; Koshino, Masanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-11-12

    The local atomic bonding of carbon atoms around the edge of graphene is examined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High-resolution 2D maps of the EELS combined with atomic resolution annular dark field STEM images enables correlations between the carbon K-edge EELS and the atomic structure. We show that energy states of graphene edges vary across individual atoms along the edge according to their specific C-C bonding, as well as perpendicular to the edge. Unique spectroscopic peaks from the EELS are assigned to specific C atoms, which enables unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint identification for the atomic structure of graphene edges with unprecedented detail.

  19. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

  20. Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, M. C.

    1980-12-01

    Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects, and a list of projects having multiple utility participants. Project categories include solar heating and cooling of buildings, wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric power, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, process heat, and ocean energy conversion.

  1. Human hair neutron activation analysis: Analysis on population level, mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, L. I.; Kist, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia.

  2. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  3. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  4. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  5. NEU3 activity enhances EGFR activation without affecting EGFR expression and acts on its sialylation levels.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forcella, Matilde; Riva, Alice; Difrancesco, Carlotta; Molinari, Francesca; Martin, Vittoria; Papini, Nadia; Bernasconi, Barbara; Nonnis, Simona; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Monti, Eugenio; Fusi, Paola; Frattini, Milo

    2015-08-01

    Several studies performed over the last decade have focused on the role of sialylation in the progression of cancer and, in particular, on the association between deregulation of sialidases and tumorigenic transformation. The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is often deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was shown that this enzyme co-immunoprecipitates in HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the molecular target of most recent monoclonal antibody-based therapies against CRC. To investigate the role of NEU3 sialidase on EGFR deregulation in CRC, we first collected data on NEU3 gene expression levels from a library of commercial colon cell lines, demonstrating that NEU3 transcription is upregulated in these cell lines. We also found EGFR to be hyperphosphorylated in all cell lines, with the exception of SW620 cells and the CCD841 normal intestinal cell line. By comparing the effects induced by overexpression of either the wild-type or the inactive mutant form of NEU3 on EGFR, we demonstrated that the active form of NEU3 enhanced receptor activation without affecting EGFR mRNA or protein expression. Moreover, through western blots and mass spectrometry analysis, we found that EGFR immunoprecipitated from cells overexpressing active NEU3, unlike the receptor from mock cells and cells overexpressing inactive NEU3, is desialylated. On the whole, our data demonstrate that, besides the already reported indirect EGFR activation through GM3, sialidase NEU3 could also play a role on EGFR activation through its desialylation. PMID:25922362

  6. Enzymatic versus inorganic oxygen reduction catalysts: comparison of the energy levels in a free-energy scheme.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Christian H; Rossmeisl, Jan; Nørskov, Jens K

    2010-04-19

    In this paper, we present a method to directly compare the energy levels of intermediates in enzymatic and inorganic oxygen reduction catalysts. We initially describe how the energy levels of a Pt(111) catalyst, operating at pH = 0, are obtained. By a simple procedure, we then convert the energy levels of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) models obtained at physiological pH = 7 to the energy levels at pH = 0, which allows for comparison. Furthermore, we illustrate how different bias voltages will affect the free-energy landscapes of the catalysts. This allows us to determine the so-called theoretical overpotential of each system, which is shown to be significantly lower for the enzymatic catalysts compared to the inorganic Pt(111) catalyst. Finally, we construct theoretical polarization curves for the CcO models, in order to illustrate the effect of the low overpotentials on turnover rates per site. PMID:20380458

  7. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  8. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  9. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  10. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  11. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  12. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  13. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  14. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  15. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  16. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenberg, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP`s activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states` and compacts` siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo : not just for energy levels.

    SciTech Connect

    Nollett, K. M.; Physics

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo and realistic interactions can provide well-motivated vertices and overlaps for DWBA analyses of reactions. Given an interaction in vaccum, there are several computational approaches to nuclear systems, as you have been hearing: No-core shell model with Lee-Suzuki or Bloch-Horowitz for Hamiltonian Coupled clusters with G-matrix interaction Density functional theory, granted an energy functional derived from the interaction Quantum Monte Carlo - Variational Monte Carlo Green's function Monte Carlo. The last two work directly with a bare interaction and bare operators and describe the wave function without expanding in basis functions, so they have rather different sets of advantages and disadvantages from the others. Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) is built on a sophisticated Ansatz for the wave function, built on shell model like structure modified by operator correlations. Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) uses an operator method to project the true ground state out of a reasonable guess wave function.

  18. Radon and radon daughter levels in energy efficient housing.

    PubMed

    McGregor, R G; Walker, W B; Létourneau, E G

    1985-10-01

    Radon and radon daughter concentrations have been measured in 33 "energy-efficient" homes in a small subdivision in Kanata, Ontario. Integrated radon measurements were determined over three month periods for a year using solid state nuclear track detectors. Radon and radon daughter grab sample determinations were made during corresponding periods and confirm the distributions of the integrated radon measurements. Annual average individual home radon concentrations show an 8 fold concentration range between homes. This variability in radon concentrations is not reflected in the range of air exchange rates for the homes. A distinct seasonal variation is noted for the median values of the radon and radon daughter concentrations and the equilibrium factor F in the dwellings.

  19. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.185 Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction. (a) General/consumption reduction. If a PHA undertakes energy conservation measures that are... for energy conservation/rate reduction. 990.185 Section 990.185 Housing and Urban...

  20. Quantifying the Level of Cross-State Renewable Energy Transactions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Beiter, P.; Flores, F.; Hurlbut, D.; Liu, C.

    2015-02-01

    This presentation and associated spreadsheet examine the level of cross-state renewable energy transactions. Most state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies allow for out-of-state renewable energy or renewable energy certificates to count towards compliance. This analysis focuses on compliance for 2012 and provides stakeholders with an understanding of the extent to which RPSs are being met.

  1. North Dakota Industrial Arts Teachers Handbook. Energy/Power Curriculum Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugan, Don

    This handbook provides teachers with support material to more fully implement the North Dakota Energy and Power Curriculum Guide, Level I. It first presents the body of knowledge for Energy/Power Technology as taken from the curriculum guide. The guide is then addressed unit by unit, topic by topic. These seven units are covered: Energy/Power…

  2. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for energy conservation/rate reduction. 990.185 Section 990.185 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.185 Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction. (a) General/consumption reduction. If a PHA undertakes energy conservation measures that...

  3. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for energy conservation/rate reduction. 990.185 Section 990.185 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.185 Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction. (a) General/consumption reduction. If a PHA undertakes energy conservation measures that...

  4. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n = 39) were included. Plasma irisin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n = 19/group; median excluded): moderate and high activity (6331 ± 423 vs. 13743 ± 1047 steps/day, p < 0.001). The groups did not differ in body mass index (14.2 ± 0.4 vs. 15.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2), irisin levels (558.2 ± 26.1 vs. 524.9 ± 25.2 ng/ml), and body weight-adjusted resting energy expenditure (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 18.0 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day, p > 0.05), whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0 ± 1.4 vs. 41.1 ± 1.1 kcal/kg/day), metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 METs/day), body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day), duration of exercise (18.6 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 min/day), and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6 ± 1.0 vs. 18.8 ± 0.8 kcal/kg/day) were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p < 0.05). No correlations were observed between irisin and activity parameters in the whole sample (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under

  5. Local detection of activation energy for ionic transport in lithium cobalt oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, Nina; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Dudney, Nancy J; Daniel, Claus; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    Local activation energy for ionic diffusion is probed on the nanometer level in LiCoO{sub 2} thin films using variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). The high spatial resolution of ESM allows one to extract information about ionic activation energies on the level of individual grains and grain facets, thus bridging the lengths scales of atomistic calculations and traditional macroscopic experiments. A series of control experiments have been performed and possible signal generating mechanisms are discussed to explain the temperature-dependent ESM measurements.

  6. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  7. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level.

  8. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  9. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  10. Ab-inito calculation of energy level alignment and vacuum level shift at CuPc/C60 interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Na; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Chelikowsky, James; Leung, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    The alignment of the donor and acceptor enegy levels is of crucial importance for organic photovotaic performance. We investigate the interfaical electronic structure and energy level alignment of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) using ab-inito density functional theory calculations including van der Waals interactions and hybrid density functionals. We show that energy level alignment critically depends on the standing-up and lying-down orientation of the CuPc molecules relative to C60 at the interface. We calculate the magnitude of the interface dipole at different molecular orientations and compare them to the vacuum level shift observed in photoemission spectroscopy. The validity of existing theoretical models which invoke charge transfer on this organic interface will be discussed in light of our predictions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Deparment of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Treatment of Electronic Energy Level Transition and Ionization Following the Particle-Based Chemistry Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A new method of treating electronic energy level transitions as well as linking ionization to electronic energy levels is proposed following the particle-based chemistry model of Bird. Although the use of electronic energy levels and ionization reactions in DSMC are not new ideas, the current method of selecting what level to transition to, how to reproduce transition rates, and the linking of the electronic energy levels to ionization are, to the author s knowledge, novel concepts. The resulting equilibrium temperatures are shown to remain constant, and the electronic energy level distributions are shown to reproduce the Boltzmann distribution. The electronic energy level transition rates and ionization rates due to electron impacts are shown to reproduce theoretical and measured rates. The rates due to heavy particle impacts, while not as favorable as the electron impact rates, compare favorably to values from the literature. Thus, these new extensions to the particle-based chemistry model of Bird provide an accurate method for predicting electronic energy level transition and ionization rates in gases.

  12. ENERGY LEVELS AND SPECTRAL LINES OF SINGLY IONIZED MANGANESE (Mn II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramida, Alexander; Sansonetti, Jean E.

    2013-04-01

    This compilation revises the previously recommended list of energy levels of singly ionized manganese (Mn II) and provides a comprehensive list of observed spectral lines and transition probabilities in this spectrum. The new level optimization takes into account critically assessed uncertainties of measured wavelengths and includes about a hundred high-precision wavelengths determined by laser spectroscopy and Fourier transform techniques. Uncertainties of 63% of energy levels and 74% of Ritz wavelengths are reduced by a factor of three on average.

  13. Activity of extracellular enzymes on the marine beach differing in the level of antropopressure.

    PubMed

    Perliński, P; Mudryk, Z J

    2016-03-01

    The level of activity of extracellular enzymes was determined on two transects characterised by different anthropic pressure on a sandy beach in Ustka, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Generally, the level of activity of the studied enzymes was higher on the transect characterised by high anthropic pressure. The ranking order of the mean enzyme activity rates in the sand was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase. Each enzyme had its characteristic horizontal profile of activity. The levels of activity of the studied enzymes were slightly higher in the surface than subsurface sand layer. Extracellular enzymatic activities were strongly influenced by the season. PMID:26911592

  14. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-01

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  15. A sensitive and facile assay for the measurement of activated protein C activity levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orthner, C L; Kolen, B; Drohan, W N

    1993-05-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease which plays an important role as a naturally occurring antithrombotic enzyme. APC, which is formed by thrombin-catalyzed limited proteolysis of the zymogen protein C, functions as an anticoagulant by proteolytic inactivation of the coagulation cofactors VIIIa and Va: APC is inhibited by several members of the serpin family as well a by alpha 2-macroglobulin. APC is being developed as a therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We have developed an assay to quantify circulating levels of enzymatically active APC during its administration to patients, in healthy individuals, and in various disease states. This assay utilizes an EDTA-dependent anti-protein C monoclonal antibody (Mab) 7D7B10 to capture both APC and protein C from plasma, prepared from blood collected in an anticoagulant supplemented with the reversible inhibitor p-aminobenzamidine. Mab 7D7B10-derivatized agarose beads are added to the wells of a 96-well filtration plate, equilibrated with Tris-buffered saline, and incubated for 10 min with 200 microliters of plasma. After washing, APC and protein C are eluted from the immunosorbent beads with a calcium-containing buffer into the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate containing antithrombin III (ATIII) and heparin. The amidolytic activity of APC is then measured on a kinetic plate reader following the addition of L-pyroglutamyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (S-2366) substrate. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was proportional to APC concentration over a 200-fold concentration range (5.0 to 1,000 ng/ml) when measured continuously over a 15 to 30 min time period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  17. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  18. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  19. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  20. Monitoring integrin activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Craig T; Hyun, Young-Min; Kim, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant integrin activation is associated with several immune pathologies. In leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), the absence or inability of β(2) integrins to undergo affinity upregulation contributes to recurrent infectious episodes and impaired wound healing, while excessive integrin activity leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage. Therefore, integrin activation is an attractive target for immunotherapies, and monitoring the effect of agents on integrin activation is necessary during preclinical drug development. The activation of integrins involves the structural rearrangement of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. Here, we describe methods for monitoring integrin conformational activation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

  1. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  2. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  3. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  4. Transketolase activity modulates glycerol-3-phosphate levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vimala, A; Harinarayanan, R

    2016-04-01

    Transketolase activity provides an important link between the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt and catalyzes inter-conversions between pentose phosphates and glycolytic intermediates. It is widely conserved in life forms. A genetic screen for suppression of the growth defect of Escherichia coli tktA tktB mutant in LB medium revealed two mutations, one that rendered the glpK expression constitutive and another that inactivated deoB. Characterizing these mutations aided in uncovering the role of ribose-5-P (a transketolase substrate) as an inhibitor of glycerol assimilation and de novo glycerol-3-P synthesis. Using lacZ fusions, we show that ribose-5-P enhances GlpR-mediated repression of the glpFKX operon and inhibits glycerol assimilation. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed ribose-5-P made the DNA-GlpR complex less sensitive to the inducer glycerol-3-P. In addition to inhibition of glycerol assimilation, obstruction of ribose-5-P metabolism retards growth from glycerol-3-P limitation. Glucose helps to overcome this limitation through a mechanism involving catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show ribose-5-P can modulate glycerol-3-P concentration in the cell by regulation of glycerol assimilation as well as its de novo synthesis. This regulation could be prevalent in other organisms. PMID:26691989

  5. Energy levels of exciton traps in yttrium aluminum garnet single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, C. R.; Mackay, D. T.; Pratt, A.; Reda, S. M.; Selim, F. A.

    2012-03-01

    Electronic defects and exciton traps were studied in yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystals by wavelength and temperature resolved thermoluminescence (TL). Measurements were carried out from room temperature to 400 °C on a number of rare earth (RE) doped and undoped YAG crystals, and the trap parameters were determined. Although the TL emission spectrum is characteristic of the RE ion, the main trap levels are found to be characteristic of the undoped host crystal. Nevertheless, the thermal activation energies of the traps are slightly modified by doping. The trap kinetics are found to be of the first order in both undoped and Ce doped YAG single crystals indicating the absence of retrapping, which suggests that the traps and recombination centers exhibit a close spatial correlation. The effect of annealing on TL response suggests that some of the major traps are associated with oxygen vacancies.

  6. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Woskov

    2005-03-02

    EMSP supported research of millimeter-wave technology for nuclear waste glass melter monitoring has been very productive in establishing this field and showing great progress. This work has garnered significant recognition, winning an R&D 100 Award for viscosity monitoring, a Best Paper Award by the American Ceramic Society for nuclear waste glass monitoring, investment by the Glass Plus industry consortium to test this technology for glass fiber manufacture, investment by Savannah River Technology Center in purchasing key hardware components for additional tests, and Japanese initiated exchange visits between MIT and the vitrification facilities at Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in Tokai to review this technology. There are also potentially important spin offs to other areas including nuclear and fossil fuel power production, and National Institute of Health sponsored research as indicated below. Consequently, this work has the potential of becoming a major inter nationally recognized EMSP success story. A summary of the main accomplishments follows. The readers are referred to the cited reference publications for more details, many of which were EMSP supported by this work.

  7. Single-Molecule Nanocatalysis Reveals Catalytic Activation Energy of Single Nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Zhang, Yuwei; Xu, Weilin

    2016-09-28

    By monitoring the temperature-dependent catalytic activity of single Au nanocatalysts for a fluorogenic reaction, we derive the activation energies via multiple methods for two sequential catalytic steps (product formation and dissociation) on single nanocatalysts. The wide distributions of activation energies across multiple individual nanocatalysts indicate a huge static heterogeneity among the individual nanocatalysts. The compensation effect and isokinetic relationship of catalytic reactions are observed at the single particle level. This study exemplifies another function of single-molecule nanocatalysis and improves our understanding of heterogeneous catalysis.

  8. Energy level modification in lead sulfide quantum dot thin films through ligand exchange.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Kim, Donghun; Lunt, Richard R; Zhao, Ni; Bawendi, Moungi G; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Bulović, Vladimir

    2014-06-24

    The electronic properties of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are critically dependent on both QD size and surface chemistry. Modification of quantum confinement provides control of the QD bandgap, while ligand-induced surface dipoles present a hitherto underutilized means of control over the absolute energy levels of QDs within electronic devices. Here, we show that the energy levels of lead sulfide QDs, measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, shift by up to 0.9 eV between different chemical ligand treatments. The directions of these energy shifts match the results of atomistic density functional theory simulations and scale with the ligand dipole moment. Trends in the performance of photovoltaic devices employing ligand-modified QD films are consistent with the measured energy level shifts. These results identify surface-chemistry-mediated energy level shifts as a means of predictably controlling the electronic properties of colloidal QD films and as a versatile adjustable parameter in the performance optimization of QD optoelectronic devices.

  9. Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Domingues, Catia M.; Cogley, J. Graham; Rignot, Eric; Gregory, Jonathan M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Velicogna, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 0.2 mm yr-1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 0.2 mm yr -1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions (1.8 0.4 mm yr-1) in magnitude and with both having similar increases in the rate of rise during the period. The largest contributions come from ocean thermal expansion (0.8 mm yr-1) and the melting of glaciers and ice caps (0.7 mm yr -1), with Greenland and Antarctica contributing about 0.4 mm yr -1. The cryospheric contributions increase through the period (particularly in the 1990s) but the thermosteric contribution increases less rapidly. We include an improved estimate of aquifer depletion (0.3 mm yr -1), partially offsetting the retention of water in dams and giving a total terrestrial storage contribution of-0.1 mm yr-1. Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earth's energy increase) continues through to the end of the record, in agreement with continued greenhouse gas forcing. The aerosol forcing, inferred as a residual in the atmospheric energy balance, is estimated as-0.8 0.4 W m-2 for the 1980s and early 1990s. It increases in the late 1990s, as is required for consistency with little surface warming over the last decade. This increase is likely at least partially related to substantial increases in aerosol emissions from developing nations and moderate volcanic activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  11. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  12. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  13. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Cochran, Jaquelin; Vorum, Martin

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  14. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  15. A systematic evaluation of the resource consumption of active pharmaceutical ingredient production at three different levels.

    PubMed

    Van der Vorst, Geert; Dewulf, Jo; Aelterman, Wim; De Witte, Bruno; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the development and the advantages of a methodology which allows the systematic assessment of the environmental impact on the resource side of specific pharmaceutical production processes with limited data entry is presented. The quantification of the process-specific mass and energy balances over three different system boundaries (process, gate-to-gate, and cradle-to-gate) is based on the methodology explained in Van der Vorst et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.2009, 48(11), 5344-5350). These mass and energy balances are now coupled with the thermodynamic term exergy allowing the quantification of the resource efficiency at the process and gate-to-gate level and the environmental impact at the cradle-to-gate level. The advantages of such a calculation tool for the resource evaluation are illustrated with five consecutive pharmaceutical production steps which are part of the galantamine (anti-Alzheimer medication) pathway. It is shown that such a quantitative and systematic evaluation tool allows a detailed and relatively fast evaluation of the resource efficiency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production processes at the three different levels. Combining thermodynamics and the systematic data inventory methodology for the quantification of the resource efficiency first allows results to be merged into a single impact value (exergy loss/mol API or CEENE/mol API) for fast benchmarking and evaluation of different API production processes. Second, it also allows results to be divided over different categories depending on the users' interest and make thorough analysis of processes in order to pinpoint process improvements and quantitatively justify the introduction of second generation production processes or production techniques. PMID:21391625

  16. A review of UK wind energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind power activities in Great Britain are reviewed, including a brief summary of historical windmill usage and details of developmental efforts in large and small wind turbines. An annual average resource of 5 m/sec at 10 m has been extrapolated to predict an 8-10 m/sec resource at the hub heights of large wind turbines. Initial estimates indicate that at least half of Great Britain's annual electricity consumption can be produced from windpowered generators. The potential of offshore large WECS siting is being examined, although the wind-derived electricity from those regions are projected to cost three times that of land-based operation. Recorded wind patterns with 12-48 hr. duration have indicated that at least 20% penetration into the national grid is acceptable. A test 250 kW machine is being built as a model for a 3.7 MW machine, both intended for installation at Orkney, Scotland. Additionally, construction has begun on a 25-m diameter, vertical axis, variable geometry Musgrove wind turbine. The straight-bladed machine will produce a maximum of 130 kW, and is a prototype of multi-MW offshore units.

  17. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  18. Trace element and magnesium levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, S; Kamanli, A; Akçil, E; Kavas, G O; Seçkin, B; Atay, M B

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that reactive oxygen metabolites and trace elements play some role in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to exert an important protective role against oxygen toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the probable changes in the levels of trace elements and SOD activity in RA. Plasma and erythrocyte copper, zinc, and magnesium levels and erythrocyte SOD activity were measured in groups of controls and RA cases. Significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity was found in RA patients in comparison with controls (p < 0.0001). A rise in erythrocyte Zn level (p < 0.0001) and plasma Cu level (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in erythrocyte Cu level (p < 0.05) and plasma Zn level (p < 0.05) were obtained in RA patients when compared to controls. Plasma and erythrocyte Mg levels of the RA patients showed slight and statistically insignificant reductions when compared to controls (p > 0.05). In RA patients, there were positive correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and Mg level (r = 0.4345, p < 0.01) and between erythrocyte Zn level and plasma Cu level (r = 0.4132, p < 0.01). There were negative correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and plasma Zn level (r = -0.3605, p < 0.05) and between plasma Zn level and erythrocyte Cu level (r = -0.4578, p < 0.01) in RA patients.

  19. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  20. Association between daily step counts and physical activity level among Korean elementary schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Jonghoon; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Eunkyung; Lim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyungryul; Lee, In-Sook; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate steps per day (steps/d) and physical activity level (PAL) in Korean elementary school children having normal weight (normal-weight). We also clarified whether a gender difference exited between steps/d and PAL. [Methods] Children aged 9 to 12 y were recruited from two elementary schools located in different urban districts in Korea. The present study included 33 Korean children, of which 18 were normal-weight boys and 15 were normal-weight girls. During the same 1 week study period under free-living conditions the total energy expenditure (TEE) and step counts were estimated using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and an accelerometer, respectively. We calculated PAL as the TEE/ resting metabolic rate. [Results] The range of PAL was 1.25 – 1.93 with a mean value of 1.57. None of the variables of energy expenditure was significantly different by sex. However, steps/d were significantly higher in boys than in girls. When adjusting regression analysis by gender, steps/ d were positively associated with PAL among all subjects (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Furthermore, steps/d were positively associated with PAL in boys (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), but not in girls (r = 0.27, P = 0.34). [Conclusion] Our results suggest that locomotive activity may be the main contributor to the individual PAL differences for elementary school boys, while non-locomotive activity may be the main contributor for elementary school girls. PMID:27757388

  1. Assessment of Physical Activity Level among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Cheras Health Clinic, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nor Shazwani, M N; Suzana, S; Hanis Mastura, Y; Lim, C J; Teh, S C; Mohd Fauzee, M Z; Lim, H C; Dahlia, S; Norliza, M

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical activity levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) at Cheras Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 132 subjects (62 men and 70 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Data was collected using an interview based questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and health profile information. Physical activity was assessed using a shortened version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Anthropometric measurements and body fat were also taken. Glycaemic status, that is, HbA1c, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2 hours post-prandial (2-HPP) were obtained from medical records. Results showed that the mean age of the patients was 51.9 + 5.8 years. The majority of patients had poor glycaemic control based on HbA1c (70.7%), FBS (71.9%) and 2HPP (85.4%). Patients who were unmarried and aged(60 years and above had a lower physical activity level (p< 0.05). In the older age group, low physical activity was associated with poor glycaemic control (p< 0.05). Patients in the moderate and high physical activity level were motivated to perform physical activity so as to be healthy (68.1%). Low physical activity level among patients was due to lack of time (54.5%) and lack of energy (21.2%). In conclusion, physical activity levels of the patients were unsatisfactory and associated with poor glycaemic control, especially in the elderly. There is a need to encourage diabetic patients to undertake regular physical activity in order to achieve optimal glycaemic control. PMID:22691857

  2. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  3. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  4. Effect of Season and High Ambient Temperature on Activity Levels and Patterns of Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Michelle L.; McLellan, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4–27.3°C) and hot (27.9–40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory. PMID:25692979

  5. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  6. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory. PMID:25692979

  7. Research on Social Stability Mechanisms Based on Activation Energy and Gradual Activation Reaction Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Miao; Gu, Jifa

    This paper draws a comparison between social stability and chemical reaction process, and brings forward the concept of “social temperature” and “activation energy of social agent”. It is considered that social temperature turns out to be the macro symptom of social average energy, and its unceasing up-climbing roots in the energy accumulation of “inferiorization” process of social system; that “activation energy of social agent” stands for the social energy or temperature where individuals or groups reach the limit of their psychological bearing ability. This paper, basing on above concepts, elaborates on and demonstrates the gradual activation reaction mechanisms of social stability by a lot of concrete examples. It is thought that there is a threshold value for social stability, and the society will be unstable if social temperature goes higher than this value; that the larger the social average activation energy is, the higher the temperature threshold value of social stability will be; and considering that different groups have different activation energy, those fragile groups with low activation energy are often the risk source which might pose a threat to social stability.

  8. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  9. NEW Fe I LEVEL ENERGIES AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM STELLAR SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of the Fe I atom is critical to many areas of astrophysics and beyond. Measurements of the energies of its high-lying levels remain woefully incomplete, however, despite extensive laboratory and solar analysis. In this work, we use high-resolution archival absorption-line ultraviolet and optical spectra of stars whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe I excitation. We derive the energy for a particular upper level in Kurucz's semiempirical calculations by adopting a trial value that yields the same wavelength for a given line predicted to be about as strong as that of a strong unidentified spectral line observed in the stellar spectra, then checking the new wavelengths of other strong predicted transitions that share the same upper level for coincidence with other strong observed unidentified lines. To date, this analysis has provided the upper energies of 66 Fe I levels. Many new energy levels are higher than those accessible to laboratory experiments; several exceed the Fe I ionization energy. These levels provide new identifications for over 2000 potentially detectable lines. Almost all of the new levels of odd parity include UV lines that were detected but unclassified in laboratory Fe I absorption spectra, providing an external check on the energy values. We motivate and present the procedure, provide the resulting new energy levels and their uncertainties, list all the potentially detectable UV and optical new Fe I line identifications and their gf values, point out new lines of astrophysical interest, and discuss the prospects for additional Fe I energy level determinations.

  10. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial.

  11. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial. PMID:26610976

  12. Differential effects of prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid on activity level throughout day and night.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Tilak, J P

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with disrupted state control and lowered activity levels. Prenatal retinoic acid excess also influences activity levels in laboratory rats. Activity level is usually monitored during a brief period in young offspring. The effects of these drugs on pup activity levels throughout the day is unknown. There is also little information on the long-lasting effects of these teratogens in adult animals. We compared the daily activity of rats which were prenatally exposed to cocaine or retinoic acid (RA). Appropriate control groups were also used. The offspring were evaluated for activity levels in a neophobic situation and for a 22-h period in same-sex groups of 3 littermates. As both pups and adults, the cocaine groups were hypoactive while the RA group was hyperactive when first placed into the testing cage (neophobic situation). Similarly, during the remainder of the 22-h testing period, the pup and adult cocaine animals exhibited reduced activity levels while the RA animals exhibited elevated activity levels. Thus, prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid exposures affected offspring activity levels differently, both drugs have long-lasting neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood, and effects are influenced by time-of-day. Strain-dependent differences and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  13. Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Blair, P V; Kobayashi, R; Edwards, H M; Shay, N F; Baker, D H; Harris, R A

    1999-03-01

    This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes.

  14. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

  16. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  17. Employing Magnetic Levitation to Monitor Reaction Kinetics and Measure Activation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Lauren; Cesafsky, Karen E.; Le, Tran; Park, Aileen; Malicky, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive undergraduate-level kinetics experiment that uses magnetic levitation to monitor the progress and determine the activation energy of a condensation reaction on a polymeric solid support. The method employs a cuvette filled with a paramagnetic solution positioned between two strong magnets. The…

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  19. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, I.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Haslan, M.; Helmi E., A.; M. Haameem J., A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  20. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations. PMID:26970972

  1. Building Energy Use Modeling at the U.S. State Level Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change plays an important role in building energy use for heating and cooling. As global building energy use accounts for as much as about 32% of global final energy consumption in 2005, the impact of climate change on greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into regional energy system planning. In this study, we have developed a detailed building energy model with U.S. 50-state representation, embedded in an integrated assessment framework (Global Change Assessment Model). The climate change impact on heating and cooling demand is measured through estimating heating and cooling degree days (HDD/CDDs) derived from MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) climate data and linking the estimates to the building energy model. Having the model calibrated against historical data at the U.S. state level, we estimated the building energy use in the 21st century at the U.S. state level and analyzed its spatial pattern. We have found that the total building energy use (heating and cooling) in U.S. states is over- or under-estimated without having climate feedback taken into account, and that the difference with and without climate feedback at the state level varies from -25% to 25% in reference scenario and -15% to 10% in climate mitigation scenario. The result not only confirms earlier finding that global warming leads to increased cooling and decreased heating energy use, it also indicates that climate change has a different impact on total building energy use at national and state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (Figure 1). The scale impact in building energy use modeling emphasizes the importance of developing a building energy model that represents socioeconomic development, energy service expansion, and

  2. A single-phase multi-level D-STATCOM inverter using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoodeh, Pedram

    This dissertation presents the design of a novel multi-level inverter with FACTS capability for small to mid-size (10-20kW) permanent-magnet wind installations using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology. The aim of the work is to design a new type of inverter with D-STATCOM option to provide utilities with more control on active and reactive power transfer of distribution lines. The inverter is placed between the renewable energy source, specifically a wind turbine, and the distribution grid in order to fix the power factor of the grid at a target value, regardless of wind speed, by regulating active and reactive power required by the grid. The inverter is capable of controlling active and reactive power by controlling the phase angle and modulation index, respectively. The unique contribution of the proposed work is to combine the two concepts of inverter and D-STATCOM using a novel voltage source converter (VSC) multi-level topology in a single unit without additional cost. Simulations of the proposed inverter, with 5 and 11 levels, have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink for two systems including 20 kW/kVAR and 250 W/VAR. To validate the simulation results, a scaled version (250 kW/kVAR) of the proposed inverter with 5 and 11 levels has been built and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results show that the reduced-scale 5- and 11-level inverter is able to fix PF of the grid as well as being compatible with IEEE standards. Furthermore, total cost of the prototype models, which is one of the major objectives of this research, is comparable with market prices.

  3. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-29

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  4. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  5. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  6. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349

  7. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  8. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  9. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-01

    Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3), 70% (15.3 ± 3.5) and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.05, respectively), PA(3.1 ± 0.8 and 1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 and 2.4 ± 0.4; p < 0.05) and RQ (0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.85 ± 0.5; vs. 0.95 ± 0.03 and 0.91 ± 0.05 p < 0.05). In contrast, both light (7.1 ± 1.4) and dark period (6.2 ± 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 ± 0.9 and 2.5 ± 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE

  10. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  11. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-07-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions.

  12. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-07-26

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions.

  13. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions. PMID:27456200

  14. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions. PMID:27456200

  15. Level sequence and splitting identification of closely spaced energy levels by angle-resolved analysis of fluorescence light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. W.; Volotka, A. V.; Surzhykov, A.; Dong, C. Z.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-06-01

    The angular distribution and linear polarization of the fluorescence light following the resonant photoexcitation is investigated within the framework of density matrix and second-order perturbation theory. Emphasis has been placed on "signatures" for determining the level sequence and splitting of intermediate (partially) overlapping resonances, if analyzed as a function of photon energy of incident light. Detailed computations within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method have been performed, especially for the 1 s22 s22 p63 s ,Ji=1 /2 +γ1→(1s22 s 2 p63 s ) 13 p3 /2,J =1 /2 ,3 /2 →1 s22 s22 p63 s ,Jf=1 /2 +γ2 photoexcitation and subsequent fluorescence emission of atomic sodium. A remarkably strong dependence of the angular distribution and linear polarization of the γ2 fluorescence emission is found upon the level sequence and splitting of the intermediate (1s22 s 2 p63 s ) 13 p3 /2,J =1 /2 ,3 /2 overlapping resonances owing to their finite lifetime (linewidth). We therefore suggest that accurate measurements of the angular distribution and linear polarization might help identify the sequence and small splittings of closely spaced energy levels, even if they cannot be spectroscopically resolved.

  16. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  17. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  18. Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex.

  19. Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized zirconium (Zr VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph; Lindsay, Mark D.

    2016-02-01

    We carried out a new analysis of the spectrum of five-times-ionized zirconium Zr VI. For this we used sliding-spark discharges together with normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs to observe the spectrum from 160 to 2000 Å. These observations showed that the analysis of this spectrum by Khan et al (1985 Phys. Scr. 31 837) contained a significant number of incorrect energy levels. We have now classified ˜420 lines as transitions between 23 even-parity levels 73 odd-parity levels. The 4s24p5, 4s4p6, 4s24p44d, 5s, 5d, 6s configurations are now complete, although a few levels of 4s24p45d are tentative. We determined Ritz-type wavelengths for ˜135 lines from the optimized energy levels. The uncertainties range from 0.0003 to 0.0020 Å. Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels were used to interpret the observed configurations. Oscillator strengths for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters. The results are compared with values for the level energies, percentage compositions, and transition probabilities from recent ab initio theoretical calculations. The ionization energy was revised to 777 380 ± 300 cm-1 (96.38 ± 0.04 eV).

  20. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  1. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  2. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  3. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response. PMID:26442059

  4. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  5. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  6. Level-energy-dependent mean velocities of excited tungsten atoms sputtered by krypton-ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Nogami, Keisuke; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Mineta, Shota; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Furuya, Kenji; Motohashi, Kenji

    2015-11-15

    Visible emission spectra were acquired from neutral atoms sputtered by 35–60 keV Kr{sup +} ions from a polycrystalline tungsten surface. Mean velocities of excited tungsten atoms in seven different 6p states were also obtained via the dependence of photon intensities on the distance from the surface. The average velocities parallel to the surface normal varied by factors of 2–4 for atoms in the different 6p energy levels. However, they were almost independent of the incident ion kinetic energy. The 6p-level energy dependence indicated that the velocities of the excited atoms were determined by inelastic processes that involve resonant charge exchange.

  7. Growth and energy budget of juvenile lenok Brachymystax lenok in relation to ration level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Yuan, Jing; Mou, Zhenbo; Liu, Jiashou

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of ration level (RL) on the growth and energy budget of lenok Brachymystax lenok. Juvenile lenok (initial mean body weight 3.06±0.13 g) were fed for 21 d at five different ration levels: starvation, 2%, 3%, 4% bwd (body weight per day, based on initial mean values), and apparent satiation. Feed consumption, apparent digestibility, and growth were directly measured. Specific growth rates in terms of wet weight, dry weight, protein, and energy increased logarithmically with an increase in ration levels. The relationship between specific growth rate in terms of wet weight (SGRw, %/d) and RL (%) was characterized by a decelerating curve: SGRw=-1.417+3.166ln(RL+1). The apparent digestibility coefficients of energy exhibited a decreasing pattern with increasing ration level, and there was a significant difference among different RLs. Body composition was significantly affected by ration size. The relationship between feed efficiency rate in terms of energy (FERe) and RL was: FERe=-14.167+23.793RL-3.367(RL)2, and the maximum FERe was observed at a 3.53% ration. The maintenance requirement for energy of juvenile lenok was 105.39 kJ BW (kg)-0.80/d, the utilization efficiency of DE for growth was 0.496. The energy budget equation at satiation was: 100IE=29.03FE+5.78(ZE+UE)+39.56 HE+25.63 RE, where IE is feed energy, FE is fecal energy, ZE+UE is excretory energy, HE is heat production, and RE is recovered energy. Our results suggest that the most suitable feeding rate for juvenile lenok aquaculture for wet weight growth is 2.89% bwd, whereas for energy growth, the suggested rate is 3.53% bwd at this growth stage.

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, D. S.; Yu, Y. H.; Neary, V.

    2015-04-24

    In 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the development of six marine energy converter reference models. The reference models are point designs of well-known marine energy converters. Each device was designed to operate in a specific marine resource, instead of a generic device that can be deployed at any location. This method allows each device to be used as a benchmark for future reference model to benchmark future devices. The six designs consist of three current energy converters and three wave energy converters. The reference model project has generated both technical and economic data sets that are available in the public domain. The methodology to calculate the levelized cost of energy for the reference model project and an overall comparison of the cost of energy from these six reference-model designs are presented in this paper.

  9. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  10. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  11. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  12. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  13. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the utility allowances in accordance with provisions in 24 CFR part 965, subpart E. The new allowance... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utilities expense level: Incentives... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.185 Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy...

  14. RESEARCH PAPER: A logistic model for magnetic energy storage in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua-Ning; Cui, Yan-Mei; He, Han

    2009-06-01

    Previous statistical analyses of a large number of SOHO/MDI full disk longitudinal magnetograms provided a result that demonstrated how responses of solar flares to photospheric magnetic properties can be fitted with sigmoid functions. A logistic model reveals that these fitted sigmoid functions might be related to the free energy storage process in solar active regions. Although this suggested model is rather simple, the free energy level of active regions can be estimated and the probability of a solar flare with importance over a threshold can be forecast within a given time window.

  15. Ab initio ground-state potential energy function and vibration-rotation energy levels of imidogen, NH.

    PubMed

    Koput, Jacek

    2015-06-30

    The accurate ground-state potential energy function of imidogen, NH, has been determined from ab initio calculations using the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MR-ACPF) method in conjunction with the correlation-consistent core-valence basis sets up to octuple-zeta quality. The importance of several effects, including electron correlation beyond the MR-ACPF level of approximation, the scalar relativistic, adiabatic, and nonadiabatic corrections were discussed. Along with the large one-particle basis set, all of these effects were found to be crucial to attain "spectroscopic" accuracy of the theoretical predictions of vibration-rotation energy levels of NH.

  16. Augmenting energy expenditure by mitochondrial uncoupling: a role of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Susanne; Keipert, Susanne; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kopecky, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Strategies to prevent and treat obesity aim to decrease energy intake and/or increase energy expenditure. Regarding the increase of energy expenditure, two key intracellular targets may be considered (1) mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, the major site of ATP production, and (2) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. Experiments performed mainly in transgenic mice revealed a possibility to ameliorate obesity and associated disorders by mitochondrial uncoupling in metabolically relevant tissues, especially in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle (SM), and liver. Thus, ectopic expression of brown fat-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) elicited major metabolic effects both at the cellular/tissue level and at the whole-body level. In addition to expected increases in energy expenditure, surprisingly complex phenotypic effects were detected. The consequences of mitochondrial uncoupling in WAT and SM are not identical, showing robust and stable obesity resistance accompanied by improvement of lipid metabolism in the case of ectopic UCP1 in WAT, while preservation of insulin sensitivity in the context of high-fat feeding represents the major outcome of muscle UCP1 expression. These complex responses could be largely explained by tissue-specific activation of AMPK, triggered by a depression of cellular energy charge. Experimental data support the idea that (1) while being always activated in response to mitochondrial uncoupling and compromised intracellular energy status in general, AMPK could augment energy expenditure and mediate local as well as whole-body effects; and (2) activation of AMPK alone does not lead to induction of energy expenditure and weight reduction. PMID:22139637

  17. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  18. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  19. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  20. A Fluorescent Reporter of AMPK activity and Cellular Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Peiling; Zheng, Bin; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the AMP/ATP ratio in cells is elevated due to energy stress. Here we describe a biosensor, AMPKAR, which exhibits enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in response to phosphorylation by AMPK, allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of AMPK activity in single cells. We show that this reporter responds to a variety of stimuli that are known to induce energy stress and that the response is dependent on AMPK α1 & α2 and on the upstream kinase, LKB1. Interestingly we found that AMPK activation is confined to the cytosol in response to energy stress but can be observed in both the cytosol and nucleus in response to calcium elevation. Finally, using this probe with U2OS cells in a microfluidics device, we observed a very high cell-to-cell variability in the amplitude and time course of AMPK activation and recovery in response to pulses of glucose deprivation. PMID:21459332

  1. Inversion Vibrational Energy Levels of AsH3 + Studied by Zero-Kinetic Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yuxiang

    2016-06-01

    The rotational-resolved vibrational spectra of AsH3 + have been measured for the first time with vibrational energies up to 6000 wn above the ground state using zero-kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopic method. The inversion vibrational energy levels (νb{2}) and the corresponding rotational constants for the νb{2} =0-16 have been determined. The tunneling splittings of the inversion vibration energy levels have been observed for the ground and the first excited vibrational states. The geometric parameters of AsH3 + as a function of inversion vibrational quantum states have been determined, indicating that the geometric structure of the cation changes from near planar structure to a pyramidal structure with more vibrational excitations. In addition to the experimental measurement, a two-dimensional theoretical calculation including the two symmetric vibrational modes was performed to determine the energy levels of the symmetric inversion and As-H stretching vibrations. The calculated vibrational energy levels are in good agreement with the experimental results. The first adiabatic ionization energy (IE) for AsH3 was also accurately determined. The result of this work will be compared with our published result on the PH3+.

  2. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  3. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  4. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  5. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  6. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  7. Environmental-control-technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report provides an annual identification and summarization of environmental control RD and D activities and associated funding conducted by DOE in conjunction with developing environmentally acceptable energy technologies. Environmental control technology is an integral part of the DOE energy technology R, D, and D effort. As the third in a series of annual reports on environmental control R, D, and D activities within DOE, this report may serve as a basis for evaluating program trends. The report presents background material that contributes to the capability to evaluate and assess the environmental control accomplishments, issues, gaps, and overlaps associated with energy development within DOE, in conjunction with other agencies, and in the private sector. A measure of the change in emphasis in the environmental control technology activities within DOE is also presented, indicating shifts, if any, in funding levels for each of the energy technologies. Total DOE FY 1979 budget outlay allocated to environmental control activities was $421,533,000, or 5.0% of the total FY 1979 DOE budget. This report summarizes the inputs received from the energy technology areas. These inputs were submitted in accordance with a description of environmental control related activities, which are those activities directed at research, development, and demonstration of processes, procedures, systems, subsystems, and strategies that directly or indirectly eliminate, minimize, or mitigate environmental impacts. 25 references, 10 figures, 40 tables.

  8. Energy levels and transition probabilities in doubly-ionized erbium (Er III).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyart, J.-F.; Blaise, J.; Bidelman, W. P.; Cowley, C. R.

    1997-11-01

    The spectrum of Er III reported by Becher (1966) was reanalysed with the support of new predictions of energies and transition probabilities. The number of energy levels was increased from 45 to 115, including two levels of 4f117s and the levels 3F3, 3F2 and 1G4 of the ground configuration 4f12. All 470 classified lines are reported with transition probabilities for most of them. Several of these lines had not yet been attributed to Er III in the spectrum of the star HR 465.

  9. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  10. Zone Level Occupant-Responsive Building Energy Systems at the GSA

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alastair

    2014-03-01

    The General Services Administration (GSA) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement building energy system retrofits, aiming to reduce energy consumption of at least two building systems by a total of 30 percent or more, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program, working with the GSA and a team of consultants. This case study reports expected energy savings from appropriate energy efficient design and operations modifications to lighting and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems at the selected study sites. These retrofits comprised installation of new lighting systems with dimming capability and occupancy-sensor control at the individual light fixture level, and utilized lighting system occupancy sensor signals to continually readjust zone-level ventilation airflow according to the number of people present, down to minimum rates when vacant.

  11. Examining student ideas about energy measurements on quantum states across undergraduate and graduate levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Energy measurements play a fundamental role in the theory of quantum mechanics, yet there is evidence that the underlying concepts are difficult for many students, even after all undergraduate instruction. We present results from an investigation into student ability to determine the possible energies that can be measured for a given wave function and Hamiltonian, to determine the probabilities of each energy measurement and how they depend on time, and to recognize how a measurement of energy affects the state. By analyzing student responses to open-ended questions, we identify five broad, interrelated sets of conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to energy measurements. Data are drawn from sophomore-, junior-, and graduate-level quantum mechanics courses. Particular attention is paid to incorrect ideas that persist across all levels.

  12. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  13. Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A

    2006-02-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the North American reference standards for nutrients in the diets of healthy individuals. The macronutrient DRI report includes the standards for energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate and fiber, and protein and amino acids. Equations used to identify the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) were also developed based on individual characteristics including levels of physical activity. The DRIs for the macronutrients are presented as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs), as well as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs), and were arrived at by considering both nutrient inadequacies and excesses. In addition, recommendations are made that would reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as setting intake limits for added sugar; reducing cholesterol, saturated, and trans fatty acids consumption; and increasing levels of physical activity. As healthy individuals include those engaged in various levels of physical activity, the DRIs should apply to the athlete and address their macronutrient and energy needs. This paper summarizes the macronutrient DRI report as applied to the adult, with discussion of the dietary needs of those engaged in various levels of physical activity, including the athlete.

  14. Different levels of food restriction have opposite effects on adipocyte cellularity and lipoprotein-lipase activity in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, D; de Gasquet, P; Mackay, S; Planche, E; Alexiu, A; Rosselin, G; Loiseau, A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of several levels of chronic energy restriction on epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue cellularity and lipoprotein lipase activity, serum glucose and insulin and hepatic enzyme activities were studied in lean Fa/- and genetically obese fafa rats. The restricted rats were compared to rats fed ad libitum 24/24h or 8/24h. Restricting time of feeding was associated with increases in fat cell number in the lean, increases in perirenal adipose tissue fat cell size and serum insulin in the obese and increases in lipoprotein lipase activity in both phenotypes. Mild food restriction (-25%) had similar effects in the obese: perirenal adipose tissue fat cell size and serum insulin levels were even higher but fat cell hyperplasia was reduced. Restriction by 50% normalized lipoprotein lipase activity and markedly reduced fat cell size in the lean; in the obese, lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin levels were similar to or lower than those of the corresponding ad libitum 24/24h group but fat cell hypertrophy was not particularly affected. Restriction by 75% in the obese prevented adipocyte hyperplasia. Furthermore, lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue was normalized, serum insulin and lipids being within normal limits. However, these animals had large adipocytes and were still fat.

  15. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  16. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  17. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  18. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities since 1986. (76 FR 55278) The NOPR reflected a need.... ] DATES: DOE will continue to accept written comments on the SNOPR published August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46829... a second opportunity to comment. (78 FR 46829) II. Second Public Meeting A public meeting on...

  19. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  20. Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2.

    PubMed

    Koput, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3  = 16 state.

  1. Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2.

    PubMed

    Koput, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3  = 16 state. PMID:27481562

  2. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  3. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  4. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  5. Quantifying Potential of Integrated Energy Systems with Varying Levels of Nationwide Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2002-11-01

    This study presents a parametric assessment of the energy-saving potential resulting from a nationwide deployment of DER/IES technologies for building applications. Three hypothetical IES scenarios are evaluated to demonstrate the sensitivity of the national energy consumption to the IES system configuration with respect to the buildings' electrical and thermal equipment compositions. A variable for implementation level of DER is incorporated to examine the impact of incremental transformation of the existing centralized energy resources to a fully decentralized model on the national primary energy consumption. To accommodate the continuing advancement of prime movers, a wide range of fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency is considered for both centralized and decentralized power generation systems. The fact that the demands for electricity and thermal energy in buildings are not always congruent, and implementation of thermal energy storage technology is uncertain is acknowledged by incorporating a variable waste heat utilization index.

  6. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  7. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  8. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  9. Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2016-10-01

    The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl-Teller and Gaussian wells.

  10. Energy-optimal path planning by stochastic dynamically orthogonal level-set optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, Deepak N.; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic optimization methodology is formulated for computing energy-optimal paths from among time-optimal paths of autonomous vehicles navigating in a dynamic flow field. Based on partial differential equations, the methodology rigorously leverages the level-set equation that governs time-optimal reachability fronts for a given relative vehicle-speed function. To set up the energy optimization, the relative vehicle-speed and headings are considered to be stochastic and new stochastic Dynamically Orthogonal (DO) level-set equations are derived. Their solution provides the distribution of time-optimal reachability fronts and corresponding distribution of time-optimal paths. An optimization is then performed on the vehicle's energy-time joint distribution to select the energy-optimal paths for each arrival time, among all stochastic time-optimal paths for that arrival time. Numerical schemes to solve the reduced stochastic DO level-set equations are obtained, and accuracy and efficiency considerations are discussed. These reduced equations are first shown to be efficient at solving the governing stochastic level-sets, in part by comparisons with direct Monte Carlo simulations. To validate the methodology and illustrate its accuracy, comparisons with semi-analytical energy-optimal path solutions are then completed. In particular, we consider the energy-optimal crossing of a canonical steady front and set up its semi-analytical solution using a energy-time nested nonlinear double-optimization scheme. We then showcase the inner workings and nuances of the energy-optimal path planning, considering different mission scenarios. Finally, we study and discuss results of energy-optimal missions in a wind-driven barotropic quasi-geostrophic double-gyre ocean circulation.

  11. Exploring the energy landscape of the charge transport levels in organic semiconductors at the molecular scale.

    PubMed

    Cornil, J; Verlaak, S; Martinelli, N; Mityashin, A; Olivier, Y; Van Regemorter, T; D'Avino, G; Muccioli, L; Zannoni, C; Castet, F; Beljonne, D; Heremans, P

    2013-02-19

    strongly interacting electron-hole pairs can potentially escape from their Coulomb well, a process that is at the heart of photoconversion or molecular doping. Yet they do, with near-quantitative yield in some cases. Limited screening by the low dielectric medium in organic materials leads to subtle static and dynamic electronic polarization effects that strongly impact the energy landscape for charges, which offers a rationale for this apparent inconsistency. In this Account, we use different theoretical approaches to predict the energy landscape of charge carriers at the molecular level and review a few case studies highlighting the role of electrostatic interactions in conjugated organic molecules. We describe the pros and cons of different theoretical approaches that provide access to the energy landscape defining the motion of charge carriers. We illustrate the applications of these approaches through selected examples involving OFETs, OLEDs, and solar cells. The three selected examples collectively show that energetic disorder governs device performances and highlights the relevance of theoretical tools to probe energy landscapes in molecular assemblies.

  12. Exploring the energy landscape of the charge transport levels in organic semiconductors at the molecular scale.

    PubMed

    Cornil, J; Verlaak, S; Martinelli, N; Mityashin, A; Olivier, Y; Van Regemorter, T; D'Avino, G; Muccioli, L; Zannoni, C; Castet, F; Beljonne, D; Heremans, P

    2013-02-19

    strongly interacting electron-hole pairs can potentially escape from their Coulomb well, a process that is at the heart of photoconversion or molecular doping. Yet they do, with near-quantitative yield in some cases. Limited screening by the low dielectric medium in organic materials leads to subtle static and dynamic electronic polarization effects that strongly impact the energy landscape for charges, which offers a rationale for this apparent inconsistency. In this Account, we use different theoretical approaches to predict the energy landscape of charge carriers at the molecular level and review a few case studies highlighting the role of electrostatic interactions in conjugated organic molecules. We describe the pros and cons of different theoretical approaches that provide access to the energy landscape defining the motion of charge carriers. We illustrate the applications of these approaches through selected examples involving OFETs, OLEDs, and solar cells. The three selected examples collectively show that energetic disorder governs device performances and highlights the relevance of theoretical tools to probe energy landscapes in molecular assemblies. PMID:23140088

  13. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  14. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  15. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  16. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  17. Measurement Error of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in New York City: Assessment and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010–2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors. PMID:25855646

  18. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  19. Thermodynamic derivation of the activation energy for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  20. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  1. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    PubMed

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  2. Energy level realignment in weakly interacting donor-acceptor binary molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Qin, Xinming; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Yang, Jinlong; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-25

    Understanding the effect of intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions on molecular electronic states is key to revealing the energy level alignment mechanism at organic-organic heterojunctions or organic-inorganic interfaces. In this paper, we investigate the energy level alignment mechanism in weakly interacting donor-acceptor binary molecular superstructures, comprising copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) intermixed with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), or manganese phthalocynine (MnPc) on graphite. The molecular electronic structures have been systematically studied by in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (LT-STM/STS) experiments and corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As demonstrated by the UPS and LT-STM/STS measurements, the observed unusual energy level realignment (i.e., a large downward shift in donor HOMO level and a corresponding small upward shift in acceptor HOMO level) in the CuPc-F16CuPc binary superstructures originates from the balance between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions. The enhanced intermolecular interactions through the hydrogen bonding between neighboring CuPc and F16CuPc can stabilize the binary superstructures and modify the local molecular electronic states. The obvious molecular energy level shift was explained by gap-state-mediated interfacial charge transfer. PMID:24433044

  3. Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

    2012-04-01

    The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (p<0.05). Stabilizing the glenohumeral joint (increase of deltoideus and biceps brachii activity) and applying a pole bending torque (increase of latissimus dorsi activity) required specific muscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles.

  4. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  5. Spectrum and energy levels of quadruply-ionized molybdenum (Mo V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph; Tauheed, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    The spectrum of quadruply-ionized molybdenum Mo V was observed from 200 to 4700 Å with sliding spark discharges on 10.7 m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs. The existing analyses of this spectrum (Tauheed et al 1985 Phys. Scr. 31 369; Cabeza et al 1986 Phys. Scr. 34 223) were extended to include the 5s2, 5p2, 5s5d, 5s6s, 4d5f, and 4d5g configurations as well as the missing 3H6 level of 4d4f and about 75 levels of the core-excited configuration 4p54d3. The values of the 4d5d 1S0, 5s5p 1P1, and 4d6p 3P0 levels were revised. There are now about 900 lines classified as transitions between 66 even parity and 191 odd parity energy levels. Of these, about 600 lines and 130 levels are new. From the optimized energy level values, Ritz-type wavelengths were determined for about 380 lines, with uncertainties varying from 0.0003 to 0.002 Å. The observed configurations were theoretically interpreted by means of Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels. The fitted parameters were used to calculate oscillator strengths for all classified lines. A few unclassified lines and undesignated levels are also given. An improved value for the ionization energy was obtained by combining the observed energy of the 4d5g configuration with an ab initio calculation of its term value. The adopted value is 438 900 ± 150 cm-1 (54.417 ± 0.019 eV).

  6. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Mg-like iron, cobalt and nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, K.M. . E-mail: k.aggarwal@qub.ac.uk; Tayal, Vikas; Gupta, G.P.; Keenan, F.P.

    2007-09-15

    Energy levels and radiative rates for electric dipole (E1) transitions among the lowest 141 levels of the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}) 3l{sup 2}, 3l3l', and 3l4l configurations of Fe XV, Co XVI, and Ni XVII are calculated through the CIV3 code using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep the calculated energy splittings close to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. The energy levels, including their orderings, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results for all three ions. However, experimental energies are only available for a few levels. Since mixing among some levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Additionally, some discrepancies with other theoretical work (particularly for Ni XVII) are very large. Therefore, in order to confirm the level ordering as well as to assess the accuracy of energy levels and radiative rates, we have performed two other independent calculations using the GRASP and FAC codes. These codes are fully relativistic, but the CI in the calculations is limited to the basic (minimum) configurations only. This enables us to assess the importance of including elaborate CI for moderately charged ions. Additionally, we report results for electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions, and list lifetimes for all levels. Comparisons are made with other available experimental and theoretical results, and the accuracy of the present results is assessed.

  7. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such “intrinsic” brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to “mind”. However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the “classical” definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and “free-energy” (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm

  8. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically require subjects to have an elevated acute phase reactant (APR), in addition to tender and swollen joints. However, despite the elevation of individual components of the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (tender and swollen joint counts and patient and physician global assessment), some patients with active RA may have normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and thus fail to meet entry criteria for clinical trials. We assessed the relationship between CDAI and APRs in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry by comparing baseline characteristics and one-year clinical outcomes of patients with active RA, grouped by baseline APR levels. Methods This was an observational study of 9,135 RA patients who had both ESR and CRP drawn and a visit at which CDAI was >2.8 (not in remission). Results Of 9,135 patients with active RA, 58% had neither elevated ESR nor CRP; only 16% had both elevated ESR and CRP and 26% had either ESR or CRP elevated. Among the 4,228 patients who had a one-year follow-up visit, both baseline and one-year follow-up modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) and CDAI scores were lowest for patients with active RA but with neither APR elevated; both mHAQ and CDAI scores increased sequentially with the increase in number of elevated APR levels at baseline. Each individual component of the CDAI followed the same trend, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in both CDAI and mHAQ scores at one year was associated positively with the number of APRs elevated at baseline. Conclusions In a large United States registry of RA patients, APR levels often do not correlate with disease activity as measured by joint counts and global assessments. These data strongly suggest that it is appropriate to obtain both ESR and CRP from RA patients at the initial

  9. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  10. Controlling energy level offsets in organic/organic heterostructures using intramolecular polar bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhm, Steffen; Salzmann, Ingo; Heimel, Georg; Oehzelt, Martin; Haase, Anja; Johnson, Robert L.; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Koch, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    The impact of intramolecular polar bonds (IPBs) on the energy level alignment in layered systems of rodlike conjugated molecules standing on the substrate was investigated for pentacene (PEN) and perfluoropentacene (PFP) on SiO2 using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. A remarkably large energy offset of 1.75 eV was found between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of PEN and PFP caused by IPBs at the surface of standing PFP layers. This large HOMO-level offset results in a narrow intermolecular energy gap of approximately 0.4 eV at the interface between PEN and PFP layers. However, the absence of significant spatial overlap of PEN and PFP electron wave functions across the layers suppresses interlayer optical transitions.

  11. Geospatial Relationships between Awareness and Utilization of Community Exercise Resources and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dondzila, Christopher J.; Swartz, Ann M.; Keenan, Kevin G.; Harley, Amy E.; Azen, Razia; Strath, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. It is unclear if community-based fitness resources (CBFR) translate to heightened activity levels within neighboring areas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether awareness and utilization of fitness resources and physical activity differed depending on residential distance from CBFR. Methods. Four hundred and seventeen older adults (72.9 ± 7.7 years) were randomly recruited from three spatial tiers (≤1.6, >1.6 to ≤3.2, and >3.2 to 8.0 km) surrounding seven senior centers, which housed CBFR. Participants completed questionnaires on health history, CBFR, and physical activity, gathering data on CBFR awareness, utilization, and barriers, overall levels, and predictors to engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results. Across spatial tiers, there were no differences in positive awareness rates of CBFR or CBFR utilization. Engagement in MVPA differed across spatial tiers (P < 0.001), with the >3.2 to 8.0 km radius having the highest mean energy expenditure. Across all sites, age and income level (P < 0.05) were significant predictors of low and high amounts of MVPA, respectively, and current health status and lack of interest represented barriers to CBFR utilization (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Closer proximity to CBFR did not impact awareness or utilization rates and had an inverse relationship with physical activity. PMID:25386363

  12. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-02

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  13. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  14. Ionization energies of W I-LXXIV and critical compilation of spectra and energy levels of Ga I-XXX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, Alexander; Reader, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    Both tungsten and gallium are important materials for fusion energy research. In this work, a semi-empirical method is used to determine ionization energies (IE) of multiply charged W ions [A.E. Kramida, J. Reader, Ionization Energies of Tungsten Ions: W^2+ through W^71+, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables, 2006, in press]. The method is based on Hartree-Fock calculations of electron binding energies with empirical scale factors. Relative uncertainties vary from 1.7 % for W III^ to 0.015 % for W LXXII. Combined with previously known experimental or theoretical IE values for W I-II and LXXIII-LXXIV, these new semiempirical results allow us to build a complete table of IEs of tungsten in all stages of ionization. For gallium, all available experimental data on wavelengths and energy levels are critically compiled and evaluated [T. Shirai, J. Reader, A.E. Kramida, J. Sugar, Spectral Data for Gallium: Ga I through Ga XXXI, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2006, in press]. Such data exist for spectra Ga I-VII, XIII-XXVI, and XXX. For Li-like Ga XXIX through H-like Ga XXXI, theoretical data on energy levels and line wavelengths are compiled. For Ga I-III, XV-XX, XXIII-XXVI, and XXX, radiative transition probabilities are included where available. The ground state configuration and term and a value of IE are included for each ion. This work was supported in part by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy.

  15. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  16. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  17. Converging ligand-binding free energies obtained with free-energy perturbations at the quantum mechanical level.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Martin A; Söderhjelm, Pär; Ryde, Ulf

    2016-06-30

    In this article, the convergence of quantum mechanical (QM) free-energy simulations based on molecular dynamics simulations at the molecular mechanics (MM) level has been investigated. We have estimated relative free energies for the binding of nine cyclic carboxylate ligands to the octa-acid deep-cavity host, including the host, the ligand, and all water molecules within 4.5 Å of the ligand in the QM calculations (158-224 atoms). We use single-step exponential averaging (ssEA) and the non-Boltzmann Bennett acceptance ratio (NBB) methods to estimate QM/MM free energy with the semi-empirical PM6-DH2X method, both based on interaction energies. We show that ssEA with cumulant expansion gives a better convergence and uses half as many QM calculations as NBB, although the two methods give consistent results. With 720,000 QM calculations per transformation, QM/MM free-energy estimates with a precision of 1 kJ/mol can be obtained for all eight relative energies with ssEA, showing that this approach can be used to calculate converged QM/MM binding free energies for realistic systems and large QM partitions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Method and system for in vivo measurement of bone tissue using a two level energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.; Judy, P. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for radiologically determining the bone mineral content of living human bone tissue independently of the concurrent presence of adipose and other soft tissues. A target section of the body of the subject is irradiated with a beam of penetrative radiations of preselected energy to determine the attenuation of such beam with respect to the intensity of each of two radiations of different predetermined energy levels. The resulting measurements are then employed to determine bone mineral content.

  19. Effect of a metallic gate on the energy levels of a shallow donor

    SciTech Connect

    Slachmuylders, A. F.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.; Magnus, W.

    2008-02-25

    We have investigated the effect of a metallic gate on the bound states of a shallow donor located near the gate. We calculate the energy spectrum as a function of the distance between the metallic gate and the donor and find an anticrossing behavior in the energy levels for certain distances. We show how a transverse electric field can tune the average position of the electron with respect to the metallic gate and the impurity.

  20. Serum leptin and insulin levels in lactating protein-restricted rats: implications for energy balance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C L P; Macêdo, G M; Latorraca, M Q; Arantes, V C; Veloso, R V; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Nascimento, C M O; Gaíva, M H

    2007-01-01

    The present study analysed the effect of protein restriction on serum insulin and leptin levels and their relationship with energy balance during lactation. Four groups of rats received isocaloric diets containing 170 g protein/kg or 60 g protein/kg from pregnancy until the 14th day of lactation: control non-lactating, control lactating (both fed a control diet), low-protein non-lactating and low-protein lactating. Energy intake, body composition, energy balance, serum insulin and leptin concentrations and the relationship between these hormones and several factors related to obesity were analysed. Low-protein-intake lactating rats exhibited hypoinsulinaemia, hyperleptinaemia, hypophagia and decreased energy expenditure compared with control lactating rats. The protein level in the carcasses was lower in the low-protein lactating group than in the control lactating group, resulting in a higher fat content in the first group compared with the latter. Body fat correlated inversely with serum insulin and positively with serum leptin level. There was a significant negative correlation between serum leptin and energy intake, and a positive relationship between energy intake and serum insulin level in lactating rats and in the combined data from both groups. Energy expenditure was correlated positively with serum insulin and negatively with serum leptin in lactating rats and when data from control non-lactating and lactating rats were pooled. Lactating rats submitted to protein restriction, compared with lactating control rats, showed that maternal reserves were preserved owing to less severe negative energy balance. This metabolic adaptation was obtained, at least in part, by hypoinsulinaemia that resulted in increased insulin sensitivity favouring enhanced fat deposition, hyperleptinaemia and hypophagia. PMID:17217557

  1. Energy level shifts at the silica/Ru(0001) heterojunction driven by surface and interface dipoles

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Mengen; Zhong, Jian -Qiang; Kestell, John; Waluyo, Iradwikanari; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Lu, Deyu

    2016-09-12

    Charge redistribution at heterogeneous interfaces is a fundamental aspect of surface chemistry. Manipulating the amount of charges and the magnitude of dipole moments at the interface in a controlled way has attracted tremendous attention for its potential to modify the activity of heterogeneous catalysts in catalyst design. Two-dimensional ultrathin silica films with well-defined atomic structures have been recently synthesized and proposed as model systems for heterogeneous catalysts studies. R. Wlodarczyk et al. (Phys. Rev. B, 85, 085403 (2012)) have demonstrated that the electronic structure of silica/Ru(0001) can be reversibly tuned by changing the amount of interfacial chemisorbed oxygen. Here wemore » carried out systematic investigations to understand the underlying mechanism through which the electronic structure at the silica/Ru(0001) interface can be tuned. As corroborated by both in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, the observed interface energy level alignments strongly depend on the surface and interfacial charge transfer induced dipoles at the silica/Ru(0001) heterojunction. These observations may help to understand variations in catalytic performance of the model system from the viewpoint of the electronic properties at the confined space between the silica bilayer and the Ru(0001) surface. As a result, the same behavior is observed for the aluminosilicate bilayer, which has been previously proposed as a model system for zeolites.« less

  2. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  3. Intrinsic deep hole trap levels in Cu2O with self-consistent repulsive Coulomb energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bolong

    2016-03-01

    The large error of the DFT+U method on full-filled shell metal oxides is due to the residue of self-energy from the localized d orbitals of cations and p orbitals of the anions. U parameters are selfconsistently found to achieve the analytical self-energy cancellation. The improved band structures based on relaxed lattices of Cu2O are shown based on minimization of self-energy error. The experimentally reported intrinsic p-type trap levels are contributed by both Cu-vacancy and the O-interstitial defects in Cu2O. The latter defect has the lowest formation energy but contributes a deep hole trap level while the Cuvacancy has higher energy cost but acting as a shallow acceptor. Both present single-particle levels spread over nearby the valence band edge, consistent to the trend of defects transition levels. By this calculation approach, we also elucidated the entanglement of strong p-d orbital coupling to unravel the screened Coulomb potential of fully filled shells.

  4. Energy levels, radiative rates, and lifetimes for transitions in W LVIII

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Kanti M. Keenan, Francis P.

    2014-11-15

    Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in Cl-like W LVIII. Configuration interaction (CI) has been included among 44 configurations (generating 4978 levels) over a wide energy range up to 363 Ryd, and the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) adopted for the calculations. Since no other results of comparable complexity are available, calculations have also been performed with the flexible atomic code (FAC), which help in assessing the accuracy of our results. Energies are listed for the lowest 400 levels (with energies up to ∼98 Ryd), which mainly belong to the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}, 3s3p{sup 6}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 4}3d, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}3d{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 4}3d{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}3d{sup 3}, and 3p{sup 6}3d configurations, and radiative rates are provided for four types of transitions, i.e. E1, E2, M1, and M2. Our energy levels are assessed to be accurate to better than 0.5%, whereas radiative rates (and lifetimes) should be accurate to better than 20% for a majority of the strong transitions.

  5. Energy levels and multipole transition properties of C4+ ion in Debye plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Y. Z.; Dong, C. Z.

    2012-05-01

    Plasma screening effects on the energy structure and radiative transition properties of helium-like C4+ ions embedded in Debye plasmas are investigated by using the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method incorporating the Debye-Hückel potential for both the electron-nucleus and electron-electron interactions. Seventeen fine-structure energy levels of the low-lying 1 s 2, 1 s2 l( l = s,p) and 1 s3 l'( l' = s,p,d) configurations, as well as the electric-dipole ( E1), magnetic-dipole ( M1) and magnetic-quadrupole ( M2) transition probabilities and oscillator strengths between these levels have been calculated over a wide range of screening parameters. It is found that the plasma screening leads to a decrease of excitation energies and alters the energy levels remarkably. For Δn ≠ 0 transitions, the spontaneous decay spectra are red-shifted and their oscillator strengths and transition probabilities decrease with increasing the interaction screening, while those for the Δn = 0 transitions exhibit opposite patterns. The influence of electron-nucleus and electron-electron screened interactions on the changes of energy levels and transition properties are analyzed. Comparison is made of present results with other data available in the literature for this ion.

  6. Energy level modification in lead sulfide quantum dot photovoltaics through ligand exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Patrick; Kim, Donghun; Lunt, Richard; Bawendi, Moungi; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bulovic, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    The electronic properties of lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots (PbS QDs) can be controlled through modification of QD size and surface chemistry. Novel surface passivation techniques involving organic or inorganic ligands have contributed to a rapid rise in the efficiency of QD photovoltaics, yet the influence of ligand-induced surface dipoles on PbS QD energy levels and photovoltaic device operation is not yet completely understood. Here, the valence band energies of PbS QDs treated with twelve different ligands are measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and a valence band shift of up to 0.75 eV is observed between different ligand treatments. Atomistic simulations of ligand binding to pristine PbS(100) and PbS(111) slabs qualitatively reproduce the measured energy level shifts. 1,2-benzenedithiol and 1,3-benzendithiol treatments, which result in valence band energies differing by ~ 0.2 eV, are employed for PbS QDs in three different solar cell architectures, and changes in device performance are correlated with the measured energy level shift. These findings complement the known bandgap-tunability of colloidal QDs and highlight an additional level of control over the electronic properties of PbS QDs.

  7. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  8. Control of Electronic Symmetry and Rectification through Energy Level Variations in Bilayer Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Akhtar; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L

    2016-09-21

    Two layers of molecular oligomers were deposited on flat carbon electrode surfaces by electrochemical reduction of diazonium reagents, then a top contact applied to complete a solid-state molecular junction containing a molecular bilayer. The structures and energy levels of the molecular layers included donor molecules with relatively high energy occupied orbitals and acceptors with low energy unoccupied orbitals. When the energy levels of the two molecular layers were similar, the device had electronic characteristics similar to a thick layer of a single molecule, but if the energy levels differed, the current voltage behavior exhibited pronounced rectification. Higher current was observed when the acceptor molecule was biased negatively in eight different bilayer combinations, and the direction of rectification was reversed if the molecular layers were also reversed. Rectification persisted at very low temperature (7 K), and was activationless between 7 and 100 K. The results are a clear example of a "molecular signature" in which electronic behavior is directly affected by molecular structure and orbital energies. The rectification mechanism is discussed, and may provide a basis for rational design of electronic properties by variation of molecular structure.

  9. Control of Electronic Symmetry and Rectification through Energy Level Variations in Bilayer Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Akhtar; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L

    2016-09-21

    Two layers of molecular oligomers were deposited on flat carbon electrode surfaces by electrochemical reduction of diazonium reagents, then a top contact applied to complete a solid-state molecular junction containing a molecular bilayer. The structures and energy levels of the molecular layers included donor molecules with relatively high energy occupied orbitals and acceptors with low energy unoccupied orbitals. When the energy levels of the two molecular layers were similar, the device had electronic characteristics similar to a thick layer of a single molecule, but if the energy levels differed, the current voltage behavior exhibited pronounced rectification. Higher current was observed when the acceptor molecule was biased negatively in eight different bilayer combinations, and the direction of rectification was reversed if the molecular layers were also reversed. Rectification persisted at very low temperature (7 K), and was activationless between 7 and 100 K. The results are a clear example of a "molecular signature" in which electronic behavior is directly affected by molecular structure and orbital energies. The rectification mechanism is discussed, and may provide a basis for rational design of electronic properties by variation of molecular structure. PMID:27563739

  10. Level Density of COBALT-57 in the Energy Region 1 Mev to 14 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vivek

    The level density of ^{57 }Co is studied in the energy region of 1-14 MeV using three experimental techniques. Levels are counted in the resolved region, evaporation spectra are measured in the resolved to continuum region, and the coherence width is measured in the region of level overlap. Use of Hauser-Feshbach fits to the evaporation cross sections requires level densities of the residual nucleus. A two -parameter based Fermi gas form is used for the calculation of level density as a function of the nuclear excitation energy. This procedure enables level density calculation beyond the energy region in which the two fixed parameters provide the best fits to the data. A comparison is made between the level density obtained from the above described methods and the predictions of the microscopic model in an energy range of 1-20 MeV. This model utilizes a BCS pairing Hamiltonian and specific sets of single particle states and calculates numerical values of the level density. Comparisons are also made with level density of ^{57 }Co obtained in various other studies. Both the resolved level studies and the fits to the evaporation spectra were conducted using the ^{56}Fe(d,n)^{57 }Co and ^{57}Fe(p,n) ^{57}Co reactions. Standard neutron time-of-flight techniques including pulse shape discrimination for elimination of gamma -rays were employed. An energy resolution as good as 6 keV at 1-1.5 MeV neutron energy was obtained for high resolution measurements. For Ericson fluctuation measurements, the excitation functions corresponding to the ground state and the first two excited states of the residual nucleus in the ^{56}Fe(p,n) ^{56}Co reaction were obtained for lab angles between 0^circ and 150^circ. The ^{56}Fe(d,n) ^{57}Co reaction proves to be very selective in populating resolved states and includes substantial contributions from mechanisms other than the compound nuclear. The ^{57 }Fe(p,n)^{57}Co reaction populated 14 previously unknown levels. The fits to the

  11. The influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the directionally solidified structures in hypermonotectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Various Cu-Pb-Al alloys were directionally solidified under 1-g conditions and alternating high-g/low-g conditions (achieved using NSAS's KC-135 aircraft) as a means of studying the influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the resulting microstructures. Directional solidification of low Al content alloys was found to result in samples with coarser more irregular microstructures than in alloys with high Al contents under all the gravity conditions considered. Structures are correlated with interfacial energies, growth rates, and gravitational levels.

  12. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  13. Low level of self-reported physical activity in ambulatory patients new to dialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kirsten L; Chertow, Glenn M; Kutner, Nancy G; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Grimes, Barbara A; Kaysen, George A

    2010-12-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to the frailty and the decline in function that develops over time among patients with end-stage renal disease. We assessed physical activity among 1547 ambulatory patients new to dialysis in the United States Renal Data System Comprehensive Dialysis Study. We used a self-reporting Human Activity Profile that included Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores and compared results to established norms by age and gender. Physical activity was found to be extremely low with scores for all age and gender categories below the 5th percentile of healthy individuals and 95% of patients had scores consonant with low fitness. Older age, female gender, diabetes, atherosclerotic disease, and a low level of education were associated with lower activity scores assessed by univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis. Higher serum albumin, creatinine, and lower body mass index, but not hemoglobin levels, were associated with greater physical activity. By multivariable analysis, patients on hemodialysis using a catheter reported lower levels of physical activity compared to those on peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis using an arteriovenous fistula, or with a graft. Lower Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores were associated with poor physical function and mental health. Hence, physical activity is distressingly low among patients new to dialysis. Thus, strategies to enhance activity in these patients should be explored.

  14. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  15. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  16. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  17. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  18. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  19. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  20. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  1. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  2. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, Thibault; Nikitin, Andrei; Rey, Michaël; Szalay, Péter G.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C2H4 obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C2H4 molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.-Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm-1 for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm-1 for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm-1. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for 12C2H4, 13C2H4, and 12C2D4 isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm-1 are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of 13C2H4 and 12C2D4 and rovibrational levels of 12C2H4.

  3. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25th-75th) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25th-75th) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual’s heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p < 0.001) and 24.8 (21.6-28.9) vs.26.2 (24.5-30.8) %HRR, p < 0.01], respectively. Overweight children allocated more of their day to sedentary pursuits [385 (336-468) vs 297 (235-468) min/d, p < 0.001], and less time to moderate physical activity [381(321-457) vs. 460 (380-534) min/d, p < 0.01]. Nevertheless, because of the greater energy cost of a given task, total and active daily energy expenditure did not differ from those with a normal BMI. Key points The physical activity intensity for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals. However, because the energy cost of activity is greater in those who are overweight, they do not differ in total energy expenditure or in active energy expenditure. Normal children spend more time in moderate activity and less time in

  4. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  5. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  6. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  7. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  8. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  9. Taking a New Look at the Physical Activity Program on the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, James D., Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity programs at the college level should aim toward: (1) maintenance of physical fitness; (2) refinement of skills; (3) introduction to new skills; and (4) development of healthy lifestyles. Innovative activity courses such as aerobic dance, weight lifting, and adventure programs are also being offered to reach these goals. (JN)

  10. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  11. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  12. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  13. Energy level alignment of single-wall carbon nanotubes on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Sylvain; Kim, Yousoo; Kawai, Maki

    2011-06-01

    We studied the electronic configuration of single-wall carbon nanotubes adsorbed on well-defined Au(111) and Cu(111) surfaces. We found opposite behaviors for their energy-level alignment with metal: nanotubes are p-doped on Au(111) and n-doped on Cu(111). The doping level is not uniquely defined for a particular metal surface but rather exhibits a distribution depending on several uncontrolled factors such as nanotube geometry and adsorption configuration.

  14. Model for describing non-equilibrium helium plasma energy level population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavyrshin, D. I.; Chinnov, V. F.; Ageev, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    A new method for calculating the population of excited levels of helium atoms and ions is suggested. The method is based on direct solution of a system of balance equations for all energy levels for which it was possible to obtain process speed constants. The equations include terms for the processes of particle loss and income by excitation and deexcitation, ionization and recombination as well as losses due to diffusion and radiation. The challenge of solution of such large system is also discussed.

  15. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity.

  16. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  17. Restricting opportunities to be active during school time: do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school?

    PubMed

    Dale, D; Corbin, C B; Dale, K S

    2000-09-01

    Opportunities for children to be physically active during school time are sparse and becoming increasingly so. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if children would compensate for school days (9 a.m.-3 p.m.) of restricted physical activity opportunities by increasing activity levels after school (3 p.m.-7:30 p.m.). Third and fourth grade children (N = 76) each wore a CSA accelerometer for 4 nonconsecutive days. Two days were categorized as active--during school, all children participated in outdoor recess and physical education class. Two days were categorized as restricted--all children spent their recess time indoors at a computer terminal, and no physical education class was scheduled. Dependent t tests revealed that children did not compensate for a sedentary school day by increasing their levels of physical activity after school. In fact, average movement counts per minute were higher in the 3 p.m.-7:30 p.m. period following the active day (525 counts.min-1) versus the restricted day (186 counts.min-1). These findings suggest cause for concern if children's opportunities to be active within school time are limited. Several reasons are given as to why children did not compensate or "make up" for the physical activity opportunities missed during the restricted school day.

  18. Level and length of cyclic solar activity during the Maunder minimum as deduced from the active-day statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Carrasco, V. M. S.; Gallego, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The Maunder minimum (MM) of greatly reduced solar activity took place in 1645-1715, but the exact level of sunspot activity is uncertain because it is based, to a large extent, on historical generic statements of the absence of spots on the Sun. Using a conservative approach, we aim to assess the level and length of solar cycle during the MM on the basis of direct historical records by astronomers of that time. Methods: A database of the active and inactive days (days with and without recorded sunspots on the solar disc) is constructed for three models of different levels of conservatism (loose, optimum, and strict models) regarding generic no-spot records. We used the active day fraction to estimate the group sunspot number during the MM. Results: A clear cyclic variability is found throughout the MM with peaks at around 1655-1657, 1675, 1684, 1705, and possibly 1666, with the active-day fraction not exceeding 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 during the core MM, for the three models. Estimated sunspot numbers are found to be very low in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity. Conclusions: For the core MM (1650-1700), we have found that (1) A large portion of no-spot records, which correspond to the solar meridian observations, may be unreliable in the conventional database. (2) The active-day fraction remained low (below 0.3-0.4) throughout the MM, indicating the low level of sunspot activity. (3) The solar cycle appears clearly during the core MM. (4) The length of the solar cycle during the core MM appears for 9 ± 1 years, but this is uncertain. (5) The magnitude of the sunspot cycle during MM is assessed to be below 5-10 in sunspot numbers. A hypothesis of the high solar cycles during the MM is not confirmed.

  19. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  20. Energy level alignment at hybridized organic-metal interfaces from a GW projection approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yifeng; Tamblyn, Isaac; Quek, Su Ying

    Energy level alignments at organic-metal interfaces are of profound importance in numerous (opto)electronic applications. Standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations generally give incorrect energy level alignments and missing long-range polarization effects. Previous efforts to address this problem using the many-electron GW method have focused on physisorbed systems where hybridization effects are insignificant. Here, we use state-of-the-art GW methods to predict the level alignment at the amine-Au interface, where molecular levels do hybridize with metallic states. This non-trivial hybridization implies that DFT result is a poor approximation to the quasiparticle states. However, we find that the self-energy operator is approximately diagonal in the molecular basis, allowing us to use a projection approach to predict the level alignments. Our results indicate that the metallic substrate reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap by 3.5 4.0 eV, depending on the molecular coverage/presence of Au adatoms. Our GW results are further compared with those of a simple image charge model that describes the level alignment in physisorbed systems. Syq and YC acknowledge Grant NRF-NRFF2013-07 and the medium-sized centre program from the National Research Foundation, Singapore.