Science.gov

Sample records for activation energy similar

  1. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Taryn M.; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P. Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1—all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52–1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72–1.72); Method 2—without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26–2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42–2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  2. Self-similarity in active colloid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constant, Colin; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    The self-similarity of displacements among randomly evolving systems has been used to describe the foraging patterns of animals and predict the growth of financial systems. At micron scales, the motion of colloidal particles can be analyzed by sampling their spatial displacement in time. For self-similar systems in equilibrium, the mean squared displacement increases linearly in time. However, external forces can take the system out of equilibrium, creating active colloidal systems, and making this evolution more complex. A moment scaling spectrum of the distribution of particle displacements quantifies the degree of self-similarity in the colloid motion. We will demonstrate that, by varying the temporal and spatial characteristics of the external forces, one can control the degree of self-similarity in active colloid motion.

  3. Earthquake networks based on similar activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Joel N; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Earthquakes are a complex spatiotemporal phenomenon, the underlying mechanism for which is still not fully understood despite decades of research and analysis. We propose and develop a network approach to earthquake events. In this network, a node represents a spatial location while a link between two nodes represents similar activity patterns in the two different locations. The strength of a link is proportional to the strength of the cross correlation in activities of two nodes joined by the link. We apply our network approach to a Japanese earthquake catalog spanning the 14-year period 1985-1998. We find strong links representing large correlations between patterns in locations separated by more than 1000 kilometers, corroborating prior observations that earthquake interactions have no characteristic length scale. We find network characteristics not attributable to chance alone, including a large number of network links, high node assortativity, and strong stability over time. PMID:23214652

  4. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  5. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  6. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference. PMID:24254747

  7. An active metallic nanomatryushka with two similar super-resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Wu, X. W.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-07-07

    The optical properties of a simple metallic nanomatryushka (nanosphere-in-a-nanoshell) with gain have been investigated theoretically. The spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) phenomena can be observed at two critical wavelengths in the active metallic nanomatryushkas. With increasing the gain coefficient of the middle layer, a similar super surface plasmon (SP) resonance is first found at the ω₋⁺|₁ mode of the active nanoparticles and then breaks down. With further increasing the gain coefficient, another similar super-resonance occurs at the ω₋⁻|₁ mode. The near-field enhancements in the active nanomatryushkas also have been greatly amplified at the critical wavelengths for ω₋⁺|₊ and ω₋⁻|₁ modes. It is further found that the amplifications of SPs in the active Ag–SiO₂–Au nanoshell are strongest in four kinds of nanoshells and hence the largest near fields. The giant near-field enhancement can greatly enhance the Raman excitation and emission.

  8. Local energy flux and the refined similarity hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the locality of energy transport for incompressible Euler equations both in space and in scale. The key to the proof is the proper definition of a "local subscale flux," Π t (r), which is supposed to be a measure of energy transfer to length scales < l at the space point r. Kraichnan suggested that for such a quantity the "refined similarity hypothesis" will hold, which Kolmogorov originally assumed to hold instead for volume-averaged dissipation. We derive a local energy-balance relation for the large-scale motions which yields a natural definition of such a subscale flux. For this definition a precise form of the "refined similarity hypothesis" is rigorously proved as a big- O bound. The established estimate is Π t (r)= O( l 3 h-1) in terms of the local Hölder exponent h at the point r, which is also the estimate assumed in the Parisi-Frisch "multifractal model." Our method not only establishes locality of energy transfer, but it also clarifies the physical reason that convection effects, which naively violate locality, do not contribute to the subscale flux. In fact, we show that, as a consequence of incompressibility, such effects enter into the local energy balance only as the divergence of a spatial current. Therefore, they describe motion of energy in space and cancel in the integration over volume. We also discuss theorems of Onsager, Eyink, and Constantin et al. on energy conservation for Euler dynamics, particularly to explain their relation with the Parisi-Frisch model. The Constantin et al. proof may be interpreted as giving a bound on the total flux, Π t =∫ d d r Π t (r), of the form Π t (r)= O( l z3 h-1), where z 3 is the third-order scaling exponent (or Besov index), in agreement with the "multifractal model." Finally, we discuss how the local estimates are related to the results of Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg on partial regularity for solutions of Navier-Stokes equations. They provide some heuristic support to a

  9. Modeling of cw OIL energy performance based on similarity criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhenin, Andrey V.; Pichugin, Sergey Y.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.

    2012-01-01

    A simplified two-level generation model predicts that power extraction from an cw oxygen-iodine laser (OIL) with stable resonator depends on three similarity criteria. Criterion τd is the ratio of the residence time of active medium in the resonator to the O2(1Δ) reduction time at the infinitely large intraresonator intensity. Criterion Π is small-signal gain to the threshold ratio. Criterion Λ is the relaxation to excitation rate ratio for the electronically excited iodine atoms I(2P1/2). Effective power extraction from a cw OIL is achieved when the values of the similarity criteria are located in the intervals: τd=5-8, Π=3-8 and Λ<=0.01.

  10. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods. PMID:26117822

  11. Why heavy and light quarks radiate energy with similar rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The dead-cone effect has been predicted to reduce the magnitude of energy loss and jet quenching for heavy flavors produced with large p{sub T} in heavy-ion collisions. On the contrary, data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider demonstrate a strong suppression of high-p{sub T} electrons from charm and bottom decays. We show that vacuum radiation of a highly virtual quark produced at high p{sub T} with a stripped-off color field develops a much wider dead cone, which screens the one related to the quark mass. Lacking the field, gluons cannot be radiated within this cone until the color field is regenerated and the quark virtuality cools down to the scale of the order of the quark mass. However, this takes longer than is essential for the observed jet quenching, leading to similar nuclear effects for the light and charm quark jets. Open beauty is expected to radiate much less within the p{sub T} range studied so far in heavy-ion collisions.

  12. Why heavy and light quarks radiate energy with similar rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván

    2010-09-01

    The dead-cone effect has been predicted to reduce the magnitude of energy loss and jet quenching for heavy flavors produced with large pT in heavy-ion collisions. On the contrary, data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider demonstrate a strong suppression of high-pT electrons from charm and bottom decays. We show that vacuum radiation of a highly virtual quark produced at high pT with a stripped-off color field develops a much wider dead cone, which screens the one related to the quark mass. Lacking the field, gluons cannot be radiated within this cone until the color field is regenerated and the quark virtuality cools down to the scale of the order of the quark mass. However, this takes longer than is essential for the observed jet quenching, leading to similar nuclear effects for the light and charm quark jets. Open beauty is expected to radiate much less within the pT range studied so far in heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  14. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhenin, A. V.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio Π. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at τd <= 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of τd = 5 - 7, Π = 4 - 8.

  15. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

    2012-12-31

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

  16. Similar Biological Activities of Two Isostructural Ruthenium and Osmium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimoska,J.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Smalley, K.; Carroll, P.; Webster, R.; Filippakopoulos, P.; Knapp, S.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we probe and verify the concept of designing unreactive bioactive metal complexes, in which the metal possesses a purely structural function, by investigating the consequences of replacing ruthenium in a bioactive half-sandwich kinase inhibitor scaffold by its heavier congener osmium. The two isostructural complexes are compared with respect to their anticancer properties in 1205?Lu melanoma cells, activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, IC50 values against the protein kinases GSK-3? and Pim-1, and binding modes to the protein kinase Pim-1 by protein crystallography. It was found that the two congeners display almost indistinguishable biological activities, which can be explained by their nearly identical three-dimensional structures and their identical mode of action as protein kinase inhibitors. This is a unique example in which the replacement of a metal in an anticancer scaffold by its heavier homologue does not alter its biological activity.

  17. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  18. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  19. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  20. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  1. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  2. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  3. Energy assessment: physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  4. Similarity between turbulent kinetic energy and temperature spectra in the near-wall region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonia, R. A.; Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    The similarity between turbulent kinetic energy and temperature spectra, previously confirmed using experimental data in various turbulent shear flows, is validated in the near-wall region using direct numerical simulation data in a fully developed turbulent channel flow. The dependence of this similarity on the molecular Prandtl number is also examined.

  5. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    PubMed

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Given the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and wellness, an improved understanding of physical activity patterns across different clinical populations is required. This study examines the facilitators for, and barriers to, participation in physical activity across multiple contexts for three clinical groups with chronic lower limb spasticity (individuals with stroke, multiple sclerosis and incomplete spinal cord injury). Method This cross-sectional study employed quantitative measures for spasticity, ankle range of motion, pain, falls, cognition, mobility, and physical activity as well as qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results There were similar impairments in body functions and structures and limitations in activities across the clinical groups. These impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical activity, which was low. Environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life. Conclusions In this population, participation in physical activity includes activities such as housework which are different than what is typically considered as physical activity. Further, the presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the groups suggests that support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. Implications for rehabilitation Physical activity is of utmost importance in maintaining health and wellness in clinical populations. This research highlights the desired and actual physical activity for these populations can look different than what may traditionally be considered as physical activity (e.g. housework is not typically considered participation physical activity). Therefore, rehabilitation interventions need to be directly designed to enhance clients

  6. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I? (a) Under WIA section 181(e), WIA... associations (such as chambers of commerce); joint labor management committees, labor associations, and.... 181(e).)...

  7. Assessing Activity Pattern Similarity with Multidimensional Sequence Alignment based on a Multiobjective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Mei-Po; Xiao, Ningchuan; Ding, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complexity and multidimensional characteristics of human activities, assessing the similarity of human activity patterns and classifying individuals with similar patterns remains highly challenging. This paper presents a new and unique methodology for evaluating the similarity among individual activity patterns. It conceptualizes multidimensional sequence alignment (MDSA) as a multiobjective optimization problem, and solves this problem with an evolutionary algorithm. The study utilizes sequence alignment to code multiple facets of human activities into multidimensional sequences, and to treat similarity assessment as a multiobjective optimization problem that aims to minimize the alignment cost for all dimensions simultaneously. A multiobjective optimization evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is used to generate a diverse set of optimal or near-optimal alignment solutions. Evolutionary operators are specifically designed for this problem, and a local search method also is incorporated to improve the search ability of the algorithm. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by comparing it with a popular existing method called ClustalG using a set of 50 sequences. The results indicate that our method outperforms the existing method for most of our selected cases. The multiobjective evolutionary algorithm presented in this paper provides an effective approach for assessing activity pattern similarity, and a foundation for identifying distinctive groups of individuals with similar activity patterns. PMID:26190858

  8. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  9. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  10. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  11. Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Susan G; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Grootswagers, Tijl; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Carlson, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    Perceptual similarity is a cognitive judgment that represents the end-stage of a complex cascade of hierarchical processing throughout visual cortex. Previous studies have shown a correspondence between the similarity of coarse-scale fMRI activation patterns and the perceived similarity of visual stimuli, suggesting that visual objects that appear similar also share similar underlying patterns of neural activation. Here we explore the temporal relationship between the human brain's time-varying representation of visual patterns and behavioral judgments of perceptual similarity. The visual stimuli were abstract patterns constructed from identical perceptual units (oriented Gabor patches) so that each pattern had a unique global form or perceptual 'Gestalt'. The visual stimuli were decodable from evoked neural activation patterns measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG), however, stimuli differed in the similarity of their neural representation as estimated by differences in decodability. Early after stimulus onset (from 50ms), a model based on retinotopic organization predicted the representational similarity of the visual stimuli. Following the peak correlation between the retinotopic model and neural data at 80ms, the neural representations quickly evolved so that retinotopy no longer provided a sufficient account of the brain's time-varying representation of the stimuli. Overall the strongest predictor of the brain's representation was a model based on human judgments of perceptual similarity, which reached the limits of the maximum correlation with the neural data defined by the 'noise ceiling'. Our results show that large-scale brain activation patterns contain a neural signature for the perceptual Gestalt of composite visual features, and demonstrate a strong correspondence between perception and complex patterns of brain activity. PMID:26899210

  12. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  13. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  14. McIntosh active-region class similarities and suggestions for mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornmann, P. L.; Kalmbach, D.; Kulhanek, D.

    1994-01-01

    McIntosh active-region classifications reported during a five-year period were examined to determine similarities among the classes. Two methods were used extensively to determine these similarities. The number of transitions among classes were used to determine the most frequent transitions out of each class, and the alternative classes reported for the same region by different sites were used to establish which classes were neighboring classes. These transition frequencies and neighboring classes were used to identify classes that could be eliminated or merged with other classes. Class similarities were used to investigate the relative importance of several pairs of decisions that occur within a single McIntosh parameter. In particular, the redundancy of parameters in some classes was examined, and the class similarities were used to identify which of these parameters could be eliminated. Infrequently reported classes were also considered, and suggestions for mergers were made when similarities between classes could be identified.

  15. Noise suppression for energy-resolved CT using similarity-based non-local filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Joe; Wang, Tonghe; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2016-03-01

    In energy-resolved CT, images are reconstructed independently at different energy levels, resulting in images with different qualities but the same structures. We propose a similarity-based non-local filtration method to extract structural information from these images for noise suppression. For each pixel, we calculate its similarity to other pixels based on CT number. The calculation is repeated on each image at different energy levels and similarity values are averaged to generate a similarity matrix. Noise suppression is achieved by multiplying the image vector by the similarity matrix. Multiple scans on a tabletop CT system are used to simulate 6-channel energy-resolved CT, with energies ranging from 75 to 125 kVp. Phantom studies show that the proposed method improves average contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of seven materials on the 75 kVp image by a factor of 22. Compared with averaging CT images for noise suppression, our method achieves a higher CNR and reduces the CT number error of iodine solutions from 16.5% to 3.5% and the overall image root of mean-square error (RMSE) from 3.58% to 0.93%. On the phantom with line-pair structures, our algorithm reduces noise standard deviation (STD) by a factor of 23 while maintaining 7 lp/cm spatial resolution. Additionally, anthropomorphic head phantom studies show noise STD reduction by a factor or 26 with no loss of spatial resolution. The noise suppression achieved by the similarity-based method is clinically attractive, especially for CNRs of iodine in contrast-enhanced CT.

  16. Self-similarity of negative particle production from the Beam Energy Scan Program at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    We present the spectra of negative charged particle production in Au + Au collisions from STAR for the first phase of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Program measured over a wide range of collision energy sNN=7.7-200GeV, and transverse momentum of produced particle in different centralities at |η| < 0.5. The spectra demonstrate strong dependence on collision energy which enhances with pT. An indication of self-similarity of negative charged particle production in Au + Au collisions is found. The constituent energy loss as a function of energy and centrality of collisions and transverse momentum of inclusive particle was estimated in the z-scaling approach. The energy dependence of the model parameters - the fractal and fragmentation dimensions and “specific heat”, was studied.

  17. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  18. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  20. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  1. Similarity and generalized analysis of efficiencies of thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peiwen Li; Jon Van Lew; Cholik Chan; Wafaa Karaki; Jake Stephens; J. E. O'Brien

    2012-03-01

    This paper examined the features of three typical thermal storage systems including: (1) direct storage of heat transfer fluid in containers, (2) storage of thermal energy in a packed bed of solid filler material, with energy being carried in/out by a flowing heat transfer fluid which directly contacts the packed bed, and (3) a system in which heat transfer fluid flows through tubes that are imbedded into a thermal storage material which may be solid, liquid, or a mixture of the two. The similarity of the three types of thermal storage systems was discussed, and generalized energy storage governing equations were introduced in both dimensional and dimensionless forms. The temperatures of the heat transfer fluid during energy charge and discharge processes and the overall energy storage efficiencies were studied through solution of the energy storage governing equations. Finally, provided in the paper are a series of generalized charts bearing curves for energy storage effectiveness against four dimensionless parameters grouped up from many of the thermal storage system properties including dimensions, fluid and thermal storage material properties, as well as the operational conditions including mass flow rate of the fluid, and the ratio of energy charge and discharge time periods. Engineers can conveniently look up the charts to design and calibrate the size of thermal storage tanks and operational conditions without doing complicated individual modeling and computations. It is expected that the charts will serve as standard tools for thermal storage system design and calibration.

  2. Statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-earth space and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Chang, Z.; Wang, H.; Lu, H.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been noticed that rapid short-term variations of high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space occur more frequently several hours before the main shock of earthquakes. Physicists wish that this observation supply a possible precursor of strong earthquakes. Based on DEMETER data, we investigate statistical behaviors of flux fluctuations for high energy charged particles in near-Earth space. Long-term clustering, scaling, and universality in the temporal occurrence are found. There is high degree statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space and earthquakes. Thus, the observations of the high energy particle fluxes in near-Earth space may supply a useful tool in the study of earthquakes.

  3. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression

    PubMed Central

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite different treatments and course of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. Results During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. Conclusions No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. PMID:24990479

  5. Oral EMG Activation Patterns for Speech Are Similar in Preschoolers Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Bridget; Smith, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We determined whether basic patterns of muscle activation for speech were similar in preschool children who stutter and their fluent peers. Method We recorded right and left lower lip muscle activity during conversational speech and sentence repetition in 64 preschool children (CWS) diagnosed as stuttering and in 40 children who do not stutter (CWNS). Measures of EMG amplitude, right/left asymmetry, and bilateral coordination were computed for fluent speech. The potential presence of tremor-like oscillations during disfluencies of CWS was assessed, and EMG amplitudes of fluent and disfluent speech were compared in CWS. Results Across both speaking tasks lip muscle activation was similar in CWS and CWNS in overall amplitude, bilateral synchrony, and degree of right/left asymmetry. EMG amplitude was reduced during disfluent compared to fluent conversational speech of CWS, and there was no evidence of tremor in the disfluencies of CWS. Conclusion These results support the assertion that stuttering in young children arises not from basic features of muscle contraction, but rather from the command signals that control the timing and amplitude of muscle activity. Our results indicate that no frank abnormality is present in muscle activation patterns in preschoolers who stutter. PMID:23838991

  6. An Estimation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Energy Dissipation Rate Based on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Similarity Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  7. The structure of procaspase 6 is similar to that of active mature caspase 6.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byoung Heon; Ko, Eunsil; Kwon, Oh-Keun; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the structural characteristics and activation mechanism of the precursor caspase, genes encoding the inactive pro-form and the active mature form of caspase 6 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins of both forms were purified to homogeneity. The structure of each protein was characterized by chemical cross-linking, size-exclusion chromatography, CD and fluorescence spectroscopies. The pro-form caspase 6 exhibits a dimeric structure and its overall secondary structure was found to be similar to that of the mature caspase 6. Upon the maturation of procaspase 6, the maximum fluorescence wavelength lambda(max) was red-shifted from 330 to 337 nm and the fluorescence intensity of lambda(max) was increased. This fluorescence spectral change indicates that the environment of a tryptophan residue in the substrate-binding site can be changed to a more polar one when the procaspase 6 is processed. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrate that precursor caspase 6 exists as a dimer and its overall structure is similar to that of the active caspase 6. Our results also suggest that the local conformational change at the substrate-binding site, with no drastic change in the overall structure, seems to enable precursor caspase 6 to become the active mature enzyme. PMID:12049625

  8. Periplasmic nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase: similar molecular architectures with very different enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Gonzalez, Pablo J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Moura, José J G; Ramos, Maria João

    2015-11-17

    It is remarkable how nature has been able to construct enzymes that, despite sharing many similarities, have simple but key differences that tune them for completely different functions in living cells. Periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) from the DMSOr family are representative examples of this. Both enzymes share almost identical three-dimensional protein foldings and active sites, in terms of coordination number, geometry and nature of the ligands. The substrates of both enzymes (nitrate and formate) are polyatomic anions that also share similar charge and stereochemistry. In terms of the catalytic mechanism, both enzymes have a common activation mechanism (the sulfur-shift mechanism) that ensures a constant coordination number around the metal ion during the catalytic cycle. In spite of these similarities, they catalyze very different reactions: Nap abstracts an oxygen atom from nitrate releasing nitrite, whereas FdH catalyzes a hydrogen atom transfer from formate and releases carbon dioxide. In this Account, a critical analysis of structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of the molybdenum enzymes periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) is presented. We conclude that the main structural driving force that dictates the type of reaction, catalyzed by each enzyme, is a key difference on one active site residue that is located in the top region of the active sites of both enzymes. In both enzymes, the active site is centered on the metal ion of the cofactor (Mo in Nap and Mo or W in Fdh) that is coordinated by four sulfur atoms from two pyranopterin guanosine dinucleotide (PGD) molecules and by a sulfido. However, while in Nap there is a Cys directly coordinated to the Mo ion, in FdH there is a SeCys instead. In Fdh there is also an important His that interacts very closely with the SeCys, whereas in Nap the same position is occupied by a Met. The role of Cys in Nap and SeCys in FdH is similar in both

  9. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-15

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity.

  10. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target–competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

  11. Toxmatch--a chemical classification and activity prediction tool based on similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Saliner, Ana; Poater, Albert; Jeliazkova, Nina; Patlewicz, Grace; Worth, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    Chemical similarity forms the underlying basis for the development of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SARs), expert systems and chemical groupings. Recently a new software tool to facilitate chemical similarity calculations named Toxmatch was developed. Toxmatch encodes a number of similarity indices to help in the systematic development of chemical groupings, including endpoint specific groupings and read-across, and the comparison of model training and test sets. Two rule-based classification schemes were additionally implemented, namely: the Verhaar scheme for assigning mode of action for aquatic toxicants and the BfR rulebase for skin irritation and corrosion. In this study, a variety of different descriptor-based similarity indices were used to evaluate and compare the BfR training set with respect to its test set. The descriptors utilised in this comparison were the same as those used to derive the original BfR rules i.e. the descriptors selected were relevant for skin irritation/corrosion. The Euclidean distance index was found to be the most predictive of the indices in assessing the performance of the rules. PMID:18617309

  12. Similarities between the growth dynamics of university research and of competitive economic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Meyer, Martin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1999-07-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of research activities is of considerable current interest, not least because of recent changes in research and development (R&D) funding. Here we quantify and analyse university research activities, and compare their growth dynamics with those of business firms. Our study involves the analysis of five distinct databases, the largest of which is a National Science Foundation database of the R&D expenditures in science and engineering for a 17-year period (1979-95) in 719 United States universities. We find that the distribution of growth rates displays a `universal' form that does not depend on the size of the university or on the measure of size used; and the width of this distribution decays with size as a power law. These findings are quantitatively similar to those of business firms, and so are consistent with the hypothesis that the growth dynamics of complex organizations are governed by universal mechanisms. One possible explanation for these similarities is that the combination of peer review and government direction leads to an outcome similar to that induced by market forces (where the analogues of peer review and government direction are, respectively, consumer evaluation and product regulation).

  13. Self-similar signature of the active solar corona within the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kiyani, K; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B; Nicol, R M

    2007-05-25

    We quantify the scaling of magnetic energy density in the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence seen in situ at 1 AU with respect to solar activity. At solar maximum, when the coronal magnetic field is dynamic and topologically complex, we find self-similar scaling in the solar wind, whereas at solar minimum, when the coronal fields are more ordered, we find multifractality. This quantifies the solar-wind signature that is of direct coronal origin and distinguishes it from that of local MHD turbulence, with quantitative implications for coronal heating of the solar wind. PMID:17677760

  14. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  15. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-15

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. This corresponds to a 'dark energy' fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure ({gamma}>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically 'quasi-Friedmann', in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<{gamma}<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

  16. Molluscan mobile elements similar to the vertebrate recombination-activating genes

    PubMed Central

    Panchin, Yuri; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2009-01-01

    Animal genomes contain ~20,000 genes. Additionally millions of genes for antigen receptors are generated in cells of the immune system from the sets of separate gene segments by a mechanism known as the V(D)J somatic recombination. The components of the V(D)J recombination system, Recombination-Activating Gene proteins (RAG1 and RAG2) and recombination signal sequence (RSS), are thought to have “entered” the vertebrate genome as a hypothetical “RAG transposon”. Recently discovered mobile elements have terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) similar to RSS and may encode proteins with a different degree of similarity to RAG1. We describe a novel N-RAG-TP transposon identified from the sea slug Aplysia californica that encodes a protein similar to the N-terminal part of RAG1 in vertebrates. This refines the “RAG transposon” hypothesis and allows us to propose a scenario for V(D)J recombination machinery evolution from a relic transposon related to the existing mobile elements N-RAG-TP, Chapaev and Transib. PMID:18313399

  17. Passive and active exercises are similarly effective in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Nicole L.; Rogers, Michael E.; Islam, Mohammod Monirul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive motion exercise and active motion exercise on functional fitness in elderly nursing home residents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three (female 22 and male 1) nursing home residents (84.8±4.3 yr) volunteered for this study. They were divided into a passive motion exercise group (n=12) and an active motion exercise group (n=11) and performed 30-min sessions of training twice a week for 12 weeks. Functional fitness (Arm Curl, Chair Stand, Up & Go, Sit & Reach, Back Scratch, functional Reach, and 12-min Walk tests) was evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] No significant baseline difference was noted between the groups in measured variables. Following the 12 week intervention, no significant interaction (group × time) was noted in functional fitness variables between the groups, except for the functional reach scores (active motion exercise 40%, passive motion exercise 9%). Significant improvement over time was noted in passive motion exercise group in Arm Curl (19%), Chair Stand (15%), Up & Go (6%), and 12-min Walk (12%) scores; and in the active motion exercise group in Arm Curl (14%), Chair Stand (19%), Up & Go (11%), functional Reach (40%) and 12-min Walk (13%) scores. The adherence rates in the passive and active motion exercise groups were 95.8% and 93.1% respectively. [Conclusion] Passive motion exercise and active motion exercise were found to be similarly effective for improving the functional fitness of elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26504320

  18. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  19. Preparation and antioxidant activity of xanthan oligosaccharides derivatives with similar substituting degrees.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoying; Li, Ming; Xie, Jing; Xue, Bin; Sun, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Maleoyl xanthan oligosaccharides (XGOSMAs) and phthaloyl xanthan oligosaccharides (XGOSPAs) were prepared by reacting xanthan oligosaccharides with maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride, respectively. The substituting degrees (DSs) of XGOSMAs and XGOSPAs were determined by a neutralization reaction. XGOAMA-1 (DS=0.30), XGOSPA (DS=0.31), XGOSMA-2 (DS=0.62) and XGOSPA-2 (DS=0.60) were selected for structural characterization and antioxidant activity evaluation. Their structural changes were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and their molecular weights were determined with a gel permeation chromatography method (GPC). The pyruvate acid and reducing sugar contents were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging of the superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and determination of reducing power. The results indicated that XGOSPA exhibited higher antioxidant activity than XGOSMA with similar substituting degrees in all the above mentioned antioxidant evaluation systems, which may be related to the fact that phthaloyl group has a stronger electron-withdrawing effect than the maleoyl group. PMID:24996297

  20. Phasic activation of ventral tegmental neurons increases response and pattern similarity in prefrontal cortex neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iwashita, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is critical for higher neural processes and modifying the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the mechanism of dopamine contribution to the modification of neural representation is unclear. Using in vivo two-photon population Ca2+ imaging in awake mice, this study investigated how neural representation of visual input to PFC neurons is regulated by dopamine. Phasic stimulation of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) evoked prolonged Ca2+ transients, lasting ∼30 s in layer 2/3 neurons of the PFC, which are regulated by a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent pathway. Furthermore, only a conditioning protocol with visual sensory input applied 0.5 s before the VTA dopaminergic input could evoke enhanced Ca2+ transients and increased pattern similarity (or establish a neural representation) of PFC neurons to the same sensory input. By increasing both the level of neuronal response and pattern similarity, dopaminergic input may establish robust and reliable cortical representation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02726.001 PMID:25269147

  1. Mirror-Image Organometallic Osmium Arene Iminopyridine Halido Complexes Exhibit Similar Potent Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Four chiral OsII arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (SOs,SC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (ROs,RC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (SOs,SC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (ROs,RC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction. PMID:24114923

  2. Similarities in the HIV-1 and ASV Integrease Active Site Upon Metal Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Lins, Roberto D.; Straatsma, TP; Briggs, J. M.

    2000-04-05

    The HIV-1 integrase, which is essential for viral replication, catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the host chromosome thereby recruiting host cell machinery into making viral proteins. It represents the third main HIV enzyme target for inhibitor design, the first two being the reverse transcriptase and the protease. We report here a fully hydrated 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation performed using parallel NWChem3.2.1 with the AMBER95 force field. The HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain previously determined by crystallography (1B9D) and modeling including two Mg2+ ions placed into the active site based on an alignment against an ASV integrase structure containing two divalent metals (1VSH), was used as the starting structure. The simulation reveals a high degree of flexibility in the region of residues 140-149 even in the presence of a second divalent metal ion and a dramatic conformational change of the side chain of E152 when the second metal ion is present. This study shows similarities in the behavior of the catalytic residues in the HIV-1 and ASV integrases upon metal binding. The present simulation also provides support to the hypothesis that the second metal ion is likely to be carried into the HIV-1 integrase active site by the substrate, a strand of DNA.

  3. Native and recombinant Pg-AMP1 show different antibacterial activity spectrum but similar folding behavior.

    PubMed

    Porto, William F; Nolasco, Diego O; Franco, Octavio L

    2014-05-01

    Glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) derived from plants compose a family of proteins and peptides that share a glycine repeat domain and they can perform diverse functions. Two structural conformations have been proposed for GRPs: glycine loops arranged as a Velcro and an anti-parallel β-sheet with several β-strands. The antimicrobial peptide Pg-AMP1 is the only plant GRP with antibacterial activity reported so far and its structure remains unclear. Recently, its recombinant expression was reported, where the recombinant peptide had an additional methionine residue at the N-terminal and a histidine tag at the C-terminal (His6-tag). These changes seem to change the peptide's activity, generating a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. In this report, through ab initio molecular modelling and molecular dynamics, it was observed that both native and recombinant peptide structures were composed of an N-terminal α-helix and a dynamic loop that represents two-thirds of the protein. In contrast to previous reports, it was observed that there is a tendency to adopt a globular fold instead of an extended one, which could be in both, glycine loops or anti-parallel β-sheet conformation. The recombinant peptide showed a slightly higher solvated potential energy compared to the native form, which could be related to the His6-tag exposition. In fact, the His6-tag could be mainly responsible for the broader spectrum of activity, but it does not seem to cause great structural changes. However, novel studies are needed for a better characterization of its pharmacological properties so that in the future novel drugs may be produced based on this peptide. PMID:24582624

  4. Deviations from Kolmogorov-Kraichnan similarity theory in the energy cascade of two-dimensional alpha turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Bel Helen; Shepherd, Theodore

    2012-11-01

    We study energy cascades in 2D α turbulence, for which ``vorticity'' θ is related to streamfunction ψ by θ (ᵃ) = (- Δ)α / 2 ψ (ᵃ) , where (- Δ)α / 2 is the fractional Laplacian. Using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovian (EDQNM) closure, we seek self-similar inertial range solutions. The energy flux is finite and the similarity solution self-consistent for α < 4 . In keeping with strain rate arguments, this suggests a spectrally local and self-similar energy cascade for α < 4 . However, the transfers vanish identically for α = 2 . 5 and α = 10 . Comparison with statistical equilibrium spectra elucidates this: for α = 2 . 5 and α = 10 , the similarity spectra coincide with enstrophy and energy equipartition respectively, and the similarity ranges are equilibrium solutions with Gaussian statistics. Moreover, the similarity range energy flux is toward small scales for α ∈ (2 . 5 , 10) , suggesting that any inverse cascade for α >= 2 . 5 cannot be self-similar. Numerical simulations confirm this: for α < 2 . 5 , one can obtain the similarity spectrum, while for α >= 2 . 5 , the inverse cascade spectrum is significantly steeper than the similarity solution. B. H. Burgess was supported by an NSERC Canada Graduate Fellowship and an Amelia Earhart Fellowship from the Zonta International Foundation.

  5. Dark energy in six nearby galaxy flows: Synthetic phase diagrams and self-similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Kanter, A. A.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Outward flows of galaxies are observed around groups of galaxies on spatial scales of about 1 Mpc, and around galaxy clusters on scales of 10 Mpc. Using recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have constructed two synthetic velocity-distance phase diagrams: one for four flows on galaxy-group scales and the other for two flows on cluster scales. It has been shown that, in both cases, the antigravity produced by the cosmic dark-energy background is stronger than the gravity produced by the matter in the outflow volume. The antigravity accelerates the flows and introduces a phase attractor that is common to all scales, corresponding to a linear velocity-distance relation (the local Hubble law). As a result, the bundle of outflow trajectories mostly follow the trajectory of the attractor. A comparison of the two diagrams reveals the universal self-similar nature of the outflows: their gross phase structure in dimensionless variables is essentially independent of their physical spatial scales, which differ by approximately a factor of 10 in the two diagrams.

  6. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-05-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr-coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary array of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters based on their waveform characteristics is performed. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  7. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies the seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary network of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters is performed based on their waveform characteristics. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross-correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  8. Gender Similarities and Differences in Factors Associated with Adolescent Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Janz, Kathleen F; Levy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents. PMID:19827453

  9. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  10. Energy requirements in early life are similar for male and female goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, T F V; Neto, O Boaventura; Mendonca, A N; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Fernandes, M H M R; Harter, C J; Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg(0.75) empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg(0.75) BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg(0.75) EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets

  11. Predicting Participation and Outcomes in Out-of-School Activities: Similarities and Differences across Social Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Ripke, Marika; Huston, Aletha C.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2005-01-01

    Many organized out-of-school-time (OST) activities provide enriching opportunities for children to interact with peers, build cognitive skills, develop relationships with mentors, and explore a variety of talents and leisure pursuits. A growing set of findings suggests that youth participation in OST activities is associated with academic…

  12. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  13. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  14. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  15. Activation Energies of Plasmonic Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Dumett Torres, Daniel; Jain, Prashant K

    2016-05-11

    The activation energy of a catalytic reaction serves not only as a metric of the efficacy of a catalyst but also as a potential indicator of mechanistic differences between the catalytic and noncatalytic reaction. However, activation energies are quite underutilized in the field of photocatalysis. We characterize in detail the effect of visible light excitation on the activation enthalpy of an electron transfer reaction photocatalyzed by plasmonic Au nanoparticles. We find that in the presence of visible light photoexcitation, the activation enthalpy of the Au nanoparticle-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is significantly reduced. The reduction in the activation enthalpy depends on the excitation wavelength, the incident laser power, and the strength of a hole scavenger. On the basis of these results, we argue that the activation enthalpy reduction is directly related to the photoelectrochemical potential built-up on the Au nanoparticle under steady-state light excitation, analogous to electrochemical activation. Under optimum light excitation conditions, a potential as high as 240 mV is measured. The findings constitute more precise insights into the mechanistic role and energetic contribution of plasmonic excitation to chemical reactions catalyzed by transition metal nanoparticles. PMID:27064549

  16. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. This corresponds to a “dark energy” fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure (γ>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically “quasi-Friedmann,” in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<γ<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

  17. Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 have similar allergenic activity1 and are substantially redundant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueni; Wang, Qian; El-Mezayen, Rabab; Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The moderately homologous (~60%) proteins, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are the most potent peanut allergens. This study was designed to define the relative individual contributions of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 to the overall allergenic activity of a crude peanut extract (CPE). Methods Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were removed from CPE by gel filtration chromatography. Ara h 2.01, Ara h 2.02, and Ara h 6 were further purified (>99%). The potency of each allergen and the ability of these allergens to reconstitute the allergenic activity of CPE depleted of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 was measured with RBL SX-38 cells sensitized with IgE from sensitized peanut allergic patients. Results The potency of the native proteins were significantly different (p<0.0001) although not dramatically so, with a rank order of Ara h 2.01 > Ara h 2.02 > Ara h 6. The addition of either purified Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently at their original concentration to CPE depleted of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 restored 80–100% of the original CPE allergenic activity. Addition of both Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 consistently completely restored the allergenic activity of CPE. Conclusions These studies indicate that either Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 independently can account for most of the allergenic activity in a CPE and demonstrate important redundancy in the allergenic activity of these related molecules. PMID:23075924

  18. Molecular similarity guided optimization of novel Nrf2 activators with 1,2,4-oxadiazole core.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Zheng-Yu; You, Qi-Dong

    2016-08-15

    DDO-7204 is a novel Nrf2 activator first identified through screening of in-house database by ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay. To further optimize this kind of Nrf2 activators efficiently, the hit-based substructure search was applied to screen the Specs database virtually. DDO-7204 contains three rings of A, B, C. SAR results showed that: for ring A, the cyclane substituent is beneficial for ARE inductivity. Enhanced flexibility of linker between ring A and ring B is not preferable for the Nrf2 activity. Ring A replaced by heterocyclic aromatic is beneficial for the Nrf2 activity. The resulting compound 7 was more potent than DDO-7204. Compound 7 can induce Nrf2 translocation into nuclear not only in HCT116 cells, but also in three normal cells such as L02, NCM460 and PC12 cells. The Nrf2-regualted genes, γ-GCS, NQO1 and HO-1, were up-regulated at a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, compound 7 showed cytoprotective effects on the three normal cells against the damage of H2O2. PMID:27316545

  19. Isometric immersions, energy minimization and self-similar buckling in non-Euclidean elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, John; Sharon, Eran; Shearman, Toby; Venkataramani, Shankar C.

    2016-04-01

    The edges of torn plastic sheets and growing leaves often display hierarchical buckling patterns. We show that this complex morphology i) emerges even in zero strain configurations, and ii) is driven by a competition between the two principal curvatures, rather than between bending and stretching. We identify the key role of branch point (or “monkey saddle”) singularities in generating complex wrinkling patterns in isometric immersions, and show how they arise naturally from minimizing the elastic energy.

  20. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  1. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  2. How similar are the changes in neural activity resulting from mindfulness practice in contrast to spiritual practice?

    PubMed

    Barnby, Joseph M; Bailey, Neil W; Chambers, Richard; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-11-01

    Meditation and spiritual practices are conceptually similar, eliciting similar subjective experiences, and both appear to provide similar benefits to the practicing individuals. However, no research has examined whether the mechanism of action leading to the beneficial effects is similar in both practices. This review examines the neuroimaging research that has focused on groups of meditating individuals, groups who engage in religious/spiritual practices, and research that has examined groups who perform both practices together, in an attempt to assess whether this may be the case. Differences in the balance of activity between the parietal and prefrontal cortical activation were found between the three groups. A relative prefrontal increase was reflective of mindfulness, which related to decreased anxiety and improved well-being. A relative decrease in activation of the parietal cortex, specifically the inferior parietal cortex, appears to be reflective of spiritual belief, whether within the context of meditation or not. Because mindful and spiritual practices differ in focus regarding the 'self' or 'other' (higher being), these observations about neurological components that reflect spirituality may continue work towards understanding how the definition of 'self' and 'other' is represented in the brain, and how this may be reflected in behaviour. Future research can begin to use cohorts of participants in mindfulness studies which are controlled for using the variable of spirituality to explicitly examine how functional and structural similarities and differences may arise. PMID:26172520

  3. Online sexual activity experience of heterosexual students: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Walsh, Lindsay

    2011-04-01

    This study compared male and female university students' experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than women reported engaging in solitary-arousal and partnered-arousal OSA and doing so more often. However, the men and women who reported having engaged in partnered-arousal activities reported equal frequencies of experience. There were no significant gender differences for engaging in non-arousal OSA experience. These results support the importance of grouping OSAs in terms of the proposed non-arousal, solitary-arousal, and partnered-arousal categories. Attitude toward OSA but not general attitudes toward or experiences with sexuality partially mediated the relationship between gender and frequency of engaging in arousal-oriented OSA (solitary and partnered OSA). This suggests that attitude toward OSA specifically and not gender socialization more generally account for gender differences in OSA experience. PMID:20467798

  4. 17 CFR 8.27 - Violations of rules regarding decorum, submission of records or other similar activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Violations of rules regarding decorum, submission of records or other similar activities. 8.27 Section 8.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Summary Actions §...

  5. Behavioral Analysis of Dopaminergic Activation in Zebrafish and Rats Reveals Similar Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ek, Fredrik; Malo, Marcus; Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Wedding, Christoffer; Kronborg, Joel; Svensson, Peder; Waters, Susanna; Petersson, Per; Olsson, Roger

    2016-05-18

    Zebrafish is emerging as a complement to mammals in behavioral studies; however, there is a lack of comparative studies with rodents and humans to establish the zebrafish as a predictive translational model. Here we present a detailed phenotype evaluation of zebrafish larvae, measuring 300-3000 variables and analyzing them using multivariate analysis to identify the most important ones for further evaluations. The dopamine agonist apomorphine has previously been shown to have a complex U-shaped dose-response relationship in the variable distance traveled. In this study, we focused on breaking down distance traveled into more detailed behavioral phenotypes for both zebrafish and rats and identified in the multivariate analysis low and high dose phenotypes with characteristic behavioral features. Further analysis of single parameters also identified an increased activity at the lowest concentration indicative of a U-shaped dose-response. Apomorphine increased the distance of each swim movement (bout) at both high and low doses, but the underlying behavior of this increase is different; at high dose, both bout duration and frequency increased whereas bout max speed was higher at low dose. Larvae also displayed differences in place preference. The low dose phenotype spent more time in the center, indicative of an anxiolytic effect, while the high-dose phenotype had a wall preference. These dose-dependent effects corroborated findings in a parallel rat study and previous observations in humans. The translational value of pharmacological zebrafish studies was further evaluated by comparing the amino acid sequence of the dopamine receptors (D1-D4), between zebrafish, rats and humans. Humans and zebrafish share 100% of the amino acids in the binding site for D1 and D3 whereas D2 and D4 receptors share 85-95%. Molecular modeling of dopamine D2 and D4 receptors indicated that nonconserved amino acids have limited influence on important ligand-receptor interactions. PMID

  6. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase in Tobacco Leaves Is Activated by Light in a Similar but Not Identical Way as in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Li, B.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chollet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a Ca2+- independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein-serine/threonine kinase (PEPC-PK) from illuminated leaves of N-sufficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants (Y.-H. Wang, R. Chollet [1993] FEBS Lett 328: 215-218). We now report that this C3 PEPC-kinase is reversibly light activated in vivo in a time-dependent manner. As the kinase becomes light activated, the activity and L-malate sensitivity of its target protein increases and decreases, respectively. The light activation of tobacco PEPC-PK is prevented by pretreatment of detached leaves with various photosynthesis and cytosolic protein-synthesis inhibitors. Similarly, specific inhibitors of glutamine synthetase block the light activation of tobacco leaf PEPC-kinase under both photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. This striking effect is partially and specifically reversed by exogenous glutamine, whereas it has no apparent effect on the light activation of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf kinase. Using an in situ "activity-gel" phosphorylation assay, we have identified two major Ca2+-independent PEPC-kinase catalytic polypeptides in illuminated tobacco leaves that have the same molecular masses (approximately 30 and 37 kD) as found in illuminated maize leaves. Collectively, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of PEPC in N-sufficient leaves of tobacco (C3) and maize (C4) is regulated through similar but not identical light-signal transduction pathways. PMID:12226305

  7. One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 h similar to three sets

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy; Lox, Curt; Rose, Paul; Reid, Steven

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m−2) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~ 400 kJ day−1) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~ 15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~ 35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout. PMID:20886227

  8. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as chambers of commerce); joint labor management committees, labor associations, and resource centers... enterprise zone vouchering services, (4) Active participation in local business resource centers (incubators... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Administrative Rules, Costs and Limitations § 667.262 Are employment...

  9. Plasma ghrelin concentrations of beef cattle consuming a similar amount of dietary energy supplied by different ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wertz-Lutz, A E; Jennings, J S; Clapper, J A

    2010-07-01

    Previous research demonstrated increased plasma ghrelin concentrations in beef cattle when intake of a high-grain diet was restricted. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether differences in DMI influenced plasma ghrelin concentrations when energy intake was similar but cattle were in either an anabolic or a catabolic state. In Exp. 1, five steers (BW = 592.6 +/- 9.3 kg) were offered dietary treatments of 1) 50:50 hay:concentrate (HY) to meet the NE(m) requirement and were supplied an additional 3.4 Mcal of NE(g) daily, 2) or a diet composed of 10:90 hay:concentrate but were limit-fed to achieve an energy intake similar to that of the HY steers (LFC). The LFC treatment met the NE(m) requirement of each steer and supplied 3.6 Mcal of NE(g) daily. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design composed of 2 21-d periods. In the first period, 2 steers were assigned to the HY treatment and 3 steers were assigned to the LFC treatment. On d 21 after initiation of the dietary treatment, serial blood samples were collected via indwelling jugular catheter, using periods of frequent sampling in which samples were collected at 15-min intervals. The periods of frequent sampling were spread throughout the beginning, middle, and end of the 12-h feeding interval. After the first period, steers were weighed, dietary treatments were switched between steer groups, and intake amounts were recalculated on the basis of the first-period ending BW. The second-period adaptation and sampling were repeated as described for the first period. Plasma samples were assayed for ghrelin, insulin, GH, and NEFA concentrations. Experiment 2 was conducted using the same methodology as Exp. 1, except that steers were in a catabolic state. Five steers (BW = 718.3 +/- 12.8 kg) were offered the HY or LFC diet at an amount that would supply 80% of the NE(m) required to maintain BW. For Exp. 1, energy intake was sufficient to result in similar (P = 0.14) BW gains between treatment groups

  10. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  11. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  12. Similar Age-Related Decline in Cortical Activity Over Frontotemporal Regions in Schizophrenia: A Multichannel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Po-Han; Koike, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Yukika; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although recent studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls did not differ in the speed of age-related decline in cortical thickness and performances on cognitive tests, hemodynamic changes assessed by functional neuroimaging remain unclear. This study investigated age effects on regional brain cortical activity to determine whether there is similar age-related decline in cortical activity as those observed in cortical thickness and cognitive test performance. Method: A total of 109 patients with schizophrenia (age range: 16–59 y) and 106 healthy controls (age range: 16–59 y) underwent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while performing a verbal fluency test (VFT). Group comparison of cortical activity was examined using 2-tailed t tests, adopting the false discovery rate method. The relationship between age and cortical activity was investigated using correlational and multiple regression analyses, adjusting for potential confounding variables. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate differences in the age effects between diagnostic groups. Results: The patient group exhibited significantly decreased cortical activity in several regions of the frontotemporal cortices. However, slopes of age-dependent decreases in cortical activity were similar between patients and healthy individuals at the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Conclusions: Our study showed no significant between-group differences in the age-related decline in cortical activity, as measured by NIRS, over the frontotemporal regions during a VFT. The results of our study may indicate a decrease in cortical activity in a relatively limited period around illness onset rather than continuously progressing over the course of the illness. PMID:24948388

  13. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  14. Social networks of experientially similar others: Formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child’s care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents’ perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child’s care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

  15. Reinstatement of Individual Past Events Revealed by the Similarity of Distributed Activation Patterns during Encoding and Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Erik A.; Ritchey, Maureen; Cabeza, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological memory models assume memory traces are stored in neocortex, with pointers in the hippocampus, and are then reactivated during retrieval, yielding the experience of remembering. Whereas most prior neuroimaging studies on reactivation have focused on the reactivation of sets or categories of items, the current study sought to identify cortical patterns pertaining to memory for individual scenes. During encoding, participants viewed pictures of scenes paired with matching labels (e.g., “barn,” “tunnel”), and, during retrieval, they recalled the scenes in response to the labels and rated the quality of their visual memories. Using representational similarity analyses, we interrogated the similarity between activation patterns during encoding and retrieval both at the item level (individual scenes) and the set level (all scenes). The study yielded four main findings. First, in occipitotemporal cortex, memory success increased with encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) at the item level but not at the set level, indicating the reactivation of individual scenes. Second, in ventrolateral pFC, memory increased with ERS for both item and set levels, indicating the recapitulation of memory processes that benefit encoding and retrieval of all scenes. Third, in retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex, ERS was sensitive to individual scene information irrespective of memory success, suggesting automatic activation of scene contexts. Finally, consistent with neurobiological models, hippocampal activity during encoding predicted the subsequent reactivation of individual items. These findings show the promise of studying memory with greater specificity by isolating individual mnemonic representations and determining their relationship to factors like the detail with which past events are remembered. PMID:25313659

  16. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Resulting as Picometer Interactions with Similarity to K-Shell Electron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.; Li, X. Z.; Kelly, J. C.; Osman, F.

    2006-02-01

    Since the appeal by Brian Josephson at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004, it seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium. Some reflections to Rutherford's discovery of nuclear physics, the Cockroft-Oliphant discovery of anomalous low-energy fusion reactions and the chemist Hahn's discovery of fission had to be included. Using gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant results were seen e.g. from the "life after death" heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect - preferably in the swimming electron layer - may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U of about megaseconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the appearance of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross-sections is used to confirm the picometer-megasecond reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nuclei generation, magic numbers and to quark-gluon plasmas.

  17. Apg-2 has a chaperone-like activity similar to Hsp110 and is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Kazuhisa; Nonoguchi, Kohsuke; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Sumitomo, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Subjeck, John R; Fujita, Jun

    2004-02-27

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. We constructed subtracted cDNA libraries enriched with genes overexpressed in HCCs. Among the 17 genes identified were molecular chaperones, Hsp110, Hsp90B, and Hsp70-1. Expression of the Hsp110 family members was further analyzed, and increased transcript levels of Hsp110 and Apg-2, but not Apg-1, were found in 12 and 14, respectively, of 18 HCCs. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the overexpression of the proteins in tumor cells. Apg-2 had chaperone ability similar to Hsp110 in a thermal denaturation assay using luciferase, and showed anti-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that the Hsp110 family members play important roles in hepatocarcinogenesis through their chaperoning activities. PMID:14987991

  18. Medicinal herb extract and a single-compound drug confer similar complex pharmacogenomic activities in mcf-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Chen, Chih-Huai; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2004-01-01

    Metabolite profiling and DNA microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles were employed to characterize the bioactivities of the herbal extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (AF), a popular folk medicine with anticancer activity, in MCF-7 cancer cells. The pharmacogenomic activities of this plant extract as a crude phytocompound mixture were compared to those conferred by the single-compound drug, plumbagin. A similar level of complexity in transcriptional regulation at the genomic level was observed for both AF extract- and plumbagin-treated MCF-7 cells, as revealed by the number of up- or downregulated genes as well as by the specific but distinct patterns found in the gene-clustering analysis. This finding offers evidence to support the search for fractionated medicinal herb extracts or phytocompound mixtures, in addition to single-compound drugs, as defined therapeutic agents. PMID:15067226

  19. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  20. Mosaic activity patterns and their relation to perceptual similarity: open discussions on the molecular basis and circuitry of odor recognition.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fernando F; Rela, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the recent years in regard to the mechanisms and neural circuits by which odors are sensed and perceived. Part of this understanding has been gained from parallel studies in insects and rodents that show striking similarity in the mechanisms they use to sense, encode, and perceive odors. In this review, we provide a short introduction to the functioning of olfactory systems from transduction of odorant stimuli into electrical signals in sensory neurons to the anatomical and functional organization of the networks involved in neural representation of odors in the central nervous system. We make emphasis on the functional and anatomical architecture of the first synaptic relay of the olfactory circuit, the olfactory bulb in vertebrates and the antennal lobe in insects. We discuss how the exquisite and conserved architecture of this structure is established and how different odors are encoded in mosaic activity patterns. Finally, we discuss the validity of methods used to compare activation patterns in relation to perceptual similarity. PMID:25123415

  1. Activation of the signal transducer gp130 by interleukin-11 and interleukin-6 is mediated by similar molecular interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, H; Horsten, U; Küster, A; Jacques, Y; Minvielle, S; Kerr, I M; Ciliberto, G; Paonessa, G; Heinrich, P C; Müller-Newen, G

    1998-01-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein gp130 is involved in many cytokine-mediated cellular responses and acts therein as the signal transducing receptor subunit. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-11 (IL-11), in complex with their specific alpha-receptors, homodimerize gp130 and, as a consequence, activate the Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling pathway in their target cells. So far, it is not clear whether gp130 is bound to these cytokines and their specific alpha-receptor subunits through identical or different epitopes. In order to study the interaction of IL-11 and IL-11R with human gp130 the soluble form of the recently cloned human IL-11R was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. By a coprecipitation binding-assay it is demonstrated that IL-11 and IL-6 compete for binding to gp130. Using deletion and point mutants of gp130 it is shown that IL-11-IL-11R and IL-6-IL-6R recognize overlapping binding motifs on gp130. Moreover, using well-established Jak-deficient cell lines we demonstrate that STAT activation by IL-11 requires Jak1. Taken together, our data support the concept that IL-6 and IL-11 activate gp130 by very similar molecular mechanisms. PMID:9560294

  2. New evidence of similarity between human and plant steroid metabolism: 5alpha-reductase activity in Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Fabiana; Danza, Giovanna; Guarna, Antonio; Cini, Nicoletta; Racchi, Milvia Luisa; Serio, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of steroid hormones in humans is well known, and the metabolic pathway and mechanisms of action are almost completely elucidated. The role of plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids, is less known, but an increasing amount of data on brassinosteroid biosynthesis is showing unexpected similarities between human and plant steroid metabolic pathways. Here we focus our attention on the enzyme 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) for which a plant ortholog of the mammalian system, DET2, was recently described in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that campestenone, the natural substrate of DET2, is reduced to 5alpha-campestanone by both human 5alphaR isozymes but with different affinities. Solanum malacoxylon, which is a calcinogenic plant very active in the biosynthesis of vitamin D-like molecules and sterols, was used to study 5alphaR activity. Leaves and calli were chosen as examples of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues, respectively. Two separate 5alphaR activities were found in calli and leaves of Solanum using campestenone as substrate. The use of progesterone allowed the detection of both activities in calli. Support for the existence of two 5alphaR isozymes in S. malacoxylon was provided by the differential actions of inhibitors of the human 5alphaR in calli and leaves. The evidence for the presence of two isozymes in different plant tissues extends the analogies between plant and mammalian steroid metabolic pathways. PMID:12488348

  3. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  4. Differential Energy Radiation from Two Earthquakes with Similar Mw: The Baja California 2010 and Haiti 2010 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Shi, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Baja, Mexico, earthquake of the April 4, 2010, Mw 7.2 occurred in northern Baja California at shallow depth along the principal plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, 2 people killed in the Mexicali area. The January 12, 2010, Mw 7.0, Haiti, earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti, on the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, and with estimates of almost 250,000 deaths. International media reports of such kind of disasters by Haiti earthquake is just resulted from poor building structure design comparing with Mexicali area. Although the moment magnitude of the Haiti earthquake is similar as the Baja earthquake, but the radiated energy of the Haiti earthquake almost as 15 times as the Baja earthquake, resulting stronger near-fault ground motions. For the Haiti earthquake and Baja earthquake with the similar moment magnitude, two special finite fault models are constructed to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion for comparison purpose. We propose a new technique based on the far-field energy integrand over a simple finite fault to estimate S-wave energy radiation with associated the composite source model. The fault slip distributions on both faults are generated based on the composite source model in which the subevent-source-function is described by Brune’s pulse. The near-field peak ground accelerations (PGAs) including the shallow velocity structures (V30, average shear-velocity down to 30 m ) from the Haiti earthquake is almost as 20 times as from Baja earthquake, while the peak ground velocities (PGVs) including the shallow velocity structures from Yushu earthquake is almost as 8 times as from the Baja earthquake. Therefore, the radiated seismic energy plays a significant role in determining the levels of strong grounds in which stronger ground accelerations usually could cause much more property damages on the ground. The source rupture dynamics related to the frictional overshoot and

  5. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  6. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? (a) The towing of a...

  7. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? (a) The towing of a...

  8. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? (a) The towing of a...

  9. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network. PMID:26226076

  10. Relativistic energy eigenvalues for the Dirac equation in the presence of vector and scalar potentials via the simple similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, T.

    2012-12-01

    Based on the simple similarity transformation, we were able to transform the Dirac equation whose potential contains vector V (r) = -A/r + B1r and scalar S(r) = B2r types into a form nearly identical to the Schrödinger equation. The transformed equation is so simple that one can solve it by means of the asymptotic iteration method. Moreover, within the same framework we were able to obtain the relativistic energy eigenvalues for the Dirac equation with vector Coulomb plus scalar linear, and with pure scalar linear potentials; V (r) = -A/r, S(r) = B2r, and V (r) = 0, S(r) = B2r, respectively.

  11. Effects of psychosocial variables in the similarity and interdependence of physical activity levels among adolescent best friend dyads.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2016-01-01

    Given that physical activity (PA) tends to decrease with age during adolescence, addressing factors that affect change is important. This study examined the similarity and interdependence of PA as influenced by psychosocial factors among adolescent best friend dyads. A total of 660 adolescents, representing 330 best friend dyads, completed questionnaires with regard to PA, sitting time, perceived exercise benefits and barriers, physical self-perception and social support for PA. Dyads were also identified as reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friends; reciprocal means that both considered each other best friends and non-reciprocal were those in which only one considered the other a best friend. Data were analysed using a hierarchical linear model framework. Results indicated significant similarities between reciprocal best friend dyads for PA and sitting time, and for sitting time in non-reciprocal best friends (P values <.01). Psychosocial variables were associated with PA in reciprocal best friend dyads and with sitting time in reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friend dyads. Best friend gender, regular sports practice of the person, perceived exercise barriers of the best friend and best friend social support were the best predictors for PA. PMID:26238302

  12. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  13. MICRO-SIGMOIDS AS PROGENITORS OF CORONAL JETS: IS ERUPTIVE ACTIVITY SELF-SIMILARLY MULTI-SCALED?

    SciTech Connect

    Raouafi, N.-E.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2010-08-01

    Observations from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on Hinode are used to study the nature of X-ray-bright points, sources of coronal jets. Several jet events in the coronal holes are found to erupt from small-scale, S-shaped bright regions. This finding suggests that coronal micro-sigmoids may well be progenitors of coronal jets. Moreover, the presence of these structures may explain numerous observed characteristics of jets such as helical structures, apparent transverse motions, and shapes. Analogous to large-scale sigmoids giving rise to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a promising future task would perhaps be to investigate whether solar eruptive activity, from coronal jets to CMEs, is self-similar in terms of properties and instability mechanisms.

  14. Intrinsic free energy in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2015-10-01

    Basing our arguments on the theory of active liquid crystals, we demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that the activity can induce an effective free energy which enhances ordering in extensile systems of active rods and in contractile suspensions of active discs. We argue that this occurs because any ordering fluctuation is enhanced by the flow field it produces. A phase diagram in the temperature-activity plane compares ordering due to a thermodynamic free energy to that resulting from the activity. We also demonstrate that activity can drive variations in concentration, but for a different physical reason that relies on the separation of hydrodynamic and diffusive time scales.

  15. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Adam K; Lamberti, Francis V; Moulton, Julia N; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]). This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL]) are normal (ie, non-diseased) on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK) and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL) on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic analogs to natural bone to improve numerous orthopedic applications. It also provides the first data of healthy osteoclast and osteoblast functions on nanocrystalline calcium phosphates compared to natural bone. PMID:25506216

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  17. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  18. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  20. Dysregulated Immune Activation in Second-Line HAART HIV+ Patients Is Similar to That of Untreated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espíndola, Milena S.; Lima, Leonardo J. G.; Soares, Luana S.; Cacemiro, Maira C.; Zambuzi, Fabiana A.; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Amaral, Laurence R.; Bollela, Valdes R.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Frantz, Fabiani G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the outcome of AIDS patients worldwide because the complete suppression of viremia improves health and prolongs life expectancy of HIV-1+ patients. However, little attention has been given to the immunological profile of patients under distinct HAART regimens. This work aimed to investigate the differences in the immunological pattern of HIV-1+ patients under the first- or second-line HAART in Brazil. Methods CD4+ T cell counts, Viral load, and plasma concentration of sCD14, sCD163, MCP-1, RANTES, IP-10, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were assessed for immunological characterization of the following clinical groups: Non-infected individuals (NI; n = 66), HIV-1+ untreated (HIV; n = 46), HIV-1+ treated with first-line HAART (HAART 1; n = 15); and HIV-1+ treated with second-line HAART (HAART 2; n = 15). Results We found that the immunological biosignature pattern of HAART 1 is similar to that of NI individuals, especially in patients presenting slow progression of the disease, while patients under HAART 2 remain in a moderate inflammatory state, which is similar to that of untreated HIV patients pattern. Network correlations revealed that differences in IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-α, and IL-10 interactions were primordial in HIV disease and treatment. Heat map and decision tree analysis identified that IP-10>TNF-α>IFN-α were the best respective HAART segregation biomarkers. Conclusion HIV patients in different HAART regimens develop distinct immunological biosignature, introducing a novel perspective into disease outcome and potential new therapies that consider HAART patients as a heterogeneous group. PMID:26684789

  1. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  2. Energy and Energy Conservation Activities for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottinelli, Charles A., Ed.; Dow, John O., Ed.

    This manual contains fifteen energy activities suitable for high school physical and environmental science and mathematics classrooms. The activities are independent, each having its own objectives, introduction, and background information. A special section of each activity is written for the instructor and contains limits, sample data, and…

  3. Energy Cost of Common Activities in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Kate; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty; Alhassan, Sofiya

    2014-01-01

    Background The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values. Purpose To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium. Methods Thirty-two children (8–11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12–16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer. Results In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1–3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3–2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m·s−1, 1.56 m·s−1, and 1.34 m·s−1 (0.4–0.8 METs lower)]. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth. PMID:22398418

  4. Image tracking for the high similarity drug tablets based on light intensity reflective energy and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongwei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Xiaochu; Wang, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that tablet image tracking exerts a notable influence on the efficiency and reliability of high-speed drug mass production, and, simultaneously, it also emerges as a big difficult problem and targeted focus during production monitoring in recent years, due to the high similarity shape and random position distribution of those objectives to be searched for. For the purpose of tracking tablets accurately in random distribution, through using surface fitting approach and transitional vector determination, the calibrated surface of light intensity reflective energy can be established, describing the shape topology and topography details of objective tablet. On this basis, the mathematical properties of these established surfaces have been proposed, and thereafter artificial neural network (ANN) has been employed for classifying those moving targeted tablets by recognizing their different surface properties; therefore, the instantaneous coordinate positions of those drug tablets on one image frame can then be determined. By repeating identical pattern recognition on the next image frame, the real-time movements of objective tablet templates were successfully tracked in sequence. This paper provides reliable references and new research ideas for the real-time objective tracking in the case of drug production practices. PMID:25143781

  5. Detection efficiency of microchannel plates to fluxes of high energy electrons similar to that in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Meyer, S.; Lüthi, M.; Lasi, D.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Desorgher, L.; Wojczuk, K.; Karllsson, S.; Kalla, L.

    2015-10-01

    High-energy high-rate electrons were measured by a multichannel plate (MCP) detector at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The measurements provide the absolute detection efficiency of 8.5±0.8 % for e? in the beam momenta range 17.5-345 MeV/c. The pulse height distribution determined from the measurements is close to an exponential function with negative exponent, indicating that the particles penetrated the MCP material before producing the signal somewhere inside the channel. Low charge extraction and modal gains of the MCP detector observed in this study are consistent with the proposed mechanism of the signal formation by penetrating radiation. A very similar MCP ion detector will be used in the NIM mass spectrometer of the PEP experiment currently developed for the JUICE mission of ESA to the Jupiter system, to perform measurements of the chemical composition of the exospheres of the Galilean moons.

  6. Image Tracking for the High Similarity Drug Tablets Based on Light Intensity Reflective Energy and Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhongwei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Xiaochu; Wang, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that tablet image tracking exerts a notable influence on the efficiency and reliability of high-speed drug mass production, and, simultaneously, it also emerges as a big difficult problem and targeted focus during production monitoring in recent years, due to the high similarity shape and random position distribution of those objectives to be searched for. For the purpose of tracking tablets accurately in random distribution, through using surface fitting approach and transitional vector determination, the calibrated surface of light intensity reflective energy can be established, describing the shape topology and topography details of objective tablet. On this basis, the mathematical properties of these established surfaces have been proposed, and thereafter artificial neural network (ANN) has been employed for classifying those moving targeted tablets by recognizing their different surface properties; therefore, the instantaneous coordinate positions of those drug tablets on one image frame can then be determined. By repeating identical pattern recognition on the next image frame, the real-time movements of objective tablet templates were successfully tracked in sequence. This paper provides reliable references and new research ideas for the real-time objective tracking in the case of drug production practices. PMID:25143781

  7. Tissue distribution and activity testing suggest a similar but not identical function of fetuin-B and fetuin-A.

    PubMed Central

    Denecke, Bernd; Gräber, Steffen; Schäfer, Cora; Heiss, Alexander; Wöltje, Michael; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2003-01-01

    Fetuins are serum proteins with diverse functions including the regulation of osteogenesis and inhibition of unwanted mineralization. Besides the alpha2-Heremans and Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A, the recently identified fetuin-B is a second member of the fetuin family [Olivier, Soury, Risler, Smih, Schneider, Lochner, Jouzeau, Fey and Salier (1999) Genomics 57, 352-364; Olivier, Soury, Ruminy, Husson, Parmentier, Daveau and Salier (2000) Biochem. J. 350, 589-597], which belongs to the cystatin superfamily. We compared the expressions of fetuin-B and fetuin-A at the RNA level and established that both genes are most highly expressed in liver tissue. Like fetuin-A, fetuin-B mRNA is also highly expressed in tongue and placenta tissues. We demonstrated for the first time that fetuin-B is also expressed at the protein level in sera and several organs of mouse, rat and human. We isolated contiguous genomic clones containing both fetuin-B and fetuin-A genes, indicating that these genes are closely linked at the genome level. The close proximity of both these genes may explain our observation that fetuin-B expression was decreased in fetuin-A-deficient mice. Unlike fetuin-A, the amount of fetuin-B protein in human serum varied with gender and was higher in females than in males. Functional analysis revealed that fetuin-B, similarly to fetuin-A, is an inhibitor of basic calcium phosphate precipitation, albeit less active when compared with fetuin-A. Therefore fetuin-B may have a function that is partly overlapping, if not identical, with the function of fetuin-A. PMID:12943536

  8. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  9. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size. PMID:23637685

  10. Similarities in Sexual Activity and Condom Use among Friends within Groups before and after a Risk-Reduction Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Feigelman, Susan; Baldwin, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the similarity of behaviors among group members and the effects of a risk-reduction intervention aimed at AIDS/HIV prevention with 76 groups of African-American urban adolescents (n=382 youth) studied over 18 months. Data support the usefulness of HIV prevention through groups of friends. (SLD)

  11. Perceived Well-Being and Personal Stress in an Energy Boom Town: Contrasts and Similarities Across Divergent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greider, Thomas; Krannich, Richard S.

    Perceived well-being and personal stress indicators among various subpopulations in two small western towns (one stable, one affected by an energy development boom) are examined to assess the notion that residents of energy boom communities experience generalized social pathology and disruption. A 2-stage data collection process used…

  12. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  13. High energy expenditure masks low physical activity in obesity

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate energy expenditure in lean and obese individuals, focusing particularly on physical activity and severely obese individuals. Design Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry, activity EE (AEE) by difference and time spent in physical activity by multisensor activity monitors. Subjects 177 lean, Class I and severely obese individuals (age 31–56, BMI 20–64 kg/m2). Results All components of EE were elevated in obese individuals. For example, TDEE was 2404±95 kcal/d in lean and 3244 ± 48 kcal/d in Class III obese. After appropriate adjustment, RMR was similar in all groups. Analysis of AEE by body weight and obesity class indicated a lower AEE in the obese. Confirming lower physical activity, obese individuals spent less time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (2.7±1.3, 1.8±0.6, 2.0±1.4 and 1.2±1.0 hr/d in lean, Class I, Class II and Class III), and more time in sedentary behaviors. Conclusions There was no indication of metabolic efficiency in even the severely obese, as adjusted RMR was similar across all groups. The higher AEE observed in the obese is consistent with a higher cost of activities due to higher body weight. However, the magnitude of the higher AEE (20 to 25% higher in obese) is lower than expected (weight approximately 100% higher in Class III). Confirming a lower volume of physical activity in the obese, the total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average daily MET level were lower with increasing obesity. These findings demonstrate that high body weight in obesity leads to a high TDEE and AEE which masks the fact that they are less physically active, which can be influenced by duration or intensity of activity, than lean individuals. PMID:23090575

  14. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  15. Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nguyen, Van Thuan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2004-06-01

    The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte. PMID:14985245

  16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  19. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  20. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

  1. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando O; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; Ten Hacken, Nick H; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Hamann, Jörg; Greaves, David R; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-02-28

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4–activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues. Although mouse models are widely used for macrophage research, translation to the human can be problematic and the human macrophage system remains poorly described. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the transcriptome and proteome of human and murine macrophages under resting conditions (M0) and after IL-4 activation (M2). We provide a resource for tools enabling macrophage detection in human tissues by identifying a set of 87 macrophage-related genes. Furthermore, we extend current understanding of M2 activation in different species and identify Transglutaminase 2 as a conserved M2 marker that is highly expressed by human macrophages and monocytes in the prototypic Th2 pathology asthma. PMID:23293084

  2. Activation energy of water structural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmanskiy, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the nature of molecular motions that dominate in the thermodynamics of anomalies of liquid water properties in the range of 0-100 °C has been studied. Temperature dependencies of water properties have been approximated by exponential functions and the activation energies for water structure transitions have been evaluated. The activation energy values were compared with the energy spectra of characteristic vibrations and with those of cooperative molecular motion in the lattice-type structure of hydrogen bonds. It has been found that it is the reaction of hydrogen bond breaking that mainly limits the abnormal dynamics of water viscosity, self-diffusion, dielectric relaxation time and electric conductivity. It has been assumed that the thermodynamics of cooperative motion and resonance phenomena in water clusters form a basis for the differentiation mechanism of extrema points in temperature dependencies of water density, isobaric heat capacity, sound velocity, surface tension coefficient and compressibility.

  3. Energy Expenditure during Sexual Activity in Young Healthy Couples

    PubMed Central

    Frappier, Julie; Toupin, Isabelle; Levy, Joseph J.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene; Karelis, Antony D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. Methods The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old) from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. Results Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively) whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal) and in women (76.2 kCal) when compared to measured energy expenditure. Conclusion The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS) in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise. PMID:24205382

  4. Brain Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Similarities across Speaking Tasks and Correlations with Stuttering Frequency and Speaking Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…

  5. Short-term behaviour of two similar active glasses used as granules in the repair of bone defects.

    PubMed

    Gatti, A M; Zaffe, D

    1991-07-01

    The bioactivity of two similar vitreous materials used in the form of granules of 'critical' size was investigated in bone defects in jaws of two sheep. The granules consisted of Hench's Bioglass and another glass with the same chemical composition made in Italy. Two months after implantation, the sheep were killed and elemental analyses carried out on sections of the embedded jaws. The microanalyses for both the glasses showed a diffusion from the granules towards the surrounding tissue of silicon and sodium, and an inverse diffusion (from the surrounding tissue towards the granules) of calcium and phosphorus. The degradation for the Italian glass was slower than for the Bioglass. No significant osteoinduction was seen after that time at the interface of the glass granules or in the bone pocket. PMID:1892986

  6. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  7. Decrease and increase in brain activity during visual perceptual priming: an fMRI study on similar but perceptually different complex visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Blondin, François; Lepage, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A robust finding among functional neuroimaging studies on visual priming is decreased neural activity in extrastriate and inferior prefrontal cortices for the second presentation of an object relative to its first presentation. This effect can also be observed for different but perceptually similar objects that are alternative exemplars of the initially presented object (e.g. two different pencils). An unanswered question is whether this decrease in activity can be found for the successive presentation of similar complex visual scenes. We used a test in which landscape pictures were divided vertically into three segments. A first segment was presented and followed several stimuli later by a second related segment. Reaction times were faster for the presentation of the second segment relative to the first one. Although perceptually different from the first segment, the presentation of the second segment was nonetheless associated with reduced activity in late stage visual processing areas including parahippocampal/fusiform gyri bilaterally, left middle occipital and temporal gyri, right inferior temporal and superior occipital gyri, and in left inferior frontal gyrus. The observed decreases in activity in these regions replicate results on priming of different exemplars of single objects while further extending these results to similar complex visual scenes. The presentation of the second segment was also associated with increased activity mainly in frontal and parietal regions, two areas known to be associated with memory retrieval. In sum, priming effects can also occur for complex visual scenes that are intrinsically different from each other although similar in their composition. PMID:16168731

  8. Similar disturbances in B cell activity and regulatory T cell function in Henoch-Schonlein purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, M.G.; Nash, G.S.; Bertovich, M.J.; MacDermott, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The immunoglobulin synthesizing activities of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from five patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and eight patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were compared. Cumulative amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesized and secreted by unstimulated and PWM-stimulated patient cells over a 12-day period were determied in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. In unstimulated control cultures mean rates of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesis were less than 250 ng/ml. The synthetic activities of patient MNC were markedly increased. In HSP cultures IgA was the major immunoglobulin class produced (2810 x/divide 1.33 ng/ml) followed by IgG (1754 x/divide 1.32 ng/ml) and IgM (404 x/divide 1.16 ng/ml). In SLE cultures IgA and IgG syntheses were equally elevated (4427 x/divide 1.20 and 4438 x/divide 1.49 ng/ml, respectively) whereas IgM synthesis averaged 967 x/divide 1.66 ng/ml. PWM stimulation of pateient MNC caused a sharp decline in the synthesis of all three immunoglobulin classes. After T cell depletion B cell-enriched fractions from HSP and SLE patients maintained high levels of IgA and IgG synthesis that were inhibited by PWM and by normal allogeneic but not autologous T cells. In PWM-stimulted co-cultures, patient T cells nonspecifically suppressed the synthetic activities of autologous and control B cells. in contrast patient B cells achieved normal levels of immunoglobulin synthesis when cultured with control T cells plus PWM. In longitudinal studies patient B and T cell disturbances persisted despite clinical improvement.

  9. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  10. Activation of Methane and Ethane as Mediated by the Triatomic Anion HNbN(-) : Electronic Structure Similarity with a Pt Atom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia-Bi; Xu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Qing-Yu; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-04-11

    Investigations of the intrinsic properties of gas-phase transition metal nitride (TMN) ions represent one approach to gain a fundamental understanding of the active sites of TMN catalysts, the activities and electronic structures of which are known to be comparable to those of noble metal catalysts. Herein, we investigate the structures and reactivities of the triatomic anions HNbN(-) by means of mass spectrometry and photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. The HNbN(-) anions are capable of activating CH4 and C2 H6 through oxidative addition, exhibiting similar reactivities to free Pt atoms. The similar electronic structures of HNbN(-) and Pt, especially the active orbitals, are responsible for this resemblance. Compared to the inert NbN(-) , the coordination of the H atom in HNbN(-) is indispensable. New insights into how to replace noble metals with TMNs may be derived from this combined experimental/computational study. PMID:26954294

  11. Trapezius activity of fibromyalgia patients is enhanced in stressful situations, but is similar to healthy controls in a quiet naturalistic setting: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle activity and pain development of fibromyalgia (FM) patients in response to mental stress show inconsistent results, when compared to healthy controls (HCs). A possible reason for the inconsistent results is the large variation in stress exposures in different studies. This study compares muscle responses of FM patients and HCs for different modes and levels of imposed stress, to elucidate features in stress exposures that distinguish stress responses of FM patients from HCs. Methods Upper trapezius (clavicular and acromial fibers), deltoid, and biceps surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity was recorded in FM patients (n=26) and HCs (n=25). Heart rate (HR) was recorded and used as indicator of autonomic activation. Tests included inspiratory breath holding (sympathetic activation procedure), mental stress tests (color-word test and backward counting; 28 min), instructed rest prior to stress test (30 min TV watching), and controlled arm movement. sEMG and HR was also recorded during an unrestrained evening stay at a patient hotel. The 5-min period with lowest trapezius muscle activity was determined. Pain (shoulder/neck, low back pain) and perceived tension were scored on VAS scales at the start and the end of the stress test and at bedtime. Results Trapezius sEMG responses of FM patients were significantly higher than HCs during sympathetic activation, mental stress, and instructed rest, but similar during arm movement and unrestrained evening activity. HR of FM patients and HCs was similar during mental stress and in the evening, including the 5-min period with lowest trapezius activity. Muscle activity of FM patients during the stress test (with shoulder/neck pain development) and the evening stay (no pain development) was similar. Conclusions FM patients show elevated muscle activity (in particular trapezius activity) in situations with imposed stress, including sympathetic activation, and putative anticipatory stress. Muscle activity and

  12. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  14. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  15. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  16. Two regulatory elements of similar structure and placed in tandem account for the repressive activity of the first intron of the human apolipoprotein A-II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bossu, J P; Chartier, F L; Fruchart, J C; Auwerx, J; Staels, B; Laine, B

    1996-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, the second most abundant protein of high-density lipoproteins, plays a crucial role in counteracting the beneficial effect of apo A-I against atherogenesis. Transcription of the human apo A-II gene is controlled by an enhancer comprising 14 regulatory elements located upstream of its promoter whereas the first intron of this gene behaves as a silencer. Here we show that two sequence elements account for the repressive activity of this intron and correspond to negative regulatory elements termed NRE I and NRE II. The activity of intron I and the nuclear proteins binding to NRE I and II are encountered in hepatic cells but not in non-hepatic cells studied here. Both NREs form nucleoprotein complexes of very similar physicochemical characteristics and bind the same or closely related proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis, transient transfection and gel-shift analysis experiments indicate that both NREs exhibit similar structures, being composed of two sites required for maximal activity and optimal binding of transcription factors. Therefore two negative regulatory elements of similar structure and function, placed in tandem, account for the repressive activity of the first intron of the human apo A-II gene. These NREs do not exhibit structural similarity with known NREs of other genes. PMID:8809045

  17. Chemical energy dissipation at surfaces under UHV and high pressure conditions studied using metal-insulator-metal and similar devices.

    PubMed

    Diesing, Detlef; Hasselbrink, Eckart

    2016-07-01

    Metal heterostructures have been used in recent years to gain insights into the relevance of energy dissipation into electronic degrees of freedom in surface chemistry. Non-adiabaticity in the surface chemistry results in the creation of electron-hole pairs, the number and energetic distribution of which need to be studied in detail. Several types of devices, such as metal-insulator-metal, metal-semiconductor and metal-semiconductor oxide-semiconductor, have been used. These devices operate by spatially separating the electrons from the holes, as an internal barrier allows only - or at least favours - transport from the top to the back electrode for one kind of carrier. An introduction into the matter, a survey of the literature and a critical discussion of the state of research is attempted. PMID:27186600

  18. High-intensity exercise causes greater irisin response compared with low-intensity exercise under similar energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yoshifumi; Ando, Daisuke; Goto, Kazushige; Kiuchi, Masataka; Yamakita, Mitsuya; Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Irisin is mainly released from skeletal muscle (myocytes) and promotes thermogenesis by browning of the white adipose tissue. Although exercise has been shown to increase irisin concentration in blood and myocytes via up-regulation peroxisome proliferator receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression, the influence of exercise intensity on irisin secretion remains unclear. Therefore, we determined circulating irisin responses following a single bout of running at different intensities. Six sedentary males underwent treadmill running under two different conditions: a low-intensity (40% of VO2max) exercise trial (LIE) or a high-intensity (80% of VO2max) exercise trial (HIE). The exercises in LIE and HIE were lasted for 20 and 40 min, respectively. All subjects underwent the two trials on separate days, and a randomized cross-over design was used. Blood samples were collected before (Pre) and immediately after exercise, at 3, 6, and 19 h after exercise. Energy consumption during exercise did not significantly differ between the two trials. HIE significantly increased blood lactate and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (P < 0.05). Compared with pre-exercise levels, the irisin concentrations were elevated at 6 h (18% increase) and 19 h (23% increase) after HIE, but significantly decreased after LIE. The relative irisin concentrations (compared with pre-exercise levels) were significantly greater in HIE than in LIE immediately after exercise, and at 6 and 19 h after exercise (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that irisin secretion after acute running exercise is affected by exercise intensity, independent of energy consumption. PMID:24910199

  19. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  20. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  1. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:24705601

  2. Miltefosine Increases Lipid and Protein Dynamics in Leishmania amazonensis Membranes at Concentrations Similar to Those Needed for Cytotoxicity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Matos, Grazzielle Guimaraes; Alonso, Lais; Dorta, Miriam Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Miltefosine (MT) is a membrane-active alkylphospholipid licensed for the topical treatment of breast cancer skin metastases and the oral treatment of leishmaniasis, although its mechanism of action remains unclear. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and a thiol-specific spin label in the plasma membrane of Leishmania promastigotes showed that MT causes dramatic increases in membrane dynamics. Although these alterations can be detected using a spin-labeled lipid, our experimental results indicated that MT interacts predominantly with the protein component of the membrane. Cell lysis was also detected by analyzing the supernatants of centrifuged samples for the presence of spin-labeled membrane fragments and cytoplasmic proteins. Using a method for the rapid incorporation of MT into the membrane, these effects were measured immediately after treatment under the same range of MT concentrations that cause cell growth inhibition. Cytotoxicity, estimated via microscopic counting of living and dead cells, indicated ∼70% cell death at the concentration of MT at which EPR spectroscopy detected a significant change in membrane dynamics. After this initial impact on the number of viable parasites, the processes of cell death and growth continued during the first 4 h of incubation. The EPR spectra of spin-labeled membrane-bound proteins were consistent with more expanded and solvent-exposed protein conformations, suggesting a detergent-like action. Thus, MT may form micelle-like structures around polypeptide chains, and proteins with a higher hydrophobicity may induce the penetration of hydrophilic groups of MT into the membrane, causing its rupture. PMID:24614380

  3. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G; Korovin, Yury A; Natalenko, Anatoly A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, A Yu

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  4. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Natalenko, A. A.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.; Mashnik, S. G.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  5. Householders’ Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’, there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people’s categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  6. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    PubMed

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  7. Energy and Man's Environment: Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication provides the goals, concepts, objectives, and rationale for the six activity guides in this series of energy education materials. The organization of this series, as presented in this publication, centers around six goals which correspond to the activity guides. Under each goal are several concepts, which in turn, have several…

  8. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  9. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  10. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  11. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  12. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  13. Active site of the mRNA-capping enzyme guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: similarity to the nucleotidyl attachment motif of DNA and RNA ligases.

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, L D; Buratowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Nascent mRNA chains are capped at the 5' end by the addition of a guanylyl residue to form a G(5')ppp(5')N ... structure. During the capping reaction, the guanylyltransferase (GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.50) is reversibly and covalently guanylylated. In this enzyme-GMP (E-GMP) intermediate, GMP is linked to the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue via a phosphoamide bond. Lys-70 was identified as the GMP attachment site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanylyltransferase (encoded by the CEG1 gene) by guanylylpeptide sequencing. CEG1 genes with substitutions at Lys-70 were unable to support viability in yeast and produced proteins that were not guanylylated in vitro. The CEG1 active site exhibits sequence similarity to the active sites of viral guanylyltransferases and polynucleotide ligases, suggesting similarity in the mechanisms of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by these enzymes. Images PMID:8022828

  14. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  15. Oklahoma Energy Awareness Education, Energy Education Activities, Grades 4-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication contains energy education activities for grades 4 through 12 and is part of a set of three publications. These activities are organized under five energy concepts: (1) energy is so basic that nothing moves without it; (2) conservation of energy; (3) there are other energy alternatives; (4) society depends on energy; and (5) the…

  16. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies

    PubMed Central

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  17. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies.

    PubMed

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  18. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 Receptors Highlight the Similar Mechanism of Activation Utilizing Their N-Terminal Low-Density Lipoprotein Class A Modules.

    PubMed

    Bruell, Shoni; Kong, Roy C K; Petrie, Emma J; Hoare, Brad; Wade, John D; Scott, Daniel J; Gooley, Paul R; Bathgate, Ross A D

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low-density lipoprotein type A (LDLa) module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM) domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are potentially involved in hydrophobic interactions with the receptor to drive activation. RXFP2 shares two out of three of the residues implicated, suggesting that the two LDLa modules could be interchanged without adversely affecting activity. However, in 2007 it was shown that a chimera consisting of the RXFP1 receptor with its LDLa swapped for that of RXFP2 did not signal. We noticed this construct also contained the RXFP2 region linking the LDLa to the leucine-rich repeats. We therefore constructed chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors with their LDLa modules swapped immediately C-terminally to the final cysteine residue of the module, retaining the native linker. In addition, we exchanged the TM domains of the chimeras to explore if matching the LDLa module with the TM domain of its native receptor altered activity. All of the chimeras were expressed at the surface of HEK293T cells with ligand binding profiles similar to the wild-type receptors. Importantly, as predicted, ligand binding was able to induce cAMP-based signaling. Chimeras of RXFP1 with the LDLa of RXFP2 demonstrated reduced H2 relaxin potency with the pairing of the RXFP2 TM with the RXFP2 LDLa necessary for full ligand efficacy. In contrast the ligand-mediated potencies and efficacies on the RXFP2 chimeras were similar suggesting the RXFP1 LDLa module has similar efficacy on the RXFP2 TM domain. Our studies demonstrate the LDLa modules of RXFP1 and RXFP2 modulate receptor activation via a similar mechanism. PMID

  19. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 Receptors Highlight the Similar Mechanism of Activation Utilizing Their N-Terminal Low-Density Lipoprotein Class A Modules

    PubMed Central

    Bruell, Shoni; Kong, Roy C. K.; Petrie, Emma J.; Hoare, Brad; Wade, John D.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gooley, Paul R.; Bathgate, Ross A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low-density lipoprotein type A (LDLa) module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM) domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are potentially involved in hydrophobic interactions with the receptor to drive activation. RXFP2 shares two out of three of the residues implicated, suggesting that the two LDLa modules could be interchanged without adversely affecting activity. However, in 2007 it was shown that a chimera consisting of the RXFP1 receptor with its LDLa swapped for that of RXFP2 did not signal. We noticed this construct also contained the RXFP2 region linking the LDLa to the leucine-rich repeats. We therefore constructed chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors with their LDLa modules swapped immediately C-terminally to the final cysteine residue of the module, retaining the native linker. In addition, we exchanged the TM domains of the chimeras to explore if matching the LDLa module with the TM domain of its native receptor altered activity. All of the chimeras were expressed at the surface of HEK293T cells with ligand binding profiles similar to the wild-type receptors. Importantly, as predicted, ligand binding was able to induce cAMP-based signaling. Chimeras of RXFP1 with the LDLa of RXFP2 demonstrated reduced H2 relaxin potency with the pairing of the RXFP2 TM with the RXFP2 LDLa necessary for full ligand efficacy. In contrast the ligand-mediated potencies and efficacies on the RXFP2 chimeras were similar suggesting the RXFP1 LDLa module has similar efficacy on the RXFP2 TM domain. Our studies demonstrate the LDLa modules of RXFP1 and RXFP2 modulate receptor activation via a similar mechanism. PMID

  20. Estimates of confinement time and energy gain for plasma liner driven magnetoinertial fusion using an analytic self-similar converging shock model

    SciTech Connect

    Cassibry, J. T.; Cortez, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2009-11-15

    Plasma liner driven magnetoinertial fusion (PLMIF) is a fusion energy concept that utilizes an imploding plasma liner to shock heat and compress a magnetized target plasma to fusion conditions. The fusion burn fraction is linearly proportional to the confinement (or ''dwell'') time of the liner-target system at peak compression, and therefore it is important to estimate the dwell time accurately in order to assess the fusion energy yield and gain. In this work, the dwell time has been estimated using the exact solution to a self-similar converging shock model. The dwell time was found to be determined by the sum of the outgoing shock and rarefaction times through the plasma liner at peak compression, and for chosen PLMIF conditions the dwell time was on the order of 1 {mu}s. In addition, we show that the engineering gain, i.e., the total energy extracted as electricity (from fusion plus expanded liner energy) divided by the electrical energy required to implode the liner, exceeds unity for a wide range of liner thicknesses and specific heat ratios.

  1. Development of pharmacophore similarity-based quantitative activity hypothesis and its applicability domain: applied on a diverse data-set of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Mehta, Vijay P; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative pharmacophore hypothesis combines the 3D spatial arrangement of pharmacophore features with biological activities of the ligand data-set and predicts the activities of geometrically and/or pharmacophoric similar ligands. Most pharmacophore discovery programs face difficulties in conformational flexibility, molecular alignment, pharmacophore features sampling, and feature selection to score models if the data-set constitutes diverse ligands. Towards this focus, we describe a ligand-based computational procedure to introduce flexibility in aligning the small molecules and generating a pharmacophore hypothesis without geometrical constraints to define pharmacophore space, enriched with chemical features necessary to elucidate common pharmacophore hypotheses (CPHs). Maximal common substructure (MCS)-based alignment method was adopted to guide the alignment of carbon molecules, deciphered the MCS atom connectivity to cluster molecules in bins and subsequently, calculated the pharmacophore similarity matrix with the bin-specific reference molecules. After alignment, the carbon molecules were enriched with original atoms in their respective positions and conventional pharmacophore features were perceived. Distance-based pharmacophoric descriptors were enumerated by computing the interdistance between perceived features and MCS-aligned 'centroid' position. The descriptor set and biological activities were used to develop support vector machine models to predict the activities of the external test set. Finally, fitness score was estimated based on pharmacophore similarity with its bin-specific reference molecules to recognize the best and poor alignments and, also with each reference molecule to predict outliers of the quantitative hypothesis model. We applied this procedure to a diverse data-set of 40 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and discussed its effectiveness with the reported CPH model. PMID:24735019

  2. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  3. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  4. Energy expended playing video console games: an opportunity to increase children's physical activity?

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jull, Andrew; Jiang, Yannan; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony

    2007-08-01

    This study sought to quantify the energy expenditure and physical activity associated with playing the "new generation" active and nonactive console-based video games in 21 children ages 10-14 years. Energy expenditure (kcal) derived from oxygen consumption (VO2) was continuously assessed while children played nonactive and active console video games. Physical activity was assessed continuously using the Actigraph accelerometer. Significant (p < .001) increases from baseline were found for energy expenditure (129-400%), heart rate (43-84%), and activity counts (122-1288 versus 0-23) when playing the active console video games. Playing active console video games over short periods of time is similar in intensity to light to moderate traditional physical activities such as walking, skipping, and jogging. PMID:18019591

  5. Distributed activation energy model parameters of some Turkish coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gunes, M.; Gunes, S.K.

    2008-07-01

    A multi-reaction model based on distributed activation energy has been applied to some Turkish coals. The kinetic parameters of distributed activation energy model were calculated via computer program developed for this purpose. It was observed that the values of mean of activation energy distribution vary between 218 and 248 kJ/mol, and the values of standard deviation of activation energy distribution vary between 32 and 70 kJ/mol. The correlations between kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model and certain properties of coal have been investigated.

  6. Potency of Full- Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Joseph A. M. J. L.; Hofland, Leo J.; Strasburger, Christian J.; van den Dungen, Elisabeth S. R.; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin receptor-B (IR-B), respectively. In addition, we tested the stimulatory activity of human MGF and its stabilized analog Goldspink-MGF on the IGF-IR. Methods The effects of full-length MGF, IGF-I, human mechano growth factor (MGF), Goldspink-MGF and HI were compared using kinase specific receptor activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for IGF-I, IR-A or IR-B, respectively. These assays quantify activity by measuring auto-phosphorylation of the receptor upon ligand binding. Results IGF-IR: At high equimolar concentrations maximal IGF-IR stimulating effects generated by full-length MGF were similar to that of IGF-I (89-fold vs. 77-fold, respectively). However, EC50 values of IGF-I and full-length MGF for the IGF-I receptor were 0.86 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.07) and 7.83 nmol/L (95% CI: 4.87–12.58), respectively. No IGF-IR activation was observed by human MGF and Goldspink-MGF, respectively. IR-A/IR-B: At high equimolar concentrations similar maximal IR-A stimulating effects were observed for full -length MGF and HI, but maximal IR-B stimulation achieved by full -length MGF was stronger than that by HI (292-fold vs. 98-fold). EC50 values of HI and full-length MGF for the IR-A were 1.13 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.84) and 73.11 nmol/L (42.87–124.69), respectively; for IR-B these values were 1.28 nmol/L (95% CI 0.64–2.57) and 35.10 nmol/L (95% 17.52–70.33), respectively. Conclusions Full-length MGF directly stimulates the IGF-IR. Despite a higher EC50 concentration, at high equimolar concentrations full-length MGF showed a similar maximal potency to activate the IGF-IR as compared to IGF-I. Further research is needed to understand the actions of full-length MGF in vivo and to define the

  7. The Binding Mode Prediction and Similar Ligand Potency in the Active Site of Vitamin D Receptor with QM/MM Interaction, MESP, and MD Simulation.

    PubMed

    Selvaraman, Nagamani; Selvam, Saravana Kumar; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan

    2016-08-01

    Non-secosteroidal ligands are well-known vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists. In this study, we described a combined QM/MM to define the protein-ligand interaction energy a strong positive correlation in both QM-MM interaction energy and binding free energy against the biological activity. The molecular dynamics simulation study was performed, and specific interactions were extensively studied. The molecular docking results and surface analysis shed light on steric and electrostatic complementarities of these non-secosteroidal ligands to VDR. Finally, the drug likeness properties were also calculated and found within the acceptable range. The results show that bulky group substitutions in side chain decrease the VDR activity, whereas a small substitution increased it. Functional analyses of H393A and H301A mutations substantiate their roles in the VDR agonistic and antagonistic activities. Apart from the His393 and His301, two other amino acids in the hinge region viz. Ser233 and Arg270 acted as an electron donor/acceptor specific to the agonist in the distinct ligand potency. The results from this study disclose the binding mechanism of VDR agonists and structural modifications required to improve the selectivity. PMID:26945790

  8. The 3' region of the chicken hypersensitive site-4 insulator has properties similar to its core and is required for full insulator activity.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Paritha I; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Velu, Chinavenmeni S; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Grimes, H Leighton; Malik, Punam

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin insulators separate active transcriptional domains and block the spread of heterochromatin in the genome. Studies on the chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4) element, a prototypic insulator, have identified CTCF and USF-1/2 motifs in the proximal 250 bp of cHS4, termed the "core", which provide enhancer blocking activity and reduce position effects. However, the core alone does not insulate viral vectors effectively. The full-length cHS4 has excellent insulating properties, but its large size severely compromises vector titers. We performed a structure-function analysis of cHS4 flanking lentivirus-vectors and analyzed transgene expression in the clonal progeny of hematopoietic stem cells and epigenetic changes in cHS4 and the transgene promoter. We found that the core only reduced the clonal variegation in expression. Unique insulator activity resided in the distal 400 bp cHS4 sequences, which when combined with the core, restored full insulator activity and open chromatin marks over the transgene promoter and the insulator. These data consolidate the known insulating activity of the canonical 5' core with a novel 3' 400 bp element with properties similar to the core. Together, they have excellent insulating properties and viral titers. Our data have important implications in understanding the molecular basis of insulator function and design of gene therapy vectors. PMID:19746166

  9. NMR structure of the complex between the Tfb1 subunit of TFIIH and the activation domain of VP16: structural similarities between VP16 and p53.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Chantal; Mas, Caroline; Di Lello, Paola; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

    2008-08-13

    The Herpes Simplex Virion Protein 16 (VP16) activates transcription through a series of protein/protein interactions involving its highly acidic transactivation domain (TAD). The acidic TAD of VP16 (VP16TAD) has been shown to interact with several partner proteins both in vitro and in vivo, and many of these VP16 partners also bind the acidic TAD of the mammalian tumor suppressor protein p53. For example, the TADs of VP16 and p53 (p53TAD) both interact directly with the p62/Tfb1 (human/yeast) subunit of TFIIH, and this interaction correlates with their ability to activate both the initiation and elongation phase of transcription. In this manuscript, we use NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetery (ITC) and site-directed mutagenesis studies to characterize the interaction between the VP16TAD and Tfb1. We identify a region within the carboxyl-terminal subdomain of the VP16TAD (VP16C) that has sequence similarity with p53TAD2 and binds Tfb1 with nanomolar affinity. We determine an NMR structure of a Tfb1/VP16C complex, which represents the first high-resolution structure of the VP16TAD in complex with a target protein. The structure demonstrates that like p53TAD2, VP16C forms a 9-residue alpha-helix in complex with Tfb1. Comparison of the VP16/Tfb1and p53/Tfb1 structures clearly demonstrates how the viral activator VP16C and p53TAD2 shares numerous aspects of binding to Tfb1. Despite the similarities, important differences are observed between the p53TAD2/Tfb1 and VP16C/Tfb1 complexes, and these differences demonstrate how selected activators such as p53 depend on phosphorylation events to selectively regulate transcription. PMID:18630911

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of painted human interphase chromosomes: active and inactive X chromosome territories have similar volumes but differ in shape and surface structure

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of differences between the 3D morphology of active and inactive human X interphase chromosomes (Xa and Xi territories). Chromosome territories were painted in formaldehyde-fixed, three-dimensionally intact human diploid female amniotic fluid cell nuclei (46, XX) with X-specific whole chromosome compositive probes. The colocalization of a 4,6-diamidino-2- phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained Barr body with one of the two painted X territories allowed the unequivocal discrimination of the inactive X from its active counterpart. Light optical serial sections were obtained with a confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D- reconstructed Xa territories revealed a flatter shape and exhibited a larger and more irregular surface when compared to the apparently smoother surface and rounder shape of Xi territories. The relationship between territory surface and volume was quantified by the determination of a dimensionless roundness factor (RF). RF and surface area measurements showed a highly significant difference between Xa and Xi territories (P < 0.001) in contrast to volume differences (P > 0.1). For comparison with an autosome of similar DNA content, chromosome 7 territories were additionally painted. The 3D morphology of the chromosome 7 territories was similar to the Xa territory but differed strongly from the Xi territory with respect to RF and surface area (P < 0.001). PMID:8978813

  11. “Seed-Milarity” Confers to hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-147b Similar Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bertero, Thomas; Grosso, Sébastien; Robbe-Sermesant, Karine; Lebrigand, Kevin; Hénaoui, Imene-Sarah; Puisségur, Marie-Pierre; Fourre, Sandra; Zaragosi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Mazure, Nathalie M.; Ponzio, Gilles; Cardinaud, Bruno; Barbry, Pascal; Rezzonico, Roger; Mari, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Specificity of interaction between a microRNA (miRNA) and its targets crucially depends on the seed region located in its 5′-end. It is often implicitly considered that two miRNAs sharing the same biological activity should display similarity beyond the strict six nucleotide region that forms the seed, in order to form specific complexes with the same mRNA targets. We have found that expression of hsa-miR-147b and hsa-miR-210, though triggered by different stimuli (i.e. lipopolysaccharides and hypoxia, respectively), induce very similar cellular effects in term of proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Hsa-miR-147b only shares a “minimal” 6-nucleotides seed sequence with hsa-miR-210, but is identical with hsa-miR-147a over 20 nucleotides, except for one base located in the seed region. Phenotypic changes induced after heterologous expression of miR-147a strikingly differ from those induced by miR-147b or miR-210. In particular, miR-147a behaves as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and migration. These data fit well with the gene expression profiles observed for miR-147b and miR-210, which are very similar, and the gene expression profile of miR-147a, which is distinct from the two others. Bioinformatics analysis of all human miRNA sequences indicates multiple cases of miRNAs from distinct families exhibiting the same kind of similarity that would need to be further characterized in terms of putative functional redundancy. Besides, it implies that functional impact of some miRNAs can be masked by robust expression of miRNAs belonging to distinct families. PMID:23028679

  12. School District Energy Conservation Activities. R-96-J-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    To help New York's State Department of Education assess public school districts' energy conservation activities, the results of an audit of school districts' energy conservation activities are presented. The audit shows that most school districts have made some efforts toward energy conservation and that the Department does provide some assistance…

  13. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Global Activity Module Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the World Energy Projection Plus (WEPS ) Global Activity Module (GAM) used to develop the International Energy Outlook for 2013 (IEO2013). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code.

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  16. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

  17. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  18. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  19. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  20. Photorhabdus luminescens W-14 insecticidal activity consists of at least two similar but distinct proteins. Purification and characterization of toxin A and toxin B.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Fatig, R O; Orr, G L; Schafer, B W; Strickland, J A; Sukhapinda, K; Woodsworth, A T; Petell, J K

    1999-04-01

    Both the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens alone and its symbiotic Photorhabdus-nematode complex are known to be highly pathogenic to insects. The nature of the insecticidal activity of Photorhabdus bacteria was investigated for its potential application as an insect control agent. It was found that in the fermentation broth of P. luminescens strain W-14, at least two proteins, toxin A and toxin B, independently contributed to the oral insecticidal activity against Southern corn rootworm. Purified toxin A and toxin B exhibited single bands on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two peptides of 208 and 63 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native molecular weight of both the toxin A and toxin B was determined to be approximately 860 kDa, suggesting that they are tetrameric. NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and Western analysis using monospecific antibodies to each toxin demonstrated that the two toxins were distinct but homologous. The oral potency (LD50) of toxin A and toxin B against Southern corn rootworm larvae was determined to be similar to that observed with highly potent Bt toxins against lepidopteran pests. In addition, it was found that the two peptides present in toxin B could be processed in vitro from a 281-kDa protoxin by endogenous P. luminescens proteases. Proteolytic processing was shown to enhance insecticidal activity. PMID:10092674

  1. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  2. National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Downing, P.E.

    2004-12-14

    Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  3. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Efficiency of solar-energy absorbers may be improved to 95% by actively cooling their intermediate glass plates. This approach may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  4. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  5. Long-term monitoring reveals stable and remarkably similar microbial communities in parallel full-scale biogas reactors digesting energy crops.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Rico; Kuchenbuch, Anne; Fetzer, Ingo; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2015-03-01

    Biogas is an important renewable energy carrier. It is a product of stepwise anaerobic degradation of organic materials by highly diverse microbial communities forming complex interlinking metabolic networks. Knowledge about the microbial background of long-term stable process performance in full-scale reactors is crucial for rationally improving the efficiency and reliability of biogas plants. To generate such knowledge, in the present study three parallel mesophilic full-scale reactors fed exclusively with energy crops were sampled weekly over one year. Physicochemical process parameters were determined and the microbial communities were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting and 454-amplicon sequencing. For investigating the methanogenic community, a high-resolution T-RFLP approach based on the mcrA gene was developed by selecting restriction enzymes with improved taxonomic resolution compared to previous studies. Interestingly, no Methanosarcina-related generalists, but rather specialized hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenic taxa were detected. In general, the microbial communities in the non-connected reactors were remarkably stable and highly similar indicating that identical environmental and process parameters resulted in identical microbial assemblages and dynamics. Practical implications such as flexible operation schemes comprising controlled variations of process parameters for an efficient microbial resource management under fluctuating process conditions are discussed. PMID:25764564

  6. Regulation of the herpesvirus saimiri oncogene stpC, similar to that of T-cell activation genes, in growth-transformed human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fickenscher, H; Biesinger, B; Knappe, A; Wittmann, S; Fleckenstein, B

    1996-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri strain C488, a T-cell tumor virus of New World primates, transforms human T lymphocytes to stable interleukin-2-dependent growth without need for further stimulation by antigen or mitogen. The transformed cell lines show the phenotype of activated mature T cells and retain many essential features of the primary parental cells, e.g., antigen specificity. In contrast to transformed New World monkey T cells, the human lines do not support lytic growth of the virus, even after chemical stimulation. Here we show that many viral genes remain silent during episomal persistence. However, the viral oncogene stpC is predominantly transcribed and translated to a stable cytoplasmic protein of 20 kDa that is heterogeneously expressed in individual cells. This 1.7-kb mRNA is bicistronic, encoding also Tip, a viral protein interacting with the T-cell-specific tyrosine kinase Lck. stpC/tip transcripts are heavily induced upon stimulation by mitogen or phorbol ester. Block of protein synthesis does not abolish transcription: treatment with cycloheximide greatly induces stpC/tip mRNA levels. Thus, this gene complex is regulated similarly to early T-cell activation genes. Constitutive and induced expression engage different transcription start sites. The T-cell regulation of the viral genes stpC and tip may contribute to the T-cell tropism of growth transformation by herpesvirus saimiri. PMID:8709223

  7. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase

  8. Four plant defensins from an indigenous South African Brassicaceae species display divergent activities against two test pathogens despite high sequence similarity in the encoding genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant defensins are an important component of the innate defence system of plants where they form protective antimicrobial barriers between tissue types of plant organs as well as around seeds. These peptides also have other activities that are important for agricultural applications as well as the medical sector. Amongst the numerous plant peptides isolated from a variety of plant species, a significant number of promising defensins have been isolated from Brassicaceae species. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of four defensins from Heliophila coronopifolia, a native South African Brassicaceae species. Results Four defensin genes (Hc-AFP1-4) were isolated with a homology based PCR strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the peptides were 72% similar and grouped closest to defensins isolated from other Brassicaceae species. The Hc-AFP1 and 3 peptides shared high homology (94%) and formed a unique grouping in the Brassicaceae defensins, whereas Hc-AFP2 and 4 formed a second homology grouping with defensins from Arabidopsis and Raphanus. Homology modelling showed that the few amino acids that differed between the four peptides had an effect on the surface properties of the defensins, specifically in the alpha-helix and the loop connecting the second and third beta-strands. These areas are implicated in determining differential activities of defensins. Comparing the activities after recombinant production of the peptides, Hc-AFP2 and 4 had IC50 values of 5-20 μg ml-1 against two test pathogens, whereas Hc-AFP1 and 3 were less active. The activity against Botrytis cinerea was associated with membrane permeabilization, hyper-branching, biomass reduction and even lytic activity. In contrast, only Hc-AFP2 and 4 caused membrane permeabilization and severe hyper-branching against the wilting pathogen Fusarium solani, while Hc-AFP1 and 3 had a mild morphogenetic effect on the fungus, without any indication of

  9. Molecular cloning and neurotrophic activities of a protein with structural similarities to nerve growth factor: developmental and topographical expression in the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Ernfors, P; Ibáñez, C F; Ebendal, T; Olson, L; Persson, H

    1990-01-01

    We have used a pool of degenerate oligonucleotides representing all possible codons in regions of homology between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) to prime rat hippocampal cDNAs in the polymerase chain reaction. The amplified DNA included a product with significant similarity to NGF and BDNF, which was used to isolate a 1020-nucleotide-long cDNA from a rat hippocampal library. From the nucleotide sequence, a 282-amino-acid-long protein with approximately 45% amino acid similarity to both pig BDNF and rat NGF was deduced. In the adult brain, the mRNA for this protein was predominantly expressed in hippocampus, where it was confined to a subset of pyramidal and granular neurons. The developmental expression in brain showed a clear peak shortly after birth, 1 and 2 weeks earlier than maximal expression of BDNF and NGF, respectively. It was also expressed in several peripheral tissues with the highest level in kidney. The protein, transiently expressed in COS cells, was tested on chicken embryonic neurons and readily stimulated fiber outgrowth from explanted Remak's ganglion and, to a lesser extent, the nodose ganglion. A weak, but consistent, fiber outgrowth response was also seen in the ciliary ganglion and in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia. Moreover, the protein displaced binding of NGF to its receptor, suggesting that it can interact with the NGF receptor. Thus, this factor, although structurally and functionally related to NGF and BDNF, has unique biological activities and represents a member of a family of neurotrophic factors that may cooperate to support the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system. Images PMID:2164684

  10. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  11. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  12. Fragmentation efficiencies of peptide ions following low energy collisional activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Scott G.; Gaskell, Simon J.

    1997-11-01

    Low energy fragmentations of protonated peptides in the gas phase are generally attributed to charge-directed processes. The extent and location of peptide backbone fragmentation is accordingly influenced by the extent to which charge is sequestered on amino acid side-chains. We describe systematic studies of the efficiencies of decomposition of peptide ions to assess in particular the influence of the presence of basic amino acid residues and of the protonation state. In a set of analogues containing two arginine, two histidine or two lysine residues, the extent of fragmentation of [M + 2H]2+ ions decreases with increased basicity, reflecting decreased backbone protonation. The collisionally activated dissociation of multiply protonated melittin ions shows an increase in fragmentation efficiency with higher charge state (using activation conditions which are similar for each charge state). For a single charge state, acetylation of primary amine groups increases fragmentation efficiency, consistent with the reduction in basicity of lysine side-chains. Conversion of arginine residues to the less basic dimethylpyrimidylornithine, however, decreases fragmentation efficiency, suggesting more effective sequestering of ionizing protons; the effect may be attributable to a disfavouring of proton-bridged structures but this hypothesis requires further study. Preliminary data for the decompositions of [M- 2H]2- ions derived from peptides containing two acidic residues suggest that the sequestration of charge away from the backbone is again detrimental to efficient fragmentation. Apparently diagnostic cleavages adjacent to aspartic acid residues are observed.

  13. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  14. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  15. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  16. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  17. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

  18. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  19. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  20. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    ZeRuth, Gary T.; Williams, Jason G.; Cole, Yasemin C.; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases. PMID:26147758

  1. Fam57b (family with sequence similarity 57, member B), a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ target gene that regulates adipogenesis through ceramide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita-Sugahara, Yzumi; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2013-02-15

    This report identifies a novel gene encoding Fam57b (family with sequence similarity 57, member B) as a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-responsive transmembrane gene that is related to obesity. The gene was identified based on an integrated bioinformatics analysis of the following three expression profiling data sets: adipocyte differentiation of mouse stromal cells (ST2 cells), adipose tissues from obesity mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pparγ using ST2 cells. Fam57b consists of three variants expressed from different promoters and contains a Tram-Lag1-CLN8 domain that is related to ceramide synthase. Reporter and ChIP assays showed that Fam57b variant 2 is a bona fide PPARγ target gene in ST2 cells. Fam57b was up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that FAM57B is involved in this process. Surprisingly, FAM57B overexpression inhibited adipogenesis, and siRNA-mediated knockdown promoted adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of the ceramide content by lipid assay found that ceramides were in fact augmented in FAM57B-overexpressing ST2 cells. We also confirmed that ceramide inhibits adipogenesis. Therefore, the aforementioned results of FAM57B overexpression and siRNA experiments are reconciled by ceramide synthesis. In summary, we present in vitro evidence showing that PPARγ regulates Fam57b transcription during the adipogenesis of ST2 cells. In addition, our results suggest that PPARγ activation contributes to the regulation of ceramide metabolism during adipogenesis via FAM57B. PMID:23275342

  2. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  3. CD4+ T cell polyfunctional profile in HIV-TB coinfection are similar between individuals with latent and active TB infection

    PubMed Central

    Canaday, David H.; Sridaran, Sankar; Van Epps, Puja; Aung, Htin; Burant, Christopher J.; Nsereko, Mary; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Betts, Michael R.; Toossi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cell counts of HIV-infected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) are higher than with other opportunistic infections suggesting that progression to PTB is not merely due to T cell depletion but also dysfunction. There are limited data examining T cell functional signatures in human HIV-TB co-infection particularly in PTB which accounts for about 80% of active TB disease overall. We examined a cohort of HIV-infected anti-retroviral naïve individuals in Kampala, Uganda, a TB endemic area using multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis to determine IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and TNF-α production in CD4+ memory T cell subsets. The cytokine frequency and polyfunctionality profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) or PTB is comparable. This similarity suggests that LTBI may represent a smoldering state of persistent MTB replication rather than dormant infection. This may be a contributory mechanism to the significantly increased risk of progression to PTB in this population. PMID:25956974

  4. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells.

    PubMed

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Cochis, Andrea; Beyrouthy, Marc El; Iriti, Marcello; Uberti, Francesca; Sorrentino, Rita; Landini, Manuela Miriam; Rimondini, Lia; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-01-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX. PMID:26007187

  5. Vertex similarity in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leicht, E. A.; Holme, Petter; Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-02-01

    We consider methods for quantifying the similarity of vertices in networks. We propose a measure of similarity based on the concept that two vertices are similar if their immediate neighbors in the network are themselves similar. This leads to a self-consistent matrix formulation of similarity that can be evaluated iteratively using only a knowledge of the adjacency matrix of the network. We test our similarity measure on computer-generated networks for which the expected results are known, and on a number of real-world networks.

  6. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  7. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  8. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  9. THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Raouafi, Nour-Eddine

    2012-11-01

    Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

  10. Striking Similarity of Murine Nectin-1α to Human Nectin-1α (HveC) in Sequence and Activity as a Glycoprotein D Receptor for Alphaherpesvirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Deepak; Dal Canto, Mauro C.; Rowe, Cynthia L.; Spear, Patricia G.

    2000-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the murine homolog of human nectin-1α (also known as poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 [Prr1] and herpesvirus entry protein C [HveC]) was isolated. The protein encoded by this cDNA proved to be 95% identical in sequence to the human protein and to have similar herpesvirus entry activity. Upon expression of the murine cDNA in hamster cells resistant to alphaherpesvirus entry, the cells became susceptible to the entry of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), pseudorabies virus, and bovine herpesvirus 1. HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD), a viral ligand for human nectin-1α, is also a ligand for the murine homolog based on evidence that (i) a soluble hybrid protein composed in part of the murine nectin-1 ectodomain bound specifically to purified soluble forms of HSV-1 and HSV-2 gD as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, (ii) a soluble hybrid of HSV-1 gD bound to hamster cells expressing murine nectin-1α but not to control cells, and (iii) cells expressing both murine nectin-1α and one of the alphaherpesvirus gDs were resistant to entry of HSV-1, indicative of interference with entry resulting from interactions of cell-associated gD with the entry receptor. Northern blot analysis revealed that nectin-1 is expressed in most of the mouse tissues examined and at high levels in the brain, skin, and kidneys. Immunocytochemical localization demonstrated the presence of nectin-1 in epithelial cells of the mouse vagina and also in neuronal cells of the central nervous system, suggesting an expression pattern relevant to both infection at a portal of entry and spread of infection to the brain. PMID:11090177

  11. How explicable are differences between reviews that appear to address a similar research question? A review of reviews of physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are promoted as being important to inform decision-making. However, when presented with a set of reviews in a complex area, how easy is it to understand how and why they may differ from one another? Methods An analysis of eight reviews reporting evidence on effectiveness of community interventions to promote physical activity. We assessed review quality and investigated overlap of included studies, citation of relevant reviews, consistency in reporting, and reasons why specific studies may be excluded. Results There were 28 included studies. The majority (n = 22; 79%) were included only in one review. There was little cross-citation between reviews (n = 4/28 possible citations; 14%). Where studies appeared in multiple reviews, results were consistently reported except for complex studies with multiple publications. Review conclusions were similar. For most reviews (n = 6/8; 75%), we could explain why primary data were not included; this was usually due to the scope of the reviews. Most reviews tended to be narrow in focus, making it difficult to gain an understanding of the field as a whole. Conclusions In areas where evaluating impact is known to be difficult, review findings often relate to uncertainty of data and methodologies, rather than providing substantive findings for policy and practice. Systematic ‘maps’ of research can help identify where existing research is robust enough for multiple in-depth syntheses and also show where new reviews are needed. To ensure quality and fidelity, review authors should systematically search for all publications from complex studies. Other relevant reviews should be searched for and cited to facilitate knowledge-building. PMID:22901701

  12. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  13. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  14. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Methods Young adults aged 18–35 (N = 97, 50 female) < 300 pounds played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterwards. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. Results A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ2(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA < .001; 90% CI = .000 - .206; p = .692. Enjoyment mediated the relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Conclusion Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PMID:23527520

  15. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  16. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  17. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability. PMID:22486712

  18. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  19. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  20. Biosimilar insulins: how similar is similar?

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-05-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the "original" insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  2. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  3. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  4. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  5. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  6. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  7. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  8. A nuclear Overhauser effect study of the active site of myeloperoxidase. Structural similarity of the prosthetic group to that on lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Dugad, L B; La Mar, G N; Lee, H C; Ikeda-Saito, M; Booth, K S; Caughey, W S

    1990-05-01

    The low-spin, cyanide-ligated ferric complex of the intact bovine granulocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO-CN) has been studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance utilizing the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE). This is the largest globular protein (approximately 1.5 x 10(5) for the intact alpha 2 beta 2 tetrameric species) for which successful NOEs have been observed without serious interference of spin diffusion, and demonstrably confirms the utility of such studies on large paramagnetic as compared to diamagnetic proteins. The 1H NMR spectrum of MPO-CN is found to have a remarkable similarity in the number, resonance pattern, and metal ion-induced relaxation properties of the resolved, hyperfine-shifted resonances to those reported earlier for the analogous complex of bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO-CN); moreover, the interproton connectivities between pairs of hyperfine-shifted proton sets, as reflected by the NOEs, are also essentially the same (Thanabal, V., and La Mar, G. N. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 7038-7044). Since the extracted prosthetic group of lactoperoxidase is a porphyrin with proposed functionalization of the 8-methylene group (Nichol, A. W., Angel, L. A., Moon, T., and Clezy, P. S. (1987) Biochem. J. 247, 147-150), we interpret the resultant similarity in 1H NMR spectral parameters for LPO-CN and MPO-CN as indicating that the prosthetic groups in MPO and LPO are very similar, and hence likely both porphyrins with a similarly functionalized periphery that allows covalent linkage to the protein matrix. The hyperfine shift pattern of the broadest resolved lines lead to their assignment to the axial histidyl imidazole side chain. Two pairs of resonances are found to have similar relaxation properties and/or dipolar as similarly shifted resonances that arise from a distal His and Arg in horseradish peroxidase (as also found in LPO-CN), and suggest that MPO also possesses these catalytically functional residues in the distal heme pocket. PMID:2158989

  9. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  10. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  11. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  12. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  13. Similarity by compression.

    PubMed

    Melville, James L; Riley, Jenna F; Hirst, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple and effective method for similarity searching in virtual high-throughput screening, requiring only a string-based representation of the molecules (e.g., SMILES) and standard compression software, available on all modern desktop computers. This method utilizes the normalized compression distance, an approximation of the normalized information distance, based on the concept of Kolmogorov complexity. On representative data sets, we demonstrate that compression-based similarity searching can outperform standard similarity searching protocols, exemplified by the Tanimoto coefficient combined with a binary fingerprint representation and data fusion. Software to carry out compression-based similarity is available from our Web site at http://comp.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/download/zippity. PMID:17238245

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  15. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349

  16. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-29

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

  17. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324

  18. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  19. Characterization of activation energy for flow in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, Y. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2011-01-15

    The molar volume (V{sub m}) scaled flow activation energy ({Delta}E), namely as the activation energy density {rho}{sub E}={Delta}E/V{sub m}, is proposed to describe the flow of metallic glasses. Based on the energy landscape, both the shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for the {rho}{sub E} of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in metallic glasses. The expression of {rho}{sub E} is determined experimentally to be a simple expression of {rho}{sub E}=(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The energy density perspective depicts a realistic picture for the flow in metallic glasses and is suggestive for understanding the glass transition and deformation in metallic glasses.

  20. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  1. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  2. The plant G box promoter sequence activates transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is bound in vitro by a yeast activity similar to GBF, the plant G box binding factor.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, R G; Schindler, U; Batschauer, A; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    G box and I box sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana ribulose-bisphosphate-1,5-carboxylase small subunit (RBCS) promoter are required for expression mediated by the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and are bound in vitro by factors from plant nuclear extracts termed GBF and GA-1, respectively. We show here that a -390 to -60 rbcS-1A promoter fragment containing the G box and two I boxes activates transcription from a truncated iso-1-cytochrome c (CYC1) gene promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis of either the rbcS-1A G box or both I box sequences eliminated the expression mediated by this fragment. When polymerized, I box oligonucleotides were also capable of enhancing expression from the truncated CYC1 promoter. Single-copy G box sequences from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A, Arabidopsis Adh and tomato rbcS-3A promoters were more potent activators and were used in mobility shift assays to identify a DNA binding activity in yeast functionally similar to GBF. In methylation interference experiments, the binding specificity of the yeast protein was indistinguishable from that obtained with plant nuclear extracts. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2161333

  3. Multivariate Hypergeometric Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a similarity measure based on the multivariate hypergeometric distribution for the pairwise comparison of images and data vectors. The formulation and performance of the proposed measure are compared with other similarity measures using synthetic data. A method of piecewise approximation is also implemented to facilitate application of the proposed measure to large samples. Example applications of the proposed similarity measure are presented using mass spectrometry imaging data and gene expression microarray data. Results from synthetic and biological data indicate that the proposed measure is capable of providing meaningful discrimination between samples, and that it can be a useful tool for identifying potentially related samples in large-scale biological data sets. PMID:24407308

  4. Women with knee osteoarthritis have more pain and poorer function than men, but similar physical activity prior to total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown. Methods This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity between women and men with knee osteoarthritis (N = 208) immediately prior to total knee arthroplasty. We assessed: (1) pain using self-report measures and a numerical rating scale at rest and during functional tasks, (2) pain sensitivity using quantitative sensory measures, (3) function with self-report measures and specific function tasks (timed walk, maximal active flexion and extension), (4) psychosocial measures (depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and social support), and (5) physical activity using accelerometry. The ability of these mixed variables to explain physical activity, function and pain was assessed using regression analysis. Results Our findings showed significant differences on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function tasks, but not on psychosocial measures or physical activity. Women had significantly worse pain and more impaired function than men. Their levels of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, social support, and physical activity, however, did not differ significantly. Factors explaining differences in (1) pain during movement (during gait speed test) were pain at rest, knee extension, state anxiety, and pressure pain threshold; (2) function (gait speed test) were sex, age, knee extension, knee flexion opioid medications, pain duration, pain

  5. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    centers are adequately separated by the linking molecules and constitute promising candiates for heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in synthesis, characterization, and catalytic performance of metal-organic networks are highlighted in this Account. Experimental results like structure determination of the networks, charge and spin distribution in the metal centers, and catalytic mechanisms for electrochemical reactions are presented. In particular, we describe the activity of two networks for the oxygen reduction reaction in a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical study. The similarities and differences of the networks compared to metallo-enzymes will be discussed, such as the metal surface that operates as a geometric template and concomitantly functions as an electron reservoir, and how this leads to a new class of bioinspired catalysts. The possibility to create functional two-dimensional coordination complexes at surfaces taking inspiration from nature opens up a new route for the design of potent nanocatalyst materials for energy conversion. PMID:26121410

  6. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  7. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  8. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  9. A Fluorescent Reporter of AMPK activity and Cellular Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Peiling; Zheng, Bin; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the AMP/ATP ratio in cells is elevated due to energy stress. Here we describe a biosensor, AMPKAR, which exhibits enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in response to phosphorylation by AMPK, allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of AMPK activity in single cells. We show that this reporter responds to a variety of stimuli that are known to induce energy stress and that the response is dependent on AMPK α1 & α2 and on the upstream kinase, LKB1. Interestingly we found that AMPK activation is confined to the cytosol in response to energy stress but can be observed in both the cytosol and nucleus in response to calcium elevation. Finally, using this probe with U2OS cells in a microfluidics device, we observed a very high cell-to-cell variability in the amplitude and time course of AMPK activation and recovery in response to pulses of glucose deprivation. PMID:21459332

  10. Similarity of molecular shape.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A Y; Richards, W G

    1991-10-01

    The similarity of one molecule to another has usually been defined in terms of electron densities or electrostatic potentials or fields. Here it is expressed as a function of the molecular shape. Formulations of similarity (S) reduce to very simple forms, thus rendering the computerised calculation straightforward and fast. 'Elements of similarity' are identified, in the same spirit as 'elements of chirality', except that the former are understood to be variable rather than present-or-absent. Methods are presented which bypass the time-consuming mathematical optimisation of the relative orientation of the molecules. Numerical results are presented and examined, with emphasis on the similarity of isomers. At the extreme, enantiomeric pairs are considered, where it is the dissimilarity (D = 1 - S) that is of consequence. We argue that chiral molecules can be graded by dissimilarity, and show that D is the shape-analog of the 'chirality coefficient', with the simple form of the former opening up numerical access to the latter. PMID:1770379

  11. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  12. Representation is representation of similarities.

    PubMed

    Edelman, S

    1998-08-01

    Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing the need for superordinate and basic-level categorization and for the identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a small number of tuned modules, each broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a low-dimensional proximal shape space spanned by the outputs of the active modules. This shape space supports representations of distal shape similarities that are veridical as Shepard's (1968) second-order isomorphisms (i.e., correspondence between distal and proximal similarities among shapes, rather than between distal shapes and their proximal representations). Representation in terms of similarities to reference shapes supports processing (e.g., discrimination) of shapes that are radically different from the reference ones, without the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts required by other theories. Furthermore, a general expression for similarity between two stimuli, based on comparisons to reference shapes, can be used to derive models of perceived similarity ranging from continuous, symmetric, and hierarchical ones, as in multidimensional scaling (Shepard 1980), to discrete and nonhierarchical ones, as in the general contrast models (Shepard & Arabie 1979; Tversky 1977). PMID:10097019

  13. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  14. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children. PMID:20810313

  15. Surface-Energy Dependent Contact Activation of Blood Factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Parhi, Purnendu; Dimachkie, Ziad O.; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension τao=γlvocosθ in dyne/cm, where γlvo is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and θ is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties −36<τao<72 dyne/cm (0° ≤ θ < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20<τao<40 dyne/cm (55° < θ < 75°) range over which activation yield (putatively FXIIa) rises just above detection limits. Activation is very rapid upon contact with all activators tested and did not significantly vary over 30 minutes of continuous FXII-procoagulant contact. Results suggest that materials falling within the 20<τao<40 dyne/cm surface-energy range should exhibit minimal activation of blood-plasma coagulation through the intrinsic pathway. Surface chemistries falling within this range are, however, a perplexingly difficult target for surface engineering because of the critical balance that must be struck between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Results are interpreted within the context of blood plasma coagulation and the role of water and proteins at procoagulant surfaces. PMID:19892397

  16. Fibrous Papule of the Face, Similar to Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-Associated Angiofibroma, Shows Activation of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway: Evidence for a Novel Therapeutic Strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jung-Yi Lisa; Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Fang, Chia-Lang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous papules of the face are hamartomas characterized by stellate-shaped stromal cells, multinucleated giant cells, and proliferative blood vessels in the dermis. The pathogenesis of fibrous papules remains unclear. There is a striking microscopic resemblance between fibrous papules and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated angiofibromas. A germline mutation of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, leading to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, accounts for the pathogenesis of TSC-associated angiofibromas. Activated mTOR subsequently activates p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6) by phosphorylation. Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, is effective in treating TSC-associated angiofibromas. The aim of this study was to understand whether the mTOR pathway is activated in fibrous papules. We studied immunoexpressions of phosphorylated (p-) mTOR effectors in fibrous papules, TSC-associated angiofibromas, and normal skin controls. P-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-S6 were highly expressed in dermal stromal cells and epidermal keratinocytes in fibrous papules and TSC-associated angiofibromas but not in fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes of normal skin controls (p<0.001). The results suggest topical rapamycin may be a novel treatment option for fibrous papules. PMID:24558502

  17. Similar potential ATP-P production and enzymatic activities in the microplankton community off Concepción (Chile) under oxic and suboxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Rodrigo R.; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H.; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the metabolism of the heterotrophic microplankton community (0.22-100 μm) in the Humboldt Current System, as well as the factors controlling its biomass production, remain unknown. Here we compare the effect of four sources of dissolved organic carbon (glucose, oxaloacetate, glycine, leucine) on microbial biomass production (such as ATP-P) and the potential enzymatic activities involved in catabolic pathways under oxic and suboxic conditions. Our results show significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the ATP-P production when induced by the different substrates that are used as dissolved organic carbon herein. The induction of ATP-P production is enhanced from glucose < oxaloacetate < glycine < leucine. Nevertheless, for individual substrates, no significant differences were found between incubation under oxic and suboxic conditions except in the case of leucine. For this amino acid, the induction of ATP-P synthesis was higher under suboxic than oxic conditions. The data sets of all the substrates used showed greater potential ATP-P production under suboxic than oxic conditions. The results of the potential enzymatic activities suggest that malate dehydrogenase has the highest signal of NADH oxidization activity in the microbial assemblage. Furthermore, for all experiments, the malate dehydrogenase activity data set had a significant relationship with ATP-P production. These findings suggest that the microbial community inhabiting the oxygen minimum zone has the same or greater potential growth than the community inhabiting more oxygenated strata of the water column and that malate dehydrogenase is the activity that best represents the metabolic potential of the community.

  18. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  19. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities since 1986. (76 FR 55278) The NOPR reflected a need.... ] DATES: DOE will continue to accept written comments on the SNOPR published August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46829... a second opportunity to comment. (78 FR 46829) II. Second Public Meeting A public meeting on...

  20. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  1. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  2. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  3. Inferred metagenomic comparison of mucosal and fecal microbiota from individuals undergoing routine screening colonoscopy reveals similar differences observed during active inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei San; Poles, Jordan; Leung, Jacqueline M; Wolff, Martin J; Davenport, Michael; Lee, Soo Ching; Lim, Yvonne Al; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng; Cho, Ilseung

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal microbiota lives in close proximity with the intestinal epithelium and may interact more directly with the host immune system than the luminal/fecal bacteria. The availability of nutrients in the mucus layer of the epithelium is also very different from the gut lumen environment. Inferred metagenomic analysis for microbial function of the mucosal microbiota is possible by PICRUSt. We recently found that by using this approach, actively inflamed tissue of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients have mucosal communities enriched for genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism, and reduced for carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. Here, we find that the same bacterial taxa (e.g. Acinetobacter) and predicted microbial pathways enriched in actively inflamed colitis tissue are also enriched in the mucosa of subjects undergoing routine screening colonoscopies, when compared with paired samples of luminal/fecal bacteria. These results suggest that the mucosa of healthy individuals may be a reservoir of aerotolerant microbial communities expanded during colitis. PMID:25559083

  4. Wear Independent Similarity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Adam; Davis, Alexander; Kim, Joohyung; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-06-17

    This study presents a new factor that can be used to design materials where desired surface properties must be retained under in-system wear and abrasion. To demonstrate this factor, a synthetic nonwetting coating is presented that retains chemical and geometric performance as material is removed under multiple wear conditions: a coarse vitrified abradant (similar to sanding), a smooth abradant (similar to rubbing), and a mild abradant (a blend of sanding and rubbing). With this approach, such a nonwetting material displays unprecedented mechanical durability while maintaining desired performance under a range of demanding conditions. This performance, herein termed wear independent similarity performance (WISP), is critical because multiple mechanisms and/or modes of wear can be expected to occur in many typical applications, e.g., combinations of abrasion, rubbing, contact fatigue, weathering, particle impact, etc. Furthermore, these multiple wear mechanisms tend to quickly degrade a novel surface's unique performance, and thus many promising surfaces and materials never scale out of research laboratories. Dynamic goniometry and scanning electron microscopy results presented herein provide insight into these underlying mechanisms, which may also be applied to other coatings and materials. PMID:26018058

  5. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  6. Palmitate activates mTOR/p70S6K through AMPK inhibition and hypophosphorylation of raptor in skeletal muscle cells: Reversal by oleate is similar to metformin.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bumsup; Querfurth, Henry W

    2015-11-01

    Excessive saturated free fatty acids (SFFAs; e.g. palmitate) in blood are a pathogenic factor in diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and liver failure. In contrast, monounsaturated free fatty acids (e.g. oleate) prevent the toxic effect of SFFAs in various types of cells. The mechanism is poorly understood and involvement of the mTOR complex is untested. In the present study, we demonstrate that oleate preconditioning, as well as coincubation, completely prevented palmitate-induced markers of inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance and cytotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. We then examined the effect of palmitate and/or oleate on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal path and whether their link is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Palmitate decreased the phosphorylation of raptor and 4E-BP1 while increasing the phosphorylation of p70S6K. Palmitate also inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK, but did not change the phosphorylated levels of mTOR or rictor. Oleate completely prevented the palmitate-induced dysregulation of mTOR components and restored pAMPK whereas alone it produced no signaling changes. To understand this more, we show activation of AMPK by metformin also prevented palmitate-induced changes in the phosphorylations of raptor and p70S6K, confirming that the mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway is responsive to AMPK activity. By contrast, inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by Compound C worsened palmitate-induced changes and correspondingly blocked the protective effect of oleate. Finally, metformin modestly attenuated palmitate-induced insulin resistance and cytotoxicity, as did oleate. Our findings indicate that palmitate activates mTORC1/p70S6K signaling by AMPK inhibition and phosphorylation of raptor. Oleate reverses these effects through a metformin-like facilitation of AMPK. PMID:26344902

  7. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. PMID:27527785

  8. The shareholding similarity of the shareholders of the worldwide listed energy companies based on a two-mode primitive network and a one-mode derivative holding-based network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi

    2014-12-01

    Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based

  9. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  10. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  11. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  12. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  13. Hepatic ERK activity plays a role in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Feng, Bin; Li, Yujie; He, Qin; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-08-15

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38, have been reported to play important roles in energy homeostasis. In this study, we show that the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is increased in the livers of diet induced and genetically obese mice. Activation of ERK in the livers of lean mice by over-expressing the constitutively active MAPK kinase 1 (MEK CA) results in decreased energy expenditure, lowered expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, increases fasting hyperglycemia and causes systemic insulin resistance. Interestingly, hepatic glycogen content is markedly increased and expression of G6Pase gene is decreased in mice over-expressing MEK CA compared to control mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), therefore hepatic glucose output is not likely the major contributor of hyperglycemia. One potential mechanism of decreased expression of G6Pase gene by MEK CA is likely due to ERK mediated phosphorylation and cytosolic retention of FOXO1. Adipocytes isolated from MEK CA mice display increased lipolysis. Circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in these mice are also increased, which possibly contribute to systemic insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia. Consistent with these results, knocking down ERK expression in the liver of diet induced obese (DIO) mice improves systemic insulin and glucose tolerance. These results indicate that increased hepatic ERK activity in DIO mice may contribute to increased liver glycogen content and decreased energy expenditure in obesity. PMID:23732116

  14. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  15. Weak Power Frequency Magnetic Field Acting Similarly to EGF Stimulation, Induces Acute Activations of the EGFR Sensitive Actin Cytoskeleton Motility in Human Amniotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Cao, Mei-Ping; Shen, Yun-Yun; Chu, Ke-Ping; Tao, Wu-Bin; Song, Wei-Tao; Liu, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Yu-Fang; Chen, Shu-De; Zeng, Qun-Li; Xia, Ruo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have examined the motility-related effects of weak power frequency magnetic fields (MFs) on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitive motility mechanism, including the F-actin cytoskeleton, growth of invasive protrusions and the levels of signal molecules in human amniotic epithelial (FL) cells. Without extracellular EGF stimulation, the field stimulated a large growth of new protrusions, especially filopodia and lamellipodia, an increased population of vinculin-associated focal adhesions. And, an obvious reduction of stress fiber content in cell centers was found, corresponding to larger cell surface areas and decreased efficiency of actin assembly of FL cells in vitro, which was associated with a decrease in overall F-actin content and special distributions. These effects were also associated with changes in protein content or distribution patterns of the EGFR downstream motility-related signaling molecules. All of these effects are similar to those following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of the cells and are time dependent. These results suggest that power frequency MF exposure acutely affects the migration/motility-related actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is regulated by the EGFR-cytoskeleton signaling pathway. Therefore, upon the MF exposure, cells are likely altered to be ready to transfer into a state of migration in response to the stimuli. PMID:24505297

  16. Extending the energy range of materials activation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    Activation calculations are an essential contribution to understanding the interactions of fusion materials with neutrons. The existing state-of-the-art tools such as EASY-2003 enable calculations to be carried out with neutrons up to 20 MeV. Plans to expose fusion components to high neutron fluxes include the IFMIF materials testing facility. This accelerator-based device will produce neutrons with a high-energy tail up to about 55 MeV. In order to carry out activation calculations on materials exposed to such neutrons it is necessary to extend the energy range of the data libraries. An extension of the European Activation System (EASY) to a new version, EASY-2004, for testing has been completed. The existing reactions have been extended up to 60 MeV and new classes of reactions added using calculated cross sections. Results of preliminary calculations in an IFMIF relevant neutron field are given.

  17. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  18. Evaluation of Biological and Enzymatic Activity of Soil in a Tropical Dry Forest: Desierto de la Tatacoa (Colombia) with Potential in Mars Terraforming and Other Similar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Moreno, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Desierto de la Tatacoa has been determined to be a tropical dry forest bioma, which is located at 3° 13" N 75° 13" W. It has a hot thermal floor with 440 msnm of altitude; it has a daily average of 28° C, and a maximum of 40° C, Its annual rainfall total can be upwards of 1250 mm. Its solar sheen has a daily average of 5.8 hours and its relative humidity is between 60% and 65%. Therefore, the life forms presents are very scant, and in certain places, almost void. It was realized a completely random sampling of soil from its surface down to 6 inches deep, of zones without vegetation and with soils highly loaded by oxides of iron in order to determine the number of microorganisms per gram and its subsequent identification. It was measured the soil basal respiration. Besides, it was determined enzymatic activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease). Starting with the obtained results, it is developes an alternative towards the study of soil genesis in Mars in particular, and recommendations for same process in other planets. Although the information found in the experiments already realized in Martian soil they demonstrate that doesnt exist any enzymatic activity, the knowledge of the same topic in the soil is proposed as an alternative to problems like carbonic fixing of the dense Martian atmosphere of CO2, the degradation of inorganic compounds amongst other in order to prepare the substratum for later colonization by some life form.

  19. Seismic structure and activity of the north-central Lesser Antilles subduction zone from an integrated approach: Similarities with the Tohoku forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laigle, M.; Hirn, A.; Sapin, M.; Bécel, A.; Charvis, P.; Flueh, E.; Diaz, J.; Lebrun, J.-F.; Gesret, A.; Raffaele, R.; Galvé, A.; Evain, M.; Ruiz, M.; Kopp, H.; Bayrakci, G.; Weinzierl, W.; Hello, Y.; Lépine, J.-C.; Viodé, J.-P.; Sachpazi, M.; Gallart, J.; Kissling, E.; Nicolich, R.

    2013-09-01

    The 300-km-long north-central segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, including Martinique and Guadeloupe islands has been the target of a specific approach to the seismic structure and activity by a cluster of active and passive offshore-onshore seismic experiments. The top of the subducting plate can be followed under the wide accretionary wedge by multichannel reflection seismics. This reveals the hidden updip limit of the contact of the upper plate crustal backstop onto the slab. Two OBS refraction seismic profiles from the volcanic arc throughout the forearc domain constrain a 26-km-large crustal thickness all along. In the common assumption that the upper plate Moho contact on the slab is a proxy of its downdip limit these new observations imply a three times larger width of the potential interplate seismogenic zone under the marine domain of the Caribbean plate with respect to a regular intra-oceanic subduction zone. Towards larger depth under the mantle corner, the top of the slab imaged from the conversions of teleseismic body-waves and the locations of earthquakes appears with kinks which increase the dip to 10-20° under the forearc domain, and then to 60° from 70 km depth. At 145 km depth under the volcanic arc just north of Martinique, the 2007 M 7.4 earthquake, largest for half a century in the region, allows to document a deep slab deformation consistent with segmentation into slab panels. In relation with this occurrence, an increased seismic activity over the whole depth range provides a new focussed image thanks to the OBS and land deployments. A double-planed dipping slab seismicity is thus now resolved, as originally discovered in Tohoku (NE Japan) and since in other subduction zones. Two other types of seismic activity uniquely observed in Tohoku, are now resolved here: "supraslab" earthquakes with normal-faulting focal mechanisms reliably located in the mantle corner and "deep flat-thrust" earthquakes at 45 km depth on the interplate

  20. A Comparison of the Availability and Failure Modes of the BaBar Superconducting Solenoid with Similar Magnets at Other High Energy Physics Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Knodel, Mallory

    2003-09-05

    One of the key technologies in the BaBar detector is the 1.5 T superconducting solenoid. It is imperative that this device operate reliably at its nominal current to allow data taking. While this system is available for physics 98.8% of the time, further improvements are desirable. The object of this project is to survey similar magnet systems, for example those at KEK (Belle), Fermilab (D0 and CDF), DESY (H1 and ZEUS), and CERN (ALEPH and DELPHI), to see how often such magnets stop functioning properly and what the root causes of the failures are. A survey was carried out via e-mail and telephone calls. Information was obtained regarding the operation of superconducting magnets, specifically the BaBar magnet and its ancillary systems, as well as an overview of the use of other such magnets both in the US and overseas. In this work, failure modes will be investigated and compared to the BaBar operational experience. Future investigations can now assess the feasibility of reducing the time the BaBar magnet is nonoperational and unavailable for physics research.

  1. Dynamically stable, self-similarly evolving, and self-organized states of high beta tokamak and reversed pinch plasmas and advanced active control

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Fukasawa, Toshinobu

    2009-11-15

    Generalized simultaneous eigenvalue equations derived from a generalized theory of self-organization are applied to a set of simultaneous equations for two-fluid model plasmas. An advanced active control by using theoretical time constants is proposed by predicting quantities to be controlled. Typical high beta numerical configurations are presented for the ultra low q tokamak plasmas and the reversed-field pinch (RFP) ones in cylindrical geometry by solving the set of simultaneous eigenvalue equations. Improved confinement with no detectable saw-teeth oscillations in tokamak experiments is reasonably explained by the shortest time constant of ion flow. The shortest time constant of poloidal ion flow is shown to be a reasonable mechanism for suppression of magnetic fluctuations by pulsed poloidal current drives in RFP experiments. The bifurcation from basic eigenmodes to mixed ones deduced from stability conditions for eigenvalues is shown to be a good candidate for the experimental bifurcation from standard RFP plasmas to their improved confinement regimes.

  2. A gene in the chromosomal region 3p21 with greatly reduced expression in lung cancer is similar to the gene for ubiquitin-activating enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kok, K; Hofstra, R; Pilz, A; van den Berg, A; Terpstra, P; Buys, C H; Carritt, B

    1993-01-01

    The chromosomal region 3p21 is thought to be the site of a lung tumor suppressor gene. We recently cloned a gene from this region that has greatly reduced expression in almost all lung tumor cell lines examined, in spite of being widely expressed in a variety of other tumor and nontumor cell types. We report here the sequence of this gene and show that it has significant homology to the genes encoding the ubiquitin-activating enzymes of three species, including humans. This suggests it is a second, autosomal member of this gene family in humans and may play a role in the ubiquitin conjugation pathway, which is of central importance in all eukaryotes. PMID:8327486

  3. Activation energies for addition of O/3P/ to simple olefins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Description of relative rate measurements for the addition of O(3P) to C2H4, C2F4, C3H6, and C4H8-1 in liquid argon at 87.5 K. The data strongly indicate that the activation energies for the addition of O(3P) to the double bonds of propylene and butene-1 are identical, probably to within 0.1 kcal/mole. It is very doubtful that differences in pre-exponential factors or other factors such as solvent effects, could invalidate this conclusion. A similar argument holds for the C2H4 and C2F4 reactions. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the activation energy for addition of O(3P) to the double bond of butene-1 is about 0.1 kcal/mole.

  4. Adolescent girls' energy expenditure during dance simulation active computer gaming.

    PubMed

    Fawkner, Samantha G; Niven, Alisa; Thin, Alasdair G; Macdonald, Mhairi J; Oakes, Jemma R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy expended and intensity of physical activity achieved by adolescent girls while playing on a dance simulation game. Twenty adolescent girls were recruited from a local secondary school. Resting oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate were analysed while sitting quietly and subsequently during approximately 30 min of game play, with 10 min at each of three increasing levels of difficulty. Energy expenditure was predicted from VO(2) at rest and during game play at three levels of play, from which the metabolic equivalents (METS) of game playing were derived. Mean +/- standard deviation energy expenditure for levels 1, 2, and 3 was 3.63 +/- 0.58, 3.65 +/- 0.54, and 4.14 +/- 0.71 kcal . min(-1) respectively, while mean activity for each level of play was at least of moderate intensity (>3 METS). Dance simulation active computer games provide an opportunity for most adolescent girls to exercise at moderate intensity. Therefore, regular playing might contribute to daily physical activity recommendations for good health in this at-risk population. PMID:20013462

  5. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  6. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  7. Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942

  8. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  9. The qualitative similarity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Peter V; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within the purview of two groups of cognitive models: those that emphasize the cognitive development of individuals and those that pertain to disciplinary or knowledge structures. It is argued that the QSH has scientific merit with implications for classroom instruction. Future research should examine the validity of the QSH in other disciplines such as mathematics and science and should include perspectives from social as well as cognitive models. PMID:20415280

  10. The regulatory c1 locus of Zea mays encodes a protein with homology to myb proto-oncogene products and with structural similarities to transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Ares, J; Ghosal, D; Wienand, U; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the wild-type c1 locus of Zea mays was determined by sequence analysis of one genomic and two cDNA clones. The coding region is composed of three exons (150 bp, 129 bp and one, at least 720 bp) and two small introns (88 bp and 145 bp). Transcription of the mRNAs corresponding to the two cDNA clones cLC6 (1.1 kb) and cLC28 (2.1 kb) starts from the same promoter. Both cDNAs are identical except that cLC28 extends further at its 3' end. A putative protein, 273 amino acids in length was deduced from the sequence of both transcripts. It contains two domains, one basic and the other acidic and might function as a transcriptional activator. The basic domain of this c1-encoded protein shows 40% sequence homology to the protein products of animal myb proto-oncogenes. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3428265

  11. Self Similar Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zheng-Xuan

    This research proposes Self Similar optical fiber (SSF) as a new type of optical fiber. It has a special core that consists of self similar structure. Such a structure is obtained by following the formula for generating iterated function systems (IFS) in Fractal Theory. The resulted SSF can be viewed as a true fractal object in optical fibers. In addition, the method of fabricating SSF makes it possible to generate desired structures exponentially in numbers, whereas it also allows lower scale units in the structure to be reduced in size exponentially. The invention of SSF is expected to greatly ease the production of optical fiber when a large number of small hollow structures are needed in the core of the optical fiber. This dissertation will analyze the core structure of SSF based on fractal theory. Possible properties from the structural characteristics and the corresponding applications are explained. Four SSF samples were obtained through actual fabrication in a laboratory environment. Different from traditional conductive heating fabrication system, I used an in-house designed furnace that incorporated a radiation heating method, and was equipped with automated temperature control system. The obtained samples were examined through spectrum tests. Results from the tests showed that SSF does have the optical property of delivering light in a certain wavelength range. However, SSF as a new type of optical fiber requires a systematic research to find out the theory that explains its structure and the associated optical properties. The fabrication and quality of SSF also needs to be improved for product deployment. As a start of this extensive research, this dissertation work opens the door to a very promising new area in optical fiber research.

  12. Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

  13. Conversion of NfsA, the Major Escherichia coli Nitroreductase, to a Flavin Reductase with an Activity Similar to That of Frp, a Flavin Reductase in Vibrio harveyi, by a Single Amino Acid Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, Shuhei; Kobori, Toshiro; Tanokura, Masaru; Saigo, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    NfsA is the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase of Escherichia coli, similar in amino acid sequence to Frp, a flavin reductase of Vibrio harveyi. Here, we show that a single amino acid substitution at position 99, which may destroy three hydrogen bonds in the putative active center, transforms NfsA from a nitroreductase into a flavin reductase that is as active as the authentic Frp and a tartrazine reductase that is 30-fold more active than wild-type NfsA. PMID:9440535

  14. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  15. Both Food Restriction and High-Fat Diet during Gestation Induce Low Birth Weight and Altered Physical Activity in Adult Rat Offspring: The “Similarities in the Inequalities” Model

    PubMed Central

    Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called “Similarities in the Inequalities”, in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the “similarities in the inequalities” phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam’s habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The “similarities in the inequalities” effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms. PMID:25738800

  16. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions. PMID:24978345

  17. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  18. Differential activity and structure of highly similar peroxidases. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and enzymatic analyses of lignifying Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase A2 and horseradish peroxidase A2.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K L; Indiani, C; Henriksen, A; Feis, A; Becucci, M; Gajhede, M; Smulevich, G; Welinder, K G

    2001-09-18

    Anionic Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase ATP A2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as a model for the 95% identical commercially available horseradish peroxidase HRP A2. The crystal structure of ATP A2 at 1.45 A resolution at 100 K showed a water molecule only 2.1 A from heme iron [Ostergaard, L., et al. (2000) Plant Mol. Biol. 44, 231-243], whereas spectroscopic studies of HRP A2 in solution at room temperature [Feis, A., et al. (1998) J. Raman Spectrosc. 29, 933-938] showed five-coordinated heme iron, which is common in peroxidases. Presented here, the X-ray crystallographic, single-crystal, and solution resonance Raman studies at room temperature confirmed that the sixth coordination position of heme iron of ATP A2 is essentially vacant. Furthermore, electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy showed that the heme environments of recombinant ATP A2 and glycosylated plant HRP A2 are indistinguishable at neutral and alkaline pH, from room temperature to 12 K, and are highly flexible compared with other plant peroxidases. Ostergaard et al. (2000) also demonstrated that ATP A2 expression and lignin formation coincide in Arabidopsis tissues, and docking of lignin precursors into the substrate binding site of ATP A2 predicted that coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols were good substrates. In contrast, the additional methoxy group of the sinapyl moiety gave rise to steric hindrance, not only in A2 type peroxidases but also in all peroxidases. We confirm these predictions for ATP A2, HRP A2, and HRP C. The specific activity of ATP A2 was lower than that of HRP A2 (pH 4-8), although a steady-state study at pH 5 demonstrated very little difference in their rate constants for reaction with H2O2 (k1 = 1.0 microM(-1) x s(-1). The oxidation of coniferyl alcohol, ferulic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids by HRP A2, and ATP A2, however, gave modest but significantly different k3 rate constants of 8.7 +/- 0.3, 4.0 +/- 0.2, 0.70 +/- 0.03, and 0.04 +/- 0.2 microM(-1) x

  19. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons. PMID:21613268

  20. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes: effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets.

    PubMed

    Jodice, P G R; Roby, D D; Suryan, R M; Irons, D B; Kaufman, A M; Turco, K R; Visser, G H

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates (FMR) of these same individuals (n=20) using the doubly labeled water technique. Estimated metabolic rates of kittiwakes attending their brood at the nest or loafing near the colony were similar (ca. 1.3 x basal metabolic rate [BMR]), although loafing during foraging trips was more costly (2.9 x BMR). Metabolic rates during commuting flight (7.3 x BMR) and prey-searching flight (6.2 x BMR) were similar, while metabolic rates during plunge diving were much higher (ca. 47 x BMR). The proportion of the measurement interval spent foraging had a positive effect on FMR (R2=0.68), while the combined proportion of time engaged in nest attendance and loafing near the colony had a negative effect on FMR (R2=0.72). Thus, more than two-thirds of the variation in kittiwake FMR could be explained by the allocation of time among various activities. The high energetic cost of plunge diving relative to straight flight and searching flight suggests that kittiwakes can optimize their foraging strategy under conditions of low food availability by commuting long distances to feed in areas where gross foraging efficiency is high. PMID:12905124

  1. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes: Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Kaufman, A.M.; Turco, K.R.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates (FMR) of these same individuals (n = 20) using the doubly labeled water technique. Estimated metabolic rates of kittiwakes attending their brood at the nest or loafing near the colony were similar (ca. 1.3 x basal metabolic rate [BMR]), although loafing during foraging trips was more costly (2.9 x BMR). Metabolic rates during commuting flight (7.3 x BMR) and prey-searching flight (6.2 x BMR) were similar, while metabolic rates during plunge diving were much higher (ca. 47 x BMR). The proportion of the measurement interval spent foraging had a positive effect on FMR (R2 = 0.68), while the combined proportion of time engaged in nest attendance and loafing near the colony had a negative effect on FMR (R2 = 0.72). Thus, more than two-thirds of the variation in kittiwake FMR could be explained by the allocation of time among various activities. The high energetic cost of plunge diving relative to straight flight and searching flight suggests that kittiwakes can optimize their foraging strategy under conditions of low food availability by commuting long distances to feed in areas where gross foraging efficiency is high.

  2. Stellar activity effects on high energy exoplanet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    High energy (X-ray / UV) observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At such high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. At these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the stellar disk appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as extended bright features that evolve on a much shorter timescale than in the optical making it difficult . These features impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulated exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  3. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  4. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  5. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  6. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  7. Survival Advantage of AMPK Activation to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells During Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Mohler, James L.; Ip, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Androgen-independent prostate cancer usually develops as a relapse following androgen ablation therapy. Removing androgen systemically causes vascular degeneration and nutrient depletion of the prostate tumor tissue. The fact that the malignancy later evolves to androgen-independence suggests that some cancer cells are able to survive the challenge of energy/nutrient deprivation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important manager of energy stress. The present study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in contributing to the survival of the androgen-independent phenotype. Most of the experiments were carried out in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and the androgen-independent C4-2 cells. These two cell lines have the same genetic background, since the C4-2 line is derived from the LNCaP line. Glucose deprivation (GD) was instituted to model energy stress encountered by these cells. The key findings are as follows. First, the activation of AMPK by GD was much stronger in C4-2 cells than in LNCaP cells, and the robustness of AMPK activation was correlated favorably with cell viability. Second, the response of AMPK was specific to energy deficiency rather than to amino acid deficiency. The activation of AMPK by GD was functional, as demonstrated by appropriate phosphorylation changes of mTOR and mTOR downstream substrates. Third, blocking AMPK activation by chemical inhibitor or dominant negative AMPK led to increased apoptotic cell death. The observation that similar results were found in other androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, including CW22Rv1 abd VCaP, provided further assurance that AMPK is a facilitator on the road to androgen-independence of prostate cancer cells. PMID:20570728

  8. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  9. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  10. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  11. Oxygen uptake and energy expenditure for children during rock climbing activity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip Baxter; Ostrowski, Megan L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in children during rock climbing activity. 29 children (age = 10.9 ± 1.7 yr) participated in the study. A commercially available rock climbing structure with ample features for submaximal effort climbing provided continuous terrain. Participants were instructed to climb at a comfortable pace. Following an initial 5-min rest, each child climbed one sustained 5-min bout followed by 5-min sitting recovery for a total of 10 min (SUS). This was immediately followed by five 1-min climbing + 1-min recovery intervals for a second total of 10 min (INT). Expired air was analyzed continuously. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined via the Weir method for 10-s intervals throughout the full protocol. The total energy expenditure in kilocalories during the 10-min SUS period was 34.3 ± 11.3 kcal. Energy expenditure during the 10-min INT period averaged 39.3 ± 13.1 kcal and was significantly higher than during SUS (p < .05). The mean total EE for SUS + INT was 73.7 ± 24.2 kcal. EE was correlated with body mass; r = .86. The rock climbing tasks employed in this study produced EE levels similar to what have been reported in children for stair climbing, sports/games activities, and easy jogging. PMID:24018310

  12. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation". PMID:22316779

  13. Comprehensive program and plan for federal energy education, extension, and information activities: Fiscal Year 1981. Fifth report to congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The activities conducted solely in Fiscal Year (FY) 1981 in the areas of Federal energy education, extension service, and information dissemination are reported. The broad purpose of the FY 1981 activities addressed has been to inform governmental and private sectors about the methods and technologies to conserve energy and to utilize renewable energy sources. With the increase in awareness on the part of energy users and decisionmakers, as well as additional information sources available from the private sector, the emphasis of the various Federal energy information activities is being focused on reporting results of Federal programs. The course of activities related to conservation and renewable energy information has been one of consolidation, both in terms of programmatic substance and methods. The practical impetus has been the redirection of Federal progrms and related budgetary revisions for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Further, products conveying information on conservation and renewable energy technologies have been examined extensively, pursuant to the Administration's directive in April 1981 on elimination of wasteful spending on periodicals, audiovisuals and similar materials. Efforts in coordination of conservation and renewable energy information activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) as well as other Federal agencies have adjusted to timetables for review and redirection of programs initially planned for FY 1981. Mechanisms to coordinate existing Federal energy information activities employed in previous fiscal years were continued in FY 1981 to the extent applicable under current Administration policy and the above-noted circumstances of redirection. Coordinating actions requiring convening of groups were held in abeyance pending resolution of programmatic issues.

  14. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  15. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  16. The Energy Challenge: An Activity Master Program About our Energy Past, Present, and Future for Grades 5 Through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents 24 spirit duplicating activity masters and background materials for energy education in grades 5 through 8. These interdisciplinary materials are arranged in 6 units. Unit titles are: (1) Energy Overview; (2) Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas; (3) Energy Resources for Today and Tomorrow; (4) Energy Conservation;…

  17. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  18. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  19. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  20. Energy expenditure in children predicted from heart rate and activity calibrated against respiration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Treuth, M S; Adolph, A L; Butte, N F

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) and activity calibrated against 24-h respiration calorimetry in 20 children. HR, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and EE were measured during rest, sleep, exercise, and over 24 h by room respiration calorimetry on two separate occasions. Activity was monitored by a leg vibration sensor. The calibration day (day 1) consisted of specified behaviors categorized as inactive (lying, sitting, standing) or active (two bicycle sessions). On the validation day (day 2), the child selected activities. Separate regression equations for VO2, VCO2, and EE for method 1 (combining awake and asleep using HR, HR2, and HR3), method 2 (separating awake and asleep), and method 3 (separating awake into active and inactive, and combining activity and HR) were developed using the calibration data. For day 1, the errors were similar for 24-h VO2, VCO2, and EE among methods and also among HR, HR2, and HR3. The methods were validated using measured data from day 2. There were no significant differences in HR, VO2, VCO2, respiratory quotient, and EE values during rest, sleep, or over the 24 h between days 1 and 2. Applying the linear HR equations to day 2 data, the errors were the lowest with the combined HR/activity method (-2.6 +/- 5.2%, -4.1 +/- 5.9%, -2.9 +/- 5.1% for VO2, VCO2, and EE, respectively). To demonstrate the utility of the HR/activity method, HR and activity were monitored for 24 h at home (day 3). Free-living EE was predicted as 7,410 +/- 1,326 kJ/day. In conclusion, the combination of HR and activity is an acceptable method for determining EE not only for groups of children, but for individuals. PMID:9688868

  1. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  2. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  3. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  4. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  5. Effects of Easy-to-Use Protein-Rich Energy Bar on Energy Balance, Physical Activity and Performance during 8 Days of Sustained Physical Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Minna M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.; Uusitalo, Arja L.; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kinnunen, Hannu O.; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC. Methods Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day−1. Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC. Results Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA. Conclusion An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such

  6. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  8. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Il10 Inhibits Inflammatory Activities of Carp Macrophages and Promotes Proliferation of Igm+ B Cells and Memory T Cells in a Manner Similar to Carp Il10.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, M Carla; Wentzel, Annelieke S; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Forlenza, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease of carp and encodes for an Il10 homolog (ORF134). Our previous studies with a recombinant ORF134-deleted strain and the derived revertant strain suggested that cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Il10 (CyHV-3 Il10 [cyhv3Il10]) is not essential for viral replication in vitro, or virulence in vivo. In apparent contrast, cyhv3Il10 is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome and is structurally very similar to carp Il10 and also human IL10. To date, studies addressing the biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host have not been performed. To address the apparent contradiction between the presence of a structurally conserved Il10 homolog in the genome of CyHV-3 and the lack of a clear phenotype in vivo using recombinant cyhv3Il10-deleted viruses, we used an in vitro approach to investigate in detail whether cyhv3Il10 exerts any biological activity on carp cells. In this study, we provide direct evidence that cyhv3Il10 is biologically active and, similarly to carp Il10, signals via a conserved Stat3 pathway modulating immune cells of its natural host, carp. In vitro, cyhv3Il10 deactivates phagocytes with a prominent effect on macrophages, while also promoting proliferation of Igm(+) B cells and memory T cells. Collectively, this study demonstrates a clear biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host and indicates that cyhv3Il10 is a true viral ortholog of carp Il10. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report on biological activities of a nonmammalian viral Il10 homolog. PMID:26371255

  9. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called "blazars". The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future "Cherenkov Telescope Array", in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  10. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  11. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms. PMID:27498986

  12. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  13. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  14. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  15. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  16. Ideas and Activities for Teaching Energy Conservation: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan; And Others

    This publication contains a variety of ideas and materials for teaching about energy in grades 7-12. Topic areas include: (1) Historical Perspective on Energy; (2) Energy Resources; (3) Energy Conservation; (4) Ideas and Activities; and (5) Appendices. The first three sections provide background information on energy and conservation. The…

  17. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  18. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  19. Energy Expenditure of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is frequently a component of interventions designed to diminish weight gain in children. It is essential to determine whether the energy expenditure (EE) elicited by these interventions is sufficient to reduce the rate of weight gain. Purpose To quantify the EE of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum (PAAC) intervention. This intervention involved two 10-min physically active academic lessons per day, taught by classroom teachers. Methods We assessed EE of PAAC in 19 males and 19 females using both an indirect calorimeter (IC) (COSMED K4b2) and an accelerometer (ActiGraph) (AC). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate gender differences. Dependent t-tests were used to examine the difference between EE assessed by IC and AC. The agreement between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. A Pearson correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was calculated. Results There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, or EE; therefore, analyses by gender were not performed. The mean EE measured by IC was 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min(3.4 METs). Mean EE estimated by AC (1.8 ± 0.9 kcal/min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than EE measured by IC (mean underestimation = 1.3 kcal/min). The Bland-Altman plot suggested increased underestimation with increased levels of EE. The 95% limits of agreement were large (-2.8 to +0.3 kcal/min). The correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was r = 0.68 (P < 0.001). Conclusion PAAC elicited a level of EE that may prevent excessive weight gain in children. AC significantly underestimated the EE of PAAC lessons and may not provide useful EE estimates in this context. PMID:18614939

  20. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  1. Exemplar Similarity and Rule Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ulrike; Prat-Sala, Merce; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2010-01-01

    We report four experiments examining effects of instance similarity on the application of simple explicit rules. We found effects of similarity to illustrative exemplars in error patterns and reaction times. These effects arose even though participants were given perfectly predictive rules, the similarity manipulation depended entirely on…

  2. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  3. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  4. A behaviour of electron and ion energy and angular distribution during the active APEX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Prech, L.

    1993-10-01

    The APEX project (Active Plasma Experiment) involves two spacecrafts moving along the same polar orbit (perigeum 440 km, apogeum 3080 km). The distance between these spacecrafts can be controlled in a wide range - from 1 to 1000 km, enabling a variety of two-point measurements. The principal feature of the experiment is an electron and ion gun, with variable parameters of injected beams, mounted on board the main satellite. Both objects are provided with fast ionelectron energy spectrometers having energy range from 50 eV to 30 keV. The spectrometers cover a full 4p of angular directions. This paper explains experimental possibilities offered by the APEX set-up, especially for the study of artificial disturbances created by the electron gun, and presents first results on the ion and electron distribution function measurements. The most interesting observation is a similarity between the undisturbed energy distribution in the polar region and that resulting from the electron beam-plasma interaction in lower latitudes.

  5. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  6. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei:. Sources for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, P. L.; Becker, J. K.; Caramete, L.; Gergely, L.; Mariş, I. C.; Meli, A.; de Souza, V.; Stanev, T.

    Ultra high energy cosmic ray events presently show a spectrum, which we interpret here as galactic cosmic rays due to a starburst, in the radio galaxy Cen A which is pushed up in energy by the shock of a relativistic jet. The knee feature and the particles with energy immediately higher in galactic cosmic rays then turn into the bulk of ultra high energy cosmic rays. This entails that all ultra high energy cosmic rays are heavy nuclei. This picture is viable if the majority of the observed ultra high energy events come from the radio galaxy Cen A, and are scattered by intergalactic magnetic fields across much of the sky.

  8. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  9. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  10. Similar effects of cocaine and immobilization stress on the levels of heat-shock proteins and stress-activated protein kinases in the rat hippocampus, and on swimming behaviors: the contribution of dopamine and benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K; Muso, E; Shiota, K; Hayashi, T

    2003-11-01

    Cocaine (COC) has been reported to cause effects similar to physiological stressors in the brain neuroendocrinal system, including heat-shock protein (HSP) expression, although these effects have not been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated (4 days) treatments with cocaine hydrochloride (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and 10 min immobilization stress (IM) on the distribution of HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) (SAPKalpha, SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) immunoreactive nerve cells (positive cells) in the rat hippocampus. The swimming behaviors of the rats in the forced swimming test were also examined. In both COC and IM groups, an early enhancement (5 h time point) of hippocampal HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and SAPK (SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) positive cells was observed, whereas a recovery (SAPKs) or attenuation (HSP60 and HSC70) was observed at the 24 h time point. In both groups, a depression of the swimming behaviors (attenuation in the activity counts and time until immobility) below the control level was observed at the 5 h point, but a recovery was observed at the 24 h time point. At the 48 h time point, all parameters returned to the control level. These alterations in the levels of HSPs and SAPKs, and the swimming behaviors were similar to those observed in the stress (IM) group, and were characteristic in that all of these alterations were attenuated by the benzodiazepine inverse agonist, Ro 15-4513 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), which was not observed in the groups treated with another stressor-like drug (bicuculline). PMID:14557723

  11. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  12. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  13. Glucagon increases energy expenditure independently of brown adipose tissue activation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Salem, V; Izzi-Engbeaya, C; Coello, C; Thomas, D B; Chambers, E S; Comninos, A N; Buckley, A; Win, Z; Al-Nahhas, A; Rabiner, E A; Gunn, R N; Budge, H; Symonds, M E; Bloom, S R; Tan, T M; Dhillo, W S

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate, for a given energy expenditure (EE) rise, the differential effects of glucagon infusion and cold exposure on brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation in humans. Methods Indirect calorimetry and supraclavicular thermography was performed in 11 healthy male volunteers before and after: cold exposure; glucagon infusion (at 23 °C); and vehicle infusion (at 23 °C). All volunteers underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanning with cold exposure. Subjects with cold-induced BAT activation on 18F-FDG PET/CT (n = 8) underwent a randomly allocated second 18F-FDG PET/CT scan (at 23 °C), either with glucagon infusion (n = 4) or vehicle infusion (n = 4). Results We observed that EE increased by 14% after cold exposure and by 15% after glucagon infusion (50 ng/kg/min; p < 0.05 vs control for both). Cold exposure produced an increase in neck temperature (+0.44 °C; p < 0.001 vs control), but glucagon infusion did not alter neck temperature. In subjects with a cold-induced increase in the metabolic activity of supraclavicular BAT on 18F-FDG PET/CT, a significant rise in the metabolic activity of BAT after glucagon infusion was not detected. Cold exposure increased sympathetic activation, as measured by circulating norepinephrine levels, but glucagon infusion did not. Conclusions Glucagon increases EE by a similar magnitude compared with cold activation, but independently of BAT thermogenesis. This finding is of importance for the development of safe treatments for obesity through upregulation of EE. PMID:26434748

  14. A framework for profile similarity: integrating similarity, normativeness, and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Furr, R Michael

    2008-10-01

    Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising from the overlap among profile similarity and normativeness, which presents potential confounds and potential opportunities. This article describes the normativeness problem, articulating the need to evaluate profile similarity alongside normativeness and distinctiveness. It presents conceptual and psychometric foundations of a framework differentiating these elements for pairs of profiles. It derives two models from this framework, and it discusses the application of their components to a variety of research domains. Finally, it presents recommendations and implications regarding the use of these components and profile similarity more generally. This approach can reveal and manage potential confounds, and it can provide theoretical insights that might otherwise be overlooked. PMID:18705644

  15. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  16. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  17. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  18. On self-similarity of crack layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  19. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system. PMID:19035796

  20. Free energy simulations of active-site mutants of dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Doron, Dvir; Stojković, Vanja; Gakhar, Lokesh; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Kohen, Amnon; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-01-22

    This study employs hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to investigate the effect of mutations of the active-site residue I14 of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) on the hydride transfer. Recent kinetic measurements of the I14X mutants (X = V, A, and G) indicated slower hydride transfer rates and increasingly temperature-dependent kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with systematic reduction of the I14 side chain. The QM/MM simulations show that when the original isoleucine residue is substituted in silico by valine, alanine, or glycine (I14V, I14A, and I14G DHFR, respectively), the free energy barrier height of the hydride transfer reaction increases relative to the wild-type enzyme. These trends are in line with the single-turnover rate measurements reported for these systems. In addition, extended dynamics simulations of the reactive Michaelis complex reveal enhanced flexibility in the mutants, and in particular for the I14G mutant, including considerable fluctuations of the donor-acceptor distance (DAD) and the active-site hydrogen bonding network compared with those detected in the native enzyme. These observations suggest that the perturbations induced by the mutations partly impair the active-site environment in the reactant state. On the other hand, the average DADs at the transition state of all DHFR variants are similar. Crystal structures of I14 mutants (V, A, and G) confirmed the trend of increased flexibility of the M20 and other loops. PMID:25382260

  1. Activation energy of negative fixed charges in thermal ALD Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-08-01

    A study of the thermally activated negative fixed charges Qtot and the interface trap densities Dit at the interface between Si and thermal atomic-layer-deposited amorphous Al2O3 layers is presented. The thermal activation of Qtot and Dit was conducted at annealing temperatures between 220 °C and 500 °C for durations between 3 s and 38 h. The temperature-induced differences in Qtot and Dit were measured using the characterization method called corona oxide characterization of semiconductors. Their time dependency were fitted using stretched exponential functions, yielding activation energies of EA = (2.2 ± 0.2) eV and EA = (2.3 ± 0.7) eV for Qtot and Dit, respectively. For annealing temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C, the changes in Qtot and Dit were similar for both p- and n-type doped Si samples. In contrast, at 220 °C the charging process was enhanced for p-type samples. Based on the observations described in this contribution, a charging model leading to Qtot based on an electron hopping process between the silicon and Al2O3 through defects is proposed.

  2. Density-functional calculations of prefactors and activation energies for H diffusion in BaZrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, Per G.; Björketun, Mårten E.; Wahnström, Göran

    2007-09-01

    Density-functional calculations are used to investigate hydrogen diffusion in the solid-state proton conductor BaZrO3 . Activation energies and prefactors for the rate of proton transfer and reorientation are evaluated for a defect-free region of this simple cubic perovskite-structured oxide. Both semiclassical over-barrier jumps and phonon-assisted tunneling transitions between sites are considered. It is found that the classical barriers for the elementary transfer and reorientation steps are both of the order of 0.2eV . The quantum-mechanical zero-point motion effects are found to be sizable, to effectively reduce the barrier heights, and to make the prefactors similar for the transfer and reorientation steps. The Flynn-Stoneham model [Phys. Rev. B 1, 3966 (1970)] of phonon-assisted tunneling yields an activation energy of around 0.2eV and a very small prefactor for proton transfer, whereas the corresponding adiabatic model gives a similar activation energy but a much larger prefactor. It is suggested that the effect of other defects such as dopants has to be included for a proper description of hydrogen diffusion in this material.

  3. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A.S.; Cagle, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  4. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  5. Prediction of Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Wong, William W.; Lee, Jong Soo; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Zakeri, Issa F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Accurate, nonintrusive and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) for prediction of EE using room calorimetry and doubly labeled water (DLW), and established accelerometry cut-points for PA levels. Methods Fifty preschoolers, mean±SD age 4.5±0.8 y, participated in room calorimetry for minute-by-minute measurements of EE, accelerometer counts (AC) (Actiheart and ActiGraph GT3X+) and HR (Actiheart). Free-living, 105 children, aged 4.6±0.9 years, completed the 7-d DLW procedure while wearing the devices. AC cut-points for PA levels were established using smoothing splines and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Based on calorimetry, mean percent errors for EE were -2.9±10.8% and -1.1±7.4% for CSTS models, and -1.9±9.6 and 1.3±8.1% for MARS models using the Actiheart and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. Based on DLW, mean percent errors were -0.5±9.7% and 4.1±8.5% for CSTS models and 3.2±10.1% and 7.5±10.0% for MARS models using the Actiheart and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. Applying activity EE thresholds, final accelerometer cut-points were determined: 41, 449, and 1,297 cpm for Actiheart x-axis; 820, 3,908, and 6,112 cpm for ActiGraph vector magnitude; and 240, 2,120, and 4,450 cpm for ActiGraph x-axis for sedentary/light, light/moderate, and moderate/vigorous PA (MVPA). Based on confusion matrices, correctly classified rates were 81–83% for sedentary PA, 58–64% for light PA and 62–73% for MVPA. Conclusion The lack of bias and acceptable limits of agreement affirm the validity of the CSTS and MARS models for the prediction of EE in preschool-aged children. Accelerometer cut-points are satisfactory for classification of sedentary, light and moderate-vigorous levels of PA in preschoolers

  6. THE LIMIT OF MAGNETIC-SHEAR ENERGY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-05-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  7. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  8. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  9. Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  10. Multivariate time series similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  11. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  12. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  13. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    .... Buildings that demonstrated compliance using software tools showed a strong correlation with higher... account for the correlation with higher compliance rates. Other Recent DOE Activity Related to Energy...

  14. Thermodynamic similarity of physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccariello, Salvino

    2016-02-01

    Two different physical systems A and B are said to be thermodynamically similar if one of the thermodynamic potentials of system A is proportional to the corresponding potential of B after expressing the state variables of system A in terms of those of B by a transformation reversible throughout the state variables' domain. The thermodynamic similarity has a transitive nature so that physical systems divide into classes of thermodynamically similar systems that have similar phase diagrams. Considering the simplest physical systems, one finds that a class of thermodynamically similar systems is formed by the ideal classical gas, the Fermi and the Bose ideal quantum gases, whatever the dimensions of the confining spaces, and the one dimensional hard rod gas. Another class is formed by the physical systems characterized by interactions that coincide by a scaling of the distance and the coupling constant.

  15. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  16. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  17. Activity Related Energy Expenditure, Appetite and Energy Intake: Potential Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, D.M.; Martin, C.K.; Ravussin, E.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4 years; BMI 23.5 kg/m2) and 42 female (26.9 years; BMI 22.4 kg/m2) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. PMID:23523668

  18. Self-similarity in Laplacian growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark; Zabrodin, Anton; Abanov, Artem

    2008-01-01

    We consider Laplacian Growth of self-similar domains in different geometries. Self-similarity determines the analytic structure of the Schwarz function of the moving boundary. The knowledge of this analytic structure allows us to derive the integral equation for the conformal map. It is shown that solutions to the integral equation obey also a second-order differential equation which is the 1D Schroedinger equation with the sinh{sup -2}-potential. The solutions, which are expressed through the Gauss hypergeometric function, characterize the geometry of self-similar patterns in a wedge. We also find the potential for the Coulomb gas representation of the self-similar Laplacian growth in a wedge and calculate the corresponding free energy.

  19. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin-Lin; Jin, Wu-Yin; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372122 and 11365014).

  20. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    PubMed

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  1. Pharmacological analysis of G-protein activation mediated by guinea-pig recombinant 5-HT1B receptors in C6-glial cells: similarities with the human 5-HT1B receptor.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, P J; Wurch, T; Palmier, C; Colpaert, F C

    1998-01-01

    1. The guinea-pig recombinant 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (gp 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by monitoring G-protein activation in a membrane preparation with agonist-stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding. The intrinsic activity of 5-HT receptor ligands was compared with that determined previously at the human recombinant 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions. 2. Membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and [3H]-N-[4-methoxy-3,4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(4-pyridinyl)benzamide (GR 125743) binding sites with a pKd of 9.62 to 9.85 and a Bmax between 2.1 to 6.4 fmol mg(-1) protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined with [3H]-5-CT and [3H]-GR 125743 were similar. Ligand affinities were comparable to and correlated (r2: 0.74, P<0.001) with those determined at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 3. [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells was stimulated by the 5-HT receptor agonists that were being investigated. The maximal responses of naratriptan, zolmitriptan, sumatriptan, N-methyl-3-[pyrrolidin-2(R)-ylmethyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethyl sulphonamide (CP 122638), rizatriptan and dihydroergotamine were between 0.76 and 0.85 compared to 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2: 0.72, P=0.015) with their potency at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 1-naphthylpiperazine, (+/-)-cyanopindolol and (2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl[1,2,4] oxadiazole-3-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amide (GR 127935) elicited an even smaller response (Emax: 0.32 to 0.63). 4. The ligands 1'-methyl-5-(2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl)-2,3,6,7tetrahydrospiro [furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine] (SB224289), methiothepin and ritanserin displayed inhibition of basal [35S]-GTPgammaS binding at concentrations

  2. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  3. Renewing the respect for similarity

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction—critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be

  4. Response of AMP-activated protein kinase and energy metabolism to acute nitrite exposure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Erchao; Xu, Chang; Gan, Lei; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a prevalent mammalian energy metabolism sensor, but little is known about its role as an energy sensor in fish experiencing stress. We aimed to study AMPK in Oreochromis niloticus on both the molecular and the physical level. We found that the cDNAs encoding the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 variants of the O. niloticus catalytic α subunit were 1753bp and 2563 bp long and encoded 571 and 557 amino acids, respectively. Both the AMPKα1 and the AMPKα2 isoform possess structural features similar to mammalian AMPKα, including a phosphorylation site at Thr172 in the N-terminus, and exhibit high homology with other fish and vertebrate AMPKα sequences (81.3%-98.1%). mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms was widely expressed in various tissues with distinctive patterns. AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were primarily expressed in the intestines and brain, respectively. Under acute nitrite challenge, the mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms, as well as AMPK activity, changed over time. Its recovery period in freshwater, combined with the fact that it is highly conserved, suggests that fish AMPK, like its mammalian orthologues, acts as an energy metabolism sensor. Furthermore, subsequent decreases in AMPK mRNA levels and activity suggested that its action was transient but efficient. Physically, glucose, lactic acid and TGs in plasma, as well as energy materials in the hepatopancreas and muscle, were significantly altered over time, indicating changes in energy metabolism during the experimental period. These data have enabled us to characterize energy utilization in O. niloticus and further illustrate the role of fish AMPK as an energy sensor. This study provides new insight into energy metabolism and sensing by AMPK in teleost and necessitates further study of the multiple physiologic roles of AMPK in fish. PMID:27262938

  5. Parallel activation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism with increased cardiac energy expenditure is not dependent on fatty acid oxidation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lufang; Cabrera, Marco E; Huang, Hazel; Yuan, Celvie L; Monika, Duda K; Sharma, Naveen; Bian, Fang; Stanley, William C

    2007-01-01

    Steady state concentrations of ATP and ADP in vivo are similar at low and high cardiac workloads; however, the mechanisms that regulate the activation of substrate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation that supports this stability are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is parallel activation of mitochondrial and cytosolic dehydrogenases in the transition from low to high workload, which increases NADH/NAD+ ratio in both compartments, and (2) this response does not require an increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Anaesthetized pigs were subjected to either sham treatment, or an abrupt increase in cardiac workload for 5 min with dobutamine infusion and aortic constriction. Myocardial oxygen consumption and FAO were increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively, but ATP and ADP concentrations did not change. NADH-generating pathways were rapidly activated in both the cytosol and mitochondria, as seen in a 40% depletion in glycogen stores, a 3.6-fold activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and a 50% increase in tissue NADH/NAD+. Simulations from a multicompartmental computational model of cardiac energy metabolism predicted that parallel activation of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio in both cytosol and mitochondria. FAO was blocked by 75% in a third group of pigs, and a similar increase in and the NAHD/NAD+ ratio was observed. In conclusion, in the transition to a high cardiac workload there is rapid parallel activation of substrate oxidation that results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio. PMID:17185335

  6. The activation energy for nanocrystalline diamond films deposited from an Ar/H2/CH4 hot-filament reactor.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, D C; Melo, L L; Trava-Airoldi, V J; Corat, E J

    2009-06-01

    In this work we have investigated the effect of substrate temperature on the growth rate and properties of nanocrystalline diamond thin films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). Mixtures of 0.5 vol% CH4 and 25 vol% H2 balanced with Ar at a pressure of 50 Torr and typical deposition time of 12 h. We present the measurement of the activation energy by accurately controlling the substrate temperature independently of other CVD parameters. Growth rates have been measured in the temperature range from 550 to 800 degrees C. Characterization techniques have involved Raman spectroscopy, high resolution X-ray difractometry and scanning electron microscopy. We also present a comparison with most activation energy for micro and nanocrystalline diamond determinations in the literature and propose that there is a common trend in most observations. The result obtained can be an evidence that the growth mechanism of NCD in HFCVD reactors is very similar to MCD growth. PMID:19504946

  7. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  8. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  9. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  10. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  11. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  12. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water's tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water's fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte's concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water's fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  13. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  14. Energy expenditure in relation to activity of lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus).

    PubMed

    Darlis; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Purwanto, B; Ho, Y W

    2001-11-01

    Heat production (HP) of male and female mouse deer during eating, standing and sitting was determined using the open circuit respiration chamber (RC). The time taken for similar activities was also determined in an outdoor enclosure (OD). The animals were fed kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and rabbit pellet ad libitum. Male mouse deer consumed more dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) than female. The time for each activity of male and female mouse deer kept in RC and OD was similar. The average time spent in RC and OD for both male and female, respectively, for sitting (956 and 896 min/day) was significantly (P<0.01) longer than standing (463 and 520 min/day) and eating (21 and 24 min/day). Heat production for male and female mouse deer, respectively, during eating was the highest (0.44 and 0.43 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min) followed by standing (0.37 and 0.33 kJ/kgW(0.75)/min) and sitting (0.26 and 0.26 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min). The difference in HP per min during standing between male and female was significant (P<0.05). The HP for 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were higher than 20.00-02.00 h and 02.00-08.00 h periods. The overall HP for males during 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were significantly (P<0.05) higher (114.8 and 119.2 kJ/kg W(0.75)) than female (107.5 and 110.4 kJ/kg W(0.75)), respectively. PMID:11691611

  15. Geographic Information Systems in Support of Wind Energy Activities at NREL: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D. M.; Haymes, S. R.

    2001-09-18

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to further the development of wind energy resources in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program and its Wind Powering America Initiative. Some of the elements of NREL's GIS data used in wind energy activities include wind measurement sites, transmission lines, federal facility information, and modeled wind resources. More complex GIS analyses can define relationships among the mapped wind energy resources, potential energy load characterization, and utility integration problems. A GIS is an outstanding tool for wind energy activities because data can be readily updated and the results of the GIS analyses can be expressed as charts, tables, and maps. These outputs are in digital formats that allow the results of GIS analyses to be quickly and efficiently distributed to the wind energy industry.

  16. Kinetic energy budgets during the life cycle of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic-scale data at three- and six-hour intervals are employed to study the relationship between changing kinetic energy variables and the life cycles of two severe squall lines. The kinetic energy budgets indicate a high degree of kinetic energy generation, especially pronounced near the jet-stream level. Energy losses in the storm environment are due to the transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion; large-scale upward vertical motion carries aloft the kinetic energy generated by storm activity at lower levels. In general, the time of maximum storm intensity is also the time of maximum energy conversion and transport.

  17. Pyrenophora bromi, causal agent of brownspot of bromegrass, expresses a gene encoding a protein with homology and similar activity to Ptr ToxB, a host-selective toxin of wheat.

    PubMed

    Andrie, Rachael M; Ciuffetti, Lynda M

    2011-03-01

    Ptr ToxB, encoded by ToxB, is one of multiple host-selective toxins (HST) produced by the wheat pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Homologs of ToxB are found in several ascomycetes, including sister species Pyrenophora bromi, causal agent of brownspot of bromegrass. Due to the close evolutionary relatedness of P. tritici-repentis and P. bromi and that of their grass hosts, we hypothesized that homologs of ToxB in P. bromi may act as HST in the disease interaction between P. bromi and bromegrass. A representative set of transcriptionally active P. bromi ToxB genes were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the resultant proteins tested for their ability to act as HST on bromegrass. The tested Pyrenophora bromi ToxB (Pb ToxB) proteins were not toxic to bromegrass; thus, Pb ToxB does not appear to function as an HST in the P. bromi-bromegrass interaction. Instead, we revealed that the Pb ToxB proteins can be toxic to Ptr ToxB-sensitive wheat, at levels similar to Ptr ToxB, and the corresponding P. bromi ToxB genes are expressed in P. bromi-inoculated wheat. Our data suggest that P. bromi possesses the potential to become a wheat pathogen and highlights the importance of investigating the interaction between P. bromi and wheat. PMID:21091157

  18. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  19. Activating Teacher Energy Through "Inquiry-Oriented" Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    In an inquiry-oriented teacher education program, prospective teachers are encouraged to examine the origins and consequences of their actions and settings in which they work. Many of the characteristics of the elementary student teaching program at the University of Wisconsin at Madison are similar to this approach. During the students' 15-week…

  20. Black hole physics: More similar than knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, José L.

    2016-08-01

    The detection of a discrete knot of particle emission from the active galaxy M81* reveals that black hole accretion is self-similar with regard to mass, producing the same knotty jets irrespective of black hole mass and accretion rate.

  1. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Mathematics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Science (SE…

  2. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Industrial Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  3. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Science component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also contained in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE…

  4. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  5. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Introduction for the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681),…

  6. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  7. Activities report in nuclear and high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High energy physics research using particle accelerators is summarized. Electron scattering; experiments concerning pions, muons, and antiprotons; theoretical physics; radiochemistry; and technical aspects of the accelerators and associated equipment are discussed.

  8. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap without glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Absorber efficiency can be improved to 90% by removing glass plates and using infrared traps. Absorber configuration may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  9. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  10. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Social Studies component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades seven through twelve. Aspects of the energy situation addressed in these lessons include resource finiteness, exponential growth, standard of living,…

  11. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  12. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  13. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  14. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  15. Enhanced parasympathetic activity of sportive women is paradoxically associated to enhanced resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Vicidomini, C; Viggiano, An; Tafuri, D; Cozza, V; Cibelli, G; Devastato, A; De Luca, B; Monda, M

    2012-08-16

    The resting energy expenditure and the adaptation of the autonomic nervous system induced by sport activities in sedentary women and in female professional basketball players have been studied. Resting energy expenditure, body composition and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in resting energy expenditure and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that resting energy expenditure is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure. PMID:22682704

  16. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Alexander, David M.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ivison, Rob; Scott, Douglas; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Buat, Veronique; Dannerbauer, Helmut; and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  17. Difference in variation of glass transition activation energy between 1,2-propanediamine and 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Variations of the effective activation energy (Eα) throughout the glass transition were determined for 1,2-propanediamine (12PDA) and 1,2-propanediol (12PDO) by applying an isoconversional method to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. Eα was found to markedly decrease throughout the glass transition of 12PDA, whereas such drastic change in Eα was not observed for 12PDO. Although the two simple liquids are similar in molecular structure and size, their trends in Eα and fragility m throughout the glass transition can be quite different. The significant disparity in the kinetic parameters can be caused by differences in hydrogen-bonding structure between 12PDA and 12PDO.

  18. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  19. Self-similar mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Oiwa, Nestor N; Glazier, James A

    2004-01-01

    We show that repeated sequences, like palindromes (local repetitions) and homologies between two different nucleotide sequences (motifs along the genome), compose a self-similar (fractal) pattern in mitochondrial DNA. This self-similarity comes from the looplike structures distributed along the genome. The looplike structures generate scaling laws in a pseudorandom DNA walk constructed from the sequence, called a Lévy flight. We measure the scaling laws from the generalized fractal dimension and singularity spectrum for mitochondrial DNA walks for 35 different species. In particular, we report characteristic loop distributions for mammal mitochondrial genomes. PMID:15371639

  20. Similarity in seismogeodynamics on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhich, V. V.; Psakhie, S. G.; Levina, E. A.; Dimaki, A. V.; Astafurov, S. V.; Shilko, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    Long-term research in the preparation of earthquakes of different energies with M = 3.5-7.9 within the Baikal rift zones shows that they are similar to each other and to microquakes with E = 1-103 J initiated on tectonic fault fragments in natural experiments. Moreover, detailed studies of slickensides of dimensions 1-103 m2 in tectonic faults also demonstrate their physicomechanical similarity to each other and to nano- and microscale contact patches of different materials in laboratory experiments. The research results confirm the conclusion that there exists a similarity in the laws of contact interaction of different solids, including their stick-to-dynamic slip transition, from nanoscopic to geodynamic scales.

  1. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32. PMID:16469145

  2. How Much Energy Can Be Stored in Solar Active Region Magnetic Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Torok, T.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Major solar eruptions such as X-class flares and very fast coronal mass ejections usually originate in active regions on the Sun. The energy that powers these events is believed to be stored as free magnetic energy (energy above the potential field state) prior to eruption. While coronal magnetic fields are not in general force-free, active regions have very strong magnetic fields and at low coronal heights the plasma beta is therefore very small, making the field (in equilibrium) essentially force-free. The Aly-Sturrock theorem shows that the energy of a fully force-free field cannot exceed the energy of the so-called open field. If the theorem holds, this places an upper limit on the amount of free energy that can be stored: the maximum free energy (MFE) is the difference between the open field energy and the potential field energy of the active region. In thermodynamic MHD simulations of a major eruption (the July 14, 2000 'Bastille' day event) and a modest event (February 13, 2009, we have found that the MFE indeed bounds the energy stored prior to eruption. We compute the MFE for major eruptive events in cycles 23 and 24 to investigate the maximum amount of energy that can be stored in solar active regions.Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  3. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises…

  4. Similarity Measures for Comparing Biclusterings.

    PubMed

    Horta, Danilo; Campello, Ricardo J G B

    2014-01-01

    The comparison of ordinary partitions of a set of objects is well established in the clustering literature, which comprehends several studies on the analysis of the properties of similarity measures for comparing partitions. However, similarity measures for clusterings are not readily applicable to biclusterings, since each bicluster is a tuple of two sets (of rows and columns), whereas a cluster is only a single set (of rows). Some biclustering similarity measures have been defined as minor contributions in papers which primarily report on proposals and evaluation of biclustering algorithms or comparative analyses of biclustering algorithms. The consequence is that some desirable properties of such measures have been overlooked in the literature. We review 14 biclustering similarity measures. We define eight desirable properties of a biclustering measure, discuss their importance, and prove which properties each of the reviewed measures has. We show examples drawn and inspired from important studies in which several biclustering measures convey misleading evaluations due to the absence of one or more of the discussed properties. We also advocate the use of a more general comparison approach that is based on the idea of transforming the original problem of comparing biclusterings into an equivalent problem of comparing clustering partitions with overlapping clusters. PMID:26356865

  5. Mean Similarity Analysis Version 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEANSIM6 contains software for Mean Similarity Analysis, a method of assessing the strength of a classification of many objects (sites) into a relatively small number of groups. Classification strength is measured by the extent to which sites within the same groups are more simil...

  6. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  7. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  8. The effects of uncontrollable, unpredictable aversive and appetitive events: similar effects warrant similar, but not identical, explanations?

    PubMed

    Job, R F Soames

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to uncontrollable, unpredictable appetitive events produces a variety of cognitive debilitations and vegetative changes, as does exposure to uncontrollable, unpredictable aversive events. Similarities include impaired escape from aversive events, impaired discrimination, finicky consumption, analgesia, and body weight loss. However, in stark contrast, uncontrollable aversive stress causes reduced motor activity where as similar appetitive treatment does not; aversively induced debilitation is causally related to energy regulation, whereas the appetitively induced effects are not. Parallel mechanisms are suggested to explain these effects in terms of a revised anxiety account of the aversive effects, and a frustration account of the appetitive effects. Finally, factors likely to limit important research to resolve the many remaining issues are identified: negative presentation of animal research, political decision making, and ignorance and fear in committees which review the ethics of research. PMID:12069366

  9. The oxidative activities of membrane vesicles from Bacillus caldolyticus. Energy-dependence of succinate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Dawson, A G; Chappell, J B

    1978-02-15

    1. The properties of membrane vesicles from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus were investigated. 2. Vesicles prepared by exposure of spheroplasts to ultrasound contained cytochromes a, b and c, and at 50 degrees C they rapidly oxidized NADH and ascorbate in the presence of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Succinate and l-malate were oxidized more slowly, and dl-lactate, l-alanine and glycerol 1-phosphate were not oxidized. 3. In the absence of proton-conducting uncouplers the oxidation of NADH was accompanied by a net translocation of H(+) into the vesicles. Hydrolysis of ATP by a dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase was accompanied by a similarly directed net translocation of H(+). 4. Uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin plus NH(4) (+)) prevented net H(+) translocation but stimulated ATP hydrolysis, NADH oxidation and ascorbate oxidation. The last result suggested an energy-conserving site in the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen. 5. Under anaerobic conditions the reduction of cytochrome b by ascorbate (with tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine) was stimulated by ATP hydrolysis, indicating an energy-conserving site between cytochrome b and cytochrome c. However, no reduction of NAD(+) supported by oxidation of succinate, malate or ascorbate occurred, neither did it with these substrates in the presence of ATP under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that there was no energy-conserving site between NADH and cytochrome b. 6. Succinate oxidation, in contrast with that of NADH and ascorbate, was strongly inhibited by uncouplers and stimulated by ATP hydrolysis. These effects were not observed when phenazine methosulphate, which transfers electrons from succinate dehydrogenase directly to oxygen, was present. It was concluded that in these vesicles the oxidation of succinate was energy-dependent and that the reoxidation of reduced succinate dehydrogenase was dependent on the outward

  10. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  11. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  12. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  13. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  14. Activation energies of photoinduced unimolecular, bimolecular and termolecular processes on silica gel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Williams, Siân L; Worrall, David R; Kirkpatrick, Iain; Vancea, Anisoara; Pan, Jiawei

    2011-01-01

    Activation energies for energy and electron transfer have been measured in various systems on silica gel. In the case of ion-electron recombination, a facile technique involving fluorescence recovery is described which complements diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the study of these systems. In bimolecular anthracene/azulene systems, activation energies have been shown to be independent of pre-treatment temperature in the range 25-210 °C, demonstrating that physisorbed water plays little role in determining diffusion rates on silica gel. In a ternary anthracene/azulene/perylene system, we have for the first time presented comparative activation energies for the diffusion of azulene and its radical cation, and have shown a greater activation energy for diffusion of the latter species. PMID:20978659

  15. Statistical self-similarity of hotspot seamount volumes modeled as self-similar criticality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tebbens, S.F.; Burroughs, S.M.; Barton, C.C.; Naar, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    The processes responsible for hotspot seamount formation are complex, yet the cumulative frequency-volume distribution of hotspot seamounts in the Easter Island/Salas y Gomez Chain (ESC) is found to be well-described by an upper-truncated power law. We develop a model for hotspot seamount formation where uniform energy input produces events initiated on a self-similar distribution of critical cells. We call this model Self-Similar Criticality (SSC). By allowing the spatial distribution of magma migration to be self-similar, the SSC model recreates the observed ESC seamount volume distribution. The SSC model may have broad applicability to other natural systems.

  16. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  17. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  18. Verification of energy's role as a determinant of US economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    A series of single-equation dynamic regression models are constructed to test the hypotheses that both ''thermodynamic'' and economic-efficiency (t-efficiency and e-efficiency, respectively) configurations of lagged energy variables are statistically informative separately and jointly about subsequent changes in real gross national product (GNP) per capita and in unemployment rate. Separately, t-efficiency is based on quantity of energy used per unit of GNP, while e-efficiency is based on real price of tested energy variables. Used jointly, the two measure real energy cost per unit of real GNP. Tested subperiods are within the 1890-1985 period. Macroeconomic activity is found to be much less informative about energy variables that are energy variables about macroeconomic activity. One-way tests are conducted in which the informativeness of major e-efficiency (wholesale price) variables and budget-share variables about subsequent macroeconomic activity are compared to the informativeness of the e-efficiency energy variable and the combined e- and t-efficiencies energy variable respectively. The energy variables are found to represent the only major category of expenditure whose statistical tests for informativeness about subsequent macroeconomic activity result in coefficient signs that consistently imply a statistically significant negative effect on subsequent macroeconomic activity in the full 1890-1985 period. 64 refs., 14 tabs.

  19. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  20. Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonEllenrieder, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.

  1. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  2. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Opportunities for support of geothermal energy activities from Petroleum Violation Escrow funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a reference for the geothermal community regarding the extent to which Petroleum Violation Escrow (PVE) funds might be employed by states to fund research, development, demonstration and applications pertaining to geothermal energy resources. The document highlights the background and status of the PVE funds being disbursed through state energy agencies and summarizes the types of energy-related activities being conducted with these funds and the process used to select and approve these activities. These funds provides a mechanism for expanding the contribution of geothermal technologies to domestic energy conservation and security.

  5. Calculation of activation energies for hydrogen-atom abstractions by radicals containing carbon triple bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Laufer, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Activation energies are calculated by the bond-energy-bond-order (BEBO) and the bond-strength-bond-length (BSBL) methods for the reactions of C2H radicals with H2, CH4, and C2H6 and for the reactions of CN radicals with H2 and CH4. The BSBL technique accurately predicts the activation energies for these reactions while the BEBO method yields energies averaging 9 kcal higher than those observed. A possible reason for the disagreement is considered.

  6. Isoconversion effective activation energy profiles by variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel R; White, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Thermal process characterization based on calculating effective activation energies from variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy (VT-DRIFTS) measurements is demonstrated. Experimental factors that affect the accuracies of activation energy values are outlined. Infrared radiation scattering efficiency, thermal conductivity, and inertness towards chemical reactions are factors that should be considered when selecting an appropriate diluent for preparing samples. The Kubelka-Munk representation is superior to apparent absorbance when baseline variations in spectra measured at different temperatures can be minimized. Variable-temperature infrared spectral features, such as integrated absorption band area, can be used to compute isoconversion effective activation energies, provided that measured quantities are proportional to species concentrations. PMID:18230216

  7. US Department of Energy reservior research activities Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) does not directly manage large reservoirs, but DOE laboratories conduct research on reservoir monitoring, assessment, and enhancement under several activities. These activities include (1) studies and remedial actions for reservoirs affected by releases from DOE facilities, (2) industry- sponsored research on reservoir and stream fish, (3) climate change research, (4) hydropower impact assessment studies conducted for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and (5) the DOE hydropower program. These activities fall under DOE's missions of providing support for environmentally sound energy technologies and managing the legacies of past waste disposal practices at DOE facilities. 9 refs.

  8. Activation energy-activation volume master plots for ion transport behavior in polymer electrolytes and supercooled molten salts.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Malcolm D; Imrie, Corrie T; Stoeva, Zlatka; Pas, Steven J; Funke, Klaus; Chandler, Howard W

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of activation energy versus activation volume "master plots" to explore ion transport in typical fragile glass forming systems exhibiting non-Arrhenius behavior. These systems include solvent-free salt complexes in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and molten 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). Plots showing variations in apparent activation energy EA versus apparent activation volume VA are straight lines with slopes given by M = DeltaEA/DeltaVA. A simple ion transport mechanism is described where the rate determining step involves a dilatation (expressed as VA) around microscopic cavities and a corresponding work of expansion (EA). The slopes of the master plots M are equated to internal elastic moduli, which vary from 1.1 GPa for liquid PPO to 5.0 GPa for molten CKN on account of differing intermolecular forces in these materials. PMID:16853106

  9. Evidence of Energy Supply by Active-Region Spicules to the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeighami, S.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Tavabi, E.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of active-region spicules in the mass balance of the solar wind and energy supply in heating the solar atmosphere. We use high-cadence observations from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite in the Ca ii H-line filter obtained on 26 January 2007. The observational technique provides the high spatio-temporal resolution required to detect fine structures such as spicules. We apply a Fourier power spectrum and wavelet analysis to Hinode/SOT time series of an active-region data set to explore the existence of coherent intensity oscillations. Coherent waves could be evidence of energy transport that serves to heat the solar atmosphere. Using time series, we measure the phase difference between two intensity profiles obtained at two different heights, which gives information about the phase difference between oscillations at those heights as a function of frequency. The results of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) show peaks in the power spectrum at frequencies in the range from 2 to 8 mHz at four different heights (above the limb), while the wavelet analysis indicates dominant frequencies similar to those of the Fourier power spectrum results. A coherency study indicates coherent oscillations at about 5.5 mHz (3 min). We measure mean phase speeds in the range 250-425 km s^{-1} increasing with height. The energy flux of these waves is estimated to be F = 1.8 × 106-11.2 × 106 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} or 1.8-11.2 kW m^{-2}, which indicates that they are sufficiently energetic to accelerate the solar wind and heat the corona to temperatures of several million degrees. We compute the the mass flux carried by spicules of 3 × 10^{-10}-2 × 10^{-9} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which is 10-60 times higher than the mass that is carried away from the corona because of the solar wind (about 3 × 10^{-11} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}). Therefore, our results indicate that about 0.02-0.1 of the spicule mass is ejected from the corona, while the remainder reverts

  10. Acutely Decreased Thermoregulatory Energy Expenditure or Decreased Activity Energy Expenditure Both Acutely Reduce Food Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Thaler, Joshua P.; Meek, Thomas H.; Tylee, Tracy; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wisse, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1) increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2) exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21°C to 28°C) rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40±1%) and dark cycle energy expenditure (15±3%) at normal ambient temperature (21°C). Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65±7%), thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14±2% at 21°C; 21±4% at 28°C), while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9±0.1 g) in mice housed at 28°C, but during the light cycle (0.3±0.1 g) in mice housed at 21°C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R2 = 0.51, p<0.01). We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure. PMID:22936977

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Increases Energy Expenditure: Relation to Brown Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Leenen, Loes; Rijkers, Kim; Cornips, Erwin; Majoie, Marian; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. Methods and Findings Fifteen patients with stable VNS therapy (age: 45±10yrs; body mass index; 25.2±3.5 kg/m2) were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%). Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUVMean; 0.55±0.25 versus 0.67±0.46, P = 0.619). However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off) was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001). Conclusions VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. Trial Registration The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282. PMID:24194874

  12. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  13. 78 FR 46829 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., 2011, DOE issued a NOPR to propose the updating of part 810 (76 FR 55278). The NOPR listed destinations... activities subject to part 810. 48 FR 2518 (Feb. 4, 1983); 40 FR 44846 (Sep. 30, 1975); 21 FR 418 (Jan. 20, 1956). In 1986, DOE amended Sec. 810.1 to add ``U.S.'' before ``persons'' (51 FR 44570, Dec. 10,...

  14. Activation energies and temperature effects from electrical spectra of soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent permittivity often has soil-specific temperature responses as well as soil water responses. These variations affect dielectric sensors, often requiring site-specific calibrations. Variations of permittivity as a function of frequency and temperature can be used to calculate activation energ...

  15. Energy from the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  16. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age

    PubMed Central

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18–39, 40–64, 65 + years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of −0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of −0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81–1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  17. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18-39, 40-64, 65 +  years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of -0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of -0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81-1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  18. Energy-Recycling Semi-Active Vibration Suppression Experiment of a Truss with Piezoelectric Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihara, K.

    2002-01-01

    inherent performance in damping is enhanced. Several semi-active vibration suppression approaches have been proposed based on variable-stiffness members, variable-friction devices, or variable-viscosity dampers, and the performance of each of these systems has been studied. The semi-active approach exploits passive energy-dissipation mechanisms, and supplies the system with no additional energy. Semi-active vibration suppression thus ensures that the system is always stable. This is its advantage. However, its performance in vibration suppression is usually inferior to active vibration suppression. have proposed collection of the energy taken from a vibrating system in suppressing its vibration. Using the collected energy to more quickly suppress the vibration is an attractive possibility. Additional energy is still not supplied to the system, and the vibration energy is finally dissipated. Therefore, this is a kind of semi-active approach, and retains the quality of that the system with it is always stable. method of energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression is described and its performance is demonstrated by an experiment. A five bay truss beam with a piezoelectric transducer was used, and a simple electric circuit with switches was connected to the transducers. Then the switches were controlled by a processor so that the vibration was quickly suppressed by exploiting the collected electric energy. The results of the experiment demonstrated that the performance in vibration suppression of energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression with actual hardware is much better than that of a traditional semi-active control. The effects of some non-ideal characteristics of real hardware on the performance in vibration suppression are also investigated.

  19. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  20. Calculation of Relative Binding Free Energy in the Water-Filled Active Site of Oligopeptide-Binding Protein A.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Manuela; de Beer, Stephanie B A; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein A (OppA) represents a well-known example of water-mediated protein-ligand interactions. Here, we perform free-energy calculations for three different ligands binding to OppA, using a thermodynamic integration approach. The tripeptide ligands share a high structural similarity (all have the sequence KXK), but their experimentally-determined binding free energies differ remarkably. Thermodynamic cycles were constructed for the ligands, and simulations conducted in the bound and (freely solvated) unbound states. In the unbound state, it was observed that the difference in conformational freedom between alanine and glycine leads to a surprisingly slow convergence, despite their chemical similarity. This could be overcome by increasing the softness parameter during alchemical transformations. Discrepancies remained in the bound state however, when comparing independent simulations of the three ligands. These difficulties could be traced to a slow relaxation of the water network within the active site. Fluctuations in the number of water molecules residing in the binding cavity occur mostly on a timescale larger than the simulation time along the alchemical path. After extensive simulations, relative binding free energies that were converged to within thermal noise could be obtained, which agree well with available experimental data. PMID:27092480

  1. On the similarity of variable viscosity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivenel, L.; Danaila, L.; Varea, E.; Renou, B.; Cazalens, M.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent mixing is ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. Most of them concern different fluids, therefore with variable physical properties (density and/or viscosity). The focus here is on variable viscosity flows and mixing, involving density-matched fluids. The issue is whether or not these flows may be self-similar, or self-preserving. The importance of this question stands on the predictability of these flows; self-similar dynamical systems are easier tractable from an analytical viewpoint. More specifically, self-similar analysis is applied to the scale-by-scale energy transport equations, which represent the transport of energy at each scale and each point of the flow. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are developed for inhomogeneous and anisotropic flows, in which the viscosity varies as a result of heterogeneous mixture or temperature variations. Additional terms are highlighted, accounting for the viscosity gradients, or fluctuations. These terms are present at both small and large scales, thus rectifying the common belief that viscosity is a small-scale quantity. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are then adapted for the particular case of a round jet evolving in a more viscous host fluid. It is further shown that the condition of self-preservation is not necessarily satisfied in variable-viscosity jets. Indeed, the jet momentum conservation, as well as the constancy of the Reynolds number in the central region of the jet, cannot be satisfied simultaneously. This points to the necessity of considering less stringent conditions (with respect to classical, single-fluid jets) when analytically tackling these flows and reinforces the idea that viscosity variations must be accounted for when modelling these flows.

  2. Consequences of Lower Food Intake on the Digestive Enzymes Activities, the Energy Reserves and the Reproductive Outcome in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics. PMID:25880985

  3. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  4. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  5. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  6. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  7. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  8. Activation energies for oxygen reduction on platinum alloys: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alfred B; Roques, Jérôme; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Murthi, Vivek S; Markovic, Nenad M; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2005-01-27

    A combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the electrode potential dependencies of activation energies is presented for the first step in oxygen reduction over platinum and platinum alloy catalysts in both polycrystalline and carbon supported form. Tafel data for several of the catalysts are used to predict potential-dependent activation energies for oxygen reduction over the 0.6-0.9 V range in strong and weak acid. Comparisons with the theoretical curve show good agreement above 0.8 V, suggesting a fairly constant preexponential factor. Arrhenius determinations of activation energies over the 0.7-0.9 V range yield little trend for weak acid, possibly because of the larger uncertainties in the Arrhenius fits, but the strong acid results have smaller uncertainties and for them the measured activation energies trend up with potential. PMID:16851081

  9. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  10. Mass versus molar doses, similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, A; Lamparczyk, H

    2008-11-01

    Generally, they are two systems expressing the amounts of active substance in a given drug product, i.e. mass and molar dose. Currently, the dose system based on the mass is widely used in which doses are expressed in grams or milligrams. On the other hand, the molar dose system is in direct relation to the number of molecules. Hence, the objective of this work was to compare both systems in order to find their advantages and disadvantages. Active substances belonging to the groups of antibiotics, nootropic agents, beta-blockers, vitamins, GABA-analog, COX-2 inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, lipid-modifying agents (fibrates), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (profens), estrogens, neuroleptics, analgesics and benzodiazepines were considered. Moreover, products containing two active substances were also taken into account. These are mixtures of hydrochlorothiazide with active substances influencing the renin-angiotensin system and combined oral contraceptives. For each active substance, belonging to the groups mentioned above molar doses were calculated from mass doses and molar mass. Hence, groups of drugs with a single active substance, drugs with similar pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical alternatives, and drugs with a single active ingredient manufactured in different doses were compared in order to find which dose system describes more adequately differences between and within the groups mentioned above. Comparisons were supported by a number of equations, which theoretically justify the data, and relationships derived from calculations. PMID:19069248

  11. Influence of source composition and particle energy on the determination of gross alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A Martín

    2013-12-01

    The influence of different source compositions and α-particle energies on the detection efficiency of a gas-flow proportional counter was examined using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Efficiency variation with alpha-particle energy was very marked, being less significant with the substrate composition. These results show that the determination of gross alpha activity in an unknown sample must be carried out very carefully in order to give a correct estimation of its activity. PMID:24184741

  12. Glucose Availability and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Link Energy Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the Bovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Matthew L.; Cronin, James G.; Noleto, Pablo G.; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Defences against the bacteria that usually infect the endometrium of postpartum cattle are impaired when there is metabolic energy stress, leading to endometritis and infertility. The endometrial response to bacteria depends on innate immunity, with recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulating inflammation, characterised by secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. How metabolic stress impacts tissue responses to pathogens is unclear, but integration of energy metabolism and innate immunity means that stressing one system might affect the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that homeostatic pathways integrate energy metabolism and innate immunity in bovine endometrial tissue. Glucose deprivation reduced the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 from ex vivo organ cultures of bovine endometrium challenged with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns lipopolysaccharide and bacterial lipopeptide. Endometrial inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide were also reduced by small molecules that activate or inhibit the intracellular sensor of energy, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a more global metabolic sensor than AMPK, had little effect on inflammation. Similarly, endometrial inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide were not affected by insulin-like growth factor-1, which is an endocrine regulator of metabolism. Interestingly, the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide increased endometrial glucose consumption and induced the Warburg effect, which could exacerbate deficits in glucose availability in the tissue. In conclusion, metabolic energy stress perturbed inflammatory responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns in bovine endometrial tissue, and the most fundamental regulators of cellular energy, glucose availability and AMPK, had the greatest impact on innate immunity. PMID:26974839

  13. Glucose Availability and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Link Energy Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the Bovine Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew L; Cronin, James G; Noleto, Pablo G; Sheldon, I Martin

    2016-01-01

    Defences against the bacteria that usually infect the endometrium of postpartum cattle are impaired when there is metabolic energy stress, leading to endometritis and infertility. The endometrial response to bacteria depends on innate immunity, with recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulating inflammation, characterised by secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. How metabolic stress impacts tissue responses to pathogens is unclear, but integration of energy metabolism and innate immunity means that stressing one system might affect the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that homeostatic pathways integrate energy metabolism and innate immunity in bovine endometrial tissue. Glucose deprivation reduced the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 from ex vivo organ cultures of bovine endometrium challenged with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns lipopolysaccharide and bacterial lipopeptide. Endometrial inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide were also reduced by small molecules that activate or inhibit the intracellular sensor of energy, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a more global metabolic sensor than AMPK, had little effect on inflammation. Similarly, endometrial inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide were not affected by insulin-like growth factor-1, which is an endocrine regulator of metabolism. Interestingly, the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide increased endometrial glucose consumption and induced the Warburg effect, which could exacerbate deficits in glucose availability in the tissue. In conclusion, metabolic energy stress perturbed inflammatory responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns in bovine endometrial tissue, and the most fundamental regulators of cellular energy, glucose availability and AMPK, had the greatest impact on innate immunity. PMID:26974839

  14. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  15. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  16. Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

  17. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  18. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  19. Award Winning Energy Education Activities for Elementary and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Helen H., Ed.

    This publication contains descriptions of the winning entries to the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Teacher Participation Contest conducted in 1976. This was a nationwide contest for the design of activities around energy themes at any grade level, K-12. The ten winning entries described here are: (1) Energy Units for Primary Grades;…

  20. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.