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Sample records for activation energy similar

  1. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  2. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Taryn M.; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P. Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1—all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52–1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72–1.72); Method 2—without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26–2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42–2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  3. Self-similarity in active colloid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constant, Colin; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    The self-similarity of displacements among randomly evolving systems has been used to describe the foraging patterns of animals and predict the growth of financial systems. At micron scales, the motion of colloidal particles can be analyzed by sampling their spatial displacement in time. For self-similar systems in equilibrium, the mean squared displacement increases linearly in time. However, external forces can take the system out of equilibrium, creating active colloidal systems, and making this evolution more complex. A moment scaling spectrum of the distribution of particle displacements quantifies the degree of self-similarity in the colloid motion. We will demonstrate that, by varying the temporal and spatial characteristics of the external forces, one can control the degree of self-similarity in active colloid motion.

  4. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  5. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  6. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  7. The role of active assortment in spousal similarity.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Beer, Andrew; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.

  8. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference.

  9. An active metallic nanomatryushka with two similar super-resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Wu, X. W.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    The optical properties of a simple metallic nanomatryushka (nanosphere-in-a-nanoshell) with gain have been investigated theoretically. The spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) phenomena can be observed at two critical wavelengths in the active metallic nanomatryushkas. With increasing the gain coefficient of the middle layer, a similar super surface plasmon (SP) resonance is first found at the ω-+|1 mode of the active nanoparticles and then breaks down. With further increasing the gain coefficient, another similar super-resonance occurs at the ω--|1 mode. The near-field enhancements in the active nanomatryushkas also have been greatly amplified at the critical wavelengths for ω-+|1 and ω--|1 modes. It is further found that the amplifications of SPs in the active Ag-SiO2-Au nanoshell are strongest in four kinds of nanoshells and hence the largest near fields. The giant near-field enhancement can greatly enhance the Raman excitation and emission.

  10. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  13. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  14. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  15. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  16. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides…

  17. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  18. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  20. Similar Biological Activities of Two Isostructural Ruthenium and Osmium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimoska,J.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Smalley, K.; Carroll, P.; Webster, R.; Filippakopoulos, P.; Knapp, S.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we probe and verify the concept of designing unreactive bioactive metal complexes, in which the metal possesses a purely structural function, by investigating the consequences of replacing ruthenium in a bioactive half-sandwich kinase inhibitor scaffold by its heavier congener osmium. The two isostructural complexes are compared with respect to their anticancer properties in 1205?Lu melanoma cells, activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, IC50 values against the protein kinases GSK-3? and Pim-1, and binding modes to the protein kinase Pim-1 by protein crystallography. It was found that the two congeners display almost indistinguishable biological activities, which can be explained by their nearly identical three-dimensional structures and their identical mode of action as protein kinase inhibitors. This is a unique example in which the replacement of a metal in an anticancer scaffold by its heavier homologue does not alter its biological activity.

  1. Energy dependence of hadronic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, T. A.; Groom, D. E.; Job, P. K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Stevenson, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Two features of high-energy hadronic cascades have long been known to shielding specialists: a) in a high-energy hadronic cascade in a given material (incident E ≳ 10 GeV), the relative abundance and spectrum of each hadronic species responsible for most of the energy deposition is independent of the energy or species of the incident hadron, and b) because π0 production bleeds off more and more energy into the electromagnetic sector as the energy of the incident hadron increases, the absolute level of this low-energy hadronic activity ( E ≲ 1 GeV) rises less rapidly than the incident energy, and in fact rises very nearly as a power of the incident energy. Both features are of great importance in hadron calorimetry, where it is the "universal spectrum" which makes possible the definition of an intrinsic {e}/{h}, and the increasing fraction of the energy going into π0's which leads to the energy dependence of {e}/{π}. We present evidence for the "universal spectrum," and use an induction argument and simulation results to demonstrate that the low-energy activity ss Em, with 0.80 ≲ m ≲ 0.85. The hadronic activity produced by incident pions is 15-20% less than that initiated by protons.

  2. An Estimation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Energy Dissipation Rate Based on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Similarity Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  3. Using liquid superheating energy for a quick estimation of overpressure in BLEVEs and similar explosions.

    PubMed

    Casal, Joaquim; Salla, Josep M

    2006-10-11

    A method is proposed for the quick estimation of the peak overpressure caused by a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) or a similar explosion. The method is based on the use of the "superheating energy" (SE), which is the difference between the specific enthalpy of the liquid at the temperature just before the explosion and the specific enthalpy of the liquid at its saturation temperature, at atmospheric pressure. The analysis performed with a set of reference substances showed that in a BLEVE or in similar explosions, the energy converted into overpressure will range between 3.5 and 14% of SE. The comparison of the values thus obtained with experimental data from the literature shows a fairly good agreement.

  4. On the similarity between the energy characteristics of strontium and europium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. N.

    2016-11-01

    The spectra of Eu, Sr, Eu+, and Sr+ are used as examples to demonstrate the similarity between the energy characteristics of these elements. It is shown that europium is identical to strontium in the strong and inhomogeneous magnetic field whose source in lanthanides is their empty and compact 4 f n < 14 core. It is concluded that when it is missing from europium, the latter becomes identical to strontium with no magnetic fields.

  5. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming.

    PubMed

    Reiner, D M; Curry, T E; De Figueiredo, M A; Herzog, H J; Ansolabehere, S D; Itaoka, K; Johnsson, F; Odenberger, M

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that "global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary". There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (< 10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming.

  7. Similarity dark energy models in Bianchi type-I space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad T.; Kumar Yadav, Anil; Alzahrani, Abdulah K.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate some new similarity inhomogeneous solutions of anisotropic dark energy and perfect fluid in Bianchi type-I space-time. Three different equation-of-state (EoS) parameters along the spatial directions are introduced to quantify the deviation of pressure from isotropy. We consider the case when the dark energy is minimally coupled to the perfect fluid as well as the direct interaction with it. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are identified and we generate an optimal system of one-dimensional sub-algebras. Each element of the optimal system is used to reduce the partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation which is further analyzed. We solve the Einstein field equations, described by a system of non-linear partial differential equations (NLPDEs), by using the Lie point symmetry analysis method. The geometrical and kinematic features of the models and the behavior of the anisotropy of dark energy are examined in detail.

  8. Energy Model of Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.

  9. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-15

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity.

  10. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  11. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  12. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  13. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  14. 27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible...

  15. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  16. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  17. 78 FR 52087 - Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 27 RIN 1024-AD30 Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography... similar projects and certain still photography activities. DATES: The rule is effective September 23, 2013... of equipment present, and other factors. Authorizes commercial filming and still photography...

  18. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  19. Deviations from Kolmogorov-Kraichnan similarity theory in the energy cascade of two-dimensional alpha turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Bel Helen; Shepherd, Theodore

    2012-11-01

    We study energy cascades in 2D α turbulence, for which ``vorticity'' θ is related to streamfunction ψ by θ (ᵃ) = (- Δ)α / 2 ψ (ᵃ) , where (- Δ)α / 2 is the fractional Laplacian. Using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovian (EDQNM) closure, we seek self-similar inertial range solutions. The energy flux is finite and the similarity solution self-consistent for α < 4 . In keeping with strain rate arguments, this suggests a spectrally local and self-similar energy cascade for α < 4 . However, the transfers vanish identically for α = 2 . 5 and α = 10 . Comparison with statistical equilibrium spectra elucidates this: for α = 2 . 5 and α = 10 , the similarity spectra coincide with enstrophy and energy equipartition respectively, and the similarity ranges are equilibrium solutions with Gaussian statistics. Moreover, the similarity range energy flux is toward small scales for α ∈ (2 . 5 , 10) , suggesting that any inverse cascade for α >= 2 . 5 cannot be self-similar. Numerical simulations confirm this: for α < 2 . 5 , one can obtain the similarity spectrum, while for α >= 2 . 5 , the inverse cascade spectrum is significantly steeper than the similarity solution. B. H. Burgess was supported by an NSERC Canada Graduate Fellowship and an Amelia Earhart Fellowship from the Zonta International Foundation.

  20. Dark energy in six nearby galaxy flows: Synthetic phase diagrams and self-similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Kanter, A. A.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Outward flows of galaxies are observed around groups of galaxies on spatial scales of about 1 Mpc, and around galaxy clusters on scales of 10 Mpc. Using recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have constructed two synthetic velocity-distance phase diagrams: one for four flows on galaxy-group scales and the other for two flows on cluster scales. It has been shown that, in both cases, the antigravity produced by the cosmic dark-energy background is stronger than the gravity produced by the matter in the outflow volume. The antigravity accelerates the flows and introduces a phase attractor that is common to all scales, corresponding to a linear velocity-distance relation (the local Hubble law). As a result, the bundle of outflow trajectories mostly follow the trajectory of the attractor. A comparison of the two diagrams reveals the universal self-similar nature of the outflows: their gross phase structure in dimensionless variables is essentially independent of their physical spatial scales, which differ by approximately a factor of 10 in the two diagrams.

  1. Characterization of local self-similarity and criticality in the solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. R.; Vats, H. O.; Ramos, F. M.; Zanandrea, A.; Rodrigues Neto, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Rempel, E. L.; Brito, R. C.; Vijaykumar, N. L.; Sawant, H. S.

    From solar radio burst data we computed wavelet transforms and frequency distribution for investigation of self-similar temporal variability and power-laws, as the fundamental conditions for characterization of dynamical criticality (self or forced) in the solar active regions. The main result indicates that, as for the global activity, the local coronal magnetic field, in millisecond time scales, can be in a critical state where the dynamics of solar active regions works as avalanches of many small intermittent particle acceleration events.

  2. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  3. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  4. Spatial Attention Evokes Similar Activation Patterns for Visual and Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David V.; Davis, Ben; Niu, Kathy; Healy, Eric W.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius; Morgan, Paul S.; Rorden, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that a fronto-parietal network is activated when we expect visual information to appear at a specific spatial location. Here we examined whether a similar network is involved for auditory stimuli. We used sparse fMRI to infer brain activation while participants performed analogous visual and auditory tasks. On some trials, participants were asked to discriminate the elevation of a peripheral target. On other trials, participants made a nonspatial judgment. We contrasted trials where the participants expected a peripheral spatial target to those where they were cued to expect a central target. Crucially, our statistical analyses were based on trials where stimuli were anticipated but not presented, allowing us to directly infer perceptual orienting independent of perceptual processing. This is the first neuroimaging study to use an orthogonal-cuing paradigm (with cues predicting azimuth and responses involving elevation discrimination). This aspect of our paradigm is important, as behavioral cueing effects in audition are classically only observed when participants are asked to make spatial judgments. We observed similar fronto-parietal activation for both vision and audition. In a second experiment that controlled for stimulus properties and task difficulty, participants made spatial and temporal discriminations about musical instruments. We found that the pattern of brain activation for spatial selection of auditory stimuli was remarkably similar to what we found in our first experiment. Collectively, these results suggest that the neural mechanisms supporting spatial attention are largely similar across both visual and auditory modalities. PMID:19400684

  5. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  6. Energy requirements in early life are similar for male and female goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, T F V; Neto, O Boaventura; Mendonca, A N; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Fernandes, M H M R; Harter, C J; Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg(0.75) empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg(0.75) BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg(0.75) EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets

  7. Complementary Role of Frontoparietal Activity and Cortical Pattern Similarity in Successful Episodic Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    One central goal in cognitive neuroscience of learning and memory is to characterize the neural processes that lead to long-lasting episodic memory. In addition to the stronger frontoparietal activity, greater category- or item-specific cortical representation during encoding, as measured by pattern similarity (PS), is also associated with better subsequent episodic memory. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether frontoparietal activity and cortical PS reflect distinct mechanisms. To address this issue, we reanalyzed previous data (Xue G, Dong Q, Chen C, Lu ZL, Mumford JA, Poldrack RA. 2010. Greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better memory. Science. 330:97, Experiment 3) using a novel approach based on combined activation-based and information-based analyses. The results showed that across items, stronger frontoparietal activity was associated with greater PS in distributed brain regions, including those where the PS was predictive of better subsequent memory. Nevertheless, the item-specific PS was still associated with later episodic memory after controlling the effect of frontoparietal activity. Our results suggest that one possible mechanism of frontoparietal activity on episodic memory encoding is via enhancing PS, resulting in more unique and consistent input to the medial temporal lobe. In addition, they suggest that PS might index additional processes, such as pattern reinstatement as a result of study-phase retrieval, that contribute to episodic memory encoding. PMID:22645250

  8. Active site similarity between human and Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterases: considerations for antimalarial drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brittany L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Manallack, David T.

    2011-08-01

    The similarity between Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterase enzymes ( PfPDEs) and their human counterparts have been examined and human PDE9A was found to be a suitable template for the construction of homology models for each of the four PfPDE isoforms. In contrast, the architecture of the active sites of each model was most similar to human PDE1. Molecular docking was able to model cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) substrate binding in each case but a docking mode supporting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding could not be found. Anticipating the potential of PfPDE inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs, a range of reported PDE inhibitors including zaprinast and sildenafil were docked into the model of PfPDEα. The results were consistent with their reported biological activities, and the potential of PDE1/9 inhibitor analogues was also supported by docking.

  9. Self-similar signature of the active solar corona within the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kiyani, K; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B; Nicol, R M

    2007-05-25

    We quantify the scaling of magnetic energy density in the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence seen in situ at 1 AU with respect to solar activity. At solar maximum, when the coronal magnetic field is dynamic and topologically complex, we find self-similar scaling in the solar wind, whereas at solar minimum, when the coronal fields are more ordered, we find multifractality. This quantifies the solar-wind signature that is of direct coronal origin and distinguishes it from that of local MHD turbulence, with quantitative implications for coronal heating of the solar wind.

  10. Automatic active space selection for the similarity transformed equations of motion coupled cluster method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Achintya Kumar; Nooijen, Marcel; Neese, Frank; Izsák, Róbert

    2017-02-01

    An efficient scheme for the automatic selection of an active space for similarity transformed equations of motion (STEOM) coupled cluster method is proposed. It relies on state averaged configuration interaction singles (CIS) natural orbitals and makes it possible to use STEOM as a black box method. The performance of the new scheme is tested for singlet and triplet valence, charge transfer, and Rydberg excited states.

  11. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  12. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  13. TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist with no similarity to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijing; Morin, Matthew D.; Jones, Brian T.; Whitby, Landon R.; Surakattula, Murali M. R. P.; Huang, Hua; Shi, Hexin; Choi, Jin Huk; Wang, Kuan-wen; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Berger, Michael; Zhan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Boger, Dale L.; Beutler, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Structurally disparate molecules reportedly engage and activate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and other TLRs, yet the interactions that mediate binding and activation by dissimilar ligands remain unknown. We describe Neoseptins, chemically synthesized peptidomimetics that bear no structural similarity to the established TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but productively engage the mouse TLR4 (mTLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) complex. Neoseptin-3 activates mTLR4/MD-2 independently of CD14 and triggers canonical myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)- and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent signaling. The crystal structure mTLR4/MD-2/Neoseptin-3 at 2.57-Å resolution reveals that Neoseptin-3 binds as an asymmetrical dimer within the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, inducing an active receptor complex similar to that induced by lipid A. However, Neoseptin-3 and lipid A form dissimilar molecular contacts to achieve receptor activation; hence strong TLR4/MD-2 agonists need not mimic LPS. PMID:26831104

  14. TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist with no similarity to LPS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijing; Morin, Matthew D; Jones, Brian T; Whitby, Landon R; Surakattula, Murali M R P; Huang, Hua; Shi, Hexin; Choi, Jin Huk; Wang, Kuan-wen; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Berger, Michael; Zhan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Boger, Dale L; Beutler, Bruce

    2016-02-16

    Structurally disparate molecules reportedly engage and activate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and other TLRs, yet the interactions that mediate binding and activation by dissimilar ligands remain unknown. We describe Neoseptins, chemically synthesized peptidomimetics that bear no structural similarity to the established TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but productively engage the mouse TLR4 (mTLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) complex. Neoseptin-3 activates mTLR4/MD-2 independently of CD14 and triggers canonical myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)- and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent signaling. The crystal structure mTLR4/MD-2/Neoseptin-3 at 2.57-Å resolution reveals that Neoseptin-3 binds as an asymmetrical dimer within the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, inducing an active receptor complex similar to that induced by lipid A. However, Neoseptin-3 and lipid A form dissimilar molecular contacts to achieve receptor activation; hence strong TLR4/MD-2 agonists need not mimic LPS.

  15. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  16. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  17. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment.

  18. A novel method for calculating relative free energy of similar molecules in two environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Singh, Bipin

    2017-03-01

    Calculating relative free energies is a topic of substantial interest and has many applications including solvation and binding free energies, which are used in computational drug discovery. However, there remain the challenges of accuracy, simple implementation, robustness and efficiency, which prevent the calculations from being automated and limit their use. Here we present an exact and complete decoupling analysis in which the partition functions of the compared systems decompose into the partition functions of the common and different subsystems. This decoupling analysis is applicable to submolecules with coupled degrees of freedom such as the methyl group and to any potential function (including the typical dihedral potentials), enabling to remove less terms in the transformation which results in a more efficient calculation. Then we show mathematically, in the context of partition function decoupling, that the two compared systems can be simulated separately, eliminating the need to design a composite system. We demonstrate the decoupling analysis and the separate transformations in a relative free energy calculation using MD simulations for a general force field and compare to another calculation and to experimental results. We present a unified soft-core technique that ensures the monotonicity of the numerically integrated function (analytical proof) which is important for the selection of intermediates. We show mathematically that in this soft-core technique the numerically integrated function can be non-steep only when we transform the systems separately, which can simplify the numerical integration. Finally, we show that when the systems have rugged energy landscape they can be equilibrated without introducing another sampling dimension which can also enable to use the simulation results for other free energy calculations.

  19. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. This corresponds to a “dark energy” fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure (γ>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically “quasi-Friedmann,” in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<γ<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

  20. Structural similarity based kriging for quantitative structure activity and property relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana L; Falcao, Andre O

    2014-07-28

    Structurally similar molecules tend to have similar properties, i.e. closer molecules in the molecular space are more likely to yield similar property values while distant molecules are more likely to yield different values. Based on this principle, we propose the use of a new method that takes into account the high dimensionality of the molecular space, predicting chemical, physical, or biological properties based on the most similar compounds with measured properties. This methodology uses ordinary kriging coupled with three different molecular similarity approaches (based on molecular descriptors, fingerprints, and atom matching) which creates an interpolation map over the molecular space that is capable of predicting properties/activities for diverse chemical data sets. The proposed method was tested in two data sets of diverse chemical compounds collected from the literature and preprocessed. One of the data sets contained dihydrofolate reductase inhibition activity data, and the second molecules for which aqueous solubility was known. The overall predictive results using kriging for both data sets comply with the results obtained in the literature using typical QSPR/QSAR approaches. However, the procedure did not involve any type of descriptor selection or even minimal information about each problem, suggesting that this approach is directly applicable to a large spectrum of problems in QSAR/QSPR. Furthermore, the predictive results improve significantly with the similarity threshold between the training and testing compounds, allowing the definition of a confidence threshold of similarity and error estimation for each case inferred. The use of kriging for interpolation over the molecular metric space is independent of the training data set size, and no reparametrizations are necessary when more compounds are added or removed from the set, and increasing the size of the database will consequentially improve the quality of the estimations. Finally it is shown

  1. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S

    2009-10-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target-competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing.

  2. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  3. Isometric immersions, energy minimization and self-similar buckling in non-Euclidean elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, John; Sharon, Eran; Shearman, Toby; Venkataramani, Shankar C.

    2016-04-01

    The edges of torn plastic sheets and growing leaves often display hierarchical buckling patterns. We show that this complex morphology i) emerges even in zero strain configurations, and ii) is driven by a competition between the two principal curvatures, rather than between bending and stretching. We identify the key role of branch point (or “monkey saddle”) singularities in generating complex wrinkling patterns in isometric immersions, and show how they arise naturally from minimizing the elastic energy.

  4. Assessing microbial communities for a metabolic profile similar to activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Paixão, S M; Sàágua, M C; Tenreiro, R; Anselmo, A M

    2007-05-01

    To search for reliable testing inocula alternatives to activated sludge cultures, several model microbial consortia were compared with activated sludge populations for their functional diversity. The evaluation of the metabolic potential of these mixed inocula was performed using the Biolog EcoPlates and GN and GP MicroPlates (Biolog, Inc., Hayward, California). The community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) obtained for model communities and activated sludge samples were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchic clustering methods, to evaluate the ability of Biolog plates to distinguish among the different microbial communities. The effect of different inocula preparation methodologies on the community structure was also studied. The CLPPs obtained with EcoPlates and GN MicroPlates showed that EcoPlates are suitable to screen communities with a metabolic profile similar to activated sludge. New, well-defined, standardized, and safe inocula presenting the same metabolic community profile as activated sludge were selected and can be tested as surrogate cultures in activated-sludge-based bioassays.

  5. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S

    2013-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  6. Exploiting object constancy: effects of active exploration and shape morphing on similarity judgments of novel objects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haemy; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Humans are experts at shape processing. This expertise has been learned and fine tuned by actively manipulating and perceiving thousands of objects during development. Therefore, shape processing possesses an active component and a perceptual component. Here, we investigate both components in six experiments in which participants view and/or interact with novel, parametrically defined 3D objects using a touch-screen interface. For probing shape processing, we use a similarity rating task. In Experiments 1-3, we show that active manipulation leads to a better perceptual reconstruction of the physical parameter space than judging rotating objects, or passively viewing someone else's exploration pattern. In Experiment 4, we exploit object constancy-the fact that the visual system assumes that objects do not change their identity during manipulation. We show that slow morphing of an object during active manipulation systematically biases similarity ratings-despite the participants being unaware of the morphing. Experiments 5 and 6 investigate the time course of integrating shape information by restricting the morphing to the first and second half of the trial only. Interestingly, the results indicate that participants do not seem to integrate shape information beyond 5 s of exploration time. Finally, Experiment 7 uses a secondary task that suggests that the previous results are not simply due to lack of attention during the later parts of the trial. In summary, our results demonstrate the advantage of active manipulation for shape processing and indicate a continued, perceptual integration of complex shape information within a time window of a few seconds during object interactions.

  7. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  8. Molluscan mobile elements similar to the vertebrate recombination-activating genes

    PubMed Central

    Panchin, Yuri; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2009-01-01

    Animal genomes contain ~20,000 genes. Additionally millions of genes for antigen receptors are generated in cells of the immune system from the sets of separate gene segments by a mechanism known as the V(D)J somatic recombination. The components of the V(D)J recombination system, Recombination-Activating Gene proteins (RAG1 and RAG2) and recombination signal sequence (RSS), are thought to have “entered” the vertebrate genome as a hypothetical “RAG transposon”. Recently discovered mobile elements have terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) similar to RSS and may encode proteins with a different degree of similarity to RAG1. We describe a novel N-RAG-TP transposon identified from the sea slug Aplysia californica that encodes a protein similar to the N-terminal part of RAG1 in vertebrates. This refines the “RAG transposon” hypothesis and allows us to propose a scenario for V(D)J recombination machinery evolution from a relic transposon related to the existing mobile elements N-RAG-TP, Chapaev and Transib. PMID:18313399

  9. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  10. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  11. Similar electromyographic activities of lower limbs between squatting on a reebok core board and ground.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongming; Cao, Chunmei; Chen, Xiaoping

    2013-05-01

    Reebok Core Boards (RCB) used as a platform in training provide an unstable environment for resistance training. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of unstable surface on muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities during a deep squat task. Thirteen male subjects participated in the study. Electromyographic activities of soleus (SO), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GMa), gluteus medius (GMe), and upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES) muscles were collected when subjects were performing a deep squat task on a RCB and ground with different weight loads (body weight, 30%RM (repetition maximum) and 60%RM). No significant difference was observed for all muscle EMG between unstable and stable surface during all weight load conditions (p > 0.05). Muscle EMG significantly increased when the weight load increased (p < 0.05). Similar muscle activities were observed when subjects performed a deep squat task on a stable and unstable surface. Simply applying unstable surface might not provide extra stimulation to the superficial muscles during squatting in resistance-trained students.

  12. Phasic activation of ventral tegmental neurons increases response and pattern similarity in prefrontal cortex neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iwashita, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is critical for higher neural processes and modifying the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the mechanism of dopamine contribution to the modification of neural representation is unclear. Using in vivo two-photon population Ca2+ imaging in awake mice, this study investigated how neural representation of visual input to PFC neurons is regulated by dopamine. Phasic stimulation of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) evoked prolonged Ca2+ transients, lasting ∼30 s in layer 2/3 neurons of the PFC, which are regulated by a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent pathway. Furthermore, only a conditioning protocol with visual sensory input applied 0.5 s before the VTA dopaminergic input could evoke enhanced Ca2+ transients and increased pattern similarity (or establish a neural representation) of PFC neurons to the same sensory input. By increasing both the level of neuronal response and pattern similarity, dopaminergic input may establish robust and reliable cortical representation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02726.001 PMID:25269147

  13. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-04

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction.

  14. Similarities in the HIV-1 and ASV Integrease Active Site Upon Metal Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Lins, Roberto D.; Straatsma, TP; Briggs, J. M.

    2000-04-05

    The HIV-1 integrase, which is essential for viral replication, catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the host chromosome thereby recruiting host cell machinery into making viral proteins. It represents the third main HIV enzyme target for inhibitor design, the first two being the reverse transcriptase and the protease. We report here a fully hydrated 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation performed using parallel NWChem3.2.1 with the AMBER95 force field. The HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain previously determined by crystallography (1B9D) and modeling including two Mg2+ ions placed into the active site based on an alignment against an ASV integrase structure containing two divalent metals (1VSH), was used as the starting structure. The simulation reveals a high degree of flexibility in the region of residues 140-149 even in the presence of a second divalent metal ion and a dramatic conformational change of the side chain of E152 when the second metal ion is present. This study shows similarities in the behavior of the catalytic residues in the HIV-1 and ASV integrases upon metal binding. The present simulation also provides support to the hypothesis that the second metal ion is likely to be carried into the HIV-1 integrase active site by the substrate, a strand of DNA.

  15. Energy Conservation Activities, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services, Boulder.

    This publication is a collection of energy education activities for grades 1-6. The activities were written or selected to be used with daily lesson plans and the existing school curriculum. Activities are classified by: (1) content area (fine arts, mathematics, physical education, reading and language arts, science, and social studies; and (2)…

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  17. Analysis of Self Similar Scaling in Kinetic and Magnetic Energy Density as a Function of Distance From Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Coplan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data to study scaling properties of kinetic and magnetic energy density as a function of solar cycle and distance from the sun. In his original theory on turbulence, Kolmogorov predicted that in the inertial range the fluctuations in velocity differences should be self-similar. Analysis of solar wind data showed this not to be the case. On the other hand B. Hnat et.al.(Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (10), 1446, 2002) and J.J Podesta (J. Geophys. Res., 111, A09105, 2006) showed that fluctuations in kinetic and magnetic energy density are approximately self-similar. We extend this analysis using data from the SWE and MFI experiments on the WIND spacecraft (at 1AU) during solar minimum (2006) and solar maximum (2001) and VHM/FGM experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft (1AU to 5AU). We calculate the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the time delayed differences in kinetic and magnetic energy density and present a method through which the scaling exponent can be reliably calculated from the CDFs, instead of using structure functions which are very sensitive to large fluctuations. We compare the scaling exponents derived from the CDFs to the ones calculated from structure functions and study the rescaling properties of CDFs.

  18. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sai Yi; DesMeules, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Energy intake, physical activity, and obesity are modifiable lifestyle factors. This chapter reviews and summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of energy intake, physical activity, and obesity to cancer. High energy intake may increase the risk of cancers of colon-rectum, prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer), and breast. However, because physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are highly related to total energy intake and expenditure, it is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient evidences to support a role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast, whereas the association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. The evidence also suggests that physical activity likely reduces the risk of cancers of endometrium, lung, and prostate (to a lesser extent). On the other hand, there is little or no evidence that the risk of rectal cancer is related to physical activity, whereas the results have been inconsistent regarding the association between physical activity and the risks of cancers of pancreas, ovary and kidney. Epidemiologic studies provide sufficient evidence that obesity is a risk factor for both cancer incidence and mortality. The evidence supports strong links of obesity with the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), endometrium, kidney (renal cell), and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Epidemiologic evidence also indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer, while it seems that obesity is not associated with lung cancer. The role of obesity in other cancer risks is unclear.

  19. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Resulting as Picometer Interactions with Similarity to K-Shell Electron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.; Li, X. Z.; Kelly, J. C.; Osman, F.

    2006-02-01

    Since the appeal by Brian Josephson at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004, it seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium. Some reflections to Rutherford's discovery of nuclear physics, the Cockroft-Oliphant discovery of anomalous low-energy fusion reactions and the chemist Hahn's discovery of fission had to be included. Using gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant results were seen e.g. from the "life after death" heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect - preferably in the swimming electron layer - may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U of about megaseconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the appearance of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross-sections is used to confirm the picometer-megasecond reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nuclei generation, magic numbers and to quark-gluon plasmas.

  20. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-05

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  1. Fractures of the tibial plateau involve similar energies as the tibial pilon but greater articular surface involvement.

    PubMed

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B; Higgins, Thomas F; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O; Marsh, J Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-03-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated whether clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and 52 tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2-33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6-32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0-493.0 mm and 56.1-288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p < 0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:618-624, 2017.

  2. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  3. Evidence of a forward energy cascade and Kolmogorov self-similarity in submesoscale ocean surface drifter observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poje, Andrew C.; Ã-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Bogucki, Darek J.; Kirwan, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    Using two-point velocity and position data from the near-simultaneous release of O(100) GPS-tracked surface drifters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, we examine the applicability of classical turbulent scaling laws to upper ocean velocity fields. The dataset allows direct estimates of both velocity structure functions and the temporal evolution of the distribution of particle pair separations. On 100 m-10 km spatial scales, and time scales of order 1-10 days, all metrics of the observed surface fluctuations are consistent with standard Kolmogorov turbulence theory in an energy cascade inertial-range regime. The sign of the third-order structure function is negative and proportional to the separation distance for scales ≲10 km where local, fluctuating Rossby numbers are found to be larger than 0.1. The scale-independent energy dissipation rate, or downscale spectral flux, estimated from Kolmogorov's 4/5th law in this regime closely matches nearby microscale dissipation measurements in the near-surface. In contrast, similar statistics derived from a like-sized set of synthetic drifters advected by purely geostrophic altimetric AVISO data agree well with Kolmogorov-Kraichnan scaling for 2D turbulence in the forward enstrophy cascade range.

  4. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  5. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  6. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  7. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  8. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  9. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  10. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  11. False memory for context and true memory for context similarly activate the parahippocampal cortex.

    PubMed

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-02-24

    The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories. However, in previous studies, contextual details were also greater for true memories than false memories. Thus, such differential activity in the parahippocampal cortex may have reflected differences in contextual processing, which would challenge the visual-spatial processing view. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a source memory paradigm to investigate the functional role of the parahippocampal cortex during true memory and false memory for contextual information to distinguish between the visual-spatial processing view and the general contextual processing view. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants indicated whether each shape was previously on the "left" or "right" followed by an "unsure", "sure", or "very sure" confidence rating. The conjunction of confident true memories for context and confident false memories for context produced activity in the parahippocampal cortex, which indicates that this region is associated with contextual processing. Furthermore, the direct contrast of true memory and false memory produced activity in the visual cortex but did not produce activity in the parahippocampal cortex. The present

  12. Image Tracking for the High Similarity Drug Tablets Based on Light Intensity Reflective Energy and Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhongwei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Xiaochu; Wang, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that tablet image tracking exerts a notable influence on the efficiency and reliability of high-speed drug mass production, and, simultaneously, it also emerges as a big difficult problem and targeted focus during production monitoring in recent years, due to the high similarity shape and random position distribution of those objectives to be searched for. For the purpose of tracking tablets accurately in random distribution, through using surface fitting approach and transitional vector determination, the calibrated surface of light intensity reflective energy can be established, describing the shape topology and topography details of objective tablet. On this basis, the mathematical properties of these established surfaces have been proposed, and thereafter artificial neural network (ANN) has been employed for classifying those moving targeted tablets by recognizing their different surface properties; therefore, the instantaneous coordinate positions of those drug tablets on one image frame can then be determined. By repeating identical pattern recognition on the next image frame, the real-time movements of objective tablet templates were successfully tracked in sequence. This paper provides reliable references and new research ideas for the real-time objective tracking in the case of drug production practices. PMID:25143781

  13. Detection efficiency of microchannel plates to fluxes of high energy electrons similar to that in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Meyer, S.; Lüthi, M.; Lasi, D.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Desorgher, L.; Wojczuk, K.; Karllsson, S.; Kalla, L.

    2015-10-01

    High-energy high-rate electrons were measured by a multichannel plate (MCP) detector at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The measurements provide the absolute detection efficiency of 8.5±0.8 % for e? in the beam momenta range 17.5-345 MeV/c. The pulse height distribution determined from the measurements is close to an exponential function with negative exponent, indicating that the particles penetrated the MCP material before producing the signal somewhere inside the channel. Low charge extraction and modal gains of the MCP detector observed in this study are consistent with the proposed mechanism of the signal formation by penetrating radiation. A very similar MCP ion detector will be used in the NIM mass spectrometer of the PEP experiment currently developed for the JUICE mission of ESA to the Jupiter system, to perform measurements of the chemical composition of the exospheres of the Galilean moons.

  14. Image tracking for the high similarity drug tablets based on light intensity reflective energy and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongwei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Xiaochu; Wang, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that tablet image tracking exerts a notable influence on the efficiency and reliability of high-speed drug mass production, and, simultaneously, it also emerges as a big difficult problem and targeted focus during production monitoring in recent years, due to the high similarity shape and random position distribution of those objectives to be searched for. For the purpose of tracking tablets accurately in random distribution, through using surface fitting approach and transitional vector determination, the calibrated surface of light intensity reflective energy can be established, describing the shape topology and topography details of objective tablet. On this basis, the mathematical properties of these established surfaces have been proposed, and thereafter artificial neural network (ANN) has been employed for classifying those moving targeted tablets by recognizing their different surface properties; therefore, the instantaneous coordinate positions of those drug tablets on one image frame can then be determined. By repeating identical pattern recognition on the next image frame, the real-time movements of objective tablet templates were successfully tracked in sequence. This paper provides reliable references and new research ideas for the real-time objective tracking in the case of drug production practices.

  15. Effect of moderate cold exposure on 24-h energy expenditure: similar response in postobese and nonobese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation rates were measured two times in eight postobese women and eight matched controls. On one occasion the subjects were exposed to a room temperature of 16 degrees C, on the other to 24 degrees C. Cold exposure elicited a 2% increment in 24-h EE (P < 0.05), with similar response in the two groups. The slight increase in EE was entirely covered by an enhanced carbohydrate oxidation rate. Fasting plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased from 0.74 +/- 0.08 to 1.29 +/- 0.21 nmol/l under cold exposure (P < 0.05), with no group difference. The cold-induced increase in 24-h EE was positively correlated to the increase in NE concentration (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.01). Sleeping EE was found to be 5% lower in the postobese women than in the controls (P = 0.04). The postobese group also had higher 24-h nonprotein respiratory quotient than the control group (P = 0.04), which was due to a 26% lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio. The study demonstrates that the thermogenic response to cold is normal in women susceptible to obesity, but it supports previous reports of a slightly lower basal EE and lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio in postobese subjects.

  16. Similar brain activation patterns for writing logographic and phonetic symbols in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chong-Yu; Xiao, Zhuang-Wei; Shen, Li; Zhang, John X; Weng, Xu-Chu

    2007-10-08

    This event-related functional MRI study examined the neural correlates for Chinese writing, by comparing the writing of logographic characters and that of pinyin, a phonetic notation system for Chinese characters. The temporal profile of the activations indicated that the middle frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and posterior inferior temporal gyrus reflected more central processes for writing. Although pinyin writing elicited greater activity overall than character writing, the critical finding is that the two types of symbols recruited essentially the same brain regions. The results were compared with studies in Japanese showing dissociation between logographic kanji and phonetic kana writing and frequency of use was suggested to be an important factor in accounting for result differences across the two writing systems.

  17. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  18. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  19. Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Oliveira, A B; Costa, J R; Herrera, E; Salvini, T F

    2013-10-01

    Although tissue cooling is widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries there is still controversy about its effects on muscular performance. The combination of cooling and exercise justifies the study of this topic. The aim was to compare the effects of ice pack and cold-water immersion on the muscular performance parameters of plantar flexors and muscular activation of the triceps surae. 41 healthy men (mean age: 22.1 years, SD: 2.9) were randomly assigned to cooling with either ice pack (n=20) or cold-water immersion (n=21). Independent variables were cold modality (ice pack or cold-water immersion) and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were muscular performance (measured during isometric and concentric contractions of plantar flexors) and electromyography parameters of the triceps surae (median frequency and root mean square amplitude). Dependent-samples t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-cooling data and independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the difference (pre- and post-cooling) between groups. Ice pack increased isometric peak torque (mean: 9.00 Nm, P=0.01) and both cold modalities reduced muscular activation in triceps surae (P<0.0001); Cold-water immersion and ice pack reduced peak torque and total work during dynamic isokinetic contraction at both velocities (mean: -11,00 Nm, P<0.05) and affected muscular activation in different ways. In conclusion, ice pack increases isometric torque, while both ice pack and cold-water immersion decrease concentric muscular performance. These results indicate that these cooling methods should be chosen with caution, considering the type of task required during training or rehabilitation. New studies investigating other muscle groups and joints are necessary.

  20. How similar are the changes in neural activity resulting from mindfulness practice in contrast to spiritual practice?

    PubMed

    Barnby, Joseph M; Bailey, Neil W; Chambers, Richard; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-11-01

    Meditation and spiritual practices are conceptually similar, eliciting similar subjective experiences, and both appear to provide similar benefits to the practicing individuals. However, no research has examined whether the mechanism of action leading to the beneficial effects is similar in both practices. This review examines the neuroimaging research that has focused on groups of meditating individuals, groups who engage in religious/spiritual practices, and research that has examined groups who perform both practices together, in an attempt to assess whether this may be the case. Differences in the balance of activity between the parietal and prefrontal cortical activation were found between the three groups. A relative prefrontal increase was reflective of mindfulness, which related to decreased anxiety and improved well-being. A relative decrease in activation of the parietal cortex, specifically the inferior parietal cortex, appears to be reflective of spiritual belief, whether within the context of meditation or not. Because mindful and spiritual practices differ in focus regarding the 'self' or 'other' (higher being), these observations about neurological components that reflect spirituality may continue work towards understanding how the definition of 'self' and 'other' is represented in the brain, and how this may be reflected in behaviour. Future research can begin to use cohorts of participants in mindfulness studies which are controlled for using the variable of spirituality to explicitly examine how functional and structural similarities and differences may arise.

  1. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  2. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  3. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  4. Similar patterns of neural activity predict memory function during encoding and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Kragel, James E; Ezzyat, Youssef; Sperling, Michael R; Gorniak, Richard; Worrell, Gregory A; Berry, Brent M; Inman, Cory; Lin, Jui-Jui; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel M; Jobst, Barbara C; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Sheth, Sameer A; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes. We developed multivariate classifiers to identify patterns of spectral power across the brain that independently predicted successful episodic encoding and retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, patterns of increased high frequency activity in prefrontal, MTL, and inferior parietal cortices, accompanied by widespread decreases in low frequency power across the brain predicted successful memory function. Using a cross-decoding approach, we demonstrate the ability to predict memory function across distinct phases of the free-recall task. Furthermore, we demonstrate that classifiers that combine information from both encoding and retrieval states can outperform task-independent models. These findings suggest that the engagement of a core memory network during either encoding or retrieval shapes the ability to remember the past, despite distinct neural interactions that facilitate encoding and retrieval.

  5. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  6. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... about community job training needs, and (iii) Promote the use of first source hiring agreements and... section, employer outreach and job development activities are directly related to training for eligible individuals. (b) These employer outreach and job development activities include: (1) Contacts with...

  7. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... informed decisions about community job training needs, and (iii) Promote the use of first source hiring... this section, employer outreach and job development activities are directly related to training for eligible individuals. (b) These employer outreach and job development activities include: (1) Contacts...

  8. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... about community job training needs, and (iii) Promote the use of first source hiring agreements and... section, employer outreach and job development activities are directly related to training for eligible individuals. (b) These employer outreach and job development activities include: (1) Contacts with...

  9. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... informed decisions about community job training needs, and (iii) Promote the use of first source hiring... this section, employer outreach and job development activities are directly related to training for eligible individuals. (b) These employer outreach and job development activities include: (1) Contacts...

  10. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... informed decisions about community job training needs, and (iii) Promote the use of first source hiring... this section, employer outreach and job development activities are directly related to training for eligible individuals. (b) These employer outreach and job development activities include: (1) Contacts...

  11. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  12. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching mathematics. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting…

  13. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  14. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  15. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein-protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein-protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro.

  16. The parietal memory network activates similarly for true and associative false recognition elicited via the DRM procedure.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; Watson, Jason M; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-01

    Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e.g., encoding); activation during subsequent repetitions (e.g., at retrieval); greater activation for successfully retrieved familiar words than novel words (e.g., hits relative to correctly-rejected lures). The question of interest here is whether novel words that are subjectively experienced as having been recently studied would elicit PMN activation similar to that of hits. That is, we compared old items correctly recognized to two types of novel items on a recognition test: those correctly identified as new and those incorrectly labeled as old due to their strong associative relation to the studied words (in the DRM false memory protocol). Subjective oldness plays a strong role in driving activation, as hits and false alarms activated similarly (and greater than correctly-rejected lures).

  17. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  18. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  19. 76 FR 55278 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 810 RIN 1994-AA02 Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DOE proposes to amend its regulation concerning unclassified assistance to foreign atomic energy... territories for which a general authorization for foreign atomic energy activities is available. This...

  20. Clustering of 3D-Structure Similarity Based Network of Secondary Metabolites Reveals Their Relationships with Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ohtana, Yuki; Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Huang, Ming; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Horai, Hisayuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Morita Hirai, Aki; Lange, Klaus W; Kibinge, Nelson K; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    Developing database systems connecting diverse species based on omics is the most important theme in big data biology. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Family Databases, which are utilized in a number of researches in metabolomics. In the present study, we have developed a network-based approach to analyze relationships between 3D structure and biological activity of metabolites consisting of four steps as follows: construction of a network of metabolites based on structural similarity (Step 1), classification of metabolites into structure groups (Step 2), assessment of statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 3), and 2-dimensional clustering of the constructed data matrix based on statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 4). Applying this method to a data set consisting of 2072 secondary metabolites and 140 biological activities reported in KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB, we obtained 983 statistically significant structure group-biological activity pairs. As a whole, we systematically analyzed the relationship between 3D-chemical structures of metabolites and biological activities.

  1. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  2. Social networks of experientially similar others: formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience.

    PubMed

    Gage, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child's care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents' perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child's care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences.

  3. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  4. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document contains teaching activities which are intended to strengthen students' mathematics skills and concepts, while broadening their understanding of energy concepts. Each of the 24…

  5. Ion pickup observed at comet 67P with the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) particle sensors: similarities with previous observations and AMPTE releases, and effects of increasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Burch, J. L.; Goldstein, R.; Nilsson, H.; Stenberg Wieser, G.; Behar, E.; the RPC Team

    2015-09-01

    Rosetta's unique trajectory is allowing exciting measurements of the development of cometary activity between ˜3.6 and 1.2 AU for the first time. For a few months following Rosetta's arrival at comet 67P in August 2014, data from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) particle instruments (the Ion and Electron Spectrometer (IES) and the Ion Composition Analyser (ICA)), have shown that the low activity cometary environment was initially dominated by the solar wind. This was expected in the early stages of the mission. In addition to the solar wind and related He+ populations, a low energy pickup ion population is seen intermittently in the early phase of the mission near the comet. The population is very time dependent, but at times reaches higher energy approaching the solar wind energy. During these intervals, ICA data indicate that the composition is mainly water group ions. The rising energy signatures of these ions observed at times indicate that they are in the early phases of the pickup process, initially accelerated by the electric field (‘early phase pickup’). Here, we compare these exciting pickup ion measurements with Giotto measurements at the relatively weak (compared to Halley) comet Grigg-Skjellerup, where early phase pickup was seen including non-gyrotropic cometary ions, and with the AMPTE lithium and barium releases. Our results reveal some striking similarities with the AMPTE releases, particularly the rising energy signature related to early pickup, and a momentum balance between the pickup ions and the deflected solar wind. There is also evidence for momentum transfer between the pickup ions and the solar wind, with less velocity change seen in the solar wind alpha particles compared to the protons; this was also observed in an AMPTE lithium release. We discuss the effects of increasing activity observed between 3.6 to 1.8 AU, including the increasing dominance and energisation of pickup ions, increasing ionospheric effects and the decreasing

  6. Molecular similarity and property similarity.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Frédérique; Horvath, Dragos

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the main efforts undertaken up to date in order to understand, rationalize and apply the similarity principle (similar compounds=>similar properties) as a computational tool in modern drug discovery. The best suited mathematical expression of this classical working hypothesis of medicinal chemistry needs to be carefully chosen (out of the virtually infinite possible implementations in terms of molecular descriptors and molecular similarity metrics), in order to achieve an optimal validation of the hypothesis that molecules that are neighbors in the Structural Space will also display similar properties. This overview will show why no single "absolute" measure of molecular similarity can be conceived, and why molecular similarity scores should be considered tunable tools that need to be adapted to each problem to solve.

  7. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  8. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  9. Reinstatement of individual past events revealed by the similarity of distributed activation patterns during encoding and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wing, Erik A; Ritchey, Maureen; Cabeza, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Neurobiological memory models assume memory traces are stored in neocortex, with pointers in the hippocampus, and are then reactivated during retrieval, yielding the experience of remembering. Whereas most prior neuroimaging studies on reactivation have focused on the reactivation of sets or categories of items, the current study sought to identify cortical patterns pertaining to memory for individual scenes. During encoding, participants viewed pictures of scenes paired with matching labels (e.g., "barn," "tunnel"), and, during retrieval, they recalled the scenes in response to the labels and rated the quality of their visual memories. Using representational similarity analyses, we interrogated the similarity between activation patterns during encoding and retrieval both at the item level (individual scenes) and the set level (all scenes). The study yielded four main findings. First, in occipitotemporal cortex, memory success increased with encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) at the item level but not at the set level, indicating the reactivation of individual scenes. Second, in ventrolateral pFC, memory increased with ERS for both item and set levels, indicating the recapitulation of memory processes that benefit encoding and retrieval of all scenes. Third, in retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex, ERS was sensitive to individual scene information irrespective of memory success, suggesting automatic activation of scene contexts. Finally, consistent with neurobiological models, hippocampal activity during encoding predicted the subsequent reactivation of individual items. These findings show the promise of studying memory with greater specificity by isolating individual mnemonic representations and determining their relationship to factors like the detail with which past events are remembered.

  10. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Bruno L; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  11. The Production and Perception of Emotionally Expressive Walking Sounds: Similarities between Musical Performance and Everyday Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions. PMID:25551392

  12. Individual differences in cognitive style and strategy predict similarities in the patterns of brain activity between individuals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael B; Donovan, Christa-Lynn; Bennett, Craig M; Aminoff, Elissa M; Mayer, Richard E

    2012-01-02

    Neuroimaging is being used increasingly to make inferences about an individual. Yet, those inferences are often confounded by the fact that topographical patterns of task-related brain activity can vary greatly from person to person. This study examined two factors that may contribute to the variability across individuals in a memory retrieval task: individual differences in cognitive style and individual differences in encoding strategy. Cognitive style was probed using a battery of assessments focused on the individual's tendency to visualize or verbalize written material. Encoding strategy was probed using a series of questions designed to assess typical strategies that an individual might utilize when trying to remember a list of words. Similarity in brain activity was assessed by cross-correlating individual t-statistic maps contrasting the BOLD response during retrieval to the BOLD response during fixation. Individual differences in cognitive style and encoding strategy accounted for a significant portion of the variance in similarity. This was true above and beyond individual differences in anatomy and memory performance. These results demonstrate the need for a multidimensional approach in the use of fMRI to make inferences about an individual.

  13. Mosaic activity patterns and their relation to perceptual similarity: open discussions on the molecular basis and circuitry of odor recognition.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fernando F; Rela, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the recent years in regard to the mechanisms and neural circuits by which odors are sensed and perceived. Part of this understanding has been gained from parallel studies in insects and rodents that show striking similarity in the mechanisms they use to sense, encode, and perceive odors. In this review, we provide a short introduction to the functioning of olfactory systems from transduction of odorant stimuli into electrical signals in sensory neurons to the anatomical and functional organization of the networks involved in neural representation of odors in the central nervous system. We make emphasis on the functional and anatomical architecture of the first synaptic relay of the olfactory circuit, the olfactory bulb in vertebrates and the antennal lobe in insects. We discuss how the exquisite and conserved architecture of this structure is established and how different odors are encoded in mosaic activity patterns. Finally, we discuss the validity of methods used to compare activation patterns in relation to perceptual similarity.

  14. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  15. New evidence of similarity between human and plant steroid metabolism: 5alpha-reductase activity in Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Fabiana; Danza, Giovanna; Guarna, Antonio; Cini, Nicoletta; Racchi, Milvia Luisa; Serio, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of steroid hormones in humans is well known, and the metabolic pathway and mechanisms of action are almost completely elucidated. The role of plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids, is less known, but an increasing amount of data on brassinosteroid biosynthesis is showing unexpected similarities between human and plant steroid metabolic pathways. Here we focus our attention on the enzyme 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) for which a plant ortholog of the mammalian system, DET2, was recently described in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that campestenone, the natural substrate of DET2, is reduced to 5alpha-campestanone by both human 5alphaR isozymes but with different affinities. Solanum malacoxylon, which is a calcinogenic plant very active in the biosynthesis of vitamin D-like molecules and sterols, was used to study 5alphaR activity. Leaves and calli were chosen as examples of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues, respectively. Two separate 5alphaR activities were found in calli and leaves of Solanum using campestenone as substrate. The use of progesterone allowed the detection of both activities in calli. Support for the existence of two 5alphaR isozymes in S. malacoxylon was provided by the differential actions of inhibitors of the human 5alphaR in calli and leaves. The evidence for the presence of two isozymes in different plant tissues extends the analogies between plant and mammalian steroid metabolic pathways.

  16. Nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 utilize similar glutamine-containing clusters of hydrophobic residues to activate transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Gugneja, S; Virbasius, C M; Scarpulla, R C

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF-1 and NRF-2) are ubiquitous transcription factors that have been implicated in the control of nuclear genes required for respiration, heme biosynthesis, and mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. Recently, both factors have been found to be major transcriptional determinants for a subset of these genes that define a class of simple promoters involved in respiratory chain expression. Here, functional domains required for transactivation by NRF-1 have been defined. An atypical nuclear localization signal resides in a conserved amino-terminal region adjacent to the DNA binding domain and consists of functionally redundant clusters of basic residues. A second domain in the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule is necessary for transcriptional activation. The activation domains of both NRF-1 and NRF-2 were extensively characterized by both deletion and alanine substitution mutagenesis. The results show that these domains do not fall into known classes defined by a preponderance of amino acid residues, including glutamines, prolines, or isoleucines, as found in other eukaryotic activators. Rather, in both factors, a series of tandemly arranged clusters of hydrophobic amino acids were required for activation. Although all of the functional clusters contain glutamines, the glutamines differ from the hydrophobic residues in that they are inconsequential for activation. Unlike the NRF-2 domain, which contains its essential hydrophobic motifs within 40 residues, the NRF-1 domain spans about 40% of the molecule and appears to have a bipartite structure. The findings indicate that NRF-1 and NRF-2 utilize similar hydrophobic structural motifs for activating transcription. PMID:8816484

  17. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  18. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network.

  19. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Feduccia, Allison A; Wang, Yuanyuan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Yi, Henry Y; Li, Rui; Bjeldanes, Leonard; Ye, Chuangxing; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-08-01

    Purine compounds, such as caffeine, have many health-promoting properties and have proven to be beneficial in treating a number of different conditions. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine and abundantly present in Camellia kucha, has recently become of interest as a potential therapeutic compound. In the present study, theacrine was tested using a rodent behavioral model to investigate the effects of the drug on locomotor activity. Long Evans rats were injected with theacrine (24 or 48 mg/kg, i.p.) and activity levels were measured. Results showed that the highest dose of theacrine (48 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased locomotor activity compared to control animals and activity remained elevated throughout the duration of the session. To test for the involvement of adenosine receptors underlying theacrine's motor-activating properties, rats were administered a cocktail of the adenosine A₁ agonist, N⁶-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680; 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with theacrine significantly attenuated the motor depression induced by the adenosine receptor agonists, indicating that theacrine is likely acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Next, we examined the role of DA D₁ and D₂ receptor antagonism on theacrine-induced hyperlocomotion. Both antagonists, D₁R SCH23390 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) and D₂R eticlopride (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reduced theacrine-stimulated activity indicating that this behavioral response, at least in part, is mediated by DA receptors. In order to investigate the brain region where theacrine may be acting, the drug (10 or 20 μg) was infused bilaterally into nucleus accumbens (NAc). Theacrine enhanced activity levels in a dose-dependent manner, implicating a role of the NAc in modulating theacrine's effects on locomotion. In addition, theacrine did not induce locomotor

  20. Comparison of Muscle Activation while Performing Tasks Similar to Activities of Daily Livings with and without a Cock-up Splint

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Young; Jung, Nam-Hae; Chang, Moon-Young

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in the activation of the main elbow muscle while performing tasks similar to activities of daily living (ADL) with and without a cock-up splint. [Methods] Sixteen participants performed a simulated feeding task and picked up light and heavy cans in the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test. The activation of the biceps brachii, the triceps brachii, and the brachioradialis with and without the cock-up splint was measured using a BTS FreeEMG 300 wireless electromyography system (BTS, Inc., Milan, Italy). [Results] The activation of the biceps brachii and the brachioradialis was significantly higher while performing the simulated feeding task with the cock-up splint than without the splint. While picking up the light and heavy cans, the activation of the brachioradialis was significantly decreased by wearing the cock-up splint. In the heavy cans task, the activation of the triceps brachii was significantly higher with the cock-up splint than without the splint. [Conclusion] This study showed that diverse muscles' activation was increased or decreased when wearing the cock-up splint while performing tasks similar to ADL. The results of this study can be used as an educational resource for therapists teaching patients about splint application and splint compliance in ADL. PMID:24259768

  1. Householders’ Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’, there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people’s categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  2. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    PubMed

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.

  3. Correlation between viscous-flow activation energy and phase diagram in four systems of Cu-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shuang; Bian, Xiufang; Ren, Zhenfeng

    2010-09-01

    Activation energy is obtained from temperature dependence of viscosities by means of a fitting to the Arrhenius equation for liquid alloys of Cu-Sb, Cu-Te, Cu-Sn and Cu-Ag systems. We found that the changing trend of activation energy curves with concentration is similar to that of liquidus in the phase diagrams. Moreover, a maximum value of activation energy is in the composition range of the intermetallic phases and a minimum value of activation energy is located at the eutectic point. The correlation between the activation energy and the phase diagrams has been further discussed.

  4. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  5. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  6. MICRO-SIGMOIDS AS PROGENITORS OF CORONAL JETS: IS ERUPTIVE ACTIVITY SELF-SIMILARLY MULTI-SCALED?

    SciTech Connect

    Raouafi, N.-E.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2010-08-01

    Observations from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on Hinode are used to study the nature of X-ray-bright points, sources of coronal jets. Several jet events in the coronal holes are found to erupt from small-scale, S-shaped bright regions. This finding suggests that coronal micro-sigmoids may well be progenitors of coronal jets. Moreover, the presence of these structures may explain numerous observed characteristics of jets such as helical structures, apparent transverse motions, and shapes. Analogous to large-scale sigmoids giving rise to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a promising future task would perhaps be to investigate whether solar eruptive activity, from coronal jets to CMEs, is self-similar in terms of properties and instability mechanisms.

  7. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  8. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

  9. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  10. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  11. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  12. Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, R. Gavin; Clough, Launa G.; Dirain, Marvin; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes, including myogenesis and angiogenesis, are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely 2 (T2) and 7 (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women, aged 18-30 and ≥70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n = 15; 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n = 15; 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group, returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, postinjury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole+ and paired box 7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, postinjury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF and kinase insert domain receptor) did not differ significantly between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se. PMID:23493365

  13. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Adam K; Lamberti, Francis V; Moulton, Julia N; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]). This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL]) are normal (ie, non-diseased) on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK) and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL) on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic analogs to natural bone to improve numerous orthopedic applications. It also provides the first data of healthy osteoclast and osteoblast functions on nanocrystalline calcium phosphates compared to natural bone.

  14. Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; MacNeil, R Gavin; Clough, Launa G; Dirain, Marvin; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-06-01

    Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes, including myogenesis and angiogenesis, are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely 2 (T2) and 7 (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women, aged 18-30 and ≥70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n = 15; 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n = 15; 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group, returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, postinjury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole+ and paired box 7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, postinjury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF and kinase insert domain receptor) did not differ significantly between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se.

  15. Identification of an IRF-1 splicing transcript in APL cells sharing similar transactivation activity of the full length one.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yejiang; Xia, Di; Yu, Mengxia; Tong, Jianhua; Jin, Jie

    2017-03-20

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family. It acts as a transcriptional activator and plays a critical role in antiviral defense, immune response, cell growth regulation, apoptosis and cell differentiation. Deletions, mutations or aberrant splicing of IRF-1 would result in its functional inactivation, and closely related to the tumorigenesis. In this work, we identified an IRF-1 splicing transcript (IRF-1-s) in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4 cells. It lost the exon 8 and 9 of the full length IRF-1, expressed in numerous cell types and could be induced to expression by ATRA in NB4 cells. It turned out similar biological activity as full length IRF-1 to enhance the transcription of interferon stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing target genes. Identification of IRF-1-s in NB4 cells would be benefit for our further exploring the signaling pathway of ATRA and interferons, as well as the mechanisms of differentiation of APL cells.

  16. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  17. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  18. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  19. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  20. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  1. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  2. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  3. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  4. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  5. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  6. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 3. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This notebook for grade 3 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade three. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  7. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units 1 through 8 containing three activities…

  8. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units I through VIII containing three…

  9. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  10. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  11. An orally active angiotensin-(1-7) inclusion compound and exercise training produce similar cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Mariane; Casali, Karina R; De Sousa, Frederico B; Rigatto, Katya; Becker, Lenice; Santos, Sergio H S; Dias, Lucinara D; Pinto, Graziela; Dartora, Daniela R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Milan, Ruben Dario Sinisterra; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A S

    2014-01-01

    Low angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) concentration is observed in some cardiovascular diseases and exercise training seems to restore its concentration in the heart. Recently, a novel formulation of an orally active Ang-(1-7) included in hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPB-CD) was developed and chronically administered in experimental models of cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined whether chronic administration of HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) produces beneficial cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as to compare the results obtained with those produced by exercise training. Male SHR (15-week old) were divided in control (tap water) or treated with HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) (corresponding to 30μgkg(-1)day(-1) of Ang-(1-7)) by gavage, concomitantly or not to exercise training (treadmill, 10 weeks). After chronic treatment, hemodynamic, morphometric and molecular analysis in the heart were performed. Chronic HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) decreased arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in SHR. The inclusion compound significantly improved left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, restored the maximum and minimum derivatives (dP/dT) and decreased cardiac hypertrophy index in SHR. Chronic treatment improved autonomic control by attenuating sympathetic modulation on heart and vessels and the SAP variability, as well as increasing parasympathetic modulation and HR variability. Overall results were similar to those obtained with exercise training. These results show that chronic treatment with the HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) inclusion compound produced beneficial effects in SHR resembling the ones produced by exercise training. This observation reinforces the potential cardiovascular therapeutic effect of this novel peptide formulation.

  12. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  13. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  14. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  15. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  16. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  17. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  18. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  19. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  20. Thermopower and conductivity activation energies in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dyalsingh, H.M.; Kakalios, J.

    1996-12-31

    The long range fluctuation model has been widely used to account for the difference in activation energies seen experimentally in dark conductivity and thermopower measurements in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The authors report on a test of this model using measurements of the conductivity and thermoelectric effects carried out in both open and short circuit configurations. While the thermopower activation energy is less than that of the dark conductivity, the short circuit Seebeck conductivity is found to be nearly identical to the dark conductivity in both activation energy and magnitude, consistent with the long range fluctuation model.

  1. Self-similar flow of a rotating dusty gas behind the shock wave with increasing energy, conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2012-01-01

    A self-similar solution is obtained for one dimensional adiabatic flow behind a cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotating dusty gas in presence of heat conduction and radiation heat flux with increasing energy. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston (or inner expanding surface). The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature only. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the initial density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant and the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assumed to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameters and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. The effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are also investigated.

  2. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  3. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  4. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  5. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  6. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-06

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  7. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  8. Comparison of topological clustering within protein networks using edge metrics that evaluate full sequence, full structure, and active site microenvironment similarity

    PubMed Central

    Leuthaeuser, Janelle B; Knutson, Stacy T; Kumar, Kiran; Babbitt, Patricia C; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2015-01-01

    The development of accurate protein function annotation methods has emerged as a major unsolved biological problem. Protein similarity networks, one approach to function annotation via annotation transfer, group proteins into similarity-based clusters. An underlying assumption is that the edge metric used to identify such clusters correlates with functional information. In this contribution, this assumption is evaluated by observing topologies in similarity networks using three different edge metrics: sequence (BLAST), structure (TM-Align), and active site similarity (active site profiling, implemented in DASP). Network topologies for four well-studied protein superfamilies (enolase, peroxiredoxin (Prx), glutathione transferase (GST), and crotonase) were compared with curated functional hierarchies and structure. As expected, network topology differs, depending on edge metric; comparison of topologies provides valuable information on structure/function relationships. Subnetworks based on active site similarity correlate with known functional hierarchies at a single edge threshold more often than sequence- or structure-based networks. Sequence- and structure-based networks are useful for identifying sequence and domain similarities and differences; therefore, it is important to consider the clustering goal before deciding appropriate edge metric. Further, conserved active site residues identified in enolase and GST active site subnetworks correspond with published functionally important residues. Extension of this analysis yields predictions of functionally determinant residues for GST subgroups. These results support the hypothesis that active site similarity-based networks reveal clusters that share functional details and lay the foundation for capturing functionally relevant hierarchies using an approach that is both automatable and can deliver greater precision in function annotation than current similarity-based methods. PMID:26073648

  9. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  10. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  11. Brain activity in adults who stutter: similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Roger J; Grafton, Scott T; Bothe, Anne K; Ingham, Janis C

    2012-07-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n=18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n=12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS.

  12. Reactive Ni/Al Nanocomposites: Structural Characteristics and Activation Energy.

    PubMed

    Shuck, Christopher E; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2017-02-16

    Stochastically structured Ni/Al reactive nanocomposites (RNCs) were prepared using short-term high-energy ball milling. Several milling times were utilized to prepare RNCs with differing internal nanostructures. These internal structures were quantitatively and statistically analyzed by use of serial focused ion beam sectioning coupled with 3D reconstruction techniques. The reaction kinetics were analyzed using the electrothermal explosion technique for each milling condition. It is shown that the effective activation energy (Eef) ranges from 79 to 137 kJ/mol and is directly related to the surface area contact between the reactants. Essentially, the reaction kinetics can be accurately controlled through mechanical processing techniques. Finally, the nature of the reaction is considered; the mechanistic effect of the reactive and three diffusive activation energies on the effective activation energy is examined.

  13. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  14. Enzyme activation through the utilization of intrinsic dianion binding energy.

    PubMed

    Amyes, T L; Malabanan, M M; Zhai, X; Reyes, A C; Richard, J P

    2016-11-29

    We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol., 43: , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis. A structure-based mechanism is described where the dianion binding energy drives a conformational change that activates these enzymes for catalysis. Phosphite dianion plays the active role of holding TIM in a high-energy closed active form, but acts as passive spectator in showing no effect on transition-state structure. The result of studies on mutant enzymes is presented, which support the proposal that the dianion-driven enzyme conformational change plays a role in enhancing the basicity of side chain of E167, the catalytic base, by clamping the base between a pair of hydrophobic side chains. The insight these results provide into the architecture of enzyme active sites and the development of strategies for the de novo design of protein catalysts is discussed.

  15. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  16. Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Nicholas; Redcay, Elizabeth; Young, Liane; Mavros, Penelope L; Moran, Joseph M; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Reading about another person's beliefs engages 'Theory of Mind' processes and elicits highly reliable brain activation across individuals and experimental paradigms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activation during a story task designed to elicit Theory of Mind processing in a very large sample of neurotypical (N = 462) individuals, and a group of high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (N = 31), using both region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses. This large sample allowed us to investigate group differences in brain activation to Theory of Mind tasks with unusually high sensitivity. There were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These results imply that the social cognitive impairments typical of autism spectrum disorder can occur without measurable changes in the size, location or response magnitude of activity during explicit Theory of Mind tasks administered to adults.

  17. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  18. Yields of clustered DNA damage induced by charged-particle radiations of similar kinetic energy per nucleon: LET dependence in different DNA microenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    Keszenman, D.J.; Sutherland, B. M.

    2010-08-01

    To determine the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of the biological effects of densely ionizing radiation in relation to changes in the ionization density along the track, we measured the yields and spectrum of clustered DNA damages induced by charged particles of different atomic number but similar kinetic energy per nucleon in different DNA microenvironments. Yeast DNA embedded in agarose in solutions of different free radical scavenging capacity was irradiated with 1 GeV protons, 1 GeV/nucleon oxygen ions, 980 MeV/nucleon titanium ions or 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions. The frequencies of double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites and oxypurine clusters were quantified. The total DNA damage yields per absorbed dose induced in non-radioquenching solution decreased with LET, with minor variations in radioquenching conditions being detected. However, the total damage yields per particle fluence increased with LET in both conditions, indicating a higher efficiency per particle to induce clustered DNA damages. The yields of DSBs and non-DSB clusters as well as the damage spectra varied with LET and DNA milieu, suggesting the involvement of more than one mechanism in the formation of the different types of clustered damages.

  19. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  20. The activation energy for dislocation nucleation at a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James R.; Beltz, Glenn E.

    1994-02-01

    T HE ACTIVATION energy for dislocation nucleation from a stressed crack tip is calculated within the Peierls framework, in which a periodic shear stress vs displacement relation is assumed to hold on a slip plane emanating from the crack tip. Previous results have revealed that the critical G (energy release rate corresponding to the "screened" crack tip stress field) for dislocation nucleation scales with γ us (the unstable stacking energy), in an analysis which neglects any coupling between tension and shear along the slip plane. That analysis represents instantaneous nucleation and takes thermal effects into account only via the weak temperature dependence of the elastic constants. In this work, the energy required to thermally activate a stable, incipient dislocation into its unstable "saddle-point" configuration is directly calculated for loads less than that critical value. We do so only with the simplest case, for which the slip plane is a prolongation of the crack plane. A first calculation reported is 2D in nature, and hence reveals an activation energy per unit length. A more realistic scheme for thermal activation involves the emission of a dislocation loop, an inherently 3D phenomenon. Asymptotic calculations of the activation energy for loads close to the critical load are performed in 2D and in 3D. It is found that the 3D activation energy generally corresponds to the 2D activation energy per unit length multiplied by about 5-10 Burgers vectors (but by as many as 17 very near to the critical loading). Implications for the emission of dislocations in copper, α-iron, and silicon at elevated temperature are discussed. The effects of thermal activation are very significant in lowering the load for emission. Also, the appropriate activation energy to correspond to molecular dynamics simulations of crack tips is discussed. Such simulations, as typically carried out with only a few atomic planes in a periodic repeat direction parallel to the crack tip, are

  1. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic state of each substrate through the reaction cycle. These procedures clarify the mechanism of free energy transduction, even without step-by-step analysis. The results show that free energy exchange must occur in its entirety among protein-bound species. Imposition of conditions for an adequate rate of physiological function further indicates (i) that the standard free energy of hydrolysis of protein-bound ATP (to yield protein-bound products) needs to differ substantially from the standard free energy of hydrolysis in solution and (ii) that binding sites for the transported ions must have different affinities when facing opposite sides of the membrane. The results also demonstrate that step-by-step "basic" free energy changes (often used in the form of free energy level diagrams) are inherently unsuited for analysis of the mechanism of free energy transduction. PMID:6216483

  2. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  3. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  4. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  5. Brain Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Similarities across Speaking Tasks and Correlations with Stuttering Frequency and Speaking Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…

  6. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  7. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  8. Energy-aware activity classification using wearable sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  9. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

  10. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  11. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-08

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  12. [A simple method of synthesis of triterpene glycosides similar to glycyrrhizic acid and their hepatoprotective activity in vitro].

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, L R; Baltina, L A; Baltina, L A; Kondratenko, R M; Nepogodiev, S A; Field, R A; Kunert, O; Yin, M Ch

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method of synthesis of triterpene l,2-trans-glycosides was developed using the glycosylation of glycyrrhetic acid (GLA) and 18,19-dehydro-GLA by beta-pyranose peracetates in the presence of SnCl(4) and molecular sieves 4 A. The synthesized glycosides exhibited hepatoprotective activity toward the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line on the model of alcohol hepatitis and decreased the level of TNF-alpha protein.

  13. Similar disturbances in B cell activity and regulatory T cell function in Henoch-Schonlein purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, M.G.; Nash, G.S.; Bertovich, M.J.; MacDermott, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The immunoglobulin synthesizing activities of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from five patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and eight patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were compared. Cumulative amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesized and secreted by unstimulated and PWM-stimulated patient cells over a 12-day period were determied in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. In unstimulated control cultures mean rates of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesis were less than 250 ng/ml. The synthetic activities of patient MNC were markedly increased. In HSP cultures IgA was the major immunoglobulin class produced (2810 x/divide 1.33 ng/ml) followed by IgG (1754 x/divide 1.32 ng/ml) and IgM (404 x/divide 1.16 ng/ml). In SLE cultures IgA and IgG syntheses were equally elevated (4427 x/divide 1.20 and 4438 x/divide 1.49 ng/ml, respectively) whereas IgM synthesis averaged 967 x/divide 1.66 ng/ml. PWM stimulation of pateient MNC caused a sharp decline in the synthesis of all three immunoglobulin classes. After T cell depletion B cell-enriched fractions from HSP and SLE patients maintained high levels of IgA and IgG synthesis that were inhibited by PWM and by normal allogeneic but not autologous T cells. In PWM-stimulted co-cultures, patient T cells nonspecifically suppressed the synthetic activities of autologous and control B cells. in contrast patient B cells achieved normal levels of immunoglobulin synthesis when cultured with control T cells plus PWM. In longitudinal studies patient B and T cell disturbances persisted despite clinical improvement.

  14. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  15. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  16. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  17. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  18. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase

  19. A Systematic In Silico Search for Target Similarity Identifies Several Approved Drugs with Potential Activity against the Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ≈600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials. PMID:23555651

  20. Resemblance and Dissemblance of Arabidopsis Type II Peroxiredoxins: Similar Sequences for Divergent Gene Expression, Protein Localization, and Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Bréhélin, Claire; Meyer, Etienne H.; de Souris, Jean-Paul; Bonnard, Géraldine; Meyer, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis type II peroxiredoxin (PRXII) family is composed of six different genes, five of which are expressed. On the basis of the nucleotide and protein sequences, we were able to define three subgroups among the PRXII family. The first subgroup is composed of AtPRXII-B, -C, and -D, which are highly similar and localized in the cytosol. AtPRXII-B is ubiquitously expressed. More striking is the specific expression of AtPRXII-C and AtPRXII-D localized in pollen. The second subgroup comprises the mitochondrial AtPRXII-F, the corresponding gene of which is expressed constitutively. We show that AtPRXII-E, belonging to the last subgroup, is expressed mostly in reproductive tissues and that its product is addressed to the plastid. By in vitro enzymatic experiments, we demonstrate that glutaredoxin is the electron donor of recombinant AtPRXII-B for peroxidase reaction, but the donors of AtPRXII-E and AtPRXII-F have still to be identified. PMID:12913160

  1. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  2. Similarities and differences of recent hybrid pixel detectors for X-ray and high energy physics developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, G.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Horisberger, R.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are being developed for both photon science and high energy physics. The article will cover similarities and differences in pixel detectors for both applications using two of the pixel detectors developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) as examples: the EIGER photon counting detector and the psi46dig chip, which has been developed for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracking pixel detector upgrade. EIGER is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector for applications at synchrotron light sources in the energy range from a few to 25 keV. It is characterized by a small pixel size (75 × 75 μm2), high count rate capability (106 counts/pixel/s) and very high data rate, which reaches 6 Gb/s for a 256 × 256 pixel chip. The CMS pixel detector is designed to provide charge information from the pixels in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider. The short time between bunches of 25 ns and the high event rate at luminosity up to 2 × 1034cm-2s-1 require a detector with high hit efficiency, with good timing resolution and the ability to retain timestamp information for the hits. The readout architecture is based on the transfer of hits from the pixels to the periphery, where the trigger validation is performed before data transfer. The data rates of the digitized output reach 160 Mb/s for a 52×80 pixel chip.The specific timing and rate requirements for the detectors, the analog performances (minimum threshold and noise), the power consumption and the radiation hardness will be compared. An overview on future developments based on mutual learning and common solutions will be discussed.

  3. Activation of Methane and Ethane as Mediated by the Triatomic Anion HNbN(-): Electronic Structure Similarity with a Pt Atom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia-Bi; Xu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Qing-Yu; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-04-11

    Investigations of the intrinsic properties of gas-phase transition metal nitride (TMN) ions represent one approach to gain a fundamental understanding of the active sites of TMN catalysts, the activities and electronic structures of which are known to be comparable to those of noble metal catalysts. Herein, we investigate the structures and reactivities of the triatomic anions HNbN(-) by means of mass spectrometry and photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. The HNbN(-) anions are capable of activating CH4 and C2H6 through oxidative addition, exhibiting similar reactivities to free Pt atoms. The similar electronic structures of HNbN(-) and Pt, especially the active orbitals, are responsible for this resemblance. Compared to the inert NbN(-), the coordination of the H atom in HNbN(-) is indispensable. New insights into how to replace noble metals with TMNs may be derived from this combined experimental/computational study.

  4. Trapezius activity of fibromyalgia patients is enhanced in stressful situations, but is similar to healthy controls in a quiet naturalistic setting: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle activity and pain development of fibromyalgia (FM) patients in response to mental stress show inconsistent results, when compared to healthy controls (HCs). A possible reason for the inconsistent results is the large variation in stress exposures in different studies. This study compares muscle responses of FM patients and HCs for different modes and levels of imposed stress, to elucidate features in stress exposures that distinguish stress responses of FM patients from HCs. Methods Upper trapezius (clavicular and acromial fibers), deltoid, and biceps surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity was recorded in FM patients (n=26) and HCs (n=25). Heart rate (HR) was recorded and used as indicator of autonomic activation. Tests included inspiratory breath holding (sympathetic activation procedure), mental stress tests (color-word test and backward counting; 28 min), instructed rest prior to stress test (30 min TV watching), and controlled arm movement. sEMG and HR was also recorded during an unrestrained evening stay at a patient hotel. The 5-min period with lowest trapezius muscle activity was determined. Pain (shoulder/neck, low back pain) and perceived tension were scored on VAS scales at the start and the end of the stress test and at bedtime. Results Trapezius sEMG responses of FM patients were significantly higher than HCs during sympathetic activation, mental stress, and instructed rest, but similar during arm movement and unrestrained evening activity. HR of FM patients and HCs was similar during mental stress and in the evening, including the 5-min period with lowest trapezius activity. Muscle activity of FM patients during the stress test (with shoulder/neck pain development) and the evening stay (no pain development) was similar. Conclusions FM patients show elevated muscle activity (in particular trapezius activity) in situations with imposed stress, including sympathetic activation, and putative anticipatory stress. Muscle activity and

  5. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  6. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  7. 36 CFR 3.12 - May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing or other similar activities? 3.12 Section 3.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.12 May I use a vessel to tow a person for water skiing...

  8. Heavier ions with a different linear energy transfer spectrum kill more cells due to similar interference with the Ku-dependent DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Ya

    2014-10-01

    Ionizing radiation kills cells mainly due to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). High-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation induces more cell death and generates a higher relative biological effect (RBE) than low-LET ionizing radiation (such as X or γ ray). Although it is known that interference with the Ku-dependent nonhomologous ending-joining (NHEJ) pathway appears to be the major cause of iron-ion- and carbon-ion-induced cell death, it remains unclear whether other ions with a similar or different LET and higher RBE in terms of cell killing are controlled in the same way. In this study, we compared the clonogenic survival frequency of Ku80+/+ (NHEJ-proficient) and Ku80-/- (NHEJ-deficient) cells after exposure to iron (175 keV/μm), silicon (75 keV/μm), oxygen (25 keV/μm) and X ray (low-LET). The results showed that Ku80-/- cells had the same RBE value of 1 for cell killing for all types of ionizing radiation, whereas Ku80+/+ cells had different RBE values for cell killing that depended on the specific type of ionizing radiation. The results indicate that the Ku-dependent NHEJ is the major repair pathway that heavier ions interfere with, resulting in higher RBE for cell killing. These results provide useful information for followup studies that will focus on improving high-LET protection or heavier ion radiotherapy in the near future.

  9. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  10. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons.

  11. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  12. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  13. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  14. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  15. Mechanism and activation energy of magnetic skyrmion annihilation obtained from minimum energy path calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Igor S.; Jónsson, Hannes; Uzdin, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and activation energy for the annihilation of a magnetic skyrmion is studied by finding the minimum energy path for the transition in a system described by a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian extended to include dipole-dipole, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya, and anisotropy interactions so as to represent a Co monolayer on a Pt(111) surface. The annihilation mechanism involves isotropic shrinking of the skyrmion and slow increase of the energy until the transition state is reached after which the energy drops abruptly as the ferromagnetic final state forms. The maximum energy along the minimum energy path, which gives an estimate of the activation energy within the harmonic approximation of transition state theory, is found to be in excellent agreement with direct Langevin dynamics simulations at relatively high temperature carried out by Rohart et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 214412 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.214412]. The dipole-dipole interaction, the computationally most demanding term in the Hamiltonian, is found to be important but its effect on the stability of the skyrmion and shape of the transition path can be mimicked accurately by reducing the anisotropy constant in the Hamiltonian.

  16. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  17. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  18. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  19. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Fábio da Silva; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms.

  20. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  1. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  2. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  3. Energy spectrum of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and its connection with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. J.; Feng, H. Q.; Chao, J. K.

    2008-03-01

    Context: Recent observations of the solar wind show that interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IMFRs) have a continuous scale-distribution from small-scale flux ropes to large-scale magnetic clouds. Aims: In this work, we investigate the energy spectrum of IMFRs and its possible connection with solar activity. Methods: In consideration of the detectable probability of an IMFR to be proportional to its diameter, the actual energy spectrum of IMFRs can be obtained from the observed spectrum based on spacecraft observations in the solar wind. Results: It is found that IMFRs have a negative power-law spectrum with an index α = 1.36±0.03, which is similar to that of solar flares, and is probably representative of interplanetary energy spectrum of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), that is, the energy spectrum of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). This indicates that the energy distribution of CMEs has a similar negative power-law spectrum. In particular, there are numerous small-scale CMEs in the solar corona, and their interplanetary consequences may be directly detected in situ by spacecraft in the solar wind as small-scale IMFRs, although they are too weak to appear clearly in current coronagraph observations. Conclusions: The presence of small-scale CMEs, especially the energy spectrum of CMEs is potentially important for understanding both the solar magneto-atmosphere and CMEs.

  4. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  5. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  6. Time-resolved FTIR studies provide activation free energy, activation enthalpy and activation entropy for GTPase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    GTPases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP and P i, play a key role in the regulation of many biological processes. In this work, we quantify the activation parameters ΔG0∗,ΔH0∗andΔS0∗ for the hydrolysis reaction of GTP in water, in water with Mg 2+ ions and in Ras. Ras belongs to the superfamily of small GTPases (guanine nucleotide-binding proteins; GNBPs). Surprisingly, we find that in all cases, the activation energy consists mainly of enthalpic contributions. Additionally, the small entropic contributions in water and in Ras are similar, so that ΔΔ S* is close to 0. Thus the entropic contributions are only minor in GTPase catalysis and the enthalpic contributions from electrostatic interactions are key to the catalysis. The protein induced change in charge distribution of GTP can be monitored by time-resolved difference FTIR spectroscopy. For Ras the main effect due to protein binding is a charge shift towards the β-phosphate of GTP. This seems to have the main contribution to the catalytic mechanism. Because the G-domain of Ras is highly conserved in GNBPs, we propose that the finding here holds for all GNBPs.

  7. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  8. Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

  9. Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with similar in vitro kinase properties.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R L; Konopka, J B; Witte, O N

    1985-01-01

    The v-abl protein of Abelson murine leukemia virus is a tyrosine-specific kinase. Its normal cellular homolog, murine c-abl, does not possess detectable tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. Previously, we have detected tyrosine kinase activity in vitro for an altered c-abl gene product (c-abl P210) in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. The expression of this variant c-abl gene product correlates with chromosomal translocation and amplification of the c-abl gene in K562 cells. Like v-abl, c-abl P210 is a fusion protein containing non-abl sequences near the amino terminus of c-abl. We compared the in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of c-abl P210 with that of wild-type murine v-abl. The remarkable similarities of these two proteins with respect to cis-acting autophosphorylation, trans-acting phosphorylation of exogenous substrates, and kinase inhibition, using site-directed abl-specific antisera, suggested that c-abl P210 could function similarly to v-abl in vivo. In addition, c-abl P210 possessed an associated serine kinase activity in immunoprecipitates. The serine kinase activity was not inhibited by site-directed, abl-specific antisera that inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting that the serine kinase activity is not an intrinsic property of c-abl P210. Thus, the activation of the c-abl gene in a human leukemia cell line may have functional consequences analogous to activation of the c-abl gene in Abelson murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:4039028

  10. Active site of the mRNA-capping enzyme guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: similarity to the nucleotidyl attachment motif of DNA and RNA ligases.

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, L D; Buratowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Nascent mRNA chains are capped at the 5' end by the addition of a guanylyl residue to form a G(5')ppp(5')N ... structure. During the capping reaction, the guanylyltransferase (GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.50) is reversibly and covalently guanylylated. In this enzyme-GMP (E-GMP) intermediate, GMP is linked to the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue via a phosphoamide bond. Lys-70 was identified as the GMP attachment site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanylyltransferase (encoded by the CEG1 gene) by guanylylpeptide sequencing. CEG1 genes with substitutions at Lys-70 were unable to support viability in yeast and produced proteins that were not guanylylated in vitro. The CEG1 active site exhibits sequence similarity to the active sites of viral guanylyltransferases and polynucleotide ligases, suggesting similarity in the mechanisms of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by these enzymes. Images PMID:8022828

  11. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions.

  12. Raman active high energy excitations in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhot, Jonathan; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Piekarz, Przemysław; Lapertot, Gérard; Aoki, Dai; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu2Si2 single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm-1 and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the Eg symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A1g symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  13. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  14. High-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek

    1994-01-01

    Two recent findings concerning high-energy radiation properties of active galactic nuclei -- discovery of breaks in hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies, and discovery of huge fluxes of hard gamma rays from blazars -- seem to press us to change our standard views about radiation production in these objects. I review briefly the existing radiation models, confront them with the newest observations, and discuss newly emerging theoretical pictures which attempt to account for the discoveries.

  15. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  16. Children after fontan have strength and body composition similar to healthy peers and can successfully participate in daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Corey, M; Faulkner, G; Russell, J L; McCrindle, B W

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the active lifestyle capacity (daily physical activity, strength, flexibility, body composition) of children after the Fontan procedure; hypothesized to be lower than healthy peers. Participants (n = 64, 25 females) were 9.0 ± 1.7 years of age (range 6.0-11.7 years). Fontan completion occurred at 3.3 ± 1.4 years of age (5.7 ± 2.0 years prior). Canadian Health Measures Survey protocols assessed aerobic endurance (paced walking up/down steps), strength (handgrip), flexibility (sit and reach), body composition (body mass index), and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (7-day accelerometry). Difference scores compared participant data to published norms (t tests). Linear regression evaluated age/gender/demographic factor associations. Children after Fontan had strength scores similar (mean difference 1.1 kg) to their peers were less likely to be obese (mean difference of body mass index = 1.1 ± 2.5, p = 0.001) and performed 50 min of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day (12 ± 17 min/day below healthy peers, p < 0.001). Estimated peak endurance (61 % of expected) and flexibility (64 % of expected) were lower than peers (p < 0.001). Almost all (60/63) participants demonstrated the capacity to perform at least 20 min of MVPA per day. Difference from norms was smaller among children younger at Fontan completion (4 ± 2 min/year) and taking antithrombotic medication (7 ± 18 and 22 ± 17 min/day for taking/not taking, respectively). Children after Fontan demonstrate the capacity for the daily physical activity associated with optimal health. They have similar strength and good body composition. We recommend that children after Fontan be counselled that they can successfully participate in healthy, active lifestyles and physically active peer play.

  17. Active surface model improvement by energy function optimization for 3D segmentation.

    PubMed

    Azimifar, Zohreh; Mohaddesi, Mahsa

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimized and efficient active surface model by improving the energy functions, searching method, neighborhood definition and resampling criterion. Extracting an accurate surface of the desired object from a number of 3D images using active surface and deformable models plays an important role in computer vision especially medical image processing. Different powerful segmentation algorithms have been suggested to address the limitations associated with the model initialization, poor convergence to surface concavities and slow convergence rate. This paper proposes a method to improve one of the strongest and recent segmentation algorithms, namely the Decoupled Active Surface (DAS) method. We consider a gradient of wavelet edge extracted image and local phase coherence as external energy to extract more information from images and we use curvature integral as internal energy to focus on high curvature region extraction. Similarly, we use resampling of points and a line search for point selection to improve the accuracy of the algorithm. We further employ an estimation of the desired object as an initialization for the active surface model. A number of tests and experiments have been done and the results show the improvements with regards to the extracted surface accuracy and computational time of the presented algorithm compared with the best and recent active surface models.

  18. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  19. Activation energies for addition of O/3P/ to simple olefins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Description of relative rate measurements for the addition of O(3P) to C2H4, C2F4, C3H6, and C4H8-1 in liquid argon at 87.5 K. The data strongly indicate that the activation energies for the addition of O(3P) to the double bonds of propylene and butene-1 are identical, probably to within 0.1 kcal/mole. It is very doubtful that differences in pre-exponential factors or other factors such as solvent effects, could invalidate this conclusion. A similar argument holds for the C2H4 and C2F4 reactions. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the activation energy for addition of O(3P) to the double bond of butene-1 is about 0.1 kcal/mole.

  20. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  1. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  2. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  3. Differences and similarities in binding of pyruvate and L-lactate in the active site of M4 and H4 isoforms of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Swiderek, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present QM/MM calculations that show differences in geometries of active sites of M(4) and H(4) isoforms of human LDH ligated with oxamate, pyruvate or L-lactate. As the consequence of these differences, binding isotope effects of the methyl hydrogen atoms of pyruvate and l-lactate may be used to experimentally distinguish these isoforms. Based on the FEP calculations we argue that L-lactate is a better candidate for the experimental studies. Our calculations of energies of interactions of ligands with the active site residues provide explanation for the observed experimentally sensitivity to inhibition of the M(4) isoenzyme isoform and pinpoint the differences to interactions of the ligand with the histidine residue. We conclude that pyruvate interacts much stronger in the active site of H(4) than M(4) isoform and that the latter interactions are weaker than with water molecules in the aqueous solution.

  4. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  5. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  6. Nonadiabatic coupling reduces the activation energy in thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J; Penfold, T J

    2017-03-22

    The temperature dependent rate of a thermally activated process is given by the Arrhenius equation. The exponential decrease in the rate with activation energy, which this imposes, strongly promotes processes with small activation barriers. This criterion is one of the most challenging during the design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters used in organic light emitting diodes. The small activation energy is usually achieved with donor-acceptor charge transfer complexes. However, this sacrifices the radiative rate and is therefore incommensurate with the high luminescence quantum yields required for applications. Herein we demonstrate that the spin-vibronic mechanism, operative for efficient TADF, overcomes this limitation. Nonadiabatic coupling between the lowest two triplet states give rise to a strong enhancement of the rate of reserve intersystem crossing via a second order mechanism and promotes population transfer between the T1 to T2 states. Consequently the rISC mechanism is actually operative between initial and final state exhibiting an energy gap that is smaller than between the T1 and S1 states. This contributes to the small activation energies for molecules exhibiting a large optical gap, identifies limitations of the present design procedures and provides a basis from which to construct TADF molecules with simultaneous high radiative and rISC rates.

  7. ZIKA virus elicits P53 activation and genotoxic stress in human neural progenitors similar to mutations involved in severe forms of genetic microcephaly and p53

    PubMed Central

    Ghouzzi, Vincent El; Bianchi, Federico T; Molineris, Ivan; Mounce, Bryan C; Berto, Gaia E; Rak, Malgorzata; Lebon, Sophie; Aubry, Laetitia; Tocco, Chiara; Gai, Marta; Chiotto, Alessandra MA; Sgrò, Francesco; Pallavicini, Gianmarco; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Passemard, Sandrine; Vignuzzi, Marco; Gressens, Pierre; Di Cunto, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence from the current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and recent studies in animal models indicate a strong causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly. ZIKV infection induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in proliferating neural progenitors. However, the mechanisms leading to these phenotypes are still largely obscure. In this report, we explored the possible similarities between transcriptional responses induced by ZIKV in human neural progenitors and those elicited by three different genetic mutations leading to severe forms of microcephaly in mice. We found that the strongest similarity between all these conditions is the activation of common P53 downstream genes. In agreement with these observations, we report that ZIKV infection increases total P53 levels and nuclear accumulation, as well as P53 Ser15 phosphorylation, correlated with genotoxic stress and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, increased P53 activation and apoptosis are induced not only in cells expressing high levels of viral antigens but also in cells showing low or undetectable levels of the same proteins. These results indicate that P53 activation is an early and specific event in ZIKV-infected cells, which could result from cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight a small group of P53 effector proteins that could act as critical mediators, not only in ZIKV-induced microcephaly but also in many genetic microcephaly syndromes. PMID:27787521

  8. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation".

  9. Activation Energies of Fragmentations of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Szabó, Katalin E.; Antal, Borbála; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2014-03-01

    A simple multiple collision model for collision induced dissociation (CID) in quadrupole was applied for the estimation of the activation energy (Eo) of the fragmentation processes for lithiated and trifluoroacetated disaccharides, such as maltose, cellobiose, isomaltose, gentiobiose, and trehalose. The internal energy-dependent rate constants k(Eint) were calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) or the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (RRK) theory. The Eo values were estimated by fitting the calculated survival yield (SY) curves to the experimental ones. The calculated Eo values of the fragmentation processes for lithiated disaccharides were in the range of 1.4-1.7 eV, and were found to increase in the order trehalose < maltose < isomaltose < cellobiose < gentiobiose.

  10. [Peptide-agonist of protease-activated receptor (PAR 1), similar to activated protein C, promotes proliferation in keratinocytes and wound healing of epithelial layer].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, E V; Sidorova, M V; Gorbacheva, L R; Strukova, S M

    2014-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is serine protease hemostasis, independent of its anticoagulant activity, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties that determine the possibility of the protective effects of APC in different diseases, including sepsis and chronic wound healing. APC, binding of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and specifically cleaving PAR1 receptor and releasing peptide agonist PAR1 stabilizes not only endothelial cells, but also many others, including epidermal keratinocytes of the skin. We develop the hypothesis that the cytoprotective effect of APC on the cells, involved in wound healing, seem to imitate peptide - analogous of PAR1 "tethered ligand" that activate PAR1. In our work, we synthesized a peptide (AP9) - analogue of PAR1 tethered ligand, released by APC, and firstly showed that peptide AP9 (0.1-10 мM), like to APC (0.01-100 nM), stimulates the proliferative activity of human primary keratinocytes. Using a model of the formation of epithelial wounds in vitro we found that peptide AP9, as well as protease APC, accelerates wound healing. Using specific antibodies to the receptor PAR1 and EPCR was studied the receptor mechanism of AP9 action in wound healing compared with the action of APС. The necessity of both receptors - PAR1 and EPСR, for proliferative activity of agonists was revealed. Identified in our work imitation by peptide AP9 - PAR1 ligand, APC acts on keratinocytes suggests the possibility of using a peptide AP9 to stimulate tissue repair.

  11. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  12. Cytosolic calcium coordinates mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Amit K; Ivannikov, Maxim V; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R; Macleod, Gregory T

    2012-01-25

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations that blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+ and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11 nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13 nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates, [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs.

  13. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  14. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  15. Potency of Full- Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Joseph A. M. J. L.; Hofland, Leo J.; Strasburger, Christian J.; van den Dungen, Elisabeth S. R.; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin receptor-B (IR-B), respectively. In addition, we tested the stimulatory activity of human MGF and its stabilized analog Goldspink-MGF on the IGF-IR. Methods The effects of full-length MGF, IGF-I, human mechano growth factor (MGF), Goldspink-MGF and HI were compared using kinase specific receptor activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for IGF-I, IR-A or IR-B, respectively. These assays quantify activity by measuring auto-phosphorylation of the receptor upon ligand binding. Results IGF-IR: At high equimolar concentrations maximal IGF-IR stimulating effects generated by full-length MGF were similar to that of IGF-I (89-fold vs. 77-fold, respectively). However, EC50 values of IGF-I and full-length MGF for the IGF-I receptor were 0.86 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.07) and 7.83 nmol/L (95% CI: 4.87–12.58), respectively. No IGF-IR activation was observed by human MGF and Goldspink-MGF, respectively. IR-A/IR-B: At high equimolar concentrations similar maximal IR-A stimulating effects were observed for full -length MGF and HI, but maximal IR-B stimulation achieved by full -length MGF was stronger than that by HI (292-fold vs. 98-fold). EC50 values of HI and full-length MGF for the IR-A were 1.13 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.84) and 73.11 nmol/L (42.87–124.69), respectively; for IR-B these values were 1.28 nmol/L (95% CI 0.64–2.57) and 35.10 nmol/L (95% 17.52–70.33), respectively. Conclusions Full-length MGF directly stimulates the IGF-IR. Despite a higher EC50 concentration, at high equimolar concentrations full-length MGF showed a similar maximal potency to activate the IGF-IR as compared to IGF-I. Further research is needed to understand the actions of full-length MGF in vivo and to define the

  16. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  17. Similarity and Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES comparative solutions to the heat transfer equation for incompressible non-Newtonian fluids: case of laminar boundary energy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. C.; Zhang, X. X.; Boubaker, K.; Yücel, U.; Gargouri-Ellouze, E.; Yıldırım, A.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, a new model is proposed for the heat transfer characteristics of power law non- Newtonian fluids. The effects of power law viscosity on temperature field were taken into account by assuming that the temperature field is similar to the velocity field with modified Fourier's law of heat conduction for power law fluid media. The solutions obtained by using Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme (BPES) technique are compared with those of the recent related similarity method in the literature with good agreement to verify the protocol exactness.

  18. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  19. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  20. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  1. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  2. Macroautophagy regulates energy metabolism during effector T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Vanessa M; Valdor, Rut; Patel, Bindi; Singh, Rajat; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2010-12-15

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation that plays a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by recycling amino acids, reducing the amount of damaged proteins, and regulating protein levels in response to extracellular signals. We have found that macroautophagy is induced after effector T cell activation. Engagement of the TCR and CD28 results in enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing, increased numbers of LC3-containing vesicles, and increased LC3 flux, indicating active autophagosome formation and clearance. The autophagosomes formed in stimulated T cells actively fuse with lysosomes to degrade their cargo. Using a conditional KO mouse model where Atg7, a critical gene for macroautophagy, is specifically deleted in T cells, we have found that macroautophagy-deficient effector Th cells have defective IL-2 and IFN-γ production and reduced proliferation after stimulation, with no significant increase in apoptosis. We have found that ATP generation is decreased when autophagy is blocked, and defects in activation-induced cytokine production are restored when an exogenous energy source is added to macroautophagy-deficient T cells. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that the nature of the cargo inside autophagic vesicles found in resting T cells differs from the cargo of autophagosomes in activated T cells, where mitochondria and other organelles are selectively excluded. These results suggest that macroautophagy is an actively regulated process in T cells that can be induced in response to TCR engagement to accommodate the bioenergetic requirements of activated T cells.

  3. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  4. Social Studies. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document provides activities for teachers to use with students in teaching social studies. The activities are intended to demonstrate the impact of energy technology on today's society.…

  5. Energy- and Activity-Dependent Loss Timescales for Inner Magnetospheric keV-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) inner magnetospheric drift physics model has recently been modified to include keV-energy electron scattering rates by VLF chorus and hiss waves, thus allowing for the calculation of the electron phase space distribution in the inner magnetosphere and electron precipitation to the upper atmosphere. Comparisons of calculated electron fluxes are made with low-Earth orbit electron precipitation data and dayside electron measurements to validate the scattering implementation procedure. The energy-dependent scattering rate coefficients are adjusted to take into account geomagnetic activity and plasmapause location, providing a scattering rate that best matches the simulations to the observed electron fluxes. In addition, the electron ring current intensities and spatio-temporal evolution are compared against simulation results for the hot ion species. While the electron total energy content is typically 10 times smaller than the ion total energy content in the inner magnetosphere, it can be significantly higher than this during the late main phase of magnetic storms.

  6. Energy cost of isometric force production after active shortening in skinned muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Joumaa, V; Fitzowich, A; Herzog, W

    2017-02-23

    The steady state isometric force after active shortening of a skeletal muscle is lower than the purely isometric force at the corresponding length. This property of skeletal muscle is known as force depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the energy cost of force production at the steady state after active shortening was reduced compared to the energy cost of force production for a purely isometric contraction performed at the corresponding length (same length, same activation). Experiments were performed in skinned fibres isolated from rabbit psoas muscle. Skinned fibres were actively shortened from an average sarcomere length of 3.0 µm to an average sarcomere length of 2.4 µm. Purely isometric reference contractions were performed at an average sarcomere length of 2.4 µm. Simultaneously with the force measurements, the ATP cost was measured during the last 30 seconds of isometric contractions using an enzyme-coupled assay. Stiffness was calculated during a quick stretch-release cycle of 0.2% fibre length performed once the steady state had been reached after active shortening and during the purely isometric reference contractions. Force and stiffness following active shortening were decreased by 10.0±1.8% and 11.0±2.2%, respectively compared to the isometric reference contractions. Similarly, ATPase activity per second (not normalized to the force) showed a decrease of 15.6±3.0% in the force depressed state compared to the purely isometric reference state. However, ATPase activity per second per unit of force was similar for the isometric contractions following active shortening (28.7±2.4 mM/mN.s.mm(3)) and the corresponding purely isometric reference contraction (30.9±2.8 mM/mN.s.mm(3)). Furthermore, the reduction in absolute ATPase activity per second was significantly correlated with force depression and stiffness depression. These results are in accordance with the idea that force depression following active shortening is

  7. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of painted human interphase chromosomes: active and inactive X chromosome territories have similar volumes but differ in shape and surface structure

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of differences between the 3D morphology of active and inactive human X interphase chromosomes (Xa and Xi territories). Chromosome territories were painted in formaldehyde-fixed, three-dimensionally intact human diploid female amniotic fluid cell nuclei (46, XX) with X-specific whole chromosome compositive probes. The colocalization of a 4,6-diamidino-2- phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained Barr body with one of the two painted X territories allowed the unequivocal discrimination of the inactive X from its active counterpart. Light optical serial sections were obtained with a confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D- reconstructed Xa territories revealed a flatter shape and exhibited a larger and more irregular surface when compared to the apparently smoother surface and rounder shape of Xi territories. The relationship between territory surface and volume was quantified by the determination of a dimensionless roundness factor (RF). RF and surface area measurements showed a highly significant difference between Xa and Xi territories (P < 0.001) in contrast to volume differences (P > 0.1). For comparison with an autosome of similar DNA content, chromosome 7 territories were additionally painted. The 3D morphology of the chromosome 7 territories was similar to the Xa territory but differed strongly from the Xi territory with respect to RF and surface area (P < 0.001). PMID:8978813

  9. Redox Active Polymers as Soluble Nanomaterials for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-11-15

    It is an exciting time for exploring the synergism between the chemical and dimensional properties of redox nanomaterials for addressing the manifold performance demands faced by energy storage technologies. The call for widespread adoption of alternative energy sources requires the combination of emerging chemical concepts with redesigned battery formats. Our groups are interested in the development and implementation of a new strategy for nonaqueous flow batteries (NRFBs) for grid energy storage. Our motivation is to solve major challenges in NRFBs, such as the lack of membranes that simultaneously allow fast ion transport while minimizing redox active species crossover between anolyte (negative electrolyte) and catholyte (positive electrolyte) compartments. This pervasive crossover leads to deleterious capacity fade and materials underutilization. In this Account, we highlight redox active polymers (RAPs) and related polymer colloids as soluble nanoscopic energy storing units that enable the simple but powerful size-exclusion concept for NRFBs. Crossover of the redox component is suppressed by matching high molecular weight RAPs with simple and inexpensive nanoporous commercial separators. In contrast to the vast literature on the redox chemistry of electrode-confined polymer films, studies on the electrochemistry of solubilized RAPs are incipient. This is due in part to challenges in finding suitable solvents that enable systematic studies on high polymers. Here, viologen-, ferrocene- and nitrostyrene-based polymers in various formats exhibit properties that make amenable their electrochemical exploration as solution-phase redox couples. A main finding is that RAP solutions store energy efficiently and reversibly while offering chemical modularity and size versatility. Beyond the practicality toward their use in NRFBs, the fundamental electrochemistry exhibited by RAPs is fascinating, showing clear distinctions in behavior from that of small molecules. Whereas

  10. Redox Active Colloids as Discrete Energy Storage Carriers.

    PubMed

    Montoto, Elena C; Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Hui, Jingshu; Burgess, Mark; Sekerak, Nina M; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Wei, Teng-Sing; Kneer, Marissa; Grolman, Joshua; Cheng, Kevin J; Lewis, Jennifer A; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-10-12

    Versatile and readily available battery materials compatible with a range of electrode configurations and cell designs are desirable for renewable energy storage. Here we report a promising class of materials based on redox active colloids (RACs) that are inherently modular in their design and overcome challenges faced by small-molecule organic materials for battery applications, such as crossover and chemical/morphological stability. RACs are cross-linked polymer spheres, synthesized with uniform diameters between 80 and 800 nm, and exhibit reversible redox activity as single particles, as monolayer films, and in the form of flowable dispersions. Viologen-based RACs display reversible cycling, accessing up to 99% of their capacity and 99 ± 1% Coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles by bulk electrolysis owing to efficient, long-distance intraparticle charge transfer. Ferrocene-based RACs paired with viologen-based RACs cycled efficiently in a nonaqueous redox flow battery employing a simple size-selective separator, thus demonstrating a possible application that benefits from their colloidal dimensions. The unprecedented versatility in RAC synthetic and electrochemical design opens new avenues for energy storage.

  11. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  12. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  13. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  14. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  15. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)(3)He and D(d,n)(3)He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the (9)Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  16. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device

    PubMed Central

    Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima. PMID:26273118

  17. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  18. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  19. Oxygen uptake and energy expenditure for children during rock climbing activity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip Baxter; Ostrowski, Megan L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in children during rock climbing activity. 29 children (age = 10.9 ± 1.7 yr) participated in the study. A commercially available rock climbing structure with ample features for submaximal effort climbing provided continuous terrain. Participants were instructed to climb at a comfortable pace. Following an initial 5-min rest, each child climbed one sustained 5-min bout followed by 5-min sitting recovery for a total of 10 min (SUS). This was immediately followed by five 1-min climbing + 1-min recovery intervals for a second total of 10 min (INT). Expired air was analyzed continuously. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined via the Weir method for 10-s intervals throughout the full protocol. The total energy expenditure in kilocalories during the 10-min SUS period was 34.3 ± 11.3 kcal. Energy expenditure during the 10-min INT period averaged 39.3 ± 13.1 kcal and was significantly higher than during SUS (p < .05). The mean total EE for SUS + INT was 73.7 ± 24.2 kcal. EE was correlated with body mass; r = .86. The rock climbing tasks employed in this study produced EE levels similar to what have been reported in children for stair climbing, sports/games activities, and easy jogging.

  20. Survival advantage of AMPK activation to androgen-independent prostate cancer cells during energy stress.

    PubMed

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Mohler, James L; Ip, Clement

    2010-10-01

    Androgen-independent prostate cancer usually develops as a relapse following androgen ablation therapy. Removing androgen systemically causes vascular degeneration and nutrient depletion of the prostate tumor tissue. The fact that the malignancy later evolves to androgen-independence suggests that some cancer cells are able to survive the challenge of energy/nutrient deprivation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important manager of energy stress. The present study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in contributing to the survival of the androgen-independent phenotype. Most of the experiments were carried out in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and the androgen-independent C4-2 cells. These two cell lines have the same genetic background, since the C4-2 line is derived from the LNCaP line. Glucose deprivation (GD) was instituted to model energy stress encountered by these cells. The key findings are as follows. First, the activation of AMPK by GD was much stronger in C4-2 cells than in LNCaP cells, and the robustness of AMPK activation was correlated favorably with cell viability. Second, the response of AMPK was specific to energy deficiency rather than to amino acid deficiency. The activation of AMPK by GD was functional, as demonstrated by appropriate phosphorylation changes of mTOR and mTOR downstream substrates. Third, blocking AMPK activation by chemical inhibitor or dominant negative AMPK led to increased apoptotic cell death. The observation that similar results were found in other androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, including CW22Rv1 abd VCaP, provided further assurance that AMPK is a facilitator on the road to androgen-independence of prostate cancer cells.

  1. Higher Activation in CD4(+) T Cells But Similar Viral Control Among HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients on a Simplification Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; Gutierrez-Valencia, Alicia; Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Viciana, Pompeyo; López-Cortés, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection would affect the clinical and immunological outcome of HIV-infected patients following a simplification strategy. A prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients starting a ritonavir boosted darunavir monotherapy (mtDRV/rtv) was followed for 24 months. HCV infection was evaluated by HCV viremia and hepatic fibrosis. Immune activation was studied as HLA-DR CD38 coexpression on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and also the quantification of plasma sCD14 levels. Microbial translocation was studied by the plasma levels of 16S rDNA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 150 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in this study, including 46 individuals also infected with HCV (30.6%). HIV/HCV coinfection did not decrease mtDRV/rtv efficacy, since similar rates of HIV-1 intermittent viremia (HCV: 26.6% vs. no-HCV: 34.7%) and episodes of virological failure (HCV: 22.2% vs. no-HCV: 11.2%, p-value = 0.381) were found. No major differences were found between both groups at baseline, although higher HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) T cell counts were found in the coinfected group (HCV: 6.65% vs. no-HCV: 4.55%, p-value = 0.032); this difference was maintained in the 24 months of follow-up. After the 24-month follow-up, both groups, HIV-monoinfected patients and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, presented similar immune activation and microbial translocation profiles. In conclusion, the use of a simplified mtDRV/rtv strategy compromises neither HIV nor HCV viremic control in coinfected patients, although a higher immune activation of CD4(+) T cells was found.

  2. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  3. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called ;blazars;. The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future ;Cherenkov Telescope Array;, in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  4. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  7. Development of a NIR-based blend uniformity method for a drug product containing multiple structurally similar actives by using the quality by design principles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiqing; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Jin; Boulas, Pierre

    2015-07-05

    The aim of this study is to develop an at-line near infrared (NIR) method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of four structurally similar active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in powder blends intended for the manufacturing of tablets. Two of the four APIs in the formula are present in relatively small amounts, one at 0.95% and the other at 0.57%. Such small amounts in addition to the similarity in structures add significant complexity to the blend uniformity analysis. The NIR method is developed using spectra from six laboratory-created calibration samples augmented by a small set of spectra from a large-scale blending sample. Applying the quality by design (QbD) principles, the calibration design included concentration variations of the four APIs and a main excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A bench-top FT-NIR instrument was used to acquire the spectra. The obtained NIR spectra were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) before calibration model development. Score patterns from the PCA were analyzed to reveal relationship between latent variables and concentration variations of the APIs. In calibration model development, both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models were created and evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting API concentrations in the blending samples. The final NIR method shows satisfactory specificity and accuracy.

  8. Comprehensive program and plan for federal energy education, extension, and information activities: Fiscal Year 1981. Fifth report to congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The activities conducted solely in Fiscal Year (FY) 1981 in the areas of Federal energy education, extension service, and information dissemination are reported. The broad purpose of the FY 1981 activities addressed has been to inform governmental and private sectors about the methods and technologies to conserve energy and to utilize renewable energy sources. With the increase in awareness on the part of energy users and decisionmakers, as well as additional information sources available from the private sector, the emphasis of the various Federal energy information activities is being focused on reporting results of Federal programs. The course of activities related to conservation and renewable energy information has been one of consolidation, both in terms of programmatic substance and methods. The practical impetus has been the redirection of Federal progrms and related budgetary revisions for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Further, products conveying information on conservation and renewable energy technologies have been examined extensively, pursuant to the Administration's directive in April 1981 on elimination of wasteful spending on periodicals, audiovisuals and similar materials. Efforts in coordination of conservation and renewable energy information activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) as well as other Federal agencies have adjusted to timetables for review and redirection of programs initially planned for FY 1981. Mechanisms to coordinate existing Federal energy information activities employed in previous fiscal years were continued in FY 1981 to the extent applicable under current Administration policy and the above-noted circumstances of redirection. Coordinating actions requiring convening of groups were held in abeyance pending resolution of programmatic issues.

  9. Identification of low-molecular-weight protein (SCP1) from shark cartilage with anti-angiogenesis activity and sequence similarity to parvalbumin.

    PubMed

    Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Abdossamadi, Sayeh; Bargahi, Afshar; Yousef-Masboogh, Marzeih

    2008-02-13

    Cartilage was considered as a possible natural source of anti-angiogenesis compounds due to its known avascular nature. In this study, a low-molecular-weight protein with an anti-angiogenesis activity was isolated from shark cartilage using a mild extraction procedure. The protein was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration and electroelution techniques and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. The purified protein, designated as SCP1, represented a molecular weight of 13.7 kDa, pI of 6.9-7 and its N-terminal sequence revealed sequence similarity to alpha parvalbumin family. The protein inhibited angiogenesis when subjected to microvessel sprouting of collagen-embedded rat aortic ring assay. It is suggested that SCP1 could be considered as a new angiogenesis inhibitor derived from shark cartilage.

  10. Ionization energy and active cation vibrations of trans-2-fluorostyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Hsu, Ya Chu; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2017-02-01

    We applied the two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) technique to record the cation spectra of trans-2-fluorostyrene by ionizing via six intermediate vibronic levels. The adiabatic ionization energy was determined to be 69 304 ± 5 cm-1. The distinct MATI bands at 67, 124, 242, 355, 737, 806, 833, and 993 cm-1 were assigned to the active cation vibrations related to out-of-plane substituent-sensitive bending vibrations and in-plane ring deformation and bending motions. Many combination vibrations were also observed. Our experimental results suggest that the molecular geometry and vibrational coordinates of the trans-2-fluorostyrene cation in the D0 state resemble those of the neutral species in the S1 state.

  11. The shareholding similarity of the shareholders of the worldwide listed energy companies based on a two-mode primitive network and a one-mode derivative holding-based network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi

    2014-12-01

    Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based

  12. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  13. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  14. Bestrophin-Encoded Ca2+-Activated Cl− Channels Underlie a Current with Properties Similar to the Native Current in the Moth Spodoptera littoralis Olfactory Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Demondion, Elodie; Bozzolan, Françoise; Debernard, Stéphane; Lucas, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Responses of insect olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) involve an entry of Ca2+ through olfactory heterodimeric receptor complexes. In moths, the termination of ORN responses was found to strongly depend on the external Ca2+ concentration through the activation of unknown Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels. We thus investigated the molecular identity of these Cl− channels. There is compelling evidence that bestrophins form Cl− channels when expressed in heterologous systems. Here we provide evidence that antennae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis express three transcripts encoding proteins with hallmarks of bestrophins. One of these transcripts, SlitBest1b, is expressed in ORNs. The heterologous expression of SlitBest1b protein in CHO-K1 cells yielded a Ca2+-activated Cl− current that shares electrophysiological properties with the native Ca2+-activated Cl− current of ORNs. Both currents are anionic, present similar dependence on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, partly inactivate over time, have the same anion permeability sequence, the same sequence of inhibitory efficiency of blockers, the same almost linear I–V relationships and finally both currents do not depend on the cell volume. Therefore, our data suggest that SlitBest1b is a good candidate for being a molecular component of the olfactory Ca2+-activated Cl− channel and is likely to constitute part of the insect olfactory transduction pathway. A different function (e.g. regulation of other proteins, maintenance of the anionic homeostasis in the sensillar lymph) and a different role (e.g. involvement in the olfactory system development) cannot be excluded however. PMID:23300744

  15. In primary breast cancer the mitotic activity yields similar prognostic information as the histological grade: a study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bult, P; Manders, P; Straatman, H M P M; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Beex, L V A M; Hendriks, J; Leer, J W; Verbeek, A L M; Holland, R

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated with long-term follow-up, the prognostic value of the mitotic activity index (MAI) and the volume corrected mitotic index (M/V-index) compared with that of the histological grade in breast cancer patients not treated with adjuvant systemic therapy. Of 739 consecutive patients living in the city of Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 477 patients with primary unilateral breast cancer were not treated with adjuvant systemic therapy and eligible for the study. In multivariate survival analyses the MAI and M/V-index showed similar hazard ratios (HRs) compared to HRs of histological grade for overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.45, 1.48, and grade II versus grade I (GII/GI) 1.34, grade III versus grade I (GIII/GI) 1.53, respectively) and for breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) (HR: 1.27, 1.57, and (GII/GI) 1.57 (GIII/GI) 2.32, respectively). Other independent prognostic variables for OS and BCSS were age at diagnosis, tumour size, and number of positive lymph nodes. In the present study with long term follow-up, we compared the prognostic value of mitotic activity with that of histological grade and found no advantage for the mitotic activity in predicting either BCSS or OS and concluded that histological grade and the mitotic activity were equally informative in predicting patient outcome. As histological grade is a well established and widely used prognosticator we do not have arguments to replace the histological grade by the mitotic indices MAI or M/V-index.

  16. Layer and broiler chicks exhibit similar hypothalamic expression of orexigenic neuropeptides but distinct expression of genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lixia; Ni, Yingdong; Barth, Stephan; Wang, Yufeng; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2009-06-01

    Layer and broiler chickens demonstrate striking differences in body weight and body composition. However, the mechanism underlying such difference is elusive. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates energy homeostasis and body size in mammals, but information in birds is scarce. Here we test the hypothesis that such breed difference is more associated with hypothalamic expression of genes related to HPA axis, rather than orexigenic neuropeptides. Broiler chicks exhibit significantly higher body weight and food intake at day (D) 7 posthatching, but the food intake relative to body weight gain was actually lower. No breed differences were observed for hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin (ORX), leptin receptor (LEPR), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) or fatty acid synthase (FAS). However, broiler chicks expressed significantly higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA (P<0.05) and protein (P<0.01) in hypothalamus compared to layer chicks, which is associated with lower corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (P<0.05) yet higher accumulation of CRH peptide in hypothalamus, suggesting an augmented GR-mediated negative feedback regulation of CRH transcription and release in broiler chicks. Furthermore, fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was also more highly expressed in hypothalamus of broiler chicks (P<0.05). These results suggest that the genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity, such as GR, CRH and FTO, rather than orexigenic neuropeptides, are impacted by the genetic selection practices and play a role in breed-specific body weight setpoint regulation in the chicken.

  17. MDMA (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and its stereoisomers: Similarities and differences in behavioral effects in an automated activity apparatus in mice.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Racemic MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), S(+)-MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), R(-)-MDMA (0.3-50 mg/kg) and saline vehicle (10 ml/kg) were comprehensively evaluated in fully automated and computer-integrated activity chambers, which were designed for mice, and provided a detailed analysis of the frequency, location, and/or duration of 18 different activities. The results indicated that MDMA and its isomers produced stimulation of motor actions, with S(+)-MDMA and (+/-)-MDMA usually being more potent than R(-)-MDMA in measures such as movement (time, distance, velocity), margin distance, rotation (clockwise and counterclockwise), and retraced activities. Interestingly, racemic MDMA appeared to exert a greater than expected potency and/or an enhanced effect on measures such as movement episodes, center actions (entries and distance), clockwise rotations, and jumps; actions that might be explained by additive or synergistic (i.e. potentiation) effects of the stereoisomers. In other measures, the enantiomers displayed different effects: S(+)-MDMA produced a preference to induce counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations, and each isomer exerted a different profile of effect on vertical activities and jumps. Furthermore, each isomer of MDMA appeared to attenuate the effect of its opposite enantiomer on some behaviors; antagonism effects that were surmised from a lack of expected activities by racemic MDMA. S(+)-MDMA (but not R(-)-MDMA), for example, produced an increase in vertical entries (rearing) and a preference to increase counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations; (+/-)-MDMA also should have induced such effects but did not. Apparently, R(-)-MDMA, when combined with S(+)-MDMA to form (+/-)-MDMA, prevented the appearance of those increases (from control) in activities. Similarly, R(-)-MDMA (but not S(+)-MDMA) produced increases in episodes (i.e. jumps) and vertical distance that racemic MDMA also should have, but were not, exhibited. Evidently, the presence of S(+)-MDMA in the

  18. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles.

  19. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes: Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Kaufman, A.M.; Turco, K.R.; Visser, G. Henk

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates (FMR) of these same individuals (n = 20) using the doubly labeled water technique. Estimated metabolic rates of kittiwakes attending their brood at the nest or loafing near the colony were similar (ca. 1.3 x basal metabolic rate [BMR]), although loafing during foraging trips was more costly (2.9 x BMR). Metabolic rates during commuting flight (7.3 x BMR) and prey-searching flight (6.2 x BMR) were similar, while metabolic rates during plunge diving were much higher (ca. 47 x BMR). The proportion of the measurement interval spent foraging had a positive effect on FMR (R2 = 0.68), while the combined proportion of time engaged in nest attendance and loafing near the colony had a negative effect on FMR (R2 = 0.72). Thus, more than two-thirds of the variation in kittiwake FMR could be explained by the allocation of time among various activities. The high energetic cost of plunge diving relative to straight flight and searching flight suggests that kittiwakes can optimize their foraging strategy under conditions of low food availability by commuting long distances to feed in areas where gross foraging efficiency is high.

  20. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  1. From undefined red smear cheese consortia to minimal model communities both exhibiting similar anti-listerial activity on a cheese-like matrix.

    PubMed

    Imran, M; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Starting from one undefined cheese smear consortium exhibiting anti-listerial activity (signal) at 15 °C, 50 yeasts and 39 bacteria were identified by partial rDNA sequencing. Construction of microbial communities was done either by addition or by erosion approach with the aim to obtain minimal communities having similar signal to that of the initial smear. The signal of these microbial communities was monitored in cheese microcosm for 14 days under ripening conditions. In the addition scheme, strains having significant signals were mixed step by step. Five-member communities, obtained by addition of a Gram negative bacterium to two yeasts and two Gram positive bacteria, enhanced the signal dramatically contrary to six-member communities including two Gram negative bacteria. In the erosion approach, a progressive reduction of 89 initial strains was performed. While intermediate communities (89, 44 and 22 members) exhibited a lower signal than initial smear consortium, eleven- and six-member communities gave a signal almost as efficient. It was noteworthy that the final minimal model communities obtained by erosion and addition approaches both had anti-listerial activity while consisting of different strains. In conclusion, some minimal model communities can have higher anti-listerial effectiveness than individual strains or the initial 89 micro-organisms from smear. Thus, microbial interactions are involved in the production and modulation of anti-listerial signals in cheese surface communities.

  2. Similarities and differences in brain activation and functional connectivity in first and second language reading: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li

    2014-10-01

    It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively

  3. A Comparison of the Availability and Failure Modes of the BaBar Superconducting Solenoid with Similar Magnets at Other High Energy Physics Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Knodel, Mallory

    2003-09-05

    One of the key technologies in the BaBar detector is the 1.5 T superconducting solenoid. It is imperative that this device operate reliably at its nominal current to allow data taking. While this system is available for physics 98.8% of the time, further improvements are desirable. The object of this project is to survey similar magnet systems, for example those at KEK (Belle), Fermilab (D0 and CDF), DESY (H1 and ZEUS), and CERN (ALEPH and DELPHI), to see how often such magnets stop functioning properly and what the root causes of the failures are. A survey was carried out via e-mail and telephone calls. Information was obtained regarding the operation of superconducting magnets, specifically the BaBar magnet and its ancillary systems, as well as an overview of the use of other such magnets both in the US and overseas. In this work, failure modes will be investigated and compared to the BaBar operational experience. Future investigations can now assess the feasibility of reducing the time the BaBar magnet is nonoperational and unavailable for physics research.

  4. Four plant defensins from an indigenous South African Brassicaceae species display divergent activities against two test pathogens despite high sequence similarity in the encoding genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant defensins are an important component of the innate defence system of plants where they form protective antimicrobial barriers between tissue types of plant organs as well as around seeds. These peptides also have other activities that are important for agricultural applications as well as the medical sector. Amongst the numerous plant peptides isolated from a variety of plant species, a significant number of promising defensins have been isolated from Brassicaceae species. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of four defensins from Heliophila coronopifolia, a native South African Brassicaceae species. Results Four defensin genes (Hc-AFP1-4) were isolated with a homology based PCR strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the peptides were 72% similar and grouped closest to defensins isolated from other Brassicaceae species. The Hc-AFP1 and 3 peptides shared high homology (94%) and formed a unique grouping in the Brassicaceae defensins, whereas Hc-AFP2 and 4 formed a second homology grouping with defensins from Arabidopsis and Raphanus. Homology modelling showed that the few amino acids that differed between the four peptides had an effect on the surface properties of the defensins, specifically in the alpha-helix and the loop connecting the second and third beta-strands. These areas are implicated in determining differential activities of defensins. Comparing the activities after recombinant production of the peptides, Hc-AFP2 and 4 had IC50 values of 5-20 μg ml-1 against two test pathogens, whereas Hc-AFP1 and 3 were less active. The activity against Botrytis cinerea was associated with membrane permeabilization, hyper-branching, biomass reduction and even lytic activity. In contrast, only Hc-AFP2 and 4 caused membrane permeabilization and severe hyper-branching against the wilting pathogen Fusarium solani, while Hc-AFP1 and 3 had a mild morphogenetic effect on the fungus, without any indication of

  5. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  6. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance.

  7. A comparison of energy expenditure estimates from the Actiheart and Actical physical activity monitors during low intensity activities, walking, and jogging.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew; Pappas, Evangelos

    2011-04-01

    Combining accelerometry with heart rate monitoring has been suggested to improve energy estimates, however, it remains unclear whether the single, currently existing commercially available device combining these data streams (Actiheart) provides improved energy estimates compared to simpler and less expensive accelerometry-only devices. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of the heart rate (HR), accelerometry (ACC), and combined ACC/HR estimates of the Actiheart to the ACC estimates of the Actical during low and moderate intensity activities. Twenty-seven participants (mean age 26.3 ± 7.3) wore an Actical, Actiheart and indirect calorimeter (K4b(2)) while performing card playing, sweeping, lifting weights, walking and jogging activities. All estimates tended to underestimate energy, sometimes by substantial amounts. Viewed across all activities studied, there was no significant difference in the ability of the waist-mounted Actical and torso-mounted Actiheart (ACC, HR, ACC/HR) estimates to predict energy expenditure. However, the Actiheart provided significantly better estimates than the Actical for the activities in which acceleration of the pelvis is not closely related to energy expenditure (card playing, sweeping, lifting weights) and the Actical provided significantly better estimates for level walking and level jogging. Similar to a previous study, the ACC component of the Actiheart was found to be the weakest predictor of energy suggesting it may be responsible for the failure of the combined ACC/HR estimate to equal or better the estimates derived solely from a waist mounted ACC device.

  8. Deciphering the mechanism behind the varied binding activities of COXIBs through Molecular Dynamic Simulations, MM-PBSA binding energy calculations and per-residue energy decomposition studies.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Neha; Aparoy, Polamarasetty

    2017-03-01

    COX-2 is a well-known drug target in inflammatory disorders. COX-1/COX-2 selectivity of NSAIDs is crucial in assessing the gastrointestinal side effects associated with COX-1 inhibition. Celecoxib, rofecoxib, and valdecoxib are well-known specific COX-2 inhibiting drugs. Recently, polmacoxib, a COX-2/CA-II dual inhibitor has been approved by the Korean FDA. These COXIBs have similar structure with diverse activity range. Present study focuses on unraveling the mechanism behind the 10-fold difference in the activities of these sulfonamide-containing COXIBs. In order to obtain insights into their binding with COX-2 at molecular level, molecular dynamics simulations studies, and MM-PBSA approaches were employed. Further, per-residue decomposition of these energies led to the identification of crucial amino acids and interactions contributing to the differential binding of COXIBs. The results clearly indicated that Leu338, Ser339, Arg499, Ile503, Phe504, Val509, and Ser516 (Leu352, Ser353, Arg513, Ile517, Phe518, Val523, and Ser530 in PGHS-1 numbering) were imperative in determining the activity of these COXIBs. The binding energies and energy contribution of various residues were similar in all the three simulations. The results suggest that hydrogen bond interaction between the hydroxyl group of Ser516 and five-membered ring of diarylheterocycles augments the affinity in COXIBs. The SAR of the inhibitors studied and the per-residue energy decomposition values suggested the importance of Ser516. Additionally, the positive binding energy obtained with Arg106 explains the binding of COXIBs in hydrophobic channel deep in the COX-2 active site. The findings of the present work would aid in the development of potent COX-2 inhibitors.

  9. Identification of a locality in snake venom alpha-neurotoxins with a significant compositional similarity to marine snail alpha-conotoxins: implications for evolution and structure/activity.

    PubMed

    Dufton, M J; Bladon, P; Harvey, A L

    1989-10-01

    alpha-neurotoxins from elapid snake venoms and alpha-conotoxins from marine snails bind specifically and with high affinity to nicotinic cholinoceptors. Although both types of toxin are polypeptides, there is more than a fourfold difference in size between the two and no clear sequence homology is evident. A systematic computer search of the three-dimensional structure of erabutoxin b (an alpha-neurotoxin from the false sea snake Laticauda semifasciata) was performed to identify the locality that most closely matched the amino acid compositions of the smaller alpha-conotoxins (from the marine snails Conus magus and Conus geographus). The area of greatest similarity centered on residue position 25 of erabutoxin b, a locale that is conserved throughout the snake alpha-neurotoxins and their homologues. Six proteins unrelated to erabutoxin b were compared to the alpha-conotoxins to show that the extent of the erabutoxin b/alpha-conotoxin match was too high to be coincidental. Homologues of erabutoxin b, namely alpha-cobratoxin from Naja naja siamensis and cytotoxin VII4 from Naja mossambica mossambica, were also analyzed. The extent of the matching with the alpha-conotoxins decreased in the series erabutoxin b greater than alpha-cobratoxin greater than cytotoxin VII4, and this also relates the order of similarity to the pharmacological properties of the alpha-conotoxins. The alpha-conotoxin-like area of the snake alpha-neurotoxins is peripheral to the site previously considered important for binding to the cholinoceptor, even though it seems to represent the focus of evolutionary convergence between the two types of neurotoxin. The area of resemblance does, however, have strong associations with the conformational behavior of the snake toxins. Hence, the outcome of this study has important consequences for the current ideas on snake alpha-neurotoxin structure/activity relationships and the evolutionary origins of neurotoxicity.

  10. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-03

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    In this present study experimental and finite element analysis of cellulose based electro-active paper energy harvester is presented. Electro-active paper coated with metal electrode is a smart form of cellulose and exhibit piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by depositing electrodes on both sides of the cellulose film. A 50 mm x 50 mm cellulose film coated with aluminum electrodes was bonded on 100 mm x 50 mm x 1 mm aluminum host structure. The voltage output to input acceleration frequency response across a load resistor of 1 MΩ is recorded by conventional energy harvesting experimental setup at the fundamental vibration mode of the EAPap cantilever beam. A coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model is developed in which load resistor is directly connected to energy scavenging device. Voltage output FRF is measured for the cases, without proof mass, and by adding a 2 grams proof mass near the tip of the cantilever. The experimental voltage FRF value is 7.6 V/g at 75.1 Hz and is improved to 13.8 V/g at 62.2 Hz when a stainless steel proof mass of 2 grams is added. The presented CPC-FEM model results agree reasonably well with the experimental results. Despite the fact that the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of electro-active paper is lower than other available piezoelectric materials, it is biocompatible, cheap and naturally occurring polymeric material. It is also very flexible and posses similar piezoelectric characteristics such a PVDF which inspire to use EAPap in energy harvesting applications.

  12. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.

    2007-10-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.

  13. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  14. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  15. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  16. Dependence of photosynthesis and energy dissipation activity upon growth form and light environment during the winter.

    PubMed

    Adams, W W; Demmig-Adams, B; Rosenstiel, T N; Ebbert, V

    2001-01-01

    Two very distinctive responses of photosynthesis to winter conditions have been identified. Mesophytic species that continue to exhibit growth during the winter typically exhibit higher maximal rates of photosynthesis during the winter or when grown at lower temperatures compared to individuals examined during the summer or when grown at warmer temperatures. In contrast, sclerophytic evergreen species growing in sun-exposed sites typically exhibit lower maximal rates of photosynthesis in the winter compared to the summer. On the other hand, shaded individuals of those same sclerophytic evergreen species exhibit similar or higher maximal rates of photosynthesis in the winter compared to the summer. Employment of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotective energy dissipation exhibits similar characteristics in the two groups of plants (mesophytes and shade leaves of sclerophytic evergreens) that exhibit upregulation of photosynthesis during the winter. In both, zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin (Z + A) are retained and PS II remains primed for energy dissipation only on nights with subfreezing temperatures, and this becomes rapidly reversed upon exposure to increased temperatures. In contrast, Z + A are retained and PS II remains primed for energy dissipation over prolonged periods during the winter in sun leaves of sclerophytic evergreen species, and requires days of warming to become fully reversed. The rapid disengagement of this energy dissipation process in the mesophytes and shade sclerophytes apparently permits a rapid return to efficient photosynthesis and increased activity on warmer days during the winter. This may be associated with a decreasing opportunity for photosynthesis in source leaves relative to the demand for photosynthesis in the plant's sinks. In contrast, the sun-exposed sclerophytes - with a relatively high source to sink ratio - maintain PS II in a state primed for high levels of energy dissipation activity throughout much of the winter. Independent

  17. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  18. [Energy index of heart rate spectral analysis for the assessment of autonomic nerve activities].

    PubMed

    Naito, T

    1991-02-01

    Heart rate spectral analysis was performed in 17 male healthy volunteers by changing their positions (supine or standing) and respiratory rates (8, 10, 12, 15 and 20 bpm). Furthermore, analysis was made by a multiple regression method on parameters such as R-R interval, tidal volume, respiratory time and positions of the subjects which may contribute to the peak power values of high frequency components (HFC, synchronous with respiratory patterns and of low frequency components (LFC, about 0.1Hz). HFC power was found to be significantly dependent on R-R interval and respiratory time, but not on tidal volume or position. Following equation was obtained. HFCP = 11.3 X RTX (RR-0.246) HFCP: HFC power value (msec) RT: respiratory time (sec) RR: R-R interval (sec) Therefore, HFCP or area under the curve (AUC) of HFC is not appropriate for the assessment of autonomic nerve activities, especially when respiratory rate or heart rate is changing. The intensity of physical wave is in proportion to (amplitude X frequency). Consequently, in a case where frequency is changeable, (amplitude X frequency) is a good index of the oscillatory energy. Therefore, sigma (power X frequency) is proposed as a suitable index for a certain component of power-spectrum. Parasympathetic activity should be assessed by the following index induced from the previously mentioned equation. RR adjusted HFEI (high frequency energy index) = sigma (power X frequency)/(RR-0.246) (0.15Hz less than frequency less than 0.4Hz). Similarly, low frequency components which reflect the sympathetic activity should be assessed by the following equation. LFEI (low frequency energy index) = sigma (power X frequency) (0.05Hz less than frequency less than 0.15Hz). The assessment of autonomic nerve activities becomes more appropriate by using these indices especially when heart rate and respiratory rate are changing.

  19. Structural Similarities and Differences between Amyloidogenic and Non-Amyloidogenic Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) Sequences and Implications for the Dual Physiological and Pathological Activities of These Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2013-01-01

    IAPP, a 37 amino-acid peptide hormone belonging to the calcitonin family, is an intrinsically disordered protein that is coexpressed and cosecreted along with insulin by pancreatic islet β-cells in response to meals. IAPP plays a physiological role in glucose regulation; however, in certain species, IAPP can aggregate and this process is linked to β-cell death and Type II Diabetes. Using replica exchange molecular dynamics with extensive sampling (16 replicas per sequence and 600 ns per replica), we investigate the structure of the monomeric state of two species of aggregating peptides (human and cat IAPP) and two species of non-aggregating peptides (pig and rat IAPP). Our simulations reveal that the pig and rat conformations are very similar, and consist of helix-coil and helix-hairpin conformations. The aggregating sequences, on the other hand, populate the same helix-coil and helix-hairpin conformations as the non-aggregating sequence, but, in addition, populate a hairpin structure. Our exhaustive simulations, coupled with available peptide-activity data, leads us to a structure-activity relationship (SAR) in which we propose that the functional role of IAPP is carried out by the helix-coil conformation, a structure common to both aggregating and non-aggregating species. The pathological role of this peptide may have multiple origins, including the interaction of the helical elements with membranes. Nonetheless, our simulations suggest that the hairpin structure, only observed in the aggregating species, might be linked to the pathological role of this peptide, either as a direct precursor to amyloid fibrils, or as part of a cylindrin type of toxic oligomer. We further propose that the helix-hairpin fold is also a possible aggregation prone conformation that would lead normally non-aggregating variants of IAPP to form fibrils under conditions where an external perturbation is applied. The SAR relationship is used to suggest the rational design of therapeutics

  20. Similarities between recent seismic activity and paleoseismites during the late miocene in the external Betic Chain (Spain): relationship by 'b' value and the fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; De Vicente, G.; Calvo, J. P.; Pérez-López, R.

    2003-05-01

    A paleoseismic data set derived from the relationship between the thickness of seismites, 'mixed layers' in lacustrine Miocene deposits and the magnitude of the earthquakes is presented. The relationship between both parameters was calibrated by the threshold of fluidification limits in the interval of magnitude 5 and 5.5. The mixed layers (deformational sediment structures due to seismic activity) were observed in varved sediments from three Neogene lacustrine basins near Hellı´n (Albacete, Spain), El Cenajo, Elche de la Sierra and Hı´jar, and are interpreted as liquefaction features due to seismic phenomena. These paleoseismic structures were dated (relative values) by measurements of cyclic annual sedimentation in the varved sediments. From these observations, we are able to establish a recurrence interval of 130 years with events for magnitude bigger than or equal to four. Both paleoseismicity and instrumental seismicity data sets obey the Gutenberg-Richter law and the 'b' value is close to 0.86. The fractal dimension (dimension of capacity) of spatial distribution of potentially active faults (faults oriented according to the stress tensor regime in the area) was measured by the box-counting technique ( D0=1.73). According to the Aki empirical relation ( D0=2 b) for the instrumental seismicity and paleoseismic data sets in the area, the fractal dimension is close to 1.72. The similar value of the fractal dimension obtained by both techniques shows homogeneous seismic dynamics during the studied time interval. Moreover, the better established 'b' value of the paleoseismic data sets (0.86) compared with the 'b' value for the incomplete historic seismicity (<0.5) in the area increases the seismic series beyond the historic seismic record.

  1. Fam57b (Family with Sequence Similarity 57, Member B), a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Target Gene That Regulates Adipogenesis through Ceramide Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita-Sugahara, Yzumi; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    This report identifies a novel gene encoding Fam57b (family with sequence similarity 57, member B) as a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-responsive transmembrane gene that is related to obesity. The gene was identified based on an integrated bioinformatics analysis of the following three expression profiling data sets: adipocyte differentiation of mouse stromal cells (ST2 cells), adipose tissues from obesity mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pparγ using ST2 cells. Fam57b consists of three variants expressed from different promoters and contains a Tram-Lag1-CLN8 domain that is related to ceramide synthase. Reporter and ChIP assays showed that Fam57b variant 2 is a bona fide PPARγ target gene in ST2 cells. Fam57b was up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that FAM57B is involved in this process. Surprisingly, FAM57B overexpression inhibited adipogenesis, and siRNA-mediated knockdown promoted adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of the ceramide content by lipid assay found that ceramides were in fact augmented in FAM57B-overexpressing ST2 cells. We also confirmed that ceramide inhibits adipogenesis. Therefore, the aforementioned results of FAM57B overexpression and siRNA experiments are reconciled by ceramide synthesis. In summary, we present in vitro evidence showing that PPARγ regulates Fam57b transcription during the adipogenesis of ST2 cells. In addition, our results suggest that PPARγ activation contributes to the regulation of ceramide metabolism during adipogenesis via FAM57B. PMID:23275342

  2. Binding of monoclonal antibody AA4 to gangliosides on rat basophilic leukemia cells produces changes similar to those seen with Fc epsilon receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mAb AA4 binds to novel derivatives of the ganglioside Gd1b on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Some of the gangliosides are located close to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI), and binding of mAb AA4 inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated histamine release. In the present study, mAb AA4 was found to bind exclusively to mast cells in all rat tissues examined. In vitro, within 1 min of mAb AA4 binding, the cells underwent striking morphologic changes. They lost their normal spindle shaped appearance, increased their ruffling, and spread over the surface of the culture dish. These changes were accompanied by a redistribution of the cytoskeletal elements, actin, tubulin, and vimentin, but only the actin was associated with the membrane ruffles. Binding of mAb AA4 also induces a rise in intracellular calcium, stimulates phosphatidyl inositol breakdown, and activates PKC. However, the extent of these changes was less than that observed when the cells were stimulated with antigen or antibody directed against the Fc epsilon RI. None of these changes associated with mAb AA4 binding were seen when the cells were exposed to nonspecific IgG, IgE, or four other anti-cell surface antibodies, nor were the changes induced by binding mAb AA4 at 4 degrees C or in the absence of extracellular calcium. Although mAb AA4 does not stimulate histamine release, it enhances the effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 mediated release. The morphological and biochemical effects produced by mAb AA4 are similar to those seen following activation of the cell through the IgE receptor. Therefore, the surface gangliosides which bind mAb AA4 may function in modulating secretory events. PMID:1370498

  3. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    ZeRuth, Gary T.; Williams, Jason G.; Cole, Yasemin C.; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases. PMID:26147758

  4. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  5. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  6. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  7. Activation energy of methyl radical decay in methane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi

    2005-11-10

    The thermal stability of gamma-ray-induced methyl radicals in methane hydrate was studied using the ESR method at atmospheric pressure and 210-260 K. The methyl radical decay proceeded with the second-order reaction, and ethane molecules were generated from the dimerization process. The methyl radical decay proceeds by two different temperature-dependent processes, that is, the respective activation energies of these processes are 20.0 +/- 1.6 kJ/mol for the lower temperature region of 210-230 K and 54.8 +/- 5.7 kJ/mol for the higher temperature region of 235-260 K. The former agrees well with the enthalpy change of methane hydrate dissociation into ice and gaseous methane, while the latter agrees well with the enthalpy change into liquid water and gaseous methane. The present findings reveal that methane hydrates dissociate into liquid (supercooled) water and gaseous methane in the temperature range of 235-260 K.

  8. Activation energy distributions predicted by dispersive kinetic models for nucleation and denucleation: anomalous diffusion resulting from quantization.

    PubMed

    Skrdla, Peter J

    2011-06-23

    The activation energy distributions underpinning the two complementary dispersive kinetic models described by the author in a recent work (Skrdla, P. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 9329) are derived and investigated. In the case of nucleation rate-limited conversions, which exhibit "acceleratory" sigmoidal transients (a kind of S-shaped stretched exponential conversion profile), an activation energy distribution visually similar to the Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) distribution is recovered, consistent with the original derivation of that model. In the case of predominantly "deceleratory" conversions, the activation energy distribution is skewed from normal in the opposite direction. While the "M-B-like" activation energy distribution supports the empirical observation of a rate enhancement as a function of the conversion time in nucleation rate-limited processes, the complementary distribution, with its pronounced low-energy tail, reflects a slow-down in the specific rate as the conversion progresses, consistent with experimentally observed denucleation rate-limited conversions. Activation energy distributions were also plotted for real-world data (Qu, H.; Louhi-Kultanen, M.; Kallas, J. Cryst. Growth Des. 2007, 7, 724), depicting the impact of various additives on the nucleation rate-limited kinetics of the solvent-mediated phase transformation of the crystalline drug carbamazepine. Last, by coupling the author's dispersive kinetic description of the time-dependent activation energy for nucleation to the classical description of the critical nucleus energy provided by the Kelvin equation, an accelerated hopping mechanism for the diffusion of monomers to the growing embryo surface was observed. That hopping mechanism was rationalized by modifying the Einstein-Smoluchowski (E-S) equation to allow it to describe the "supra-brownian" molecular motion thought to lie at the heart of nucleation kinetics.

  9. CD4+ T cell polyfunctional profile in HIV-TB coinfection are similar between individuals with latent and active TB infection.

    PubMed

    Canaday, David H; Sridaran, Sankar; Van Epps, Puja; Aung, Htin; Burant, Christopher J; Nsereko, Mary; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Betts, Michael R; Toossi, Zahra

    2015-07-01

    CD4+ T cell counts of HIV-infected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) are higher than with other opportunistic infections suggesting that progression to PTB is not merely due to T cell depletion but also dysfunction. There are limited data examining T cell functional signatures in human HIV-TB co-infection particularly in PTB which accounts for about 80% of active TB disease overall. We examined a cohort of HIV-infected anti-retroviral naïve individuals in Kampala, Uganda, a TB endemic area using multiparametric flow cytometry analysis to determine IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and TNF-α production in CD4+ memory T cell subsets. The cytokine frequency and polyfunctionality profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) or PTB is comparable. This similarity suggests that LTBI may represent a smoldering state of persistent MTB replication rather than dormant infection. This may be a contributory mechanism to the significantly increased risk of progression to PTB in this population.

  10. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells.

    PubMed

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Cochis, Andrea; Beyrouthy, Marc El; Iriti, Marcello; Uberti, Francesca; Sorrentino, Rita; Landini, Manuela Miriam; Rimondini, Lia; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-05-21

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  11. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  12. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  13. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  14. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four multidisciplinary activities for grades seven through twelve are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I helps students understand energy and the current crisis by studying laws which govern energy flow and using examples of how these laws illustrate stable energy utilization…

  15. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. I, Activities Guide for K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades K-3. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  16. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. II, Activities Guide for 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades 4-7. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  17. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  18. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  19. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  20. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin-Lin; Jin, Wu-Yin; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372122 and 11365014).

  1. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  2. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  3. Creatine, similarly to ketamine, affords antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test via adenosine A₁ and A2A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Pazini, Francis L; Rosa, Julia M; Ramos-Hryb, Ana B; Oliveira, Ágatha; Kaster, Manuella P; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of creatine supplementation have been reported in a broad range of central nervous systems diseases, including depression. A previous study from our group demonstrated that creatine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test (TST), a predictive model of antidepressant activity. Since depression is associated with a dysfunction of the adenosinergic system, we investigated the involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of creatine in the TST. The anti-immobility effect of creatine (1 mg/kg, po) or ketamine (a fast-acting antidepressant, 1 mg/kg, ip) in the TST was prevented by pretreatment of mice with caffeine (3 mg/kg, ip, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) (2 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-{2-furyl}{1,2,4}triazolo-{2,3-a}{1,3,5}triazin-5-yl-amino]ethyl)-phenol (ZM241385) (1 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist). In addition, the combined administration of subeffective doses of creatine and adenosine (0.1 mg/kg, ip, nonselective adenosine receptor agonist) or inosine (0.1 mg/kg, ip, nucleoside formed by the breakdown of adenosine) reduced immobility time in the TST. Moreover, the administration of subeffective doses of creatine or ketamine combined with N-6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (0.05 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist), N-6-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(methylphenyl)ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) (0.1 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist), or dipyridamole (0.1 μg/mouse, icv, adenosine transporter inhibitor) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST. These results indicate that creatine, similarly to ketamine, exhibits antidepressant-like effect in the TST probably mediated by the activation of both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

  4. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  5. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  6. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  7. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... Washington, DC on October 18, 2011. Anne Harrington, Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  8. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Sumesh M.; Linton, Joseph A.

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  9. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  11. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  12. Identification of general linear relationships between activation energies and enthalpy changes for dissociation reactions at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Angelos; Liu, Z-P; Zhang, C J; Alavi, Ali; King, David A; Hu, P

    2003-04-02

    The activation energy to reaction is a key quantity that controls catalytic activity. Having used ab inito calculations to determine an extensive and broad ranging set of activation energies and enthalpy changes for surface-catalyzed reactions, we show that linear relationships exist between dissociation activation energies and enthalpy changes. Known in the literature as empirical Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationships, we identify and discuss the physical origin of their presence in heterogeneous catalysis. The key implication is that merely from knowledge of adsorption energies the barriers to catalytic elementary reaction steps can be estimated.

  13. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  14. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  15. Biosimilar Insulins: How Similar is Similar?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the “original” insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  16. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  17. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  18. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  19. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of a chemistry space. Although all three concepts molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemistry space are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations, that is, representations of the same mathematical form, into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another.

  20. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  1. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  3. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  4. Activation energy of negative fixed charges in thermal ALD Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-08-01

    A study of the thermally activated negative fixed charges Qtot and the interface trap densities Dit at the interface between Si and thermal atomic-layer-deposited amorphous Al2O3 layers is presented. The thermal activation of Qtot and Dit was conducted at annealing temperatures between 220 °C and 500 °C for durations between 3 s and 38 h. The temperature-induced differences in Qtot and Dit were measured using the characterization method called corona oxide characterization of semiconductors. Their time dependency were fitted using stretched exponential functions, yielding activation energies of EA = (2.2 ± 0.2) eV and EA = (2.3 ± 0.7) eV for Qtot and Dit, respectively. For annealing temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C, the changes in Qtot and Dit were similar for both p- and n-type doped Si samples. In contrast, at 220 °C the charging process was enhanced for p-type samples. Based on the observations described in this contribution, a charging model leading to Qtot based on an electron hopping process between the silicon and Al2O3 through defects is proposed.

  5. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…

  6. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  7. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  8. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  9. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  10. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  11. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  12. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  13. Response of AMP-activated protein kinase and energy metabolism to acute nitrite exposure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Erchao; Xu, Chang; Gan, Lei; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a prevalent mammalian energy metabolism sensor, but little is known about its role as an energy sensor in fish experiencing stress. We aimed to study AMPK in Oreochromis niloticus on both the molecular and the physical level. We found that the cDNAs encoding the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 variants of the O. niloticus catalytic α subunit were 1753bp and 2563 bp long and encoded 571 and 557 amino acids, respectively. Both the AMPKα1 and the AMPKα2 isoform possess structural features similar to mammalian AMPKα, including a phosphorylation site at Thr172 in the N-terminus, and exhibit high homology with other fish and vertebrate AMPKα sequences (81.3%-98.1%). mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms was widely expressed in various tissues with distinctive patterns. AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were primarily expressed in the intestines and brain, respectively. Under acute nitrite challenge, the mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms, as well as AMPK activity, changed over time. Its recovery period in freshwater, combined with the fact that it is highly conserved, suggests that fish AMPK, like its mammalian orthologues, acts as an energy metabolism sensor. Furthermore, subsequent decreases in AMPK mRNA levels and activity suggested that its action was transient but efficient. Physically, glucose, lactic acid and TGs in plasma, as well as energy materials in the hepatopancreas and muscle, were significantly altered over time, indicating changes in energy metabolism during the experimental period. These data have enabled us to characterize energy utilization in O. niloticus and further illustrate the role of fish AMPK as an energy sensor. This study provides new insight into energy metabolism and sensing by AMPK in teleost and necessitates further study of the multiple physiologic roles of AMPK in fish.

  14. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  15. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Science component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also contained in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE…

  16. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  17. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  18. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Introduction for the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681),…

  19. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics…

  20. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  1. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  2. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

  3. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  4. Patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep share similar clinical features regardless of their focal or generalized sleep potentiation of epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Peters, Jurriaan; Takeoka, Masanori; Rotenberg, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay; Gregas, Matt; Riviello, James J; Kothare, Sanjeev; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare qualitatively the clinical features of patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. We enrolled patients 2 to 20 years of age, studied between 2001 and 2009, and with sleep potentiated epileptiform activity defined as an increase of epileptiform activity of 50% or more during non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with wakefulness. Eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria, median age was 7.3 years, and 54 (63.5%) were boys. Sixty-seven (78.8%) patients had focal sleep potentiated epileptiform activity, whereas 18 (21.2%) had generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. The 2 groups did not differ with respect to sex, age, presence of a structural brain abnormality, epilepsy, or other qualitative cognitive, motor, or behavioral problems. Our data suggest that there are no qualitative differences in the clinical features of patients with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity.

  5. Logistic distributed activation energy model--Part 1: Derivation and numerical parametric study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Jin, Chuan; Yang, Songyuan; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new distributed activation energy model is presented using the logistic distribution to mathematically represent the pyrolysis kinetics of complex solid fuels. A numerical parametric study of the logistic distributed activation energy model is conducted to evaluate the influences of the model parameters on the numerical results of the model. The parameters studied include the heating rate, reaction order, frequency factor, mean of the logistic activation energy distribution, standard deviation of the logistic activation energy distribution. The parametric study addresses the dependence on the forms of the calculated α-T and dα/dT-T curves (α: reaction conversion, T: temperature). The study results would be very helpful to the application of the logistic distributed activation energy model, which is the main subject of the next part of this series.

  6. Concept of variable activation energy and its validity in nonisothermal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guanglei; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Zhongsuo

    2011-06-09

    The concept of variable activation energy in solid-state kinetics under nonisothermal conditions has been suffering from doubt and controversy. Rate equations of nonisothermal kinetics of solid decomposition, which involve the factors of thermodynamics conditions, pressure of gaseous product, structure parameters of solid, and/or extent of conversion, are derived from the models of the interface reaction, the diffusion of gaseous product, and the nuclei growth of the solid product, respectively. The definition of the validity function in the rate equations represents the influence of the factors on the reaction rate. A function of variable activation energy depending on the validity function is also developed. The changing trend and degree of activation energy are extrapolated from the function of variable activation energy and based on the data of nonisothermal thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. It is shown that the concept of variable activation energy is meaningfully applicable to solid-state reactions under nonisothermal conditions.

  7. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  8. How Much Energy Can Be Stored in Solar Active Region Magnetic Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Torok, T.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Major solar eruptions such as X-class flares and very fast coronal mass ejections usually originate in active regions on the Sun. The energy that powers these events is believed to be stored as free magnetic energy (energy above the potential field state) prior to eruption. While coronal magnetic fields are not in general force-free, active regions have very strong magnetic fields and at low coronal heights the plasma beta is therefore very small, making the field (in equilibrium) essentially force-free. The Aly-Sturrock theorem shows that the energy of a fully force-free field cannot exceed the energy of the so-called open field. If the theorem holds, this places an upper limit on the amount of free energy that can be stored: the maximum free energy (MFE) is the difference between the open field energy and the potential field energy of the active region. In thermodynamic MHD simulations of a major eruption (the July 14, 2000 'Bastille' day event) and a modest event (February 13, 2009, we have found that the MFE indeed bounds the energy stored prior to eruption. We compute the MFE for major eruptive events in cycles 23 and 24 to investigate the maximum amount of energy that can be stored in solar active regions.Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  9. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project; energy resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Oil, natural gas, and coal (energy resources) have been produced from rocks in the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming for more than a century, and significant quantities of oil and gas continue to be developed in the study area of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (fig. 1). As an infrastructure resource, energy resources helped to fuel past development of (1) urban areas in the Front Range as well as (2) some of the manufacturing and mining upon which the urban centers were built and thrived. At present, much of the oil and gas extracted from rocks beneath the Front Range urban corridor is used locally; the people living in the urban area provide a need and viable marketplace for these commodities.

  10. A wearable sensor module with a neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for daily energy expenditure estimation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Wang, Jeen-Shing; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a wearable module and neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for energy expenditure estimation. The purpose of our design is first to categorize physical activities with similar intensity levels, and then to construct energy expenditure regression (EER) models using neural networks in order to optimize the estimation performance. The classification of physical activities for EER model construction is based on the acceleration and ECG signal data collected by wearable sensor modules developed by our research lab. The proposed algorithm consists of procedures for data collection, data preprocessing, activity classification, feature selection, and construction of EER models using neural networks. In order to reduce the computational load and achieve satisfactory estimation performance, we employed sequential forward and backward search strategies for feature selection. Two representative neural networks, a radial basis function network (RBFN) and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), were employed as EER models for performance comparisons. Our experimental results have successfully validated the effectiveness of our wearable sensor module and its neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for energy expenditure estimation. In addition, our results demonstrate the superior performance of GRNN as compared to RBFN.

  11. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  12. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  13. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  14. Complex Förster energy transfer interactions between semiconductor quantum dots and a redox-active osmium assembly.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael H; Huston, Alan L; Scott, Amy M; Efros, Alexander L; Melinger, Joseph S; Gemmill, Kelly Boeneman; Trammell, Scott A; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B; Dawson, Philip E; Medintz, Igor L

    2012-06-26

    The ability of luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to engage in diverse energy transfer processes with organic dyes, light-harvesting proteins, metal complexes, and redox-active labels continues to stimulate interest in developing them for biosensing and light-harvesting applications. Within biosensing configurations, changes in the rate of energy transfer between the QD and the proximal donor, or acceptor, based upon some external (biological) event form the principle basis for signal transduction. However, designing QD sensors to function optimally is predicated on a full understanding of all relevant energy transfer mechanisms. In this report, we examine energy transfer between a range of CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and a redox-active osmium(II) polypyridyl complex. To facilitate this, the Os complex was synthesized as a reactive isothiocyanate and used to label a hexahistidine-terminated peptide. The Os-labeled peptide was ratiometrically self-assembled to the QDs via metal affinity coordination, bringing the Os complex into close proximity of the nanocrystal surface. QDs displaying different emission maxima were assembled with increasing ratios of Os-peptide complex and subjected to detailed steady-state, ultrafast transient absorption, and luminescence lifetime decay analyses. Although the possibility exists for charge transfer quenching interactions, we find that the QD donors engage in relatively efficient Förster resonance energy transfer with the Os complex acceptor despite relatively low overall spectral overlap. These results are in contrast to other similar QD donor-redox-active acceptor systems with similar separation distances, but displaying far higher spectral overlap, where charge transfer processes were reported to be the dominant QD quenching mechanism.

  15. The activation energy for nanocrystalline diamond films deposited from an Ar/H2/CH4 hot-filament reactor.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, D C; Melo, L L; Trava-Airoldi, V J; Corat, E J

    2009-06-01

    In this work we have investigated the effect of substrate temperature on the growth rate and properties of nanocrystalline diamond thin films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). Mixtures of 0.5 vol% CH4 and 25 vol% H2 balanced with Ar at a pressure of 50 Torr and typical deposition time of 12 h. We present the measurement of the activation energy by accurately controlling the substrate temperature independently of other CVD parameters. Growth rates have been measured in the temperature range from 550 to 800 degrees C. Characterization techniques have involved Raman spectroscopy, high resolution X-ray difractometry and scanning electron microscopy. We also present a comparison with most activation energy for micro and nanocrystalline diamond determinations in the literature and propose that there is a common trend in most observations. The result obtained can be an evidence that the growth mechanism of NCD in HFCVD reactors is very similar to MCD growth.

  16. Energy expenditure in relation to activity of lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus).

    PubMed

    Darlis; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Purwanto, B; Ho, Y W

    2001-11-01

    Heat production (HP) of male and female mouse deer during eating, standing and sitting was determined using the open circuit respiration chamber (RC). The time taken for similar activities was also determined in an outdoor enclosure (OD). The animals were fed kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and rabbit pellet ad libitum. Male mouse deer consumed more dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) than female. The time for each activity of male and female mouse deer kept in RC and OD was similar. The average time spent in RC and OD for both male and female, respectively, for sitting (956 and 896 min/day) was significantly (P<0.01) longer than standing (463 and 520 min/day) and eating (21 and 24 min/day). Heat production for male and female mouse deer, respectively, during eating was the highest (0.44 and 0.43 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min) followed by standing (0.37 and 0.33 kJ/kgW(0.75)/min) and sitting (0.26 and 0.26 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min). The difference in HP per min during standing between male and female was significant (P<0.05). The HP for 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were higher than 20.00-02.00 h and 02.00-08.00 h periods. The overall HP for males during 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were significantly (P<0.05) higher (114.8 and 119.2 kJ/kg W(0.75)) than female (107.5 and 110.4 kJ/kg W(0.75)), respectively.

  17. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Edwards, Andrew; Thompson, Fintan; McDermott, Robyn; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) overall. Methods Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males) wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping) and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57), moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34), and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22) and jogging (ICC = 0.26). The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0–29.4%), but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7–9.0%) and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1–20.9%). The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv) for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes) compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes), but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories) versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories). The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0) and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0), but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5) for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7). Conclusion The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical

  18. Determining Linac Beam Energy from C-11/O-15 Activity Ratios in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardman, Ryan; Shepherd, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A method for precisely measuring the beam energy of 20-25 MeV electron linear accelerator was developed. Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (acrylic) samples were irradiated with an electron linac at several energy settings of the accelerator simultaneously producing C-11 and O-15 via photonuclear reactions within each of the polymers. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy the activity ratios of C-11/O-15 were measured by analyzing the decay of activity vs. time. The C-11/O-15 ratio exhibits an energy dependence due to differences in the production cross section vs. energy. The observed dependence can be matched to predictions of the activity ratio vs. energy, developed from GEANT4 Monte Carlo models of an electromagnetic shower and knowledge of the cross sections, in order to determine the energy of the beam at a sub-MeV level of precision. National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates.

  19. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  20. Verification of energy's role as a determinant of US economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    A series of single-equation dynamic regression models are constructed to test the hypotheses that both ''thermodynamic'' and economic-efficiency (t-efficiency and e-efficiency, respectively) configurations of lagged energy variables are statistically informative separately and jointly about subsequent changes in real gross national product (GNP) per capita and in unemployment rate. Separately, t-efficiency is based on quantity of energy used per unit of GNP, while e-efficiency is based on real price of tested energy variables. Used jointly, the two measure real energy cost per unit of real GNP. Tested subperiods are within the 1890-1985 period. Macroeconomic activity is found to be much less informative about energy variables that are energy variables about macroeconomic activity. One-way tests are conducted in which the informativeness of major e-efficiency (wholesale price) variables and budget-share variables about subsequent macroeconomic activity are compared to the informativeness of the e-efficiency energy variable and the combined e- and t-efficiencies energy variable respectively. The energy variables are found to represent the only major category of expenditure whose statistical tests for informativeness about subsequent macroeconomic activity result in coefficient signs that consistently imply a statistically significant negative effect on subsequent macroeconomic activity in the full 1890-1985 period. 64 refs., 14 tabs.

  1. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  2. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-04-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  3. Influence of intense physical activity on energy balance and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Doucet, E

    1999-02-01

    The reduced contribution of physical activity to daily energy expenditure and the accessibility to high-fat foods have put an excessive burden on energy balance, resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world. In this context, fat gain can be seen as a natural adaptation to deal with a fattening lifestyle, since the hormonal adaptations that accompany fat gain favour the readjustment of energy expenditure to energy intake. Intense physical activity would also seem to facilitate the regulation of energy balance, since it increases the energy cost of exercise, increases post-exercise energy expenditure and the potential of skeletal muscles to utilize lipids, and also favours a decrease in post-exercise intake. Moreover, the effects of intense exercise seem to be mediated by an activation of sympathetic nervous system activity that seems to be specific to skeletal muscle. It is also important to manipulate macronutrient composition in order to reduce fat intake, because unhealthy food habits can favour overfeeding and thus overcome the energy deficit caused by regular physical activity. Under free-living conditions, the combination of vigorous activity and healthy food practices can amount to a substantial weight loss which is comparable with that of other non-surgical approaches to treat obesity.

  4. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  5. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  6. 78 FR 46829 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Supporting Commercial Power Reactors 3. ``Deemed Exports'' and ``Deemed Re-Exports'' 4. Technology Transfers... Hoc Utility Group (a number of companies that operate 56 nuclear reactors at 35 sites), offered... research''; Assistance for certain mining and milling activities, and certain fusion reactors because...

  7. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  8. Energy from the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  9. Activation energies and temperature effects from electrical spectra of soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent permittivity often has soil-specific temperature responses as well as soil water responses. These variations affect dielectric sensors, often requiring site-specific calibrations. Variations of permittivity as a function of frequency and temperature can be used to calculate activation energ...

  10. Calculation of activation energies for hydrogen-atom abstractions by radicals containing carbon triple bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Laufer, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Activation energies are calculated by the bond-energy-bond-order (BEBO) and the bond-strength-bond-length (BSBL) methods for the reactions of C2H radicals with H2, CH4, and C2H6 and for the reactions of CN radicals with H2 and CH4. The BSBL technique accurately predicts the activation energies for these reactions while the BEBO method yields energies averaging 9 kcal higher than those observed. A possible reason for the disagreement is considered.

  11. Activation energies of metal atomization and nitrate and sulfate decomposition in concentrated matrices (10 -1 M).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, A.; Le Garrec, H.; Cabon, J. Y.; Guern, Y.

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports on activation energies measured during copper and manganese atomization in a graphite furnace in the presence of large amounts of nitrate and sulfate matrices. It also deals with activation energies corresponding to the decomposition of these matrices and to the atomization of their metal, i.e. Na, Ca or Mg. These results were obtained from Arrhenius-type calculations carried out on specific and non-specific absorbance values. Atomization was achieved under a very high gas flow which allowed us to get to the source function. Some of the calculated energies were compared to reaction energies deduced from tables of thermodynamic data.

  12. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  13. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  14. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  15. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  16. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  17. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  18. Effect of alloying on the self-diffusion activation energy in γ-iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, A. A.; Sokolov, S. F.; Kolbasnikov, N. G.; Sokolov, D. F.

    2011-11-01

    The experimental data on the self-diffusion coefficient of austenite with different chemical compositions obtained by the radioactive isotope method have been analyzed quantitatively. The self-diffusion activation energy in pure γ-iron is shown to be ˜312 kJ/mol. Alloying of austenite with such elements as Mn, Mo, Nb, Ti, and Si (to a lower degree) increases the self-diffusion activation energy, and alloying with C, V, or Cr (for the element content ≥3 at %) decreases it. The empirical formula is derived for calculation of the self-diffusion activation energy in austenite solid solutions with complex composition.

  19. The Activation Energy Of Ignition Calculation For Materials Based On Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantuch, Peter; Wachter, Igor; Martinka, Jozef; Kuracina, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This article deals with the activation energy of ignition calculation of plastics. Two types of polyamide 6 and one type of polypropylene and polyurethane were selected as samples. The samples were tested under isothermal conditions at several temperatures while times to ignition were observed. From the obtained data, activation energy relating to the moment of ignition was calculated for each plastics. The values for individual plastics were different. The highest activation energies (129.5 kJ.mol-1 and 106.2 kJ.mol-1) were achieved by polyamides 6, while the lowest was determined for a sample of polyurethane.

  20. Activation energy and entropy for viscosity of wormlike micelle solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, H D

    2013-11-01

    The viscosities of two surfactant solutions which form wormlike micelles (WLMs) were studied over a range of temperatures and strain rates. WLM solutions appear to differ from many other shear thinning systems in that, as the shear rate increases, stress-shear rate curves tend to converge with temperature rather than diverge and this can sometimes lead to higher temperature curves crossing those at lower. Behaviour was analysed in terms of activation kinetics. It is suggested that two mechanisms are involved: Newtonian flow, following an Arrhenius law superimposed on a non-Newtonian flow described by a stress assisted kinetic law, this being a more general form of the Arrhenius law. Anomalous flow is introduced into the kinetic equation via a stress dependent activation entropy term.

  1. The density-of-states concept versus the experimentally determined distribution of activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaenssens, G.J.; Arkhipov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    Random fluctuations of localized state energies will result in thermal release of carriers trapped in those states at shorter times than would be observed from a stationary distribution of the same energies. An experimentally observed distribution of activation energies will hence differ from the distribution of average energies of the states involved. It will also be temperature-dependent. In a-Si:H, low-frequency fluctuations with a spectrum comparable to the one of 1/f noise, can account for the measured temperature dependence of the distribution. They also explain the apparent shift in localized-state energy under steady-state illumination.

  2. Deletion of Gpr55 Results in Subtle Effects on Energy Metabolism, Motor Activity and Thermal Pain Sensation.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Ryberg, Erik; Wu, Tingting; Greasley, Peter J; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Hjorth, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid molecules and has been speculated to play a modulatory role in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in metabolically perturbed states. We therefore generated male mice deficient in the gene coding for the cannabinoid/lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) receptor Gpr55 and characterized them under normal dietary conditions as well as during high energy dense diet feeding followed by challenge with the CB1 receptor antagonist/GPR55 agonist rimonabant. Gpr55 deficient male mice (Gpr55 KO) were phenotypically indistinguishable from their wild type (WT) siblings for the most part. However, Gpr55 KO animals displayed an intriguing nocturnal pattern of motor activity and energy expenditure (EE). During the initial 6 hours of the night, motor activity was significantly elevated without any significant effect observed in EE. Interestingly, during the last 6 hours of the night motor activity was similar but EE was significantly decreased in the Gpr55 KO mice. No significant difference in motor activity was detected during daytime, but EE was lower in the Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. The aforementioned patterns were not associated with alterations in energy intake, daytime core body temperature, body weight (BW) or composition, although a non-significant tendency to increased adiposity was seen in Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. Detailed analyses of daytime activity in the Open Field paradigm unveiled lower horizontal activity and rearing time for the Gpr55 KO mice. Moreover, the Gpr55 KO mice displayed significantly faster reaction time in the tail flick test, indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. The BW-decreasing effect of rimonabant in mice on long-term cafeteria diet did not differ between Gpr55 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, Gpr55 deficiency is associated with subtle effects on diurnal/nocturnal EE and motor activity behaviours but does not appear per se

  3. Density functional calculation of activation energies for lattice and grain boundary diffusion in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yinkai; Gong, Yu; Duan, Zhiyao; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-06-01

    To acquire knowledge on the lattice and grain boundary diffusion processes in alumina, we have determined the activation energies of elementary O and Al diffusive jumps in the bulk crystal, Σ3(0001) grain boundaries, and Σ3(101¯0) grain boundaries of α-Al2O3 using the first-principles density functional theory method. Specifically, we calculated the activation energies for four elementary jumps of both O and Al lattice diffusion in alumina. It was predicted that the activation energy of O lattice diffusion varied from 3.58 to 5.03 eV, while the activation energy of Al lattice diffusion ranged from 1.80 to 3.17 eV. As compared with experimental measurements, the theoretical predictions of the activation energy for lattice diffusion were lower and thus implied that there might be other high-energy diffusive jumps in the experimental alumina samples. Moreover, our results suggested that the Al lattice diffusion was faster than the O lattice diffusion in alumina, in agreement with experiment observations. Furthermore, it was found from our calculations for α-Al2O3 that the activation energies of O and Al grain boundary diffusion in the high-energy Σ3(0001) grain boundaries were significantly lower than those of the lattice diffusion. In contrast, the activation energies of O and Al grain boundary diffusion in the low-energy Σ3(101¯0) grain boundaries could be even higher than those of the lattice diffusion.

  4. Difference in variation of glass transition activation energy between 1,2-propanediamine and 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Variations of the effective activation energy (Eα) throughout the glass transition were determined for 1,2-propanediamine (12PDA) and 1,2-propanediol (12PDO) by applying an isoconversional method to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. Eα was found to markedly decrease throughout the glass transition of 12PDA, whereas such drastic change in Eα was not observed for 12PDO. Although the two simple liquids are similar in molecular structure and size, their trends in Eα and fragility m throughout the glass transition can be quite different. The significant disparity in the kinetic parameters can be caused by differences in hydrogen-bonding structure between 12PDA and 12PDO.

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase and energy balance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Orhan, Yelda C; Zha, Xiaoming; Esencan, Ecem; Chatterton, Robert T; Bulun, Serdar E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer growth and metastasis depends on the availability of energy. Energy-sensing systems are critical in maintaining a balance between the energy supply and utilization of energy for tumor growth. A central regulator in this process is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In times of energy deficit, AMPK is allosterically modified by the binding of increased levels of AMP and ADP, making it a target of specific AMPK kinases (AMPKKs). AMPK signaling prompts cells to produce energy at the expense of growth and motility, opposing the actions of insulin and growth factors. Increasing AMPK activity may thus prevent the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Activated AMPK also suppresses aromatase, which lowers estrogen formation and prevents breast cancer growth. Biguanides can be used to activate AMPK, but AMPK activity is modified by many different interacting factors; understanding these factors is important in order to control the abnormal growth processes that lead to breast cancer neoplasia. Fatty acids, estrogens, androgens, adipokines, and another energy sensor, sirtuin-1, alter the phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Isoforms of AMPK differ among tissues and may serve specific functions. Targeting AMPK regulatory processes at points other than the upstream AMPKKs may provide additional approaches for prevention of breast cancer neoplasia, growth, and metastasis. PMID:28337254

  6. Free-energy computations identify the mutations required to confer trans-sialidase activity into Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase.

    PubMed

    Pierdominici-Sottile, Gustavo; Palma, Juliana; Roitberg, Adrian E

    2014-03-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli's sialidase (TrSA) and Trypanosoma cruzi's trans-sialidase (TcTS) are members of the glycoside hydrolase family 33 (GH-33). They share 70% of sequence identity and their crystallographic Cα RMSD is 0.59 Å. Despite these similarities they catalyze different reactions. TcTS transfers sialic acid between glycoconjugates while TrSA can only cleave sialic acid from sialyl-glyconjugates. Significant effort has been invested into unraveling the differences between TrSA and TcTS, and into conferring TrSA with trans-sialidase activity through appropriate point mutations. Recently, we calculated the free-energy change for the formation of the covalent intermediate (CI) in TcTS and performed an energy decomposition analysis of that process. In this article we present a similar study for the formation of the CI in TrSA, as well as in a quintuple mutant (TrSA5mut), which has faint trans-sialidase activity. The comparison of these new results with those previously obtained for TcTS allowed identifying five extra mutations to be introduced in TrSA5mut that should create a mutant (TrSA10mut ) with high trans-sialidase activity.

  7. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Increases Energy Expenditure: Relation to Brown Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Leenen, Loes; Rijkers, Kim; Cornips, Erwin; Majoie, Marian; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. Methods and Findings Fifteen patients with stable VNS therapy (age: 45±10yrs; body mass index; 25.2±3.5 kg/m2) were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%). Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUVMean; 0.55±0.25 versus 0.67±0.46, P = 0.619). However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off) was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001). Conclusions VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. Trial Registration The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282. PMID:24194874

  8. Functional Domain Walls as Active Elements for Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Junqiao

    2016-10-12

    In the past five years in the duration of this project (July 2011-July 2016), we have made a wide range of achievements in both basic research and energy applications along the direction planned in the original proposal. These achievements were reflected by 13 articles published in peer-reviewed journals including Nature Communications, Nano Letters, etc., and one currently in revision at Science. These papers have been accumulatively cited for more than 660 times as of October 2016, according to Web of Science statistics. Specifically, we have made impactful discoveries in the following fields. Basic Research. We have investigated in depth the materials physics of the representative quantum material, VO2, on which most of our project is anchored. We have discovered that independent diffusion of heat and charge in the absence of quasiparticles in metallic VO2 leads to an anomalously low electronic thermal conductivity, dramatically violating the Wiedemann-Franz law, which is a robust law governing behavior of normal conductors stating that free electrons transport heat proportionally to the charge they transport. In addition, we have discovered a peculiar thermal rectification effect based on its phase transition, as well as a gating response of the phase transition. In parallel to the work on VO2, we have also made breakthroughs in investigation of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs): we have experimentally demonstrate a strong anisotropy in in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorous, discovered a new, unusual member of the TMDs family, ReS2, where the bulk behaves as monolayers due to electronic and vibrational decoupling, unusual interaction between physi-sorbed molecules and 2D semiconductors, and thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in some 2D TMDs. Applications. Based on the understanding and knowledge gained from the basic investigation, we have developed novel tools and

  9. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  10. Active AC/DC control for wideband piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, A.; Grézaud, R.; Pillonnet, G.; Gasnier, P.; Despesse, G.; Badel, A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a simple interface circuit enabling resonant frequency tuning of highly coupled piezoelectric harvesters. This work relies on an active AC/DC architecture that introduces a tunable short-circuit sequence in order to control the phase between the piezoelectric current and voltage, allowing the emulation of a capacitive load. It is notably shown that this short-circuit time increases the harvested power when the piezoelectric operates outside of resonance. Measurements on a piezoelectric harvester exhibiting a large global coupling coefficient (k2 = 15.3%) have been realized and have proven the efficiency and potential of this technique.

  11. Generalized Energy Equipartition in Harmonic Oscillators Driven by Active Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  12. Inferred metagenomic comparison of mucosal and fecal microbiota from individuals undergoing routine screening colonoscopy reveals similar differences observed during active inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei San; Poles, Jordan; Leung, Jacqueline M; Wolff, Martin J; Davenport, Michael; Lee, Soo Ching; Lim, Yvonne Al; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng; Cho, Ilseung

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal microbiota lives in close proximity with the intestinal epithelium and may interact more directly with the host immune system than the luminal/fecal bacteria. The availability of nutrients in the mucus layer of the epithelium is also very different from the gut lumen environment. Inferred metagenomic analysis for microbial function of the mucosal microbiota is possible by PICRUSt. We recently found that by using this approach, actively inflamed tissue of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients have mucosal communities enriched for genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism, and reduced for carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. Here, we find that the same bacterial taxa (e.g. Acinetobacter) and predicted microbial pathways enriched in actively inflamed colitis tissue are also enriched in the mucosa of subjects undergoing routine screening colonoscopies, when compared with paired samples of luminal/fecal bacteria. These results suggest that the mucosa of healthy individuals may be a reservoir of aerotolerant microbial communities expanded during colitis. PMID:25559083

  13. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products.

  14. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  15. Evidence of Energy Supply by Active-Region Spicules to the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeighami, S.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Tavabi, E.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of active-region spicules in the mass balance of the solar wind and energy supply in heating the solar atmosphere. We use high-cadence observations from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite in the Ca ii H-line filter obtained on 26 January 2007. The observational technique provides the high spatio-temporal resolution required to detect fine structures such as spicules. We apply a Fourier power spectrum and wavelet analysis to Hinode/SOT time series of an active-region data set to explore the existence of coherent intensity oscillations. Coherent waves could be evidence of energy transport that serves to heat the solar atmosphere. Using time series, we measure the phase difference between two intensity profiles obtained at two different heights, which gives information about the phase difference between oscillations at those heights as a function of frequency. The results of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) show peaks in the power spectrum at frequencies in the range from 2 to 8 mHz at four different heights (above the limb), while the wavelet analysis indicates dominant frequencies similar to those of the Fourier power spectrum results. A coherency study indicates coherent oscillations at about 5.5 mHz (3 min). We measure mean phase speeds in the range 250-425 km s^{-1} increasing with height. The energy flux of these waves is estimated to be F = 1.8 × 106-11.2 × 106 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} or 1.8-11.2 kW m^{-2}, which indicates that they are sufficiently energetic to accelerate the solar wind and heat the corona to temperatures of several million degrees. We compute the the mass flux carried by spicules of 3 × 10^{-10}-2 × 10^{-9} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which is 10-60 times higher than the mass that is carried away from the corona because of the solar wind (about 3 × 10^{-11} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}). Therefore, our results indicate that about 0.02-0.1 of the spicule mass is ejected from the corona, while the remainder reverts

  16. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  17. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  18. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  19. The coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism with brain activation is similar for simple and complex stimuli in human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Griffeth, Valerie E M; Simon, Aaron B; Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) experiments to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism coupling in the brain typically rely on simple repetitive stimuli. Here we compared such stimuli with a more naturalistic stimulus. Previous work on the primary visual cortex showed that direct attentional modulation evokes a blood flow (CBF) response with a relatively large oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) response in comparison to an unattended stimulus, which evokes a much smaller metabolic response relative to the flow response. We hypothesized that a similar effect would be associated with a more engaging stimulus, and tested this by measuring the primary human visual cortex response to two contrast levels of a radial flickering checkerboard in comparison to the response to free viewing of brief movie clips. We did not find a significant difference in the blood flow-metabolism coupling (n=%ΔCBF/%ΔCMRO2) between the movie stimulus and the flickering checkerboards employing two different analysis methods: a standard analysis using the Davis model and a new analysis using a heuristic model dependent only on measured quantities. This finding suggests that in the primary visual cortex a naturalistic stimulus (in comparison to a simple repetitive stimulus) is either not sufficient to provoke a change in flow-metabolism coupling by attentional modulation as hypothesized, that the experimental design disrupted the cognitive processes underlying the response to a more natural stimulus, or that the technique used is not sensitive enough to detect a small difference.

  20. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  1. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Borer, Katarina T

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.

  2. Award Winning Energy Education Activities for Elementary and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Helen H., Ed.

    This publication contains descriptions of the winning entries to the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Teacher Participation Contest conducted in 1976. This was a nationwide contest for the design of activities around energy themes at any grade level, K-12. The ten winning entries described here are: (1) Energy Units for Primary Grades;…

  3. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  4. Estimation of Activity Related Energy Expenditure and Resting Metabolic Rate in Freely Moving Mice from Indirect Calorimetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Van Klinken, Jan Bert; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Willems Van Dijk, Ko

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a main determinant of total energy expenditure (TEE) and has been suggested to play a key role in body weight regulation. However, thus far it has been challenging to determine what part of the expended energy is due to activity in freely moving subjects. We developed a computational method to estimate activity related energy expenditure (AEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in mice from activity and indirect calorimetry data. The method is based on penalised spline regression and takes the time dependency of the RMR into account. In addition, estimates of AEE and RMR are corrected for the regression dilution bias that results from inaccurate PA measurements. We evaluated the performance of our method based on 500 simulated metabolic chamber datasets and compared it to that of conventional methods. It was found that for a sample time of 10 minutes the penalised spline model estimated the time-dependent RMR with 1.7 times higher accuracy than the Kalman filter and with 2.7 times higher accuracy than linear regression. We assessed the applicability of our method on experimental data in a case study involving high fat diet fed male and female C57Bl/6J mice. We found that TEE in male mice was higher due to a difference in RMR while AEE levels were similar in both groups, even though female mice were more active. Interestingly, the higher activity did not result in a difference in AEE because female mice had a lower caloric cost of activity, which was likely due to their lower body weight. In conclusion, TEE decomposition by means of penalised spline regression provides robust estimates of the time-dependent AEE and RMR and can be applied to data generated with generic metabolic chamber and indirect calorimetry set-ups. PMID:22574139

  5. Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

  6. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  7. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  8. Determination of Total Daily Energy Requirements and Activity Patterns of Service Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    conducted at Fort Bragg/Camp Mckall during a Combat Support Hospital training exercise , during the first year of the grant. Isotope and activity ...water, physical activity patterns energy expenditure, military nutrition, hydration status. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 16. PRICE CODE 17 SECURITY...Devices, Ft. Walton Beach, Fl.) will be employed to assess patterns of rest and activity , total physical activity and to estimate duration and

  9. Evaluation of Biological and Enzymatic Activity of Soil in a Tropical Dry Forest: Desierto de la Tatacoa (Colombia) with Potential in Mars Terraforming and Other Similar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Moreno, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Desierto de la Tatacoa has been determined to be a tropical dry forest bioma, which is located at 3° 13" N 75° 13" W. It has a hot thermal floor with 440 msnm of altitude; it has a daily average of 28° C, and a maximum of 40° C, Its annual rainfall total can be upwards of 1250 mm. Its solar sheen has a daily average of 5.8 hours and its relative humidity is between 60% and 65%. Therefore, the life forms presents are very scant, and in certain places, almost void. It was realized a completely random sampling of soil from its surface down to 6 inches deep, of zones without vegetation and with soils highly loaded by oxides of iron in order to determine the number of microorganisms per gram and its subsequent identification. It was measured the soil basal respiration. Besides, it was determined enzymatic activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease). Starting with the obtained results, it is developes an alternative towards the study of soil genesis in Mars in particular, and recommendations for same process in other planets. Although the information found in the experiments already realized in Martian soil they demonstrate that doesnt exist any enzymatic activity, the knowledge of the same topic in the soil is proposed as an alternative to problems like carbonic fixing of the dense Martian atmosphere of CO2, the degradation of inorganic compounds amongst other in order to prepare the substratum for later colonization by some life form.

  10. Energy-Dependent Electron Activated Dissociation of Metal-Adducted Permethylated Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang; Huang, Yiqun; Lin, Cheng; Costello, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of varying the electron energy and cationizing agents on electron activated dissociation (ExD) of metal-adducted oligosaccharides were explored, using permethylated maltoheptaose as the model system. Across the examined range of electron energy, the metal-adducted oligosaccharide exhibited several fragmentation processes, including electron capture dissociation (ECD) at low energies, hot-ECD at intermediate energies, and electronic excitation dissociation (EED) at high energies. The dissociation threshold depended on the metal charge carrier(s), whereas the types and sequence spans of product ions were influenced by the metal-oligosaccharide binding pattern. Theoretical modeling contributed insight into the metal-dependent behavior of carbohydrates during low-energy ECD. When ExD was applied to a permethylated high mannose N-linked glycan, EED provided more structural information than either collision-induced dissociation (CID) or low-energy ECD, thus demonstrating its potential for oligosaccharide linkage analysis. PMID:22881449

  11. Influence of Delipation on the Energy Metabolism in Pig Parthenogenetically Activated Embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Niu, Y; Chi, D; Zeng, Y; Liu, H; Dai, Y; Li, J

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed not only to measure the effect of delipation on the developmental viability of pig parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, but also to evaluate the changes of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and gene (Acsl3, Acadsb, Acaa2, Glut1) expression level at different stages after delipation. Results showed that no effect was observed on the cleavage ability, but significant lower blastocyst rate was obtained in delipated embryos. Copy number of mtDNA decreased gradually from MII to four-cell stages and subsequently kept consistent with blastocyst stage both in delipated and control embryos, but the copy number of mtDNA in delipated embryos was similar to that in the control groups no matter at which developmental stage was observed. Both in delipated and control embryos, ATP content progressive decreased from one-cell to blastocyst stages, while just at one-cell stage, a significant decrease of ATP level was observed in delipated embryos compared with that of control. The level of ROS increased obviously after delipation at cleavage stage, but no difference was seen at blastocyst stage. Finally, the expression level of genes related to fatty acids beta-oxidation (Acadsb and Acaa2) was decreased, while the expression level of genes related to glucose metabolism (Glut 1) was upregulated after delipation. In conclusion, the reduction of lipids in pig oocytes will affect the developmental competence of pig PA embryos by disturbed energy metabolism and ROS stress.

  12. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  13. A time to search: finding the meaning of variable activation energy.

    PubMed

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2016-07-28

    This review deals with the phenomenon of variable activation energy frequently observed when studying the kinetics in the liquid or solid phase. This phenomenon commonly manifests itself through nonlinear Arrhenius plots or dependencies of the activation energy on conversion computed by isoconversional methods. Variable activation energy signifies a multi-step process and has a meaning of a collective parameter linked to the activation energies of individual steps. It is demonstrated that by using appropriate models of the processes, the link can be established in algebraic form. This allows one to analyze experimentally observed dependencies of the activation energy in a quantitative fashion and, as a result, to obtain activation energies of individual steps, to evaluate and predict other important parameters of the process, and generally to gain deeper kinetic and mechanistic insights. This review provides multiple examples of such analysis as applied to the processes of crosslinking polymerization, crystallization and melting of polymers, gelation, and solid-solid morphological and glass transitions. The use of appropriate computational techniques is discussed as well.

  14. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  15. Fundamentals of tandem mass spectrometry: a dynamics study of simple C-C bond cleavage in collision-activated dissociation of polyatomic ions at low energy.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A K; Qian, K; Anderson, S; Futrell, J H

    1990-02-01

    The loss of methyl radical in collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of acetone and propane molecular ions has been studied at low energy using a tandem hybrid mass spectrometer. Although the two processes are very similar chemically and energetically, very different dynamical features are observed. Acetyl ions from acetone ion are predominantly backward-scattered, with intensity maxima lying inside and outside the elastic scattering circle, confirming our previous observation that electronically excited states are important in low-energy acetone CAD. Ethyl ions from propane ion show a forward-scattered peak maximum at a nonzero scattering angle, which is consistent with generally accepted models for vibrational excitation and redistribution of energy before dissociation. Both processes demonstrate that CAD at low energy proceeds via small-impact-parameter collisions with momentum transfer. Comparison of the present results with higher energy CAD dynamics studies and earlier work leads to some tentative general conclusions about energy transfer in these processes.

  16. Similar enzymes, different structures

    PubMed Central

    Tarasev, Michael; Kaddis, Catherine S.; Yin, Sheng; Loo, Joseph A.; Burgner, John; Ballou, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) is a member of a class of bacterial oxygenases that contain both Rieske [2Fe-2S] and Fe(II) mononuclear centers. Recent crystal structures of several Rieske dioxygenases showed that they exist as α3β3 multimers with subunits arranged head-to-tail in α and β stacked planar consists of only α-subunits, remains to be solved. Although similar to other Rieske dioxygenases in many aspects, PDO was shown to differ in the mechanism of catalysis. Gel filtration and analytical centrifugation experiments, supplemented with mass spectrometric analysis (both ESI-MS and ESI-GEMMA), in this work showed a hexameric arrangement of subunits in the PDO multimer. Our proposed model for the subunit arrangement in PDO postulates two α3 planar rings one on top the other, similar to the α3β3 arrangement in other Rieske dioxygenases. Unlike other Rieske dioxygenases, this arrangement brings two Rieske and two mononuclear centers, all on separate subunits, into proximity, allowing their cooperation for catalysis. Potential reasons necessitating this unusual structural arrangement are discussed. PMID:17764654

  17. Dynamically stable, self-similarly evolving, and self-organized states of high beta tokamak and reversed pinch plasmas and advanced active control

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Fukasawa, Toshinobu

    2009-11-15

    Generalized simultaneous eigenvalue equations derived from a generalized theory of self-organization are applied to a set of simultaneous equations for two-fluid model plasmas. An advanced active control by using theoretical time constants is proposed by predicting quantities to be controlled. Typical high beta numerical configurations are presented for the ultra low q tokamak plasmas and the reversed-field pinch (RFP) ones in cylindrical geometry by solving the set of simultaneous eigenvalue equations. Improved confinement with no detectable saw-teeth oscillations in tokamak experiments is reasonably explained by the shortest time constant of ion flow. The shortest time constant of poloidal ion flow is shown to be a reasonable mechanism for suppression of magnetic fluctuations by pulsed poloidal current drives in RFP experiments. The bifurcation from basic eigenmodes to mixed ones deduced from stability conditions for eigenvalues is shown to be a good candidate for the experimental bifurcation from standard RFP plasmas to their improved confinement regimes.

  18. Measuring slope to improve energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2013-03-01

    This technical note describes methods to improve activity energy expenditure estimates by using a multi-sensor board (MSB) to measure slope. Ten adults walked over a 4-km (2.5-mile) course wearing an MSB and mobile calorimeter. Energy expenditure was estimated using accelerometry alone (base) and 4 methods to measure slope. The barometer and global positioning system methods improved accuracy by 11% from the base (p < 0.05) to 86% overall. Measuring slope using the MSB improves energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

  19. Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942

  20. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  1. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18-39, 40-64, 65 +  years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of -0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of -0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81-1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed.

  2. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age

    PubMed Central

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18–39, 40–64, 65 + years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of −0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of −0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81–1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  3. The Work and Home Activities Questionnaire: Energy Expenditure Estimates and Association With Percent Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D.; Block, Torin J.; Norris, Jean; Dalvi, Tapashi B.; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and increasing physical activity requires assessment of occupational, home, leisure and sedentary activities. Methods A physical activity questionnaire was developed using data from a large representative U.S. sample; includes occupational, leisure and home-based domains; and produces estimates of energy expenditure, percent body fat, minutes in various domains, and meeting recommendations. It was tested in 396 persons, mean age 44 years. Estimates were evaluated in relation to percent body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median energy expenditure was 2,365 kcal (women) and 2.960 kcal (men). Women spent 35.1 minutes/day in moderate household activities, 13.0 minutes in moderate leisure and 4.0 minutes in vigorous activities. Men spent 18.0, 22.5 and 15.6 minutes/day in those activities, respectively. Men and women spent 276.4 and 257.0 minutes/day in sedentary activities. Respondents who met recommendations through vigorous activities had significantly lower percent body fat than those who did not, while meeting recommendations only through moderate activities was not associated with percent body fat. Predicted and observed percent body fat correlated at r = .73 and r = .82 for men and women respectively, P < .0001. Conclusions This questionnaire may be useful for understanding health effects of different components of activity, and for interventions to increase activity levels. PMID:19998851

  4. Glucose Availability and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Link Energy Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the Bovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Matthew L.; Cronin, James G.; Noleto, Pablo G.; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Defences against the bacteria that usually infect the endometrium of postpartum cattle are impaired when there is metabolic energy stress, leading to endometritis and infertility. The endometrial response to bacteria depends on innate immunity, with recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulating inflammation, characterised by secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. How metabolic stress impacts tissue responses to pathogens is unclear, but integration of energy metabolism and innate immunity means that stressing one system might affect the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that homeostatic pathways integrate energy metabolism and innate immunity in bovine endometrial tissue. Glucose deprivation reduced the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 from ex vivo organ cultures of bovine endometrium challenged with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns lipopolysaccharide and bacterial lipopeptide. Endometrial inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide were also reduced by small molecules that activate or inhibit the intracellular sensor of energy, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a more global metabolic sensor than AMPK, had little effect on inflammation. Similarly, endometrial inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide were not affected by insulin-like growth factor-1, which is an endocrine regulator of metabolism. Interestingly, the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide increased endometrial glucose consumption and induced the Warburg effect, which could exacerbate deficits in glucose availability in the tissue. In conclusion, metabolic energy stress perturbed inflammatory responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns in bovine endometrial tissue, and the most fundamental regulators of cellular energy, glucose availability and AMPK, had the greatest impact on innate immunity. PMID:26974839

  5. Estimation of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure during Free-Living from Wrist Accelerometry in UK Adults

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Kate; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Brage, Soren

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Methods 1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE. Multi-level regression models were used to characterise the relationship between the two time-series, and their estimations were evaluated in an independent holdout sample. Finally, the relationship between PAEE and BMI was described separately for each source of PAEE estimate (wrist acceleration models and combined-sensing). Results Wrist acceleration explained 44–47% between-individual variance in PAEE, with RMSE between 34–39 J•min-1•kg-1. Estimations agreed well with PAEE in cross-validation (mean bias [95% limits of agreement]: 0.07 [-70.6:70.7]) but overestimated in women by 3% and underestimated in men by 4%. Estimation error was inversely related to age (-2.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per 10y) and BMI (-0.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per kg/m2). Associations with BMI were similar for all PAEE estimates (approximately -0.08 kg/m2 per J•min-1•kg-1). Conclusions A strong relationship exists between wrist acceleration and PAEE in free-living adults, such that irrespective of the objective method of PAEE assessment, a strong inverse association between PAEE and BMI was observed. PMID:27936024

  6. Muscle activation and energy expenditure of sedentary behavior alternatives in young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Nicholas L; Keenan, Kevin G; Strath, Scott J; Forseth, Bethany M; Cho, Chi C; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-09-21

    The physiological mechanisms that underlie the metabolic benefits of breaking up sedentary behavior (SB) have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to compare energy expenditure (EE) and muscle activation (MA) responses to sitting and four SB alternatives in younger and older adults. Twenty-two adults, grouped by age (21-35 and 62-76 years), completed five randomly ordered 20 min tasks: (1) continuous sitting (Sit), (2) sitting on a stability ball (Ball), (3) continuous standing (Stand), (4) sitting interrupted by walking (S/W), and (5) sitting interrupted by standing (S/S). Muscle activation of two upper (trapezius and erector spinae) and two lower (rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius) body muscles and total body EE were measured continuously. A linear mixed model using gender and age as a covariate with Bonferroni adjustment were used to determine significant differences between tasks. Collectively, S/W produced significantly higher MA and EE compared with Sit (p  <  0.001). Stand and Ball provided significantly greater EE, but not MA, compared to Sit (p  <  0.05), while S/S did not significantly change EE or MA compared to Sit. There were no net EE differences when comparing age groups across the tasks. Upper body MA was not consistent in both age groups across tasks. Specifically, during S/W the upper body MA of older adults (9.7  ±  1.5% MVC) was double that of young adults (4.8  ±  0.7% MVC, p  =  0.006). Lower body MA responded similarly to all tasks in both age groups. Disrupting sitting with walking produced the largest increase in EE and MA compared to other SB alternatives in both age groups. These results are important considering the wide use of SB alternatives by researchers and public health practitioners.

  7. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells.

  8. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  9. The activation energy for Mg acceptor in the Ga-rich InGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Wei, Tong; Chen, Li-Ying; Wang, Sha-Sha; Wang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The activation energy for Mg acceptor in InxGa1-xN alloys is investigated. It is found that there are three factors to influence the activation energy for Mg acceptor. One is the stronger dependence of the VBM of InxGa1-xN depending on In content than that of the Mg acceptor energy level. The other is the concentration of Mg acceptors. Another is the extending of the valence band-tail states into the band gap. In addition, a model based on modifying the effective mass model is developed. It is found that the model can describe the activation energy for Mg acceptor in the Ga-rich InxGa1-xN alloys well after considering the influence of the valence band-tail states.

  10. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  11. Activation energy-activation volume master plots for ion transport behavior in polymer electrolytes and supercooled molten salts.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Malcolm D; Imrie, Corrie T; Stoeva, Zlatka; Pas, Steven J; Funke, Klaus; Chandler, Howard W

    2005-09-08

    We demonstrate the use of activation energy versus activation volume "master plots" to explore ion transport in typical fragile glass forming systems exhibiting non-Arrhenius behavior. These systems include solvent-free salt complexes in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and molten 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). Plots showing variations in apparent activation energy EA versus apparent activation volume VA are straight lines with slopes given by M = DeltaEA/DeltaVA. A simple ion transport mechanism is described where the rate determining step involves a dilatation (expressed as VA) around microscopic cavities and a corresponding work of expansion (EA). The slopes of the master plots M are equated to internal elastic moduli, which vary from 1.1 GPa for liquid PPO to 5.0 GPa for molten CKN on account of differing intermolecular forces in these materials.

  12. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Molybdenum Cofactor Enzyme crARC Has a Zn-Dependent Activity and Protein Partners Similar to Those of Its Human Homologue ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chamizo-Ampudia, Alejandro; Galvan, Aurora; Fernandez, Emilio; Llamas, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The ARC (amidoxime reducing component) proteins are molybdenum cofactor (Moco) enzymes named hmARC1 and hmARC2 (human ARCs [hmARCs]) in humans and YcbX in Escherichia coli. They catalyze the reduction of a broad range of N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) using reducing power supplied by other proteins. Some NHC are prodrugs or toxic compounds. YcbX contains a ferredoxin (Fd) domain and requires the NADPH flavin reductase CysJ to reduce NHC. In contrast, hmARCs lack the Fd domain and require a human cytochrome b5 (hCyt b5) and a human NADH Cyt b5 reductase (hCyt b5-R) to reduce NHC. The ARC proteins in the plant kingdom are uncharacterized. We demonstrate that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective in Moco biosynthesis genes are sensitive to the NHC N6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ARC protein crARC has been purified and characterized. The six Chlamydomonas Fds were isolated, but none of them are required by crARC to reduce HAP. We have also purified and characterized five C. reinhardtii Cyt b5 (crCyt b5) and two flavin reductases, one that is NADPH dependent (crCysJ) and one that is NADH dependent (crCyt b5-R). The data show that crARC uses crCyt b5-1 and crCyt b5-R to reduce HAP. The crARC has a Zn-dependent activity, and the presence of Zn increases its Vmax more than 14-fold. In addition, all five cysteines of crARC were substituted by alanine, and we demonstrate that the fully conserved cysteine 252 is essential for both Moco binding and catalysis. Therefore, it is proposed that crARC belongs to the sulfite oxidase family of Moco enzymes. PMID:21803866

  13. Similar mitochondrial activation kinetics in wild-type and creatine kinase-deficient fast-twitch muscle indicate significant Pi control of respiration.

    PubMed

    Jeneson, Jeroen A L; ter Veld, Frank; Schmitz, Joep P J; Meyer, Ronald A; Hilbers, Peter A J; Nicolay, Klaas

    2011-06-01

    Past simulations of oxidative ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle have predicted that elimination of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction should result in dramatically faster oxygen consumption dynamics during transitions in ATP turnover rate. This hypothesis was investigated. Oxygen consumption of fast-twitch (FT) muscle isolated from wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice deficient in the myoplasmic (M) and mitochondrial (Mi) CK isoforms (MiM CK(-/-)) were measured at 20°C at rest and during electrical stimulation. MiM CK(-/-) muscle oxygen consumption activation kinetics during a step change in contraction rate were 30% faster than WT (time constant 53 ± 3 vs. 69 ± 4 s, respectively; mean ± SE, n = 8 and 6, respectively). MiM CK(-/-) muscle oxygen consumption deactivation kinetics were 380% faster than WT (time constant 74 ± 4 s vs. 264 ± 4 s, respectively). Next, the experiments were simulated using a computational model of the oxidative ATP metabolic network in FT muscle featuring ADP and Pi feedback control of mitochondrial respiration (J. A. L. Jeneson, J. P. Schmitz, N. A. van den Broek, N. A. van Riel, P. A. Hilbers, K. Nicolay, J. J. Prompers. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297: E774-E784, 2009) that was reparameterized for 20°C. Elimination of Pi control via clamping of the mitochondrial Pi concentration at 10 mM reproduced past simulation results of dramatically faster kinetics in CK(-/-) muscle, while inclusion of Pi control qualitatively explained the experimental observations. On this basis, it was concluded that previous studies of the CK-deficient FT muscle phenotype underestimated the contribution of Pi to mitochondrial respiratory control.

  14. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  15. [The effect of limiting neuronal energy metabolism on the level of impulse activity and membrane potentials].

    PubMed

    Voronova, N V; Chumachenko, A A

    1989-01-01

    The changes of the membrane potential and the frequency of impulse activity of the crayfish stretch receptor neuron have been studied under condition of energy supply deficiency. The energetic metabolism inhibitors have been found not to exert a significant effect on the membrane potential. The activity of the glycolysis process and the Krebs cycle have different effect on the sensitivity of the generating mechanism.

  16. Activity-Based Approach for Teaching Aqueous Solubility, Energy, and Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Laura; Marano, Nadia; Glazier, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    We describe an activity-based approach for teaching aqueous solubility to introductory chemistry students that provides a more balanced presentation of the roles of energy and entropy in dissolution than is found in most general chemistry textbooks. In the first few activities, students observe that polar substances dissolve in water, whereas…

  17. The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

    This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

  18. Diurnal Patterns of Physical Activity in Relation to Activity Induced Energy Expenditure in 52 to 83 Years-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with a declining physical activity level (PAL) and changes in the diurnal activity pattern. Changes in the activity pattern might help explaining the age-associated reduction of physical activity. Objective The aims were to investigate diurnal activity patterns within groups of older adults classified by PAL, to investigate diurnal activity patterns within age-groups and to investigate the association between the drop in activity and aerobic fitness. Methods Thirty-one healthy subjects aged between 52 and 83y were recruited for the study. Subjects were divided in sedentary (PAL<1.75), moderately active (1.75active (1.90energy expenditure measurements obtained with the doubly labelled water technique. Diurnal activity patterns were based on activity counts from an accelerometer during wake time and then divided in four quarters of equal time length. Additionally, aerobic fitness was measured as maximal oxygen uptake. Results Subjects had a PAL between 1.43 and 2.34 and an aerobic fitness between 18 and 49 ml/kg/min. Overall, activity patterns showed a peak in the first quarter of wake time (around 10AM) followed by a gradual decline of, on average, 5% per hour. Active subjects reached their peak in the first quarter and remained active until after the third quarter (11% drop each quarter on average). Moderately active and sedentary subjects reached their peak during the second quarter with a decrease during the third quarter (respectively 29% and 17% drop each quarter on average). The drop in physical activity between the first and the second half of the wake time was negatively associated with aerobic fitness (r = -0.39, p<0.05). Conclusion Active older adults maintained a larger amount of body movement for longer during their wake time. Diurnal physical activity declined more in adults ≥66 years old with lower aerobic fitness. PMID:27936145

  19. Consequences of Lower Food Intake on the Digestive Enzymes Activities, the Energy Reserves and the Reproductive Outcome in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics. PMID:25880985

  20. Both Food Restriction and High-Fat Diet during Gestation Induce Low Birth Weight and Altered Physical Activity in Adult Rat Offspring: The “Similarities in the Inequalities” Model

    PubMed Central

    Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called “Similarities in the Inequalities”, in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the “similarities in the inequalities” phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam’s habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The “similarities in the inequalities” effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms. PMID:25738800