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Sample records for activation energy required

  1. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  2. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  3. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  4. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  5. Energy requirements of development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Samuels, G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This report focuses on the energy requirements of pumped irrigation and cement plants as examples of the energy operating requirements of large development projects. Based on conservative assumptions about the nearness of the water table to the surface and the efficiency of operating pumping systems, using pumped irrigation to increase by 5% the arable land area of the countries studied would require energy equivalent to 4-1/2% to 8-1/2% of 1980 energy imports or commercial energy consumption of four of the countries; Somalia and Chad would require 15% and 22% of their 1980 oil import or consumption levels - partly because of relatively large, marginally arable land areas and partly because of low energy imports (commercial consumption). The introduction of one or (at most) two moderate-sized cement plants into five West African countries and Sudan requires from 12% to 40% of those countries' 1980 national commercial energy consumption for their operation. These calculations assume high levels of maintenance and developed country standards of fuel efficient operation; therefore actual fuel requirements are likely to be higher. The countries studied have few or no domestic fuel supply options other than imports. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  7. Energy requirements in Chilean infants

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, G; Vio, F; Garcia, C; Aguirre, E; Coward, W

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the energy requirements of breast fed infants.
METHODS—The study was conducted in 17 healthy exclusively breast fed infants of normal birth weight (mean (SD) 3332 (280) g). Energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method and milk intake by the dose to infant method were measured at 34 (4) days. A dose of 0.2 g/kg deuterium oxide (99.8%) and 2.0 g/kg 10% 18O labelled water was given to the infants, and urine samples were collected for seven consecutive days after dosing.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) weight of the infants during the period of evaluation was 4617 (343) g and weight gain 34.0 (7.5) g/day. Daily milk intake was 728 (101) g and its metabolisable energy content 2.71 kJ/g. The energy expenditure of the infants was 1205 (312) kJ/day and energy required for growth was 607 (130) kJ/day. When combined this produced an energy requirement of 391 kJ/kg/day for these infants.
CONCLUSION—These data agree with those from other studies in the United Kingdom and the United States and suggest that adequate growth can be achieved with 19.4% less energy than recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU.

 PMID:10952706

  8. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  9. Extrusion energy and pressure requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Hanna, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Corn gluten meal samples at moisture contents of 14, 20 and 26% dry basis were extruded at barrel temperatures of 120, 145 and 170/sup 0/C with screw speeds of 100, 150 and 200 rpm. The specific energy requirements and specific operating pressure decreases as the moisture content and temperature were increased. The effect of screw speed on specific energy and pressure was inconclusive.

  10. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  11. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  12. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  13. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  14. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  15. 18 CFR 390.2 - Activities requiring registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Activities requiring registration. 390.2 Section 390.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES ELECTRONIC REGISTRATION § 390.2 Activities requiring registration. (a) Electronic registration is...

  16. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  17. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  18. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  19. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  20. Energy requirements for tillage and planting

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, L.E.; Spencer, A.D.; Floyd, V.G.; Brixius, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Energy requirements for a number of residue-preparation, tillage, planting, and weed-control processes have been measured. The energy-savings potential of substituting one process for another may be determined from the results. An energy budget points out opportunities for energy savings within the tractor-implement system. 3 refs.

  1. Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

    Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

  2. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  3. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  4. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  5. Metabolic energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

  6. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  7. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  8. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  9. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  10. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  13. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  14. Energy requirements for tillage-planting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.R.; Parsons, s.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel saved by omitting field operations or changing to operations with lower power requirements is easily understood and can be measured directly or estimated from research data. However, several other energy consuming inputs may be altered by changing tillage practices: the type and amount of pesticides required, the form and amount of fertilizer applied; and the particular equipment used. these other energy components are frequently overlooked because they are not easily defined and not highly visible at the arm level. They may, however, tip the energy balance in favor of one tillage-planting system over another when comparing the total energy burden on society. this paper attempts to put these various energy components into perspective as they relate to the selection of a tillage-planting system for corn and soybean production. 15 refs.

  15. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  16. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores. PMID:11208938

  17. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores.

  18. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  19. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  20. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  1. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  2. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  3. 10 CFR 420.15 - Minimum criteria for required program activities for plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., State, and Federal energy efficiency, renewable energy and alternative transportation fuel programs... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum criteria for required program activities for plans. 420.15 Section 420.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  4. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  5. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  6. Maintenance energy requirements in miniature colony dogs.

    PubMed

    Serisier, S; Weber, M; Feugier, A; Fardet, M-O; Garnier, F; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2013-05-01

    There are numerous reports of maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs, but little information is available about energy requirements of miniature dog breeds. In this prospective, observational, cohort study, we aimed to determine MER in dogs from a number of miniature breeds and to determine which factors were associated with it. Forty-two dogs participated in the study. MER was calculated by determining daily energy intake (EI) during a period of 196 days (28-359 days) when body weight did not change significantly (e.g. ±2% in 12 weeks). Estimated median MER was 473 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-766 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, median 113 kcal/kg(0.75) /day (68-183 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). In the obese dogs that lost weight, median MER after weight loss was completed was 360 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-515 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, 86 kcal/kg(0.75) /day, (68-123 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). Simple linear regression analysis suggested that three breeds (e.g. Chihuahua, p = 0.002; Yorkshire terrier, p = 0.039; dachshund, p = 0.035) had an effect on MER. In addition to breed, simple linear regression revealed that neuter status (p = 0.079) and having previously been overweight (p = 0.002) were also of significance. However, with multiple linear regression analysis, only previous overweight status (MER less in dogs previously overweight p = 0.008) and breed (MER greater in Yorkshire terriers [p = 0.029] and less in Chihuahuas [p = 0.089]) remained in the final model. This study is the first to estimate MER in dogs of miniature breeds. Although further information from pet dogs is now needed, the current work will be useful for setting energy and nutrient requirement in such dogs for the future.

  7. Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, L.B.

    1984-05-01

    The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

  8. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  9. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  10. Energy requirement of growing pigs under commercial housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Naatjes, Maike; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientifically derived recommendations for the energy supply to growing pigs are generally based on estimates of the metabolisable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance (MEm) and protein (MEp) and fat (MEf) retention. It is supposed that animals are kept within the zone of thermoneutrality and that their physical activity is not elevated. These assumptions might not always be true for practical housing conditions, and it is difficult to quantify the additional energy needed for thermoregulation and physical activity. Hence, at a given ME intake, differences can occur between the actual growth rates and those predicted from the recommendations. To quantify such differences, three trials were carried out under commercial farming conditions with pigs growing from 25 to 120 kg body weight (BW). In each trial, 624 castrated male and female pigs were allocated to four feeding groups distributed over 24 double pens. The rations were provided according to the animals' feed intake capacity and BW was recorded every three weeks. Protein, fat and energy retention (RE) was derived from carcass composition and BW gain. The difference between ME intake and MEm plus ME required for growth (MEg = RE/kpf) was calculated and seen as the ME required for purposes other than maintenance and growth (MEx). MEx accounted for 2.0%, 17.0% and 21.4% of the animals' ME intake in Trials 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and was higher in female than in castrated male pigs when related to metabolic BW. It was concluded that total ME requirements of pigs kept under commercial housing conditions can be considerably higher than ME requirements predicted from feeding standards since they usually ignore MEx. MEx can be used as an indicator for the quality of housing systems. Further studies are needed to identify the key factors responsible for MEx to allow for more precise recommendations for the energy supply to commercially raised pigs.

  11. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  12. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  13. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  14. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  15. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  16. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.

  17. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore » used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  18. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS. PMID:26305106

  19. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm(2), respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.

  20. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm(2), respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS. PMID:26305106

  1. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  2. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option. PMID:25789413

  3. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option.

  4. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  5. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  6. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  7. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  8. Energy expenditure studies to predict requirements of selected national athletes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Wannudri, W; Zawiah, H

    1997-03-01

    A study to predict energy requirements of national athletes, 84 males and 24 females in 9 and 4 different types of sports respectively, were conducted during centralised training. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, 3-day activity pattern and energy cost (kcal/min) of common activities to derive total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Based on body mass index (BMI), 68 males or 81% and 19 females or 79% of the athletes were classified as normal. The mean body fat content for males and females were 13.8 ± 4.5% and 24.7 ± 5.3%, respectively. The mean daily activity pattern of males and females athletes were similar for light activities (16½ hr or 68% of day), for moderate activities (3½ hr or 15% of day in male, 4 hr or 17% in females) while moderate to heavy activities related to training were 4 hr (17%) and 3½ hr (15%) in males and females, respectively. Energy cost of some common activities ranges from 1.00-3.00 kcal/min in males and 0.84-2.04 kcal/min in females, while values for jogging were 6.60 kcal/min and 5.62 kcal/min in males and females, respectively. The mean TDEE in male ranges from 2938 kcal (12.3 MJ) in boxers (57 kg) to 4861 kcal (20.3 MJ) in weightlifters (110 kg) while the mean TDEE in female ranges from 2099 kcal (8.8 MJ) in athletics (51 kg) to 3098 kcal (13.0 MJ) in basketball (61.4 kg). The calculated physical activity level (PAL) values using measured BMR for males and females athletes ranges from 1.99-2.58 and 1.77-2.34, respectively. In conclusion, the estimated energy requirement for the various sports event studied ranges from 44-55 kcal/kg/day in males and 38-50 kcal/kg/day in female athletes.

  9. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  10. Energy requirements in nonobese men and women: results from CALERIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy intake necessary to maintain weight and body composition is called the energy requirement for weight maintenance and can be determined by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. The objective was to determine the energy requirements of nonobese men and women in the Comprehensive Asse...

  11. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Energy requirements, protein-energy metabolism and balance, and carbohydrates in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Denne, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Energy is necessary for all vital functions of the body at molecular, cellular, organ, and systemic levels. Preterm infants have minimum energy requirements for basal metabolism and growth, but also have requirements for unique physiology and metabolism that influence energy expenditure. These include body size, postnatal age, physical activity, dietary intake, environmental temperatures, energy losses in the stool and urine, and clinical conditions and diseases, as well as changes in body composition. Both energy and protein are necessary to produce normal rates of growth. Carbohydrates (primarily glucose) are principle sources of energy for the brain and heart until lipid oxidation develops over several days to weeks after birth. A higher protein/energy ratio is necessary in most preterm infants to approximate normal intrauterine growth rates. Lean tissue is predominantly produced during early gestation, which continues through to term. During later gestation, fat accretion in adipose tissue adds increasingly large caloric requirements to the lean tissue growth. Once protein intake is sufficient to promote net lean body accretion, additional energy primarily produces more body fat, which increases almost linearly at energy intakes >80-90 kcal/kg/day in normal, healthy preterm infants. Rapid gains in adiposity have the potential to produce later life obesity, an increasingly recognized risk of excessive energy intake. In addition to fundamental requirements for glucose, protein, and fat, a variety of non-glucose carbohydrates found in human milk may have important roles in promoting growth and development, as well as production of a gut microbiome that could protect against necrotizing enterocolitis.

  13. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-22

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  14. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  15. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  16. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  17. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  18. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  19. Energy Requirements of Squash and Racquetball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Richard R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored in 32 male adults playing racquetball and squash. Results indicated that energy expenditure in racquetball was only slightly less than for squash, suggesting that either sport is appropriate for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. (Author/CB)

  20. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  1. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at the... dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then immunization treatment must...

  2. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  3. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  4. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at the... dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then immunization treatment must...

  5. Frequency requirements for active earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The foundation and rationale for the selection of microwave frequencies for active remote sensing usage and for subsequent use in determination of sharing criteria and allocation strategies for the WARC-79 are presented.

  6. Energy requirements of irrigation systems - subirrigation versus sprinkler irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, F.C.; Skaggs, R.W.; Sneed, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term simulations were conducted to determine the energy requirements for 3 North Carolina soils. Subirrigation required 4 to 3 cm more water than sprinkler systems but less than 10% of the energy when surface water sources were used. 26 refs.

  7. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  8. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  9. Energy sources and requirements of the exercising horse.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1997-01-01

    This review outlines the energy sources available to the horse, from its diet and from its body stores, at rest and while exercising. It looks at the current ways of describing the energy potential of diets fed to horses and discusses the relative advantages and disadvantages of the digestible energy and net energy systems. The more empirical net energy system for calculating the energy available for maintenance and work is compared with a more physiological partitioning system. Finally, the energy requirements for maintenance and exercise are discussed, together with how they may be practically determined and achieved through different diets.

  10. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  11. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  12. Antifreeze glycoprotein agents: structural requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Rondanelli, Patricio A; Marshall, Sergio H; Guzman, Fanny

    2011-11-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are considered to be the most efficient means to reduce ice damage to cell tissues since they are able to inhibit growth and crystallization of ice. The key element of antifreeze proteins is to act in a non-colligative manner which allows them to function at concentrations 300-500 times lowers than other dissolved solutes. During the past decade, AFGPs have demonstrated tremendous potential for many pharmaceutical and food applications. Presently, the only route to obtain AFGPs involves the time consuming and expensive process of isolation and purification from deep-sea polar fishes. Unfortunately, it is not amenable to mass production and commercial applications. The lack of understanding of the mechanism through which the AFGPs inhibit ice growth has also hampered the realization of industrial and biotechnological applications. Here we report the structural motifs that are essential for antifreeze activity of AFGPs, and propose a unified mechanism based on both recent studies of short alanine peptides and structure activity relationship of synthesized AFGPs.

  13. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  14. 30 CFR 251.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities under a permit. 251.8 Section 251.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT...) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.8 Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under... exploration or scientific research activities under a permit. They will determine whether operations...

  15. Energy required to propel irrigators on wet and dry soil

    SciTech Connect

    Borbovsky, J.P.; Lyle, W.M.

    1982-12-01

    Mobile irrigation application systems, such as the LEPA system (Lyle and Bordovsky, 1981), are being designed to maximize irrigation efficiencies and minimize energy requirements. The drop tube application of water with such systems results in dry wheel operation in contrast to the wet operations experienced with conventional sprinkler and spray systems. Field tests were conducted using a load cell, power/energy instrumentation, and recorder to determine the magnitude of energy savings resulting from dry wheel operation on firm loam soil. The results indicate that wet soil increased the energy requirement by an average of 28 percent on interior towers and 50 percent on the end tower.

  16. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  17. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  18. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  19. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  20. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  1. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  2. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  3. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  4. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  5. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  6. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  7. Current Energy Requirements in the Copper Producing Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Charles H.; Wadsworth, Milton E.

    1981-06-01

    An analysis of energy usage in the production of refined cathode copper was made from mining ore to cathode copper. In mining copper ore the greatest energy consumers are ore hauling and blasting. Another important factor is the "recovery efficiency" of the metallurgical processes used to extract the copper. The mining and mineral concentrating energies are directly proportional to the "recovery efficiency," with a typical mining operation requiring about 20 million Btu/ton of cathode copper produced. Mineral concentrating was also found to be a large energy consumer, requiring about 43 million Btu/ton of cathode copper. Some possibilities for energy savings in the mineral processing area include use of autogenous grinding and computer control for optimizing grinding operations, improved classifier efficiency, and optimizing the entire concentrator plant performance by interrelating all plant operations. In acid plants, optimization of input SO2 concentration can make the plant a net producer rather than a net user of energy. The conventional smelting process utilizes very little of the energy from the combustion of sulfides in the charge. Several of the newer copper pyrometallurgical processes which utilize more of the combustion energy of the sulfides as heat show a significant improvement over conventional smelting. Generally, increased use of oxygen decreases Level 1 energies but proportionately increases Level 2 energies. Hydrometallurgical processes are, in general, more energy intensive than smelting processes, mainly because of the inability to utilize the heat of reaction of the sulfides. Electrowinning used in most hydrometallurgy processes is also energy intensive, and research in these areas could produce significant energy savings. Combination pyrometallurgical processes are generally less energy intensive than entirely hydrometallurgical processes. Significant improvements may be made in energy use in hydrometallurgical processes by more effective

  8. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  9. 75 FR 48553 - Supplement to Commission Procedures During Periods of Emergency Operations Requiring Activation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 376 Supplement to Commission Procedures During Periods of Emergency Operations Requiring Activation of Continuity of Operations Plan Issued August 5, 2010....

  10. 12 CFR 980.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... undertaking a new business activity, except as provided in § 980.4(b), a Bank shall submit to the Finance... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New business activity notice requirement. 980.3 Section 980.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES...

  11. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  12. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  13. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  14. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  15. Women at altitude: energy requirement at 4,300 m.

    PubMed

    Mawson, J T; Braun, B; Rock, P B; Moore, L G; Mazzeo, R; Butterfield, G E

    2000-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that prolonged exposure to moderately high altitude increases the energy requirement of adequately fed women and that the sole cause of the increase is an elevation in basal metabolic rate (BMR), we studied 16 healthy women [21.7 +/- 0.5 (SD) yr; 167.4 +/- 1.1 cm; 62.2 +/- 1.0 kg]. Studies were conducted over 12 days at sea level (SL) and at 4,300 m [high altitude (HA)]. To test that menstrual cycle phase has an effect on energetics at HA, we monitored menstrual cycle in all women, and most women (n = 11) were studied in the same phase at SL and HA. Daily energy intake at HA was increased to respond to increases in BMR and to maintain body weight and body composition. Mean BMR for the group rose 6.9% above SL by day 3 at HA and fell to SL values by day 6. Total energy requirement remained elevated 6% at HA [ approximately 670 kJ/day (160 kcal/day) above that at SL], but the small and transient increase in BMR could not explain all of this increase, giving rise to an apparent "energy requirement excess." The transient nature of the rise in BMR may have been due to the fitness level of the subjects. The response to altitude was not affected by menstrual cycle phase. The energy requirement excess is at present unexplained.

  16. Minimizing sludge handling and energy requirements for AWT

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, G.B.; Rivinus, R.P.; Brown, J.

    1980-02-01

    Upgrading of local stream use classification has required Cobb County, Georgia, which includes much of northwestern metropolitan Atlanta, to provide nitrification, phosphorus removal, and effluent filtration at the new 30-ML/d Noonday Creek Water Pollution Control Plant. The design study at the Noonday Plant is described, and means by which energy requirements are being minimized are discussed. Use of anaerobically produced methane will be maximized to enable the plant to be self-sufficient during electric utility peak demand periods.

  17. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  18. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  19. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  20. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  1. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair.

  2. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  3. Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)

  4. K/S Lambert problem. [energy requirements for transfer orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Lambert problem in orbital mechanics is formulated in Kustaanheimo/Stiefel variables. The problem is to determine the required energy and the value of the generalized eccentric anomaly such that a particle at the initial position vector will transfer to the final position vector in a physical time interval. The fictitious time solution results in two nonlinear equations in the two unknowns, energy and fictitious time. The generalized eccentric anomaly solution, however, results in only one nonlinear equation in the one unknown, the eccentric anomaly. This simplification is possible because the energy equation is separable in the eccentric anomaly formulation.

  5. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  6. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  7. A system for predicting energy and protein requirements of wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Wild ruminants require energy and protein for the normal function. I developed a system for predicting these energy and protein requirements across ruminant species and life stages. This system defines requirements on the basis of net energy (NE), net protein (NP), and ruminally degraded protein (RDP). Total NE and NP requirements are calculated as the sum of NE and NP required for several functions (maintenance, activity, thermoregulation, gain, lactation, and gestation). To estimate the requirements for each function, I collected data predominantly for wild species and then formulated allometric and other equations that predict requirements across species. I estimated RDP requirements using an equation for cattle. I then related NE, NP, and RDP to quantities more practical for diet formulation (e.g. dry matter intake). I tabulated requirements over a range of body mass and life stages (neonate, juvenile, nonproductive adult, lactating adult, and gestating adult). Tabulated requirements suggest that adults at peak lactation require greatest quantities of energy and neonates generally require greatest quantities of protein, agreeing with suggestions that lactation is energetically expensive and protein is most limiting during growth. Equations used in this system were precise (allometric equations had R(2) generally ≥0.89 and coefficient of variation <31.1%) and expected to reliably predict requirements across species. Results showed that a system for beef cattle would overestimate NE and either over- or underestimate NP for gain when applied to wild ruminants, showing that systems for wild ruminants should not extrapolate from requirements for domestic ruminants. One prominent system for wild ruminants predicted at times vastly different protein requirements from those predicted by the proposed system. The proposed system should be further evaluated and expanded to include other nutrients.

  8. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  9. Energy Activities for the Classroom: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Bowman, Mary Lynne

    This resource book contains descriptions of over 100 classroom activities designed to illustrate concepts relating to energy, its production, characteristics, use, and conservations. Each activity integrates the energy lesson into a concept that relates to one or more subject areas common to public school curricula. Many of the activities included…

  10. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  11. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-01

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  12. A `warp drive' with more reasonable total energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Broeck, Chris

    1999-12-01

    I show how a minor modification of the Alcubierre geometry can dramatically improve the total energy requirements for a `warp bubble' that can be used to transport macroscopic objects. A spacetime is presented for which the total negative mass needed is of the order of a few solar masses, accompanied by a comparable amount of positive energy. This puts the warp drive in the mass scale of large traversable wormholes. The new geometry satisfies the quantum inequality concerning WEC violations and has the same advantages as the original Alcubierre spacetime.

  13. Validation of International Atomic Energy Agency Equipment Performance Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, PJ

    2004-02-17

    Performance requirements and testing protocols are needed to ensure that equipment used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is reliable. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the US Support Program, tested equipment to validate performance requirements protocols used by the IAEA for the subject equipment categories. Performance protocol validation tests were performed in the Environmental Effects Laboratory in the categories for battery, DC power supply, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Specific test results for each piece of equipment used in the validation process are included in this report.

  14. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  15. Xantusiid lizards have low energy, water, and food requirements.

    PubMed

    Mautz, W J; Nagy, K A

    2000-01-01

    Lizards in the family Xantusiidae (the night lizards) are known to have resting metabolic rates that are only half those of other lizards of comparable size. We evaluated whether xantusiids also have low field metabolic rates (FMR) and food requirements by measuring FMR and water flux rates with doubly labeled water in three xantusiid species in their natural habitats. Free-living Xantusia vigilis, Xantusia henshawi, and Xantusia riversiana processed energy and water very slowly, about one-third as fast as do other reptiles of similar size. Xantusiid lizards have a distinctive life history that is characterized by very slow growth and low reproductive rates, and they are intensely reclusive. This general lifestyle is also found in some species that live in environments with scarce food resources, such as in caves and in arid habitats, and these species may also have relatively low energy requirements.

  16. Energy requirements for HE-3 mining operations on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    At the present rate of world energy consumption (10 TW-y/y) and allowing for an equilibrium consumption of 20 to 30 TW-y/y in mid 21st century, we will exhaust economically recoverable fossil fuels in the next 50 to 60 years. We will then have to rely on nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable energy to feed, warm, and protect the world's population. Fusion energy is expected to play an important role in the 21st century and there a 2 billion dollar per year research program to commercialize that energy resource. A serious problem with this is its reliance on the D-T fuel cycle which releases 80 percent of its energy in the form of neutrons. These neutrons cause significant radiation damage and induce large amounts of radioactivity. There is another fusion fuel cycle involving the isotopes of Deuterium and Helium-3 which, if configured properly, releases 1 percent or less of its energy in neutrons. Obviously, such a fuel would be preferred, but there is no large source of He-3 known to satisfy world energy needs. Fortunately, a very large source of He-3 was found on the Moon, implanted over the past 4 billion years by the solar wind. Recent analysis of Apollo and Luna data reveals that over a million tons of He-3 sit on the Moon's surface. The potential energy in this He-3 fuel is 10 times that contained in all the coal, oil, and natural gas on the Earth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the energy required to extract the He-3 from the lunar regolith.

  17. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  18. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  19. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  20. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  1. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  2. Energy and packaging from energy materials: requirements of beverage containers and packaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boustead, I.; Hancock, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of the energy and materials requirements of the beverage container and packaging industry is presented. Information available to the industry for the first time is given and a quantitative picture of many significant industrial sectors is provided. Contains original reports presented to the UK Government's Waste Advisory Council, that analyze, in detail, the energy and materials required to produce and use glass bottles, plastic bottles, and metal cans for the packaging of beers, cider, and carbonated soft drinks. An extensive collection of tables of energy requirements broken down by fuel type is also presented.

  3. 30 CFR 551.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Notices. 551.4 Section 551.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You must have a...

  4. 30 CFR 551.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Notices. 551.4 Section 551.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSCIAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You must have a...

  5. 30 CFR 551.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Notices. 551.4 Section 551.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You must have a...

  6. 30 CFR 251.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Notices. 251.4 Section 251.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You...

  7. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental analysis? 280.30 Section 280.30 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR...

  8. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part? 280.25 Section 280.25 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS,...

  9. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  11. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  12. MafG Sumoylation Is Required for Active Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hozumi; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Miyoshi, Chika; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Hisato; Francastel, Claire; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    A straightforward mechanism for eliciting transcriptional repression would be to simply block the DNA binding site for activators. Such passive repression is often mediated by transcription factors that lack an intrinsic repressor activity. MafG is a bidirectional regulator of transcription, a repressor in its homodimeric state but an activator when heterodimerized with p45. Here, we report that MafG is conjugated to SUMO-2/3 in vivo. To clarify the possible physiological role(s) for sumoylation in regulating MafG activity, we evaluated mutant and wild-type MafG in transgenic mice and cultured cells. Whereas sumoylation-deficient MafG activated p45-dependent transcription normally and did not affect heterodimer activity, repression by the sumoylation-deficient MafG mutant was severely compromised in vivo. Furthermore, the SUMO-dependent repression activity of MafG was sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibition. Thus, repression by MafG is not achieved through simple passive repression by competing for the activator binding site but requires sumoylation, which then mediates transcriptional repression through recruitment of a repressor complex containing histone deacetylase activity. PMID:16738329

  13. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  14. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  15. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  16. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  17. Structural Requirements for the Procoagulant Activity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gansler, Julia; Jaax, Miriam; Leiting, Silke; Appel, Bettina; Greinacher, Andreas; Fischer, Silvia; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids, especially extracellular RNA, are exposed following tissue- or vessel damage and have previously been shown to activate the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway in vitro and in vivo. Yet, no information on structural requirements for the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids is available. A comparison of linear and hairpin-forming RNA- and DNA-oligomers revealed that all tested oligomers forming a stable hairpin structure were protected from degradation in human plasma. In contrast to linear nucleic acids, hairpin forming compounds demonstrated highest procoagulant activities based on the analysis of clotting time in human plasma and in a prekallikrein activation assay. Moreover, the procoagulant activities of the DNA-oligomers correlated well with their binding affinity to high molecular weight kininogen, whereas the binding affinity of all tested oligomers to prekallikrein was low. Furthermore, four DNA-aptamers directed against thrombin, activated protein C, vascular endothelial growth factor and nucleolin as well as the naturally occurring small nucleolar RNA U6snRNA were identified as effective cofactors for prekallikrein auto-activation. Together, we conclude that hairpin-forming nucleic acids are most effective in promoting procoagulant activities, largely mediated by their specific binding to kininogen. Thus, in vivo application of therapeutic nucleic acids like aptamers might have undesired prothrombotic or proinflammatory side effects. PMID:23226277

  18. Energy program of requirements for a new detention center -- Energy design criteria for prisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.; Krout, R.

    1995-08-01

    Correctional facilities are typically ``energy hogs.`` Prison facilities normally have the highest energy costs and are the most energy-intensive building type for local and state jurisdictions. The 24-hour operation and continuous, year-round use of these facilities means very high maintenance and operating costs. To minimize future utility costs, an integrated energy planning approach for a new detention facility is highly desirable at the earliest stages of programming. When energy-efficiency criteria are integrated early in a planning and design process, significant energy and operating cost savings can be achieved with little or no additional construction costs. A planning document in the form of an energy program of requirements (EPOR) can be incorporated into the solicitation of design proposals and can be very effective in ensuring energy-efficient design for a new facility.

  19. Estimates of the energy deficit required to reverse the trend in childhood obesity in Australian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel; de Castella, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To estimate: 1) daily energy deficit required to reduce the weight of overweight children to within normal range; 2) time required to reach normal weight for a proposed achievable (small) target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day; 3) impact that such an effect may have on prevalence of childhood overweight. Methods: Body mass index and fitness were measured in 31,424 Australian school children aged between 4.5 and 15 years. The daily energy deficit required to reduce weight to within normal range for the 7,747 (24.7%) overweight children was estimated. Further, for a proposed achievable target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day, the time required to reach normal weight was estimated. Results: About 18% of children were overweight and 6.6% obese; 69% were either sedentary or light active. If an energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day could be achieved, 60% of overweight children would reach normal weight and the current prevalence of overweight of 24.7% (24.2%–25.1%) would be reduced to 9.2% (8.9%–9.6%) within about 15 months. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight in Australian school children could be reduced significantly within one year if even a small daily energy deficit could be achieved by children currently classified as overweight or obese. PMID:26561382

  20. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  1. Gearbox design for uncertain load requirements using active robust optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Shaul; Avigad, Gideon; Purshouse, Robin C.; Fleming, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    Design and optimization of gear transmissions have been intensively studied, but surprisingly the robustness of the resulting optimal design to uncertain loads has never been considered. Active Robust (AR) optimization is a methodology to design products that attain robustness to uncertain or changing environmental conditions through adaptation. In this study the AR methodology is utilized to optimize the number of transmissions, as well as their gearing ratios, for an uncertain load demand. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem where the objectives are to satisfy the load demand in the most energy efficient manner and to minimize production cost. The results show that this approach can find a set of robust designs, revealing a trade-off between energy efficiency and production cost. This can serve as a useful decision-making tool for the gearbox design process, as well as for other applications.

  2. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  3. Energy Requirements of Hydrogen-Utilizing Microbes: Boundary Condition for Subsurface Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For planetary bodies with surface conditions that are too harsh to permit continuous occupation by life, the deep subsurface offers a potentially stable and habitable niche. For organisms occupying this niche, the spectrum of possible metabolisms must be limited to those which do not include sunlight as an energy source or oxygen as a chemical reagent - generally, low-energy anaerobic oxidation-reduction processes. The quantity of energy released in such processes is critical, because currently understood mechanisms of biological energy conservation indicate that energy is only 'useful' to an organism when it is available at a certain minimum level - the 'biological energy quantum'. The mere existence of a BEQ implies that a significant fraction of the chemical energy present in the environment cannot be exploited by life; similarly, the absolute magnitude of the BEQ must be a key variable in determining the potential viability and distribution of subsurface microbial communities. Laboratory culture studies suggest that organisms require an energy of about -20 kJ/mol to grow. However, we find that hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms in an energy-limited natural ecosystem are active with energy yields as low as -10 kJ/mol. A lower BEQ would mean a significantly expanded range of energetically viable subsurface habitat for life.

  4. Thiamin pyrophosphokinase is required for thiamin cofactor activation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ajjawi, Imad; Rodriguez Milla, Miguel A; Cushman, John; Shintani, David K

    2007-09-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential enzyme cofactor required for the viability of all organisms. Whether derived from exogenous sources or through de novo synthesis, thiamin must be pyrophosphorylated for cofactor activation. The enzyme thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPK) catalyzes the conversion of free thiamin to TPP in plants and other eukaryotic organisms and is central to thiamin cofactor activation. While TPK activity has been observed in a number of plant species, the corresponding gene/protein has until now not been identified or characterized for its role in thiamin metabolism. Here we report the functional identification of two Arabidopsis TPK genes, AtTPK1 and AtTPK2 and the enzymatic characterization of the corresponding proteins. AtTPK1 and AtTPK2 are biochemically redundant cytosolic proteins that are similarly expressed throughout different plant tissues. The essential nature of TPKs in plant metabolism is reflected in the observation that while single gene knockouts of either AtTPK1 or AtTPK2 were viable, the double mutant possessed a seedling lethal phenotype. HPLC analysis revealed the double mutant is nearly devoid of TPP and instead accumulates the precursor of the TPK reaction, free thiamin. These results suggest that TPK activity provides the sole mechanism by which exogenous and de novo derived thiamin is converted to the enzyme cofactor TPP.

  5. Active Prospective Control Is Required for Effective Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  6. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  7. Channeling Children's Energy through Vocabulary Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares vocabulary development activities for young learners. These activities channel students' energy and make learning more effective and fun. The author stresses the importance of giving young learners a good language-learning experience, and the challenges of teaching young learners who are not literate in their L1.…

  8. Spatial structures in microtubular solutions requiring a sustained energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabony, J.; Job, D.

    1990-08-01

    MICROTUBULES are believed to be the principal organizers of the cell interior1. Cells respond to a variety of stimuli by modifying the spatial distribution of the microtubules. These effects are central to cell division and morphogenesis2, and embryo development3. During embryo development, macroscopic patterns are frequently observed3. Here we report that microtubular solutions spontaneously form alternating white and dark stripes about 1 mm wide and 1 cm long. Small-angle neutron scattering measurements show that in each segment the microtubules are aligned obliquely to the direction of the stripe, and that the white and dark stripes differ in having mutually orthogonal orientations. The formation of these structures requires an initial reservoir of organic phosphate. Phosphorus NMR measurements show that the process is accompanied by the energy-liberating conversion of organic to inorganic phosphate. These observations, together with similarities to the dissipative spatial structure formed by the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction4-6, provide strong evidence that the observed structures are energy-dissipative in nature. Dissipative structures are thought to be critical to the appearence of complex living organisms7,8. Our results strongly suggest that microtubules are capable of forming such structures. Microtubular dissipative structures may occur during mitosis and embryo morphogenesis.

  9. Activation of oligodendroglial Stat3 is required for efficient remyelination.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Andrew J; Zhou, Yun; Koito, Hisami; Kim, SunJa; Payne, H Ross; Lu, Q Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is histologically characterized by perivascular demyelination as well as neurodegeneration. While the degree of axonal damage is correlated with clinical disability, it is believed that remyelination can protect axons from degeneration and slow disease progression. Therefore, understanding the intricacies associated with myelination and remyelination may lead to therapeutics that can enhance the remyelination process and slow axon degeneration and loss of function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) family cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin 11 (IL-11) are known to promote oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination in experimental models of demyelination. Because CNTF family member binding to the gp130 receptor results in activation of the JAK2/Stat3 pathway we investigated the necessity of oligodendroglial Stat3 in transducing the signal required for myelination and remyelination. We found that Stat3 activation in the CNS coincides with myelination during development. Stimulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with CNTF or LIF promoted OPC survival and final differentiation, which was completely abolished by pharmacologic blockade of Stat3 activation with JAK2 inhibitor. Similarly, genetic ablation of Stat3 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells prevented CNTF-induced OPC differentiation in culture. In vivo, while oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling appears to be dispensable for developmental CNS myelination, it is required for oligodendrocyte regeneration and efficient remyelination after toxin-induced focal demyelination in the adult brain. Our data suggest a critical function for oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling in myelin repair. PMID:27060559

  10. Activation of oligodendroglial Stat3 is required for efficient remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Andrew J.; Zhou, Yun; Koit, Hisami; Kim, SunJa; Payne, H. Ross; Lu, Q. Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is histologically characterized by perivascular demyelination as well as neurodegeneration. While the degree of axonal damage is correlated with clinical disability, it is believed that remyelination can protect axons from degeneration and slow disease progression. Therefore, understanding the intricacies associated with myelination and remyelination may lead to therapeutics that can enhance the remyelination process and slow axon degeneration and loss of function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) family cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin11(IL-11) are known to promote oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination in experimental models of demyelination. Because CNTF family member binding to the gp 130 receptor results in activation of the JAK2/Stat3 pathway we investigated the necessity of oligodendroglial Stat3 in transducing the signal required for myelination and remyelination. We found that Stat3 activation in the CNS coincides with myelination during development. Stimulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with CNTF or LIF promoted OPC survival and final differentiation, which was completely abolished by pharmacologic blockade of Stat3 activation with JAK2 inhibitor. Similarly, genetic ablation of Stat3 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells prevented CNTF-induced OPC differentiation in culture. In vivo, while oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling appears to be dispensable for developmental CNS myelination, it is required for oligodendrocyte regeneration and efficient remyelination after toxin-induced focal demyelination in the adult brain. Our data suggest a critical function for oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling in myelin repair. PMID:27060559

  11. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  12. Energy requirements for a swimming pool through a water-atmosphere energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Almanza, F.; Lara, J. )

    1994-07-01

    The methodology displayed here is to calculate the energy requirements for heating a swimming pool to a desired temperature. This methodology consists of an energy balance between water-atmosphere as is used in the temperature evaluation of cooling ponds in power plants. Different mathematical expressions are given to calculate such a balance. It is necessary to know the month of the year, the ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and solar radiation. With these parameters it is possible to know the natural temperature of the water, natural evaporation, energy needed to reach a determined swimming pool temperature and the evaporation of the heated pool.

  13. Photosensitization is required for antiretroviral activity of hypericin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Susan; Tossberg, John; Kraus, George A.

    1991-06-01

    In a seminal series of papers, Meruelo and co-workers have described the potent antiretroviral effect of hypericin. Interestingly, hypericin was found to inhibit not only the production of infectious virus from chronically infected cells, but was also shown to directly inhibit reverse transcriptase activity of mature virions. The effect of hypericin on cells chronically infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus genetically related to HIV, is demonstrated. At concentrations of 10 (mu) g/ml, hypericin reduced production of infectious EIAV by 99.99 without causing obvious cytopathic effects. Interestingly, the results indicated that the antiretroviral activity of hypericin was wholly dependent on the presence of light. No decrease in viral infectivity was observed when hypericin and virus were incubated in the dark. Moreover, it appeared that light was an absolute requirement for the antiviral activity, as even high concentrations of hypericin (10 (mu) g/ml) were unable to reduce infectivity of as few as 100 infectious virions.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  15. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  16. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-01

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  17. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand “chemical energy” is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk about chemical energy (which is also the way we talk about energy in everyday life); 2) the macroscopic approach to energy concepts that is common in physics and physical sciences; and 3) the failure of chemistry courses to explicitly link molecular with macroscopic energy ideas. From a constructivist perspective, it is unlikely that students can, without a coherent understanding of such a central concept, attain a robust and accurate understanding of new concepts. However, changes are on the horizon, guided by the increasing understanding that difficult concepts require coherent, well-designed learning progressions and the new National Research Council Framework for K–12 Science Education. We provide supporting evidence for our assertions and suggestions for an interdisciplinary learning progression designed to better approach the concept of bond energies, a first step in an understanding chemical energy and behavior of reaction systems that is central to biological systems. PMID:23737636

  18. PGC-1 Coactivator Activity Is Required for Murine Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuaiying; Tanabe, Osamu; Lim, Kim-Chew; Xu, H. Eric; Zhou, X. Edward; Lin, Jiandie D.; Shi, Lihong; Schmidt, Lindsay; Campbell, Andrew; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and PGC-1β have been shown to be intimately involved in the transcriptional regulation of cellular energy metabolism as well as other biological processes, but both coactivator proteins are expressed in many other tissues and organs in which their function is, in essence, unexplored. Here, we found that both PGC-1 proteins are abundantly expressed in maturing erythroid cells. PGC-1α and PGC-1β compound null mutant (Pgc-1c) animals express less β-like globin mRNAs throughout development; consequently, neonatal Pgc-1c mice exhibit growth retardation and profound anemia. Flow cytometry shows that the number of mature erythrocytes is markedly reduced in neonatal Pgc-1c pups, indicating that erythropoiesis is severely compromised. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed necrotic cell death and cell loss in Pgc-1c livers and spleen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that both PGC-1α and -1β, as well as two nuclear receptors, TR2 and TR4, coordinately bind to the various globin gene promoters. In addition, PGC-1α and -1β can interact with TR4 to potentiate transcriptional activation. These data provide new insights into our understanding of globin gene regulation and raise the interesting possibility that the PGC-1 coactivators can interact with TR4 to elicit differential stage-specific effects on globin gene transcription. PMID:24662048

  19. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  20. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinne, A.; Morrison, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Photovoltaics is subject of an extensive technology assessment in terms of its net energy potential as an alternate energy source. Reduction of quartzite pebbles, refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building are evaluated for energy expenditure compared to direct, indirect, and overhead energies.

  1. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  2. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  3. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  4. Formation of Tankyrase Inhibitor-Induced Degradasomes Requires Proteasome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nina Marie; Thorvaldsen, Tor Espen; Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Wenzel, Eva Maria; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In canonical Wnt signaling, the protein levels of the key signaling mediator β-catenin are under tight regulation by the multimeric destruction complex that mediates proteasomal degradation of β-catenin. In colorectal cancer, destruction complex activity is often compromised due to mutations in the multifunctional scaffolding protein Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC), leading to a stabilization of β-catenin. Recently, tankyrase inhibitors (TNKSi), a novel class of small molecule inhibitors, were shown to re-establish a functional destruction complex in APC-mutant cancer cell lines by stabilizing AXIN1/2, whose protein levels are usually kept low via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by the tankyrase enzymes (TNKS1/2). Surprisingly, we found that for the formation of the morphological correlates of destruction complexes, called degradasomes, functional proteasomes are required. In addition we found that AXIN2 is strongly upregulated after 6 h of TNKS inhibition. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 counteracted TNKSi-induced degradasome formation and AXIN2 stabilization, and this was accompanied by reduced transcription of AXIN2. Mechanistically we could implicate the transcription factor FoxM1 in this process, which was recently shown to be a transcriptional activator of AXIN2. We observed a substantial reduction in TNKSi-induced stabilization of AXIN2 after siRNA-mediated depletion of FoxM1 and found that proteasome inhibition reduced the active (phosphorylated) fraction of FoxM1. This can explain the decreased protein levels of AXIN2 after MG132 treatment. Our findings have implications for the design of in vitro studies on the destruction complex and for clinical applications of TNKSi. PMID:27482906

  5. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  6. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  7. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  8. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  9. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  10. Lipoprotein lipase activity is required for cardiac lipid droplet production.

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Yu, Shuiqing; Hu, Yunying; Skoller, Nathan; Huggins, Lesley A; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-04-01

    The rodent heart accumulates TGs and lipid droplets during fasting. The sources of heart lipids could be either FFAs liberated from adipose tissue or FAs from lipoprotein-associated TGs via the action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Because circulating levels of FFAs increase during fasting, it has been assumed that albumin transported FFAs are the source of lipids within heart lipid droplets. We studied mice with three genetic mutations: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) deficiency, and heart-specific LpL deletion. All three genetically altered groups of mice had defective accumulation of lipid droplet TGs. Moreover, hearts from mice treated with poloxamer 407, an inhibitor of lipoprotein TG lipolysis, also failed to accumulate TGs, despite increased uptake of FFAs. TG storage did not impair maximal cardiac function as measured by stress echocardiography. Thus, LpL hydrolysis of circulating lipoproteins is required for the accumulation of lipids in the heart of fasting mice.

  11. Lipoprotein lipase activity is required for cardiac lipid droplet production.

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Yu, Shuiqing; Hu, Yunying; Skoller, Nathan; Huggins, Lesley A; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-04-01

    The rodent heart accumulates TGs and lipid droplets during fasting. The sources of heart lipids could be either FFAs liberated from adipose tissue or FAs from lipoprotein-associated TGs via the action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Because circulating levels of FFAs increase during fasting, it has been assumed that albumin transported FFAs are the source of lipids within heart lipid droplets. We studied mice with three genetic mutations: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) deficiency, and heart-specific LpL deletion. All three genetically altered groups of mice had defective accumulation of lipid droplet TGs. Moreover, hearts from mice treated with poloxamer 407, an inhibitor of lipoprotein TG lipolysis, also failed to accumulate TGs, despite increased uptake of FFAs. TG storage did not impair maximal cardiac function as measured by stress echocardiography. Thus, LpL hydrolysis of circulating lipoproteins is required for the accumulation of lipids in the heart of fasting mice. PMID:24493834

  12. Interim storage requirements at department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.

    2008-07-15

    DOE has developed new requirements for packages containing tritiated material that hold tritium of a form and quantity that pose a risk of exposure to workers. These requirements include meeting specified leak rate criteria for both pre and post package drop tests. Packaging that fails to meet these new requirements must be stored in a specified manner in designated areas. (authors)

  13. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  14. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to make themselves available for work in that State, as well as which newspapers in each traditional... employment in which the employer's work is to be performed as required in paragraph (i)(2) of this section... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth...

  15. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  16. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  17. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  18. 12 CFR 1272.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... targeted by the activity; (iii) The delivery system for the activity; and (iv) The effect of the activity... chapter; and (4) A demonstration of the Bank's capacity, personnel, technology, experience and...

  19. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Feracci, Helene; Raptis, Leda

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  20. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  1. Thermodynamic derivation of the activation energy for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  2. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children. PMID:2497436

  3. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  4. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  5. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  6. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  7. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  8. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  9. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 322.4 Section 322.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... established Federal harbor lines before May 27, 1970 (see 33 CFR 320.4(o)) do not require section 10 permits... States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant...

  10. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  11. Energy end-use requirements in manufacturing, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, D. R.; Isser, S.; Beatty, R.; Colville, G.; Lang, K.; Krawiec, F.

    1981-07-01

    A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases were undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research to analyze technical and economic feasibility of solar technologies, and to establish multilayer R and D programs for: solar thermal industrial electric power systems and solar IPH systems. In the review of existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use.

  12. ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

  13. Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and EO 13423

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Describes what counts toward the federal goals, the definition of "new" for renewable power/renewable energy certificate (REC) purchases, and what types of on-site projects will get double credit (Section 203 (C)).

  14. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  15. Comparison of energy intake and requirement of young students in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mehdi; Bahraini, Nimah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimation of energy intakes is required for understanding of growth and disease in young students. This study was conducted to estimate the energy intake of young students and compare with their energy requirements. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling, 400 students, aged 14–18 years, were selected in 2010. Hariss–Benedict equations were used to estimate the energy requirement of each group. Results: Mean and standard error of energy intake and requirements of males was 2155 ± 30 and 1670 ± 18, respectively, and of females was 2700 ± 21, 2300 ± 4 kcal, respectively. Differences of means, energy intake, and requirement in both sexes were significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Because of their age (14–18 years), which is called growth age, energy intake was lower than their needs PMID:23798932

  16. A survey of the electrical energy requirement of hotels in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.K.; Chan, K.T. . Dept. of Building Services Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Electrical energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for about 50 percent of the total electricity produced in Hong Kong. Investigation of the electrical energy requirement in these buildings is essential to energy conservation. With it, norms of energy use for the buildings in use can be deduced and can be used to establish energy management programs. This article reports on a pioneer investigation on the electrical energy use of hotels in Hong Kong. A survey on the actual consumption in 20 hotels has been conducted, and results are presented. Significance of the norms and the various end-use components of the total electrical energy requirement are discussed.

  17. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  18. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  19. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  20. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  1. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  2. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  3. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  4. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 580.25 When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  5. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  6. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  7. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  8. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  9. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  10. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Morrison, A.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of potential changes and alternative technologies which could impact the photovoltaic manufacturing process is presented. Topics discussed include: a multiple wire saw, ribbon growth techniques, silicon casting, and a computer model for a large-scale solar power plant. Emphasis is placed on reducing the energy demands of the manufacturing process.

  11. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Status Through 2003

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    This report was assembled by the Energy Information Administration from a number of sources and in a series of steps, beginning with a review of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and other program summaries available on web sites, followed by a review of state laws and regulations, and then further clarified by direct contact with State public utility commissions, electric utilities, and others.

  12. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  13. 30 CFR 280.3 - What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities? 280.3 Section 280.3 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL,...

  14. 10 CFR 60.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 60.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... emplaced high-level radioactive waste irretrievable or which would substantially increase the difficulty of retrieving such emplaced waste. (2) Dismantling of structures. (3) Removal or reduction of controls...

  15. 10 CFR 60.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 60.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... emplaced high-level radioactive waste irretrievable or which would substantially increase the difficulty of retrieving such emplaced waste. (2) Dismantling of structures. (3) Removal or reduction of controls...

  16. 10 CFR 60.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 60.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... emplaced high-level radioactive waste irretrievable or which would substantially increase the difficulty of retrieving such emplaced waste. (2) Dismantling of structures. (3) Removal or reduction of controls...

  17. 10 CFR 60.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 60.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... emplaced high-level radioactive waste irretrievable or which would substantially increase the difficulty of retrieving such emplaced waste. (2) Dismantling of structures. (3) Removal or reduction of controls...

  18. 10 CFR 60.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 60.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... emplaced high-level radioactive waste irretrievable or which would substantially increase the difficulty of retrieving such emplaced waste. (2) Dismantling of structures. (3) Removal or reduction of controls...

  19. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  20. Multidisciplinary and Active/Collaborative Approaches in Teaching Requirements Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosca, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The requirements engineering course is a core component of the curriculum for the Master's in Software Engineering programme, at Monmouth University (MU). It covers the process, methods and tools specific to this area, together with the corresponding software quality issues. The need to produce software engineers with strong teamwork and…

  1. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  2. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following activities with respect to any foreign country. (1) Designing production reactors... (enrichment), chemical processing of irradiated SNM (reprocessing), fabrication of nuclear fuel containing... reactors, accelerator-driven subcritical assembly systems, or facilities; (3) Designing,...

  3. Polarity establishment requires localized activation of Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Benjamin; Kuo, Chun-Chen; Wu, Chi-Fang; Zyla, Trevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of cell polarity in animal and fungal cells involves localization of the conserved Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42, to the cortical region destined to become the “front” of the cell. The high local concentration of active Cdc42 promotes cytoskeletal polarization through various effectors. Cdc42 accumulation at the front is thought to involve positive feedback, and studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested distinct positive feedback mechanisms. One class of mechanisms involves localized activation of Cdc42 at the front, whereas another class involves localized delivery of Cdc42 to the front. Here we show that Cdc42 activation must be localized for successful polarity establishment, supporting local activation rather than local delivery as the dominant mechanism in this system. PMID:26459595

  4. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-27

    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  5. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  6. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  7. Energy Requirements of Hydrogen-utilizing Microbes: A Boundary Condition for Subsurface Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems based on the energy supplied by water-rock chemistry carry particular significance in the context of geo- and astrobiology. With no direct dependence on solar energy, lithotrophic microbes could conceivably penetrate a planetary crust to a depth limited only by temperature or pressure constraints (several kilometers or more). The deep lithospheric habitat is thereby potentially much greater in volume than its surface counterpart, and in addition offers a stable refuge against inhospitable surface conditions related to climatic or atmospheric evolution (e.g., Mars) or even high-energy impacts (e.g., early in Earth's history). The possibilities for a deep microbial biosphere are, however, greatly constrained by life s need to obtain energy at a certain minimum rate (the maintenance energy requirement) and of a certain minimum magnitude (the energy quantum requirement). The mere existence of these requirements implies that a significant fraction of the chemical free energy available in the subsurface environment cannot be exploited by life. Similar limits may also apply to the usefulness of light energy at very low intensities or long wavelengths. Quantification of these minimum energy requirements in terrestrial microbial ecosystems will help to establish a criterion of energetic habitability that can significantly constrain the prospects for life in Earth's subsurface, or on other bodies in the solar system. Our early work has focused on quantifying the biological energy quantum requirement for methanogenic archaea, as representatives of a plausible subsurface metabolism, in anoxic sediments (where energy availability is among the most limiting factors in microbial population growth). In both field and laboratory experiments utilizing these sediments, methanogens retain a remarkably consistent free energy intake, in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions that affect energy availability. The energy yields apparently required by

  8. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  9. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  10. Attaining the Photometric Precision Required by Future Dark Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Christopher

    2013-01-21

    This report outlines our progress towards achieving the high-precision astronomical measurements needed to derive improved constraints on the nature of the Dark Energy. Our approach to obtaining higher precision flux measurements has two basic components: 1) determination of the optical transmission of the atmosphere, and 2) mapping out the instrumental photon sensitivity function vs. wavelength, calibrated by referencing the measurements to the known sensitivity curve of a high precision silicon photodiode, and 3) using the self-consistency of the spectrum of stars to achieve precise color calibrations.

  11. The antiapoptotic activity of insect IAPs requires activation by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tenev, T; Ditzel, M; Zachariou, A; Meier, P

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis represents a fundamental biological process that relies on the activation of caspases. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins represent a group of negative regulators of both caspases and cell death. The current model dictates that IAPs suppress apoptosis by blocking the catalytic pocket of effector caspases thereby preventing substrate entry. Here, we provide evolutionary evidence for the functional interplay between insect IAPs and the N-end rule-associated ubiquitylation machinery in neutralising effector caspases and cell death. We find that IAPs require 'priming' in order to function as antiapoptotic molecules. Consistently, we demonstrate that the antiapoptotic activity of diverse insect IAPs is activated by effector caspases, providing the cell with a sensitive strategy to monitor and neutralise active caspases. Almost 300 million years of evolutionary selection pressure has preserved a caspase cleavage site in insect IAPs that, following processing by a caspase, exposes a binding motif for the N-end-rule-associated degradation machinery. Recruitment of this ubiquitylation machinery into the 'cleaved-IAP:caspase' complex provides a mechanism to negatively regulate effector caspases and block apoptosis. Furthermore, comparisons between cellular and several viral IAPs suggest differences in their modes of action, as OpIAP3, CpGV-IAP3 and HcNPV-IAP3 fail to associate with several effector caspases. Evolutionary conservation of the N-end-rule degradation pathway in IAP-mediated regulation of apoptosis further corroborates the physiological relevance of this ubiquitylation-associated process.

  12. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  13. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 324.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j... in connection with activities involving the transport of dredged material for dumping into...

  14. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... condition of the waterbody in such a manner as to impact on its navigable capacity. For purposes of...

  15. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... condition of the waterbody in such a manner as to impact on its navigable capacity. For purposes of...

  16. Assembly of a Notch transcriptional activation complex requires multimerization.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Kaplan, Fred M; Weaver, Kelly L; VanWye, Jeffrey D; Alves-Guerra, Marie-Clotilde; Robbins, David J; Capobianco, Anthony J

    2011-04-01

    Notch transmembrane receptors direct essential cellular processes, such as proliferation and differentiation, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Inappropriate release of the intracellular domain of Notch (N(ICD)) from the plasma membrane results in the accumulation of deregulated nuclear N(ICD) that has been linked to human cancers, notably T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Nuclear N(ICD) forms a transcriptional activation complex by interacting with the coactivator protein Mastermind-like 1 and the DNA binding protein CSL (for CBF-1/Suppressor of Hairless/Lag-1) to regulate target gene expression. Although it is well understood that N(ICD) forms a transcriptional activation complex, little is known about how the complex is assembled. In this study, we demonstrate that N(ICD) multimerizes and that these multimers function as precursors for the stepwise assembly of the Notch activation complex. Importantly, we demonstrate that the assembly is mediated by N(ICD) multimers interacting with Skip and Mastermind. These interactions form a preactivation complex that is then resolved by CSL to form the Notch transcriptional activation complex on DNA.

  17. Comparison of 2006 IECC and 2009 IECC Commercial Energy Code Requirements for Kansas City, MO

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yunzhi; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-03-22

    This report summarizes code requirements and energy savings of commercial buildings in climate zone 4 built to the 2009 IECC when compared to the 2006 IECC. In general, the 2009 IECC has higher insulation requirements for exterior walls, roof, and windows and have higher efficiency requirements for HVAC equipment (HVAC equipment efficiency requirements are governed by National Appliance Conversion Act of 1987 (NAECA), and are applicable irrespective of the IECC version adopted). The energy analysis results show that residential and nonresidential commercial buildings meeting the 2009 IECC requirements save between 6.1% and 9.0% site energy, and between 6.4% and 7.7% energy cost when compared to 2006 IECC. Analysis also shows that semiheated buildings have energy and cost savings of 3.9% and 5.6%.

  18. Antigen conformation determines processing requirements for T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, H Z; Berkower, I J; Busch, M; Gurd, F R; Berzofsky, J A

    1984-01-01

    We studied the difference in requirements for processing and presentation to a single T-cell clone of four different forms of the same epitope of sperm whale myoglobin--namely, on the native protein, on two conformationally altered forms of the protein, or as a 22-residue antigenic peptide fragment. The T-cell clone was I-Ed-restricted and specific for an epitope on the CNBr fragment 132-153 involving Lys-140. As inhibitors of macrophage processing of antigen, we used several agents that inhibit lysosomal function: the weak bases chloroquine and NH4Cl, the cationic ionophore monensin, and the competitive protease inhibitor leupeptin. When these agents were used to inhibit processing of antigen by presenting cells and then washed out before T cells were added to culture, they inhibited the presentation of native antigen but not of fragment 132-153. To our surprise, the intact but denatured form, S-methylmyoglobin, behaved like the fragment not like the native protein. Apomyoglobin was intermediate in susceptibility to inhibition. Thus, native myoglobin requires a processing step that appears to involve lysosomal proteolysis, which is not required by fragment 132-153 or the denatured unfolded forms. For an antigen the size of myoglobin (Mr 17,800), it appears that unfolding of the native conformation, rather than further reduction in size, is the critical parameter determining the need for processing. Since a major difference between native myoglobin and the other forms is the greater accessibility in the latter of sites, such as hydrophobic residues, buried in the native protein, we propose that processing may be necessary to expose these sites, perhaps for interaction with the cell membrane or the Ia of the antigen-presenting cell. PMID:6333686

  19. Phytochrome activation of two nuclear genes requires cytoplasmic protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, E; Green, P J; Wong, M; Chua, N H

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on light-induced expression of two plant nuclear genes, Cab and rbcS, in wheat, pea and transgenic tobacco. Light activation of these two genes is very sensitive to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis but not to chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of organellar protein synthesis. Studies with chimeric gene constructs in transgenic tobacco seedlings show that cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional level. As a control, we show that the expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter is enhanced by cycloheximide treatment, irrespective of the coding sequence used. Escape-time analyses with green wheat seedlings show that the cycloheximide block for Cab gene expression is after the primary signal transduction step linked to phytochrome photoconversion. Our results suggest that phytochrome activation of Cab and rbcS is mediated by a labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Images PMID:2583082

  20. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

  1. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  2. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  3. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  4. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  5. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  6. Geothermal energy employment and requirements 1977-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    An assessment of the manpower needs of the geothermal industry is presented. The specific objectives were to: derive a base line estimate of the manpower involved in geothermal activities, determine if there is any current or impending likelihood of skill shortages, forecast future employment in the geothermal industry, conduct a technology assessment to ascertain the possibilities of some sudden breakthrough, and suggest alternatives commensurate with the findings. The methodology for fulfilling the objectives is described. Detailed results of these pursuits (objectives) are presented. Alternatives that are suggested, based upon the findings of the study, are summarized.

  7. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  8. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  9. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  10. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  11. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  12. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  13. Prediction of energy requirements and drying times for surface drying fresh produce

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    For numerous fresh fruits and vegetables, drying of surface adhering water is required to facilitate materials handling and wax treatments. Using humidity ratio difference and air flow rates as manipulated variables, a computer program and a graphical approach were developed to predict required drying time. Modeling results were extended to investigate air recycling and the relationship of recycling on energy requirements.

  14. Fungal cellulase is an elicitor but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanan; Han, Chao; Chen, Jinyin; Li, Haiyun; He, Kun; Liu, Aixin; Li, Duochuan

    2015-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic fungi produce cellulases. However, little information is available on cellulase as an elicitor in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, an endocellulase (EG1) was isolated from Rhizoctonia solani. It contains a putative protein of 227 amino acids with a signal peptide and a family-45 glycosyl hydrolase domain. Its aspartic acid (Asp) residue at position 32 was changed to alanine (Ala), resulting in full loss of its catalytic activity. Wild-type and mutated forms of the endoglucanase were expressed in yeast and purified to homogeneity. The purified wild-type and mutant forms induced cell death in maize, tobacco and Arabidopsis leaves, and the transcription of three defence marker genes in maize and tobacco and 10 genes related to defence responses in maize. Moreover, they also induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), medium alkalinization, Ca(2+) accumulation and ethylene biosynthesis of suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Similarly, production of the EG1 wild-type and mutated forms in tobacco induced cell death using the Potato virus X (PVX) expression system. In vivo, expression of EG1 was also related to cell death during infection of maize by R. solani. These results provide direct evidence that the endoglucanase is an elicitor, but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

  15. United States data collection activities and requirements, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrin, S.; Mcgregor, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential market for a data collection system was investigated to determine whether the user needs would be sufficient to support a satellite relay data collection system design. The activities of 107,407 data collections stations were studied to determine user needs in agriculture, climatology, environmental monitoring, forestry, geology, hydrology, meteorology, and oceanography. Descriptions of 50 distinct data collections networks are described and used to form the user data base. The computer program used to analyze the station data base is discussed, and results of the analysis are presented in maps and graphs. Information format and coding is described in the appendix.

  16. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  17. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2012-08-21

    Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics.

  18. PARP-1 Activation Requires Local Unfolding of an Autoinhibitory Domain.

    PubMed

    Dawicki-McKenna, Jennine M; Langelier, Marie-France; DeNizio, Jamie E; Riccio, Amanda A; Cao, Connie D; Karch, Kelly R; McCauley, Michael; Steffen, Jamin D; Black, Ben E; Pascal, John M

    2015-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) creates the posttranslational modification PAR from substrate NAD(+) to regulate multiple cellular processes. DNA breaks sharply elevate PARP-1 catalytic activity to mount a cell survival repair response, whereas persistent PARP-1 hyperactivation during severe genotoxic stress is associated with cell death. The mechanism for tight control of the robust catalytic potential of PARP-1 remains unclear. By monitoring PARP-1 dynamics using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HXMS), we unexpectedly find that a specific portion of the helical subdomain (HD) of the catalytic domain rapidly unfolds when PARP-1 encounters a DNA break. Together with biochemical and crystallographic analysis of HD deletion mutants, we show that the HD is an autoinhibitory domain that blocks productive NAD(+) binding. Our molecular model explains how PARP-1 DNA damage detection leads to local unfolding of the HD that relieves autoinhibition, and has important implications for the design of PARP inhibitors.

  19. 43 CFR 5.4 - When is a permit required for news-gathering activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION.... News-gathering activities involving filming, videography, or still photography do not require a...

  20. 43 CFR 5.4 - When is a permit required for news-gathering activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION.... News-gathering activities involving filming, videography, or still photography do not require a...

  1. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A. S.; Cagle, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  2. The Demethylase Activity of FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein) Is Required for Preadipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meizi; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jun; Guo, Feima; Cao, Qian; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin; Chai, Jijie; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) was genetically identified to be associated with body mass index (BMI), presumably through functional regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FTO functions remain largely unknown. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte as a model to study the role of FTO in adipogenesis, we demonstrated that FTO is functionally required for 3T3-L1 differentiation. FTO knock-down with siRNA inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, whereas ectopic over-expression of FTO enhanced the process. The demethylase activity of FTO is required for differentiation. Level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is decreased in cells over-expressing FTO. In contrast, overexpression of R96Q, a FTO missense mutant lack of demethylase activity, had no effect on cellular m6A level and impeded differentiation. Treatment with Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, could overcome the differentiation inhibition imposed by R96Q mutant, suggesting the effect of FTO is mediated through PPARγ. PMID:26218273

  3. The Demethylase Activity of FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein) Is Required for Preadipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meizi; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jun; Guo, Feima; Cao, Qian; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin; Chai, Jijie; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) was genetically identified to be associated with body mass index (BMI), presumably through functional regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FTO functions remain largely unknown. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte as a model to study the role of FTO in adipogenesis, we demonstrated that FTO is functionally required for 3T3-L1 differentiation. FTO knock-down with siRNA inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, whereas ectopic over-expression of FTO enhanced the process. The demethylase activity of FTO is required for differentiation. Level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is decreased in cells over-expressing FTO. In contrast, overexpression of R96Q, a FTO missense mutant lack of demethylase activity, had no effect on cellular m6A level and impeded differentiation. Treatment with Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, could overcome the differentiation inhibition imposed by R96Q mutant, suggesting the effect of FTO is mediated through PPARγ. PMID:26218273

  4. Activation of AMP-kinase by Policosanol Requires Peroxisomal Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Ghoshal, Sarbani

    2011-01-01

    Policosanol, a well-defined mixture of very long chain primary alcohols that is available as a nutraceutical product, has been reported to lower blood cholesterol levels. The present studies demonstrate that policosanol promotes the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase in hepatoma cells and in mouse liver after intragastric administration, providing a possible means by which policosanol might lower blood cholesterol levels. Treatment of hepatoma cells with policosanol produced a 2.5-fold or greater increase in the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase, and increased the phosphorylation of Ca++/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK), an upstream AMP-kinase kinase. Intra-gastric administration of policosanol to mice similarly increased the phosphorylation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and AMP-kinase by greater than 2-fold. siRNA-mediated suppression of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4, and acyl-CoA acetyltransferase expression in hepatoma cells prevented the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase by policosanol, indicating that metabolism of these very long chain alcohols to activated fatty acids is necessary for the suppression of cholesterol synthesis, presumably by increasing cellular AMP levels. Subsequent peroxisomal β-oxidation probably augments this effect. PMID:21359855

  5. Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N.; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217

  6. Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217

  7. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  8. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 1: Summary. [for meeting energy requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. E. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The production, technology, transportation, and implementation of hydrogen into the energy system are discussed along with the fossil fuel cycle, hydrogen fuel cycle, and the demands for energy. The cost of hydrogen production by coal gasification; electrolysis by nuclear energy, and solar energy are presented. The legal aspects of a hydrogen economy are also discussed.

  9. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  10. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  11. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  12. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  13. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  14. Energy requirements for metals production: comparison between ocean nodules and land-based resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A methodology was developed to compare the energy requirements of technologies for production of metals from ocean nodules with production of same metals from land based ores using conventional processes. The energy requirements for production of copper, nickel, cobalt, and manganese from ocean nodules are based on an ocean mining operation of 3 million tons per year of dry nodules. A linear relationship exists between the amount of nodules processed and the total energy so that the energy can be easily converted to other processing rates if desired.

  15. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  16. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  17. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  18. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  19. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  20. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  1. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  2. Requirements for supercomputing in energy research: The transition to massively parallel computing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses: The emergence of a practical path to TeraFlop computing and beyond; requirements of energy research programs at DOE; implementation: supercomputer production computing environment on massively parallel computers; and implementation: user transition to massively parallel computing.

  3. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  4. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  5. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  6. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  7. 13 CFR 106.202 - What are the minimum requirements applicable to Cosponsored Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the minimum requirements applicable to Cosponsored Activities? 106.202 Section 106.202 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... a Cosponsored Activity to additional requirements through internal policy, procedure and...

  8. 40 CFR 711.10 - Activities for which reporting is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities for which reporting is not required. 711.10 Section 711.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL DATA REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 711.10 Activities for which reporting...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  14. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  15. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  16. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  17. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  18. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  19. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations. PMID:26970972

  20. Requirements for PKC-augmented JNK activation by MKK4/7

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2008-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated in response to stress, DNA damage, and cytokines by MKK4 and MKK7. We recently demonstrated that PKC can augment the degree of JNK activation by phosphorylating JNK, which requires the adaptor protein RACK1. Here we report on the conditions required for PKC-dependent JNK activation. In vitro kinase assays reveal that PKC phosphorylation of JNK is not sufficient for its activation but rather augments JNK activation by canonical JNK upstream kinases MKK4 or MKK7 alone or in combination. Further, to enhance JNK activity, PKC phosphorylation of JNK should precede its phosphorylation by MKK4/7. Inhibition of PKC phosphorylation of JNK affects both early and late phases of JNK activation following UV-irradiation and reduces the apoptotic response mediated by JNK. These data provide important insight into the requirements for PKC activation of JNK signaling. PMID:18182317

  1. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand "chemical energy" is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk…

  2. Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.

  3. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  4. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  5. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  6. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  7. End User Functional and Performance Requirements for HTGR Energy Supply to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    This document specifies end user functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to industrial processes. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers and from detailed evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology in industrial processes. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a plant design that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  8. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  9. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  10. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  11. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  12. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  13. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  14. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  15. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  16. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  17. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  18. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  19. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  20. Energy requirements in early life are similar for male and female goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, T F V; Neto, O Boaventura; Mendonca, A N; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Fernandes, M H M R; Harter, C J; Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg(0.75) empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg(0.75) BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg(0.75) EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets

  1. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  2. Activation Energy for Grain Growth in Aluminum Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Ferreira, J L; Hayes, J P

    2004-10-14

    To produce a specific grain size in metallic coatings requires precise control of the time at temperature during the deposition process. Aluminum coatings are deposited using electron-beam evaporation onto heated substrate surfaces. The grain size of the coating is determined upon examination of the microstructure in plan view and cross-section. Ideal grain growth is observed over the entire experimental range of temperature examined from 413 to 843 K. A transition in the activation energy for grain growth from 0.7 to 3.8 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} is observed as the temperature increases from <526 K to >588 K. The transition is indicative of the dominant mechanism for grain growth shifting with increasing temperature from grain boundary to lattice diffusion.

  3. Energy requirements in Terrestrial biology and implications for the habitability of Europa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehler, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    Among the classically suggested determinants of habitability - availability of energy, clement physiochemical conditions, and a solvent and inventory of elements suitable for biochemistry - energy availability is the greatest uncertainty for Europa. Life on Earth expresses the need for energy in two dimensions: a minimum Gibbs Energy change (ΔG) requirement and a minimum energy flux (power) requirement. The first is a 'binary' requirement (if the minimum ΔG is met, metabolism is possible; otherwise not) that is constrained by theory and observation to about -10 to -20 kJ/mol. Plausible scenarios have been suggested by which any of several prospective metabolisms could meet this requirement on Europa. The power requirement specifies the minimum energy flux needed to maintain a standing biomass of a given size. The quotient of environmental energy flux and mass-normalized power requirement thus places an upper bound on the quantity of biomass a given system can support. On Earth, variability in the terms of this quotient underlie more than eight orders of magnitude in biomass abundance from energy-replete to energy-poor systems. Uncertainty in the terms of this quotient for Europa is very large, and spans a range from pessimistic to relatively optimistic, where 'energetic habitability' is concerned. Even for life on Earth, cellular power requirements are not well quantified, with field and lab-based estimates spanning a range from 10-17 to 10-13 kJ/cell/day for typical microbial cells. The rate and mode of energy delivery to the Europan ocean is even more uncertain. In energetic terms, the greatest headway in assessing the habitability of Europa would be made by: quantifying the rate at which specific oxidants may be delivered to the ocean by transport from the surface, if any; quantifying the extent to which water has reacted with a rocky crust, and whether such reaction is ongoing; and understanding the 'style' of energy flux - e.g., by focused venting of reduced

  4. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  5. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  6. Aluminum: a requirement for activation of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by fluoride.

    PubMed Central

    Sternweis, P C; Gilman, A G

    1982-01-01

    Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-. PMID:6289322

  7. 75 FR 16895 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.... Mary Versailles, Office of Rulemaking, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New...

  8. 77 FR 47162 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT...- 5378. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Title:...

  9. 76 FR 41331 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... and fax number is (202) 366-7002. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: National Highway Traffic...

  10. 77 FR 26824 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on February 29, 2012 (77 FR... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) AGENCY: Research &...

  11. 76 FR 13699 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., companies chartering ships from MARAD, and companies having Title XI guarantee obligations. Form(s): MA-172... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  12. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  13. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  14. Chemical trends in the activation energies of DX centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, O.; Kawai, H.; Mori, Y.; Kaneko, K.

    1984-12-01

    The activation energies of DX centers in AlGaAs doped with six different impurities (S, Se, Te, Si, Ge, and Sn) are measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Remarkable trends are established, in which the activation energies of DX centers with group IV impurities become shallower as the mass number of the impurity increases, while those with group VI impurities remain constant.

  15. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  16. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  17. 77 FR 13617 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... concerning the Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements. This request for comment is being...

  18. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct...

  19. 42 CFR 495.314 - Activities required to receive an incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.314 Activities required to... during the payment year, it has adopted, implemented, or upgraded certified EHR technology, as defined...

  20. 21 CFR 1309.24 - Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities. 1309.24 Section 1309.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... must comply with the security requirements set forth in §§ 1309.71 through 1309.73 and...

  1. TIMP-2 Is Required for Efficient Activation of proMMP-2 in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Juttermann, Ruth; Soloway, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are synthesized as latent proenzymes. A proteolytic cleavage event involving processing of the cysteine-rich N-terminal propeptide is required for their full activation. Previous in vitro studies indicated that activation of proMMP-2 can occur through formation of a trimolecular complex between MMP-14, TIMP-2, and proMMP-2 at the cell surface. Using TIMP-2-deficient mice and cells derived from them, TIMP-2 was shown to be required for efficient proMMP-2 activation both in vivo and in vitro. The requirement for TIMP-2 was not cell-autonomous as exogenously added TIMP-2 could restore activation of proMMP-2 to TIMP-2-deficient cells. Mutant mice were overtly normal, viable, and fertile on the C57BL/6 background, indicating that both TIMP-2 and activated proMMP-2 are dispensable for normal development. PMID:10827175

  2. Lower-Energy Requirements for Power-Assist HEV Energy Storage Systems--Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-03-18

    Presented at the 27th International Battery Seminar and Exhibit, 15-18 March 2010, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. NREL conducted simulations and analysis of vehicle test data with research partners in response to a USABC request; results suggest that power-assist hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), like conventional HEVs, can achieve high fuel savings with lower energy requirements at potentially lower cost.

  3. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  4. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  5. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  6. Lower body versus whole body resistive exercise training and energy requirements of older men and women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kruskall, Laura J; Evans, William J

    2002-08-01

    A person's energy requirement is defined as the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) consumed over a period of body weight stability. Controversy exists regarding whether resistive exercise training (RT) influences the energy requirement of older people. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of RT on the energy requirement of older people. The subjects were 11 men (M) and 17 women (W); age range, 55 to 78 years. During a 14-week precisely controlled diet study, each subject consumed foods and beverages portioned to provide sufficient MEI to match their energy requirement and to keep body weight stable at +/- 0.5 kg of their starting weight. MEI was determined from bomb calorimeter analyses of the gross energy (GE) content of food, urine, and feces samples collected during 4-day intake-balance periods at study weeks 2, 8, and 14 (baseline, week RT6, and week RT12, respectively). MEI = GE(food)-GE(urine) - GE(feces). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. From study weeks 3 to 14, 10 subjects (4 M, 6 W) remained sedentary (SED), 9 subjects (4 M, 5 W) performed lower body RT (LBRT) 3 times/week, and 9 subjects (3 M, 6 W) performed whole body RT (WBRT) 3 times/week. Body weight was not different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups at baseline and were not changed over time or influenced by RT. At baseline, MEI was not different among the 3 groups. From weeks RT1 to RT12, MEI had to be increased by 17% +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM), 14% +/- 7%, and 12% +/- 7% in the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups, respectively, to maintain stable body weights. At week RT12, the MEI required to maintain stable body weight was not significantly different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups (9.45 +/- 0.95, 9.40 +/- 0.83, and 8.64 +/-0.53 MJ/d, respectively). At week RT12, the MEI and MEI/REE ratio were higher in men versus women, independent of group assignment. These data suggest that RT, whether performed using the lower body only or the whole body, does

  7. Required Assets for a Nuclear Energy Applied R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Craig L. Jacobson

    2009-03-01

    This report is one of a set of three documents that have collectively identified and recommended research and development capabilities that will be required to advance nuclear energy in the next 20 to 50 years. The first report, Nuclear Energy for the Future: Required Research and Development Capabilities—An Industry Perspective, was produced by Battelle Memorial Institute at the request of the Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. That report, drawn from input by industry, academia, and Department of Energy laboratories, can be found in Appendix 5.1. This Idaho National Laboratory report maps the nuclear-specific capabilities from the Battelle report onto facility requirements, identifying options from the set of national laboratory, university, industry, and international facilities. It also identifies significant gaps in the required facility capabilities. The third document, Executive Recommendations for Nuclear R&D Capabilities, is a letter report containing a set of recommendations made by a team of senior executives representing nuclear vendors, utilities, academia, and the national laboratories (at Battelle’s request). That third report can be found in Appendix 5.2. The three reports should be considered as set in order to have a more complete picture. The basis of this report was drawn from three sources: previous Department of Energy reports, workshops and committee meetings, and expert opinion. The facilities discussed were winnowed from several hundred facilities that had previously been catalogued and several additional facilities that had been overlooked in past exercises. The scope of this report is limited to commercial nuclear energy and those things the federal government, or more specifically the Office of Nuclear Energy, should do to support its expanded deployment in order to increase energy security and reduce carbon emissions. In the context of this report, capabilities mean innovative, well-structured research and development programs

  8. 30 CFR 551.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities under a permit. 551.8 Section 551.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... permit activities. You must allow BOEM representatives to inspect your exploration or scientific...

  9. 30 CFR 551.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities under a permit. 551.8 Section 551.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSCIAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... permit activities. You must allow BOEM representatives to inspect your exploration or scientific...

  10. 30 CFR 551.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities under a permit. 551.8 Section 551.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... permit activities. You must allow BOEM representatives to inspect your exploration or scientific...

  11. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  12. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  13. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  14. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... enrolling and maintaining active enrollment status in the Medicare program. 424.516 Section 424.516 Public... active enrollment status in the Medicare program. (a) Certifying compliance. CMS enrolls and maintains...

  15. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... enrolling and maintaining active enrollment status in the Medicare program. 424.516 Section 424.516 Public... active enrollment status in the Medicare program. (a) Certifying compliance. CMS enrolls and maintains...

  16. 30 CFR 251.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit. 251.8 Section 251.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... activities. You must allow MMS representatives to inspect your exploration or scientific research...

  17. Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon

    Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

  18. Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, M. C.

    1980-12-01

    Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects, and a list of projects having multiple utility participants. Project categories include solar heating and cooling of buildings, wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric power, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, process heat, and ocean energy conversion.

  19. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-05-19

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project.

  20. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  1. Energy and protein requirements of young Holstein calves in tropical condition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Lima, Jessika Carolina Moutinho; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Filho, Sebastião de Campos Valadares; Campos, Mariana Magalhães; Chizzotti, Mário Luiz; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein young calves up to 87 days old. Forty-two Holstein calves aged 4 days were used. From these, ten were randomly selected and slaughtered to compose the baseline slaughter (BS) group. The remaining calves were randomly assigned to eight treatments in a 4 × 2 factorial using a completely randomized design. The treatments were 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg/day of milk (297 g/kg CP; 319 g/kg of fat) fed twice daily, and then harvested at 59 or 87 days of age. Calves were fed a starter (193 g/kg CP; 133 g/kg NDF) ad libitum in all treatments. The calves slaughtered at 87 days of age had milk replaced by Coast-cross (Cynodoon sp.) hay (125 g/kg CP; 728 g/kg NDF). The net requirement of energy for maintenance (NEm) was 0.36 MJ/kg EBWG, with efficiency of utilization of energy for maintenance (k m) of 59.4 %. The equation obtained to estimate the net requirement of energy for gain (NEg; MJ/d) was 4.40 × EBW(0.099), with the efficiency of utilization of energy for gain (k g) equal to 46.5 %. The observed requirements of net and metabolizable protein for maintenance (NPm and MPm) were 3.67 and 3.88 g/kg BW(0.75), respectively. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for maintenance (k pm ) was 94.6 %. The predicted requirements were higher than those observed in the literature, and this study demonstrated that the requirements of newborn calves are higher than the recommended.

  2. Calcium signaling and the MAPK cascade are required for sperm activation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Bin; He, Ruijun; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long

    2014-02-01

    In nematode, sperm activation (or spermiogenesis), a process in which the symmetric and non-motile spermatids transform into polarized and crawling spermatozoa, is critical for sperm cells to acquire fertilizing competence. SPE-8 dependent and SPE-8 independent pathways function redundantly during sperm activation in both males and hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the downstream signaling for both pathways remains unclear. Here we show that calcium signaling and the MAPK cascade are required for both SPE-8 dependent and SPE-8 independent sperm activation, implying that both pathways share common downstream signaling components during sperm activation. We demonstrate that activation of the MAPK cascade is sufficient to activate spermatids derived from either wild-type or spe-8 group mutant males and that activation of the MAPK cascade bypasses the requirement of calcium signal to induce sperm activation, indicating that the MAPK cascade functions downstream of or parallel with the calcium signaling during sperm activation. Interestingly, the persistent activation of MAPK in activated spermatozoa inhibits Major Sperm Protein (MSP)-based cytoskeleton dynamics. We demonstrate that MAPK plays dual roles in promoting pseudopod extension during sperm activation but also blocking the MSP-based, amoeboid motility of the spermatozoa. Thus, though nematode sperm are crawling cells, morphologically distinct from flagellated sperm, and the molecular machinery for motility of amoeboid and flagellated sperm is different, both types of sperm might utilize conserved signaling pathways to modulate sperm maturation.

  3. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  4. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA.

  5. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  6. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  7. Transforming growth factor-beta requires its target plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 for cytostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kortlever, Roderik M; Nijwening, Jeroen H; Bernards, René

    2008-09-01

    The cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) has strong antiproliferative activity in most normal cells but contributes to tumor progression in the later stages of oncogenesis. It is not fully understood which TGFbeta target genes are causally involved in mediating its cytostatic activity. We report here that suppression of the TGFbeta target gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by RNA interference leads to escape from the cytostatic activity of TGFbeta both in human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts. Consistent with this, PAI-1 knock-out mouse embryo fibroblasts are also resistant to TGFbeta growth arrest. Conversely, we show that ectopic expression of PAI-1 in proliferating HaCaT cells induces a growth arrest. PAI-1 knockdown does not interfere with canonical TGFbeta signaling as judged by SMAD phosphorylation and induction of bona fide TGFbeta target genes. Instead, knockdown of PAI-1 results in sustained activation of protein kinase B. Significantly, we find that constitutive protein kinase B activity leads to evasion of the growth-inhibitory action of TGFbeta. Our data are consistent with a model in which induction of PAI-1 by TGFbeta is critical for the induction of proliferation arrest.

  8. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  10. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  11. Combining ability of ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining ability describes the breeding value of parental lines to produce hybrids. The objectives of this study were to detect specific (SCA) and general combining ability (GCA) estimates for ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in some upland cotton germplasm (Gossypium hirsutum L.). T...

  12. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  13. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  14. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production.

  15. MEGASTAR: The Meaning of Energy Growth: An Assessment of Systems, Technologies, and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach that includes the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption for the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario. The total requirements and the energy subsystems for each scenario are assessed for their primary impacts in the areas of society, the environment, technology and the economy.

  16. Requirements for activation and RAFT localization of the T-lymphocyte kinase Rlk/Txk

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Mario; Czar, Michael J; Debnath, Jayanta; Cheng, Genhong; Lenardo, Michael J; Varmus, Harold E; Schwartzberg, Pamela L

    2001-01-01

    Background The Tec family kinases are implicated in signaling from lymphocyte antigen receptors and are activated following phosphorylation by Src kinases. For most Tec kinases, this activation requires an interaction between their pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and the products of phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, which localizes Tec kinases to membrane RAFTs. Rlk/Txk is a Tec related kinase expressed in T cells that lacks a pleckstrin homology domain, having instead a palmitoylated cysteine-string motif. To evaluate Rlk's function in T cell receptor signaling cascades, we examined the requirements for Rlk localization and activation by Src family kinases. Results We demonstrate that Rlk is also associated with RAFTs, despite its lack of a pleckstrin homology domain. Rlk RAFT association requires the cysteine-string motif and is independent of PI3 Kinase activity. We further demonstrate that Rlk can be phosphorylated and activated by Src kinases, leading to a decrease in its half-life. A specific tyrosine in the activation loop of Rlk, Y420, is required for phosphorylation and activation, as well as for decreased stability, but is not required for lipid RAFT association. Mutation of this tyrosine also prevents increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Rlk after stimulation of the T cell receptor, suggesting that Rlk is phosphorylated by Src family kinases in response to T cell receptor engagement. Conclusions Like the other related Tec kinases, Rlk is associated with lipid RAFTs and can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases, supporting a role for Rlk in signaling downstream of Src kinases in T cell activation. PMID:11353545

  17. Structural requirement of isoflavonones for the inhibitory activity of interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Hun; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Dang, The Hung; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Ju, Jung-Hun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Kim, Youngsoo

    2003-05-01

    Sophoricoside isolated from Sophora japonica is a glycoside of isoflavonone as an inhibitor of interleukin (IL)-5. To identify structural requirements of this isoflavonone for its inhibitory activity against IL-5, isoflavonones, isoflavanones, and their glycosides were prepared and their inhibitory activity was tested against IL-5. Among them, 5-benzyloxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chromen-4-one (4b, 87.9% inhibition at 50 microM, IC(50)=15.3 microM) shows the most potent activity, comparable with that of sophoricoside. The important structural requirements of these isoflavonone analogs exhibiting the inhibitory activity against IL-5 were recognized as (1) planarity of chromen-4-one ring, (2) existence of phenolic hydroxyl at 4-position of B ring, and (3) introduction of benzyloxy at 5-position, which may act as a bulky group for occupying hydrophobic pocket in putative binding site. However the glucopyranosyl moiety of sophoricoside is not an essential motif for the activity. PMID:12767605

  18. Analysis of DNA structure and sequence requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Correa, Elisa M E; De Tullio, Luisina; Vélez, Pablo S; Martina, Mariana A; Argaraña, Carlos E; Barra, José L

    2013-12-01

    The hallmark of the mismatch repair system in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms devoid of MutH is the presence of a MutL homologue with endonuclease activity. The aim of this study was to analyse whether different DNA structures affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL (PaMutL) endonuclease activity and to determine if a specific nucleotide sequence is required for this activity. Our results showed that PaMutL was able to nick covalently closed circular plasmids but not linear DNA at high ionic strengths, while the activity on linear DNA was only found below 60 mM salt. In addition, single strand DNA, ss/ds DNA boundaries and negatively supercoiling degree were not required for PaMutL nicking activity. Finally, the analysis of the incision sites revealed that PaMutL, as well as Bacillus thuringiensis MutL homologue, did not show DNA sequence specificity.

  19. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten. PMID:26848951

  20. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  1. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  2. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  3. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  4. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  5. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  6. The lipid moiety of brincidofovir is required for in vitro antiviral activity against Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Laura K; Flint, Mike; Dyall, Julie; Albariño, César; Olinger, Gene G; Foster, Scott; Sethna, Phiroze; Hensley, Lisa E; Nichol, Stuart T; Lanier, E Randall; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-01-01

    Brincidofovir (BCV) is the 3-hexadecyloxy-1-propanol (HDP) lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV). BCV has established broad-spectrum activity against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses; however, its activity against RNA viruses has been less thoroughly evaluated. Here, we report that BCV inhibited infection of Ebola virus in multiple human cell lines. Unlike the mechanism of action for BCV against cytomegalovirus and other dsDNA viruses, phosphorylation of CDV to the diphosphate form appeared unnecessary. Instead, antiviral activity required the lipid moiety and in vitro activity against EBOV was observed for several HDP-nucleotide conjugates.

  7. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  8. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  9. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.

  10. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-09-30

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  11. The roles of body mass and gravity in determining the energy requirements of homoiotherms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies by Kleiber and by Brody in the 1930's established the 3/4 power of body weight as the unit of metabolic size for homoiotherms. Later Kleiber conceived of the energy requirement as a composite function, with a thermoregulatory component that is proportional to heat loss, and an antigravity component that is directly proportional to body weight. Maintenance feed requirements (F) have been measured with groups of small animals chronically exposed to several acceleration fields (G). Analysis of the results leads to an arithmetic relationship between the maintenance requirement and acceleration field strength: F sub G = F sub 0 + kG. When the equations are compared for groups of different body size, F sub 0 tends to vary between the 0.4 and 0.5 power of body mass - and k tends to be the same, irrespective of body mass. These findings tend to confirm the Kleiber concept of a composite nature of homoiotherm maintenance requirements.

  12. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  13. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  14. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  15. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  16. Energy storage requirements of dc microgrids with high penetration renewables under droop control

    DOE PAGES

    Weaver, Wayne W.; Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-01-09

    Energy storage is a important design component in microgrids with high penetration renewable sources to maintain the system because of the highly variable and sometimes stochastic nature of the sources. Storage devices can be distributed close to the sources and/or at the microgrid bus. In addition, storage requirements can be minimized with a centralized control architecture, but this creates a single point of failure. Distributed droop control enables a completely decentralized architecture but, the energy storage optimization becomes more difficult. Our paper presents an approach to droop control that enables the local and bus storage requirements to be determined. Givenmore » a priori knowledge of the design structure of a microgrid and the basic cycles of the renewable sources, we found that the droop settings of the sources are such that they minimize both the bus voltage variations and overall energy storage capacity required in the system. This approach can be used in the design phase of a microgrid with a decentralized control structure to determine appropriate droop settings as well as the sizing of energy storage devices.« less

  17. Energy storage requirements of dc microgrids with high penetration renewables under droop control

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Wayne W.; Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-01-09

    Energy storage is a important design component in microgrids with high penetration renewable sources to maintain the system because of the highly variable and sometimes stochastic nature of the sources. Storage devices can be distributed close to the sources and/or at the microgrid bus. In addition, storage requirements can be minimized with a centralized control architecture, but this creates a single point of failure. Distributed droop control enables a completely decentralized architecture but, the energy storage optimization becomes more difficult. Our paper presents an approach to droop control that enables the local and bus storage requirements to be determined. Given a priori knowledge of the design structure of a microgrid and the basic cycles of the renewable sources, we found that the droop settings of the sources are such that they minimize both the bus voltage variations and overall energy storage capacity required in the system. This approach can be used in the design phase of a microgrid with a decentralized control structure to determine appropriate droop settings as well as the sizing of energy storage devices.

  18. Wispy, the Drosophila homolog of GLD-2, is required during oogenesis and egg activation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Sackton, Katharine L; Horner, Vanessa L; Kumar, Kritika E; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2008-04-01

    Egg activation is the process that modifies mature, arrested oocytes so that embryo development can proceed. One key aspect of egg activation is the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of certain maternal mRNAs to permit or enhance their translation. wispy (wisp) maternal-effect mutations in Drosophila block development during the egg-to-embryo transition. We show here that the wisp gene encodes a member of the GLD-2 family of cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). The WISP protein is required for poly(A) tail elongation of bicoid, Toll, and torso mRNAs upon egg activation. In Drosophila, WISP and Smaug (SMG) have previously been reported to be required to trigger the destabilization of maternal mRNAs during egg activation. SMG is the major regulator of this activity. We report here that SMG is still translated in activated eggs from wisp mutant mothers, indicating that WISP does not regulate mRNA stability by controlling the translation of smg mRNA. We have also analyzed in detail the very early developmental arrest associated with wisp mutations. Pronuclear migration does not occur in activated eggs laid by wisp mutant females. Finally, we find that WISP function is also needed during oogenesis to regulate the poly(A) tail length of dmos during oocyte maturation and to maintain a high level of active (phospho-) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).

  19. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  20. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  2. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  3. Determination of the required surface area of a final clarifier for an activated-sludge system.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Weng Ah

    2004-01-01

    A generic methodology for determining the required surface area of a final clarifier is presented. Clarification and thickening requirements are integrated to form a unified procedure for final clarifier design. The new method is based on results obtained by Yuen (2002) on the solids flux theory for a secondary clarifier; it does not require the specification of recycle rate, which is computed as an output of the method. The author shows that there is a minimum required surface area (A(m)) for a final clarifier under the thickening requirement when the designed recycle rate is set at the maximum allowable value (FR)m (at the critical state). The designed surface area and the return activated sludge pumping capacity can be determined by applying a safety factor to A(m) and (FR)m, respectively. The method is shown to conform to conventional design criteria under typical design conditions.

  4. Contract to coordinate on-going documentation requirements associated with Title X legislation for DOE active-solar activities. Final project technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to ensure that Title X Active Solar Program reports complied with all guidance regarding length, format, coverage, tone, tables and schedules; provide necessary Conservation and Renewable Energy Office background and back-up material; follow this activity through to its completion in January 1982; assess information requirements associated with on-going documentation of Federal Buildings Program and its predecessors; establish a method for collecting, maintaining and utilizing appropriate program data specifically related to the preparation of report due in June 1982. Work on this project has generally remained on schedule and within budget. DOE-SAN has been instrumental in keeping us on track, by providing timely guidance as needed. Attached are recommendations and methods for documenting solar heat technologies research and the Title X sunset policy, planning, and evaluation long report for Active Solar Heating and Cooling Program.

  5. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  6. Monitoring integrin activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Craig T; Hyun, Young-Min; Kim, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant integrin activation is associated with several immune pathologies. In leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), the absence or inability of β(2) integrins to undergo affinity upregulation contributes to recurrent infectious episodes and impaired wound healing, while excessive integrin activity leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage. Therefore, integrin activation is an attractive target for immunotherapies, and monitoring the effect of agents on integrin activation is necessary during preclinical drug development. The activation of integrins involves the structural rearrangement of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. Here, we describe methods for monitoring integrin conformational activation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

  7. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  8. Threshold occupancy and specific cation binding modes in the hammerhead ribozyme active site are required for active conformation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Giambaşu, George M.; Sosa, Carlos P.; Martick, Monika; Scott, William G.; York, Darrin M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between formation of active in-line attack conformations and monovalent (Na+) and divalent (Mg2+) metal ion binding in the hammerhead ribozyme has been explored with molecular dynamics simulations. To stabilize repulsions between negatively charged groups, different requirements of threshold occupancy of metal ions were observed in the reactant and activated precursor states both in the presence or absence of a Mg2+ in the active site. Specific bridging coordination patterns of the ions are correlated with the formation of active in-line attack conformations and can be accommodated in both cases. Furthermore, simulation results suggest that the hammerhead ribozyme folds to form an electronegative recruiting pocket that attracts high local concentrations of positive charge. The present simulations help to reconcile experiments that probe the metal ion sensitivity of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis and support the supposition that Mg2+, in addition to stabilizing active conformations, plays a specific chemical role in catalysis. PMID:19265710

  9. 30 CFR 585.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 585.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 585.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You...

  13. 30 CFR 585.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 585.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 285.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 285.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You...

  15. 30 CFR 585.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 585.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 585.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 585.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  17. Recombination hotspot activity of hypervariable minisatellite DNA requires minisatellite DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Moore, P D

    1998-01-01

    Hypervariable minisatellite DNA repeats are found at tens of thousands of loci in the mammalian genome. These sequences stimulate homologous recombination in mammalian cells [Cell 60:95-103]. To test the hypothesis that protein-DNA interaction is required for hotspot function in vivo, we determined whether a second protein binding nearby could abolish hotspot activity. Intermolecular recombination between pairs of plasmid substrates was measured in the presence or absence of the cis-acting recombination hotspot and in the presence or absence of the second trans-acting DNA binding protein. Minisatellite DNA had hotspot activity in two cell lines, but lacked hotspot activity in two closely related cell lines expressing a site-specific helicase that bound to DNA adjacent to the hotspot. Suppression of hotspot function occurred for both replicating and non-replicating recombination substrates. These results indicate that hotspot activity in vivo requires site occupancy by minisatellite DNA binding proteins. PMID:9776980

  18. Activation of transcription by PU.1 requires both acidic and glutamine domains.

    PubMed Central

    Klemsz, M J; Maki, R A

    1996-01-01

    The B-lymphocyte- and macrophage-specific transcription factor PU.1 is a member of the ets family of proteins. To understand how PU.1 functions as a transcription factor, we initiated a series of experiments to define its activation domain. Using deletion analysis, we showed that the activation domain of PU.1 is located in the amino-terminal half of the protein. Within this region, we identified three acidic subdomains and one glutamine-rich subdomain. The deletion of any of these subdomains resulted in a significant loss in the ability of PU.1 to transactivate in cotransfection studies. Amino acid substitution analysis showed that the activation of transcription by PU.1 requires acidic residues between amino acids 7 and 74 and a group of glutamine residues between amino acids 75 and 84. These data show that PU.1 contains two types of known activation domains and that both are required for maximal transactivation. PMID:8524320

  19. Dissociation of two signals required for activation of resting B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Julius, M H; von Boehmer, H; Sidman, C L

    1982-01-01

    Cellular interactions involved in the T cell-dependent activation of B cells were analyzed by using lines and clones of helper T cells specific for determinants expressed on the B cell surface. Activation of male antigen-, M locus-, and H-2-specific T cells was shown to support polyclonal Ig production by a population of B cells that did not require T-cell-B-cell interaction for induction/amplification. However, these T cells alone did not activate gradient-purified small (resting) B cells. The activation of small B cells was shown to require not only a signal derived through an antigen-specific T-helper cell-B cell interaction but in addition a second signal that could be provided by anti-Ig antibodies. PMID:6979046

  20. Energy requirements for maintenance and growth of male saanen goat kids.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, A N; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A; Araújo, M J; Yáñez, E A; Ferreira, A C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg(0.75) of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats.

  1. Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of Male Saanen Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, A. N.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.; Araújo, M. J.; Yáñez, E. A.; Ferreira, A. C. D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg0.75 of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg0.75 of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats. PMID:25178373

  2. Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.

    PubMed

    Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

    1987-11-01

    1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students

  3. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  4. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  5. The glutaminase activity of l-asparaginase is not required for anticancer activity against ASNS-negative cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Kin; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Anishkin, Andriy; Purwaha, Preeti; Rogers, David M.; Sukharev, Sergei; Rempe, Susan B.; Weinstein, John N.

    2014-01-01

    l-Asparaginase (l-ASP) is a key component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Its mechanism of action, however, is still poorly understood, in part because of its dual asparaginase and glutaminase activities. Here, we show that l-ASP’s glutaminase activity is not always required for the enzyme’s anticancer effect. We first used molecular dynamics simulations of the clinically standard Escherichia coli l-ASP to predict what mutated forms could be engineered to retain activity against asparagine but not glutamine. Dynamic mapping of enzyme substrate contacts identified Q59 as a promising mutagenesis target for that purpose. Saturation mutagenesis followed by enzymatic screening identified Q59L as a variant that retains asparaginase activity but shows undetectable glutaminase activity. Unlike wild-type l-ASP, Q59L is inactive against cancer cells that express measurable asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Q59L is potently active, however, against ASNS-negative cells. Those observations indicate that the glutaminase activity of l-ASP is necessary for anticancer activity against ASNS-positive cell types but not ASNS-negative cell types. Because the clinical toxicity of l-ASP is thought to stem from its glutaminase activity, these findings suggest the hypothesis that glutaminase-negative variants of l-ASP would provide larger therapeutic indices than wild-type l-ASP for ASNS-negative cancers. PMID:24659632

  6. Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1-Dependent Activation of AMPK Promotes Brucella abortus Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Li, Yingying; Dong, Chunyan; Xu, Xiaohan; Wei, Pan; Sun, Wanchun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is well conserved during evolution. AMPK activation inhibits production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase. However, the role of AMPK during the process of Brucella infection remains unknown. Our data demonstrate that B. abortus infection induces AMPK activation in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. The known AMPK kinases LKB1, CAMKKβ, and TAK1 are not required for the activation of AMPK by B. abortus infection. Instead, this activation is dependent on the RNase activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Moreover, we also found that B. abortus infection-induced IRE1-dependent activation of AMPK promotes B. abortus intracellular growth with peritoneal macrophages via suppression of NADPH-derived ROS production. IMPORTANCE Previous studies showed that B. abortus infection does not promote any oxidative burst regulated by NADPH oxidase. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We report for the first time that AMPK activation caused by B. abortus infection plays important role in NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production. PMID:26755628

  7. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  8. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  9. Energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of Boer crossbred kids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M H M R; Resende, K T; Tedeschi, L O; Fernandes, J S; Silva, H M; Carstens, G E; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Akinaga, L

    2007-04-01

    Meat production by goats has become an important livestock enterprise in several parts of the world. Nonetheless, energy and protein requirements of meat goats have not been defined thoroughly. The objective of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of 34 (3/4) Boer x (1/4) Saanen crossbred, intact male kids (20.5 +/- 0.24 kg of initial BW). The baseline group was 7 randomly selected kids, averaging 21.2 +/- 0.36 kg of BW. An intermediate group consisted of 6 randomly selected kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 28.2 +/- 0.39 kg. The remaining kids (n = 21) were allocated randomly on d 0 to 3 levels of DMI (treatments were ad libitum or restricted to 70 or 40% of the ad libitum intake) within 7 slaughter groups. A slaughter group contained 1 kid from each treatment, and kids were slaughtered when the ad libitum treatment kid reached 35 kg of BW. Individual body components (head plus feet, hide, internal organs plus blood, and carcass) were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. Initial body composition was determined using equations developed from the composition of the baseline kids. The calculated daily maintenance requirement for NE was 77.3 +/- 1.05 kcal/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW) or 67.4 +/- 1.04 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW. The daily ME requirement for maintenance (118.1 kcal/kg(0.75) of EBW or 103.0 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW) was calculated by iteration, assuming that the heat produced was equal to the ME intake at maintenance. The partial efficiency of use of ME for NE below maintenance was 0.65. A value of 2.44 +/- 0.4 g of net protein/kg(0.75) of EBW for daily maintenance was determined. Net energy requirements for growth ranged from 2.55 to 3.0 Mcal/kg of EBW gain at 20 and 35 kg of BW, and net protein requirements for growth ranged from 178.8 to 185.2 g/kg of EBW gain. These results suggest that NE and net protein requirements

  10. Reduced tillage systems for irrigated cotton: Energy requirements and crop response

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, W.; Thacker, G.

    1997-09-01

    Arizona law mandates that plant material left in the field following cotton harvest be buried to reduce overwintering sites for insects. Conventional operations which accomplish this are energy-intensive. Reduced tillage systems offer significant energy savings over conventional systems, however growers have expressed concerns that compaction will increase over time, with resultant yield reduction. To address this concern, two reduced tillage systems were compared to a conventional system over six reasons at one site, while at another site, four reduced tillage systems were compared to the same conventional system over three seasons. The reduced tillage systems required significantly indicates that growers can reduce the inputs required to produce irrigated cotton, without negatively impacting yield, at least over the time intervals examined.

  11. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  12. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  13. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oil and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.

  14. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    DOE PAGES

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oilmore » and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.« less

  15. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such “intrinsic” brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to “mind”. However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the “classical” definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and “free-energy” (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm

  16. 25 CFR 262.4 - Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; (iii) The tribe ensures that the provisions for permit issuance in this part and at 43 CFR part 7 have... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit. 262.4 Section 262.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  17. 25 CFR 262.4 - Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; (iii) The tribe ensures that the provisions for permit issuance in this part and at 43 CFR part 7 have... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit. 262.4 Section 262.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  18. 77 FR 27787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13617) on March 7, 2012, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  19. 21 CFR 1309.24 - Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities with respect to List I chemicals are limited to the distribution of red phosphorus, white phosphorus, or hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) to another location operated by the same firm solely for... disposal. (f) The requirement of registration is waived for any person whose distribution of red...

  20. 21 CFR 1309.24 - Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities with respect to List I chemicals are limited to the distribution of red phosphorus, white phosphorus, or hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) to another location operated by the same firm solely for... disposal. (f) The requirement of registration is waived for any person whose distribution of red...

  1. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  2. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? 2516.820 Section 2516.820 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...

  3. 30 CFR 251.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. 251.4 Section 251.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...) Scientific research. You may only conduct G&G scientific research related to oil, gas, and sulphur in the...

  4. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part? 280.25 Section 280.25 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  5. 78 FR 77484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3507). DATES: Written comments...

  6. Oxide Defect Engineering Enables to Couple Solar Energy into Oxygen Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Xiyu; Ye, Huacheng; Chen, Shuangming; Ju, Huanxin; Liu, Daobin; Lin, Yue; Ye, Wei; Wang, Chengming; Xu, Qian; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Jiang, Jun; Xiong, Yujie

    2016-07-20

    Modern development of chemical manufacturing requires a substantial reduction in energy consumption and catalyst cost. Sunlight-driven chemical transformation by metal oxides holds great promise for this goal; however, it remains a grand challenge to efficiently couple solar energy into many catalytic reactions. Here we report that defect engineering on oxide catalyst can serve as a versatile approach to bridge light harvesting with surface reactions by ensuring species chemisorption. The chemisorption not only spatially enables the transfer of photoexcited electrons to reaction species, but also alters the form of active species to lower the photon energy requirement for reactions. In a proof of concept, oxygen molecules are activated into superoxide radicals on defect-rich tungsten oxide through visible-near-infrared illumination to trigger organic aerobic couplings of amines to corresponding imines. The excellent efficiency and durability for such a highly important process in chemical transformation can otherwise be virtually impossible to attain by counterpart materials.

  7. Oxide Defect Engineering Enables to Couple Solar Energy into Oxygen Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Xiyu; Ye, Huacheng; Chen, Shuangming; Ju, Huanxin; Liu, Daobin; Lin, Yue; Ye, Wei; Wang, Chengming; Xu, Qian; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Jiang, Jun; Xiong, Yujie

    2016-07-20

    Modern development of chemical manufacturing requires a substantial reduction in energy consumption and catalyst cost. Sunlight-driven chemical transformation by metal oxides holds great promise for this goal; however, it remains a grand challenge to efficiently couple solar energy into many catalytic reactions. Here we report that defect engineering on oxide catalyst can serve as a versatile approach to bridge light harvesting with surface reactions by ensuring species chemisorption. The chemisorption not only spatially enables the transfer of photoexcited electrons to reaction species, but also alters the form of active species to lower the photon energy requirement for reactions. In a proof of concept, oxygen molecules are activated into superoxide radicals on defect-rich tungsten oxide through visible-near-infrared illumination to trigger organic aerobic couplings of amines to corresponding imines. The excellent efficiency and durability for such a highly important process in chemical transformation can otherwise be virtually impossible to attain by counterpart materials. PMID:27351805

  8. Selenate reductase activity in Escherichia coli requires Isc iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nathan; Choi, Jessica; Porter, Abigail W; Carey, Sean; Rauschenbach, Ines; Harel, Arye

    2014-12-01

    The selenate reductase in Escherichia coli is a multi-subunit enzyme predicted to bind Fe-S clusters. In this study, we examined the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis genes that are required for selenate reductase activity. Mutants devoid of either the iscU or hscB gene in the Isc iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis pathway lost the ability to reduce selenate. Genetic complementation by the wild-type sequences restored selenate reductase activity. The results indicate the Isc biosynthetic system plays a key role in selenate reductase Fe-S cofactor assembly and is essential for enzyme activity.

  9. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS... your approved SAP, describing in detail the type of activities you propose to conduct. We...

  10. 30 CFR 285.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... Activities Under An Approved Cop § 285.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS... your approved COP, describing in detail the type of activities you propose to conduct. We...

  11. A review of UK wind energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind power activities in Great Britain are reviewed, including a brief summary of historical windmill usage and details of developmental efforts in large and small wind turbines. An annual average resource of 5 m/sec at 10 m has been extrapolated to predict an 8-10 m/sec resource at the hub heights of large wind turbines. Initial estimates indicate that at least half of Great Britain's annual electricity consumption can be produced from windpowered generators. The potential of offshore large WECS siting is being examined, although the wind-derived electricity from those regions are projected to cost three times that of land-based operation. Recorded wind patterns with 12-48 hr. duration have indicated that at least 20% penetration into the national grid is acceptable. A test 250 kW machine is being built as a model for a 3.7 MW machine, both intended for installation at Orkney, Scotland. Additionally, construction has begun on a 25-m diameter, vertical axis, variable geometry Musgrove wind turbine. The straight-bladed machine will produce a maximum of 130 kW, and is a prototype of multi-MW offshore units.

  12. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  13. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  14. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Jose M; Alrubaie, Saif; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Deak, Maria; Leevers, Sally J; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    An important mechanism by which insulin regulates cell growth and protein synthesis is through activation of the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K). In mammalian cells, insulin-induced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activation, generates the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), which is thought to play a key role in triggering the activation of S6K. Although the major components of the insulin-signalling pathway are conserved in Drosophila, recent studies suggested that S6K activation does not require PI3K in this system. To investigate further the role of dPI3K (Drosophila PI3K) in dS6K (Drosophila S6K) activation, we examined the effect of two structurally distinct PI3K inhibitors on insulin-induced dS6K activation in Kc167 and S2 Drosophila cell lines. We found that both inhibitors prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of dS6K. To investigate further the role of the dPI3K pathway in regulating dS6K activation, we also used dsRNAi (double-stranded RNA-mediated interference) to decrease expression of dPI3K and the PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) phosphatase dPTEN ( Drosophila phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in Kc167 and S2 cells. Knock-down of dPI3K prevented dS6K activation, whereas knock-down of dPTEN, which would be expected to increase PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) levels, stimulated dS6K activity. Moreover, when the expression of the dPI3K target, dPKB (Drosophila protein kinase B), was decreased to undetectable levels, we found that insulin could no longer trigger dS6K activation. This observation provides the first direct demonstration that dPKB is required for insulin-stimulated dS6K activation. We also present evidence that the amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin. The results of the present study support the view that, in Drosophila cells, dPI3K and dPKB, as well d

  15. Activation energies to characterize ease of removal of various kinds of oxygen from bismuth molybdate

    SciTech Connect

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1980-06-01

    Calculations by the method of minimum energy paths showed that oxygen(-2) anions are more easily displaced from molybdenum(VI) or from the layer between molybdenum and bismuth than from bismuth(III) of a 2:1 bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/MoO/sub 6/). However, available experimental evidence suggests that the oxygen of the bismuth layer is active in the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons; apparently the presence of the hydrocarbon decreases the energy barrier required for transfer of the oxygen anion, and anion vacancies generated, e.g., in a prereduction of the catalyst, also decrease the energy barrier.

  16. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  17. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  18. Meeting Resident Scholarly Activity Requirements Through a Longitudinal Quality Improvement Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Simasek, Madeline; Ballard, Stephanie L.; Phelps, Phillip; Pingul-Ravano, Rowena; Kolb, N. Randall; Finkelstein, Alan; Weaver-Agostoni, Jacqueline; Takedai, Teiichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Quality improvement (QI) skills are learned during residency, yet there are few reports of the scholarly activity outcomes of a QI curriculum in a primary care program. Intervention We examined whether scholarly activity can result from a longitudinal, experiential QI curriculum that involves residents, clinic staff, and faculty. Methods The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Shadyside Family Medicine Residency implemented a required longitudinal outpatient practice improvement rotation (LOPIR) curriculum in 2005. The rotation format includes weekly multidisciplinary work group meetings alternating with resident presentations delivered to the entire program. Residents present the results of a literature review and provide 2 interim project updates to the residency. A completed individual project is required for residency graduation, with project results presented at Residency Research Day. Scholarly activity outcomes of the curriculum were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results As of 2014, 60 residents completed 3 years of the LOPIR curriculum. All residents satisfied the 2014 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) scholarly activity and QI requirements with a literature review presentation in postgraduate year 2, and the presentation of a completed QI project at Residency Research Day. Residents have delivered 83 local presentations, 13 state/regional presentations, and 2 national presentations. Residents received 7 awards for QI posters, as well as 3 grants totaling $21,639. The educational program required no additional curriculum time, few resources, and was acceptable to residents, faculty, and staff. Conclusions LOPIR is an effective way to meet and exceed the 2014 ACGME scholarly activity requirements for family medicine residents. PMID:26217429

  19. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  20. Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  1. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  2. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  3. Research on Social Stability Mechanisms Based on Activation Energy and Gradual Activation Reaction Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Miao; Gu, Jifa

    This paper draws a comparison between social stability and chemical reaction process, and brings forward the concept of “social temperature” and “activation energy of social agent”. It is considered that social temperature turns out to be the macro symptom of social average energy, and its unceasing up-climbing roots in the energy accumulation of “inferiorization” process of social system; that “activation energy of social agent” stands for the social energy or temperature where individuals or groups reach the limit of their psychological bearing ability. This paper, basing on above concepts, elaborates on and demonstrates the gradual activation reaction mechanisms of social stability by a lot of concrete examples. It is thought that there is a threshold value for social stability, and the society will be unstable if social temperature goes higher than this value; that the larger the social average activation energy is, the higher the temperature threshold value of social stability will be; and considering that different groups have different activation energy, those fragile groups with low activation energy are often the risk source which might pose a threat to social stability.

  4. Endogenous patterns of activity are required for the maturation of a motor network

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Sarah J.; Evers, Jan Felix; Bate, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many parts of the nervous system become active before development is complete, including the embryonic spinal cord. Remarkably, although the subject has been debated for over a century (Harrison, 1904), it is still unclear whether such activity is required for normal development of motor circuitry. In Drosophila, embryonic motor output is initially poorly organised, and coordinated crawling-like behaviour gradually emerges over the subsequent phase of development. We show that reversibly blocking synaptic transmission during this phase severely delays the first appearance of coordinated movements. When we interfere with the pattern of neuronal firing during this period, coordination is also delayed or blocked. We conclude that there is a period during which endogenous patterns of neuronal activity are required for the normal development of motor circuits in Drosophila. PMID:21775590

  5. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  6. Common γ-chain cytokine signaling is required for macroautophagy induction during CD4+ T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Botbol, Yair; Patel, Bindi; Macian, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a cellular process that mediates degradation in the lysosome of cytoplasmic components including proteins and organelles. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy is induced in activated T cells to regulate organelle homeostasis and the cell's energy metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that initiate and regulate activation-induced macroautophagy in T cells have not been identified. Here, we show that activation-induced macroautophagy in T cells depends on signaling from common γ-chain cytokines. Consequently, inhibition of signaling through JAK3, induced downstream of cytokine receptors containing the common γ-chain, prevents full induction of macroautophagy in activated T cells. Moreover, we found that common γ-chain cytokines are not only required for macroautophagy upregulation during T cell activation but can themselves induce macroautophagy. Our data also show that macroautophagy induction in T cells is associated with an increase of LC3 expression that is mediated by a post-transcriptional mechanism. Overall, our findings unveiled a new role for common γ-chain cytokines as a molecular link between autophagy induction and T-cell activation. PMID:26391567

  7. A Requirement for Metamorphic Interconversion in the Antimicrobial Activity of Chemokine XCL1.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Amanda M; Subramanian, Akshay; Tapia, Jazma L; Delgado, David P; Tyler, Robert C; Jensen, Davin R; Ouellette, André J; Volkman, Brian F

    2016-07-12

    Chemokines make up a superfamily of ∼50 small secreted proteins (8-12 kDa) involved in a host of physiological processes and disease states, with several previously shown to have direct antimicrobial activity comparable to that of defensins in efficacy. XCL1 is a unique metamorphic protein that interconverts between the canonical chemokine fold and a novel all-β-sheet dimer. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that, within the chemokine family, XCL1 is most closely related to CCL20, which exhibits antibacterial activity. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of WT-XCL1 and structural variants was quantified using a radial diffusion assay (RDA) and in solution bactericidal assays against Gram-positive and Gram-negative species of bacteria. Comparisons of WT-XCL1 with variants that limit metamorphic interconversion showed a loss of antimicrobial activity when restricted to the conserved chemokine fold. These results suggest that metamorphic folding of XCL1 is required for potent antimicrobial activity.

  8. K(+) channel activity and redox status are differentially required for JNK activation by UV and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Wu, Dan; Guo, Taylor B; Ruan, Qin; Li, Tie; Lu, Zhenyu; Xu, Ming; Dai, Wei; Lu, Luo

    2004-07-15

    Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, osmotic changes or the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are rapidly activated. Extensive studies have elucidated molecular components that mediate the activation of JNKs. However, it remains unclear whether activation of JNKs by various stress signals involves different pathways. Here we show that K(+) channel activity is involved in mediating apoptosis induced by UV but not by H(2)O(2) in myelocytic leukemic ML-1 cells. Specifically, JNKs were rapidly phosphorylated upon treatment of ML-1 cells with UV and H(2)O(2). UV-induced, but not H(2)O(2)-induced, JNK-1 phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a K(+) channel blocker. 4-AP also blocked UV-induced increase in JNK activity as well as p38 phosphorylation. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that phosphorylated JNKs were concentrated at centrosomes in ML-1 cells and that these proteins underwent rapid subcellular translocation upon UV treatment. Consistently, the subcellular translocation of JNKs induced by UV was largely blocked by 4-AP. Furthermore, UV-induced JNK activation was blocked by NEM, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent also affecting K(+) current. Both UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced JNK activities were inhibited by glutathione, suggesting that the redox status does play an important role in the activation of JNKs. Taken together, our findings suggest that JNK activation by UV and H(2)O(2) is mediated by distinct yet overlapping pathways and that K(+) channel activity and redox status are differentially required for UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced activation of JNKs.

  9. Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an Exergaming Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q.; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  10. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    PubMed

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  11. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    PubMed

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  12. Energy requirements for growth in relation to sexual size dimorphism in marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus nestlings.

    PubMed

    Krijgsveld, K L; Dijkstra, C; Visser, G H; Daan, S

    1998-01-01

    Food consumption was measured in six female and seven male hand-raised marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) nestlings. Females consumed on average 4,321 g and males consumed 3,571 g of food during the nestling stage from 0 to 36 d. Total consumption until 56 d was 6,960 g and 5,822 g for females and males, respectively. On the basis of Fisher's sex ratio theory, this food intake ratio of 0.46 (intake male/[intake male + female]) would explain the observed male-biased fledging sex ratio of 55% males in marsh harrier broods. Growth, gross energy intake, and metabolizable energy intake were measured, along with metabolism of the nestlings, enabling us to determine energy allocation. The assimilation quotient (Q = 0.72) did not differ systematically between the sexes. Differences in metabolic rates between males and females at 15 and 30 d of age were fully attributable to the difference in body mass. Sexual size dimorphism in marsh harriers (female body mass around 60 d of age is 1.28 times greater than male mass) did not fully explain the difference in food intake between male and female nestlings: an analysis of energy requirements for growth and body mass in 16 avian species shows that energy intake was less than proportional to the average body mass at release. The data presented in this study are in agreement with Fisher's theory of inverse proportionality between the sex-specific ratios of energy requirements for growth and of offspring numbers in the marsh harrier population.

  13. Intergovernmental relations inherent in the Energy Management Partnership Act: a workshop on information requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoop, W.J.; Edelson, E.

    1980-02-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the first of three workshops that were planned to assess the information needed by the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) to effectively evaluate the pending Energy Management Partnership Act (EMPA); the workshop concentrated on issues of the EMPA hierarchical partnership. The approach utilized offers two major benefits to CS. First, by considering the problem of program evaluation while EMPA is still in the planning stage, this study identifies any baseline information that should be collected prior to implementation of EMPA, and also provides CS with the opportunity to include evaluation considerations in the operating guidelines for the program. Second, by identifying the potential problems and benefits inherent in EMPA and then identifying the information necessary to evaluate these problems and benefits, information requirements tied to the reasons for needing that information are generated, rather than a long unrelated laundry list of information requirements. Drafting of EMPA is not yet complete. When the term EMPA is used here, it refers to a set of bills that are presently being melded together. The original EMPA bill, which originated in DOE, was designed to expand the role of state and local governments in achieving national energy goals. Specifically, EMPA would provide a total of $110 million annually to state and local governments over a five year period to (1) develop an overall state energy plan, (2) consolidate three existing federal energy grant programs, (3) allow the secretary to fund directly innovative projects at the local level, and (4) provide additional assistance to states to cover the administrative costs of existing energy programs. Other bills, which may be passed in conjuncttion with EMPA or incorporated into EMPA, place additional emphasis on the local level by allocating as much as $400 million annually to local governments.

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  15. UTX demethylase activity is required for satellite cell–mediated muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaochen; Nakka, Kiran; Benyoucef, Aissa; Sebastian, Soji; Zhuang, Lenan; Chu, Alphonse; Palii, Carmen G.; Camellato, Brendan; Brand, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The X chromosome–encoded histone demethylase UTX (also known as KDM6A) mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to establish transcriptionally permissive chromatin. Loss of UTX in female mice is embryonic lethal. Unexpectedly, male UTX-null mice escape embryonic lethality due to expression of UTY, a paralog that lacks H3K27 demethylase activity, suggesting an enzyme-independent role for UTX in development and thereby challenging the need for active H3K27 demethylation in vivo. However, the requirement for active H3K27 demethylation in stem cell–mediated tissue regeneration remains untested. Here, we employed an inducible mouse KO that specifically ablates Utx in satellite cells (SCs) and demonstrated that active H3K27 demethylation is necessary for muscle regeneration. Loss of UTX in SCs blocked myofiber regeneration in both male and female mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that UTX mediates muscle regeneration through its H3K27 demethylase activity, as loss of demethylase activity either by chemical inhibition or knock-in of demethylase-dead UTX resulted in defective muscle repair. Mechanistically, dissection of the muscle regenerative process revealed that the demethylase activity of UTX is required for expression of the transcription factor myogenin, which in turn drives differentiation of muscle progenitors. Thus, we have identified a critical role for the enzymatic activity of UTX in activating muscle-specific gene expression during myofiber regeneration and have revealed a physiological role for active H3K27 demethylation in vivo. PMID:26999603

  16. Calculation of protein and energy requirements in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) using a factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Amrkolaie, A Keramat; Yansari, A Teimouri; Khalesi, M K

    2013-06-01

    This study tried to determine the protein and energy requirements of growing beluga sturgeon Huso huso using a factorial approach. The experiment was composed of four small-scale growth trails covering different weight ranges. The fish fed at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of satiation. DWG had a steady increase throughout the experiment following a non-linear equation as Y = 1.433 (±0.056) × Ln(X) -2.740 (±0.261); r(2) = 0.99, p < 0.001, where Y = weight gain (g/day) and X = fish weight (g). The daily requirement of digestible energy (DE) for maintenance amounted to 79.09 kJ × BW (kg)(0.8) . The daily requirement of DP for maintenance calculated as 0.93 g × BW (kg)(0.7) . The relationship between DE intake (X) and DE gain (Y) expressed as Y = -0.0004 (±0.000) X(2) + 0.600 (±0.082) X -44.95 (± 6.72). Also, the relationship between DP intake (X) and protein gain (Y) was expressed as Y = -0.019 (±0.006) X(2) + 0.548 (±0.062) X - 0.498 (±0.121). The daily requirements of energy and protein were estimated as 79.09 kJ × BW (kg)(0.8) + 2.94 × DE gain and 0.93 g × BW (kg)(0.7) + 2.63 × DP gain. Apparently, beluga sturgeon is inefficient in converting energy and protein into body tissue. Therefore, energy content of the diet should be sufficiently high to satisfy large energy demands in beluga sturgeon and also to reduce the catabolism of protein.

  17. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  18. Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2005-08-10

    This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

  19. On-orbit Metrology and Calibration Requirements for Space Station Activities Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotty, G. M.; Ranganathan, B. N.; Sorrell, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station is the focal point for the commercial development of space. The long term routine operation of the Space Station and the conduct of future commercial activities suggests the need for in-space metrology capabilities analogous when possible to those on-Earth. The ability to perform periodic calibrations and measurements with proper traceability is imperative for the routine operation of the Space Station. An initial review, however, indicated a paucity of data related to metrology and calibration requirements for in-space operations. This condition probably exists because of the highly developmental aspect of space activities to date, their short duration, and nonroutine nature. The on-orbit metrology and calibration needs of the Space Station were examined and assessed. In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks were performed: an up-to-date literature review; identification of on-orbit calibration techniques; identification of sensor calibration requirements; identification of calibration equipment requirements; definition of traceability requirements; preparation of technology development plans; and preparation of the final report. Significant information and major highlights pertaining to each task is presented. In addition, some general (generic) conclusions/observations and recommendations that are pertinent to the overall in-space metrology and calibration activities are presented.

  20. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Induced Aversion Requires p38 MAPK Activation in VTA Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Jonathan M.; Messinger, Daniel I.; Knakal, Cerise R.; Kuhar, Jamie R.; Schattauer, Selena S.; Bruchas, Michael R.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Phillips, Paul E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous dynorphin-κ opioid receptor (KOR) system encodes the dysphoric component of the stress response and controls the risk of depression-like and addiction behaviors; however, the molecular and neural circuit mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we report that KOR activation of p38α MAPK in ventral tegmental (VTA) dopaminergic neurons was required for conditioned place aversion (CPA) in mice. Conditional genetic deletion of floxed KOR or floxed p38α MAPK by Cre recombinase expression in dopaminergic neurons blocked place aversion to the KOR agonist U50,488. Selective viral rescue by wild-type KOR expression in dopaminergic neurons of KOR−/− mice restored U50,488-CPA, whereas expression of a mutated form of KOR that could not initiate p38α MAPK activation did not. Surprisingly, while p38α MAPK inactivation blocked U50,488-CPA, p38α MAPK was not required for KOR inhibition of evoked dopamine release measured by fast scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, KOR activation acutely inhibited VTA dopaminergic neuron firing, and repeated exposure attenuated the opioid response. This adaptation to repeated exposure was blocked by conditional deletion of p38α MAPK, which also blocked KOR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) subunit Kir3.1 in VTA dopaminergic neurons. Consistent with the reduced response, GIRK phosphorylation at this amino terminal tyrosine residue (Y12) enhances channel deactivation. Thus, contrary to prevailing expectations, these results suggest that κ opioid-induced aversion requires regulation of VTA dopaminergic neuron somatic excitability through a p38α MAPK effect on GIRK deactivation kinetics rather than by presynaptically inhibiting dopamine release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists have the potential to be effective, nonaddictive analgesics, but their therapeutic utility is greatly limited by adverse effects on mood