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Sample records for activation energy values

  1. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  2. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  3. Active inference and epistemic value.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Rigoli, Francesco; Ognibene, Dimitri; Mathys, Christoph; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We offer a formal treatment of choice behavior based on the premise that agents minimize the expected free energy of future outcomes. Crucially, the negative free energy or quality of a policy can be decomposed into extrinsic and epistemic (or intrinsic) value. Minimizing expected free energy is therefore equivalent to maximizing extrinsic value or expected utility (defined in terms of prior preferences or goals), while maximizing information gain or intrinsic value (or reducing uncertainty about the causes of valuable outcomes). The resulting scheme resolves the exploration-exploitation dilemma: Epistemic value is maximized until there is no further information gain, after which exploitation is assured through maximization of extrinsic value. This is formally consistent with the Infomax principle, generalizing formulations of active vision based upon salience (Bayesian surprise) and optimal decisions based on expected utility and risk-sensitive (Kullback-Leibler) control. Furthermore, as with previous active inference formulations of discrete (Markovian) problems, ad hoc softmax parameters become the expected (Bayes-optimal) precision of beliefs about, or confidence in, policies. This article focuses on the basic theory, illustrating the ideas with simulations. A key aspect of these simulations is the similarity between precision updates and dopaminergic discharges observed in conditioning paradigms. PMID:25689102

  4. Model free isoconversional procedure for evaluating the effective activation energy values of thermally stimulated processes in dinitroimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Ravi, P

    2014-05-28

    The decomposition kinetics of 1,4-dinitroimidazole, 2,4-dinitroimidazole, and N-methyl-2,4-dinitroimidazole have been investigated using thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis technique under N2 atmosphere at the flow rate 100 cm(3)/min. The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and the Friedman method were used for the estimation of the effective activation energy values. These model free isoconversional kinetic methods showed variation in the calculated values due to the approximation of temperature integral used in the derivations of the kinetic equations. The model compounds were decomposed by multi-step kinetics evident from the nonlinear relationship of the effective activation energy values with the conversion rate. Three different reaction pathways namely NO2 elimination, NO elimination, and HONO elimination are expected to play crucial role in the decomposition of nitroimidazoles. The model dinitroimidazoles represent different decomposition kinetics, and the reaction pathways the NO2 elimination, and NO elimination compete with each other for the decomposition mechanism. The present study is certainly helpful in understanding the decomposition kinetics, and dynamics of substituted nitroimidazoles to be used for fuel, and explosive applications.

  5. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  6. Free energy, value, and attractors.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Ao, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that action and perception can be understood as minimising the free energy of sensory samples. This ensures that agents sample the environment to maximise the evidence for their model of the world, such that exchanges with the environment are predictable and adaptive. However, the free energy account does not invoke reward or cost-functions from reinforcement-learning and optimal control theory. We therefore ask whether reward is necessary to explain adaptive behaviour. The free energy formulation uses ideas from statistical physics to explain action in terms of minimising sensory surprise. Conversely, reinforcement-learning has its roots in behaviourism and engineering and assumes that agents optimise a policy to maximise future reward. This paper tries to connect the two formulations and concludes that optimal policies correspond to empirical priors on the trajectories of hidden environmental states, which compel agents to seek out the (valuable) states they expect to encounter.

  7. Free Energy, Value, and Attractors

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl; Ao, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that action and perception can be understood as minimising the free energy of sensory samples. This ensures that agents sample the environment to maximise the evidence for their model of the world, such that exchanges with the environment are predictable and adaptive. However, the free energy account does not invoke reward or cost-functions from reinforcement-learning and optimal control theory. We therefore ask whether reward is necessary to explain adaptive behaviour. The free energy formulation uses ideas from statistical physics to explain action in terms of minimising sensory surprise. Conversely, reinforcement-learning has its roots in behaviourism and engineering and assumes that agents optimise a policy to maximise future reward. This paper tries to connect the two formulations and concludes that optimal policies correspond to empirical priors on the trajectories of hidden environmental states, which compel agents to seek out the (valuable) states they expect to encounter. PMID:22229042

  8. The Value of the Energy Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the value of the Energy Data Base (EDB), which is produced by the Technical Information Center (TIC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) in order to provide a means of identifying primary energy information sources, particularly journal articles and technical reports. The volume of energy information distributed to…

  9. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  10. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  11. Energy technology and American democratic values

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Today, the benefits of liberal democracy have increasingly been cast into doubt. The debate over alternative energy policies illustrates the problems associated with liberal democracy. For many, it is the realization that energy choices and the selection of social and political values amount to much the same thing. Simply put, energy policy decisions, and the concomitant energy technologies, carry implications of an ethical, social and political nature. The argument of the social and political effects of energy technology flows from the more general thesis that all forms of technological practice condition social and political relations. That is, technological systems, beyond performing the specific functions for which they were designed, act upon and influence social and political arrangements. Seen in this light, energy technologies are as important to the promotion and preservation of this country's political values as are its institutions and laws. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this country's cherished democratic value of freedom is slowly being eclipsed by the values attendant to corporate capitalism and its singular pursuit of growth. It is this dominance of economic values over political values which provides the environment within which the technological debate is waged. Ultimately, tracing the historic linkage between property and liberty, it is concluded that the preservation of our freedom require new thinking regarding the present configuration of ownership patterns. The questions surrounding energy policy serve to illuminate these concerns.

  12. Value of the energy data base

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  13. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  14. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  15. The Value of High Adventure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, John C.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate value of high-adventure, risk recreation may be that a person confronts existentially the decision of whether or not to venture forth into the unknown. Choice is exercised, the mind and body committed, and the consequences accepted. No one is drafted into the activity. (Author)

  16. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  17. Energy value evaluation of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Yuka; Miyazato, Shoko; Kitagawa, Machiko; Hayashi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Oga, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takako; Nishibata, Toyohide

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin (H-RMD) is a dietary fiber whose energy value has not previously been reported. We evaluated the energy value of H-RMD. We conducted an in vitro digestion test, in vivo blood glucose measurement after ingestion, in vitro fermentability test, excretion test by rats and indirect calorimetry combined with breath hydrogen measurement for humans. H-RMD was hydrolyzed in vitro in a very small amount by human salivary amylase and by the rat small intestinal mucosal enzyme. Ingestion of H-RMD did not increase the blood glucose level of human subjects. An examination of in vitro fermentability suggested that H-RMD was fermented by several enterobacteria. Oral administration of H-RMD showed a saccharide excretion ratio of 42% by rats. A combination of indirect calorimetry and breath hydrogen measurement evaluated the metabolizable energy of H-RMD as 1.1 kcal/g in humans. We concluded from these results that H-RMD was not digested or absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract and was fermented in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids which provided a lower amount of energy than that of resistant maltodextrin.

  18. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    become heavily involved in oil and gas extraction projects in the region, in particular in Kazakhstan. Yet, efforts to transport that energy to western markets without Russian involvement have met with strong resistance. This thesis demonstrates that part of the reason western firms have been less successful than they hoped to be is because western firms, in particular American firms, are so bound by western ethical norms and the statues that codify them, that they have lost their competitive advantage. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the current day balance of energy resources in Europe, noting that Europe is rapidly growing heavily dependent on Russian oil and gas resources. Given the precedents shown in Georgia and Ukraine, it is only a matter of time before Europe grows so dependent on Russian energy that the individual countries will lose their political and economic independence and in turn, their ability to project western values and values-based ideas throughout the world with impunity.

  19. Energy values of nine Populus clones

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compared are calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  20. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  1. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  2. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  3. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  4. The perceived value of using BIM for energy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Anderson M.

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the Architectural, Engineering & Construction (AEC) industries. Some of the benefits associated with BIM include but are not limited to cost and time savings through greater trade and design coordination, and more accurate estimating take-offs. BIM is a virtual 3D, parametric design software that allows users to store information of a model within and can be used as a communication platform between project stakeholders. Likewise, energy simulation is an integral tool for predicting and optimizing a building's performance during design. Creating energy models and running energy simulations can be a time consuming activity due to the large number of parameters and assumptions that must be addressed to achieve reasonably accurate results. However, leveraging information imbedded within Building Information Models (BIMs) has the potential to increase accuracy and reduce the amount of time required to run energy simulations and can facilitate continuous energy simulations throughout the design process, thus optimizing building performance. Although some literature exists on how design stakeholders perceive the benefits associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation, little is known about how perceptions associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation differ between various green design stakeholder user groups. Through an e-survey instrument, this study seeks to determine how perceptions of using BIMs to inform energy simulation differ among distinct design stakeholder groups, which include BIM-only users, energy simulation-only users and BIM and energy simulation users. Additionally, this study seeks to determine what design stakeholders perceive as the main barriers and benefits of implementing BIM-based energy simulation. Results from this study suggest that little to no correlation exists between green design stakeholders' perceptions of the value associated with using

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  6. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  7. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges' comments. The purpose of this report is to assess the energy performance of the 2011 EVHA winners as well as align the EVHA Program with the Building America Program.

  8. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates, and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award-winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges’ comments.

  9. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  10. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  13. Implementation of Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B; Brown, D A; Daffin, F; Hedstrom, J; Vogt, R

    2007-08-08

    We discuss how the fission Q values for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu depend on the energy of the incident neutron. We then describe how these values have been implemented in mcfgen etc. This paper describes the calculation of energy-dependent fission Q values by Madland [1] and explains how it has been implemented in the ENDL database for use in the LLNL codes.

  14. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  15. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  16. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  17. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  18. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  19. Energy and expectation values of the PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2006-05-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for PsH are computed using a ground state wave function consisting of 1800 explicitly correlated gaussians. The best estimate of the Ps{sup {infinity}}H energy was -0.789 196 740 hartree which is the lowest variational energy to date. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate for Ps{sup {infinity}}H was 2.471 78x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}.

  20. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  1. Energy-Dependent Fission Q Values Generalized for All Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-09-25

    We generalize Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q values on incident neutron energy, E{sub n}, for all major and minor actinides. These Q(E{sub n}) parameterizations are included in the ENDL2008 release. This paper describes calculations of energy-dependent fission Q values based on parameterizations of the prompt energy release in fission [1], developed by Madland [1] to describe the prompt energy release in neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The energy release is then related to the energy deposited during fission so that experimentally measurable quantities can be used to obtain the Q values. A discussion of these specific parameterizations and their implementation in the processing code for Monte Carlo neutron transport, MCFGEN, [2] is described in Ref. [3]. We extend this model to describe Q(E) for all actinides, major and minor, in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) 2008 release, ENDL2008.

  2. Improved value for the silicon free exciton binding energy

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Martin A.

    2013-11-15

    The free exciton binding energy is a key parameter in silicon material and device physics. In particular, it provides the necessary link between the energy threshold for valence to conduction band optical absorption and the bandgap determining electronic properties. The long accepted low temperature binding energy value of 14.7 ± 0.4 meV is reassessed taking advantage of developments subsequent to its original determination, leading to the conclusion that this value is definitely an underestimate. Using three largely independent experimental data sets, an improved low temperature value of 15.01 ± 0.06 meV is deduced, in good agreement with the most comprehensive theoretical calculations to date.

  3. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  4. Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; McClain, James J.; Hart, Teresa L.; Sisson, Susan B.; Washington, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    This review assembles pedometry literature focused on youth, with particular attention to expected values for habitual, school day, physical education class, recess, lunch break, out-of-school, weekend, and vacation activity. From 31 studies published since 1999, we constructed a youth habitual activity step-curve that indicates: (a) from ages 6…

  5. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  6. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-10-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  7. Energy analysis of nonmarket values of the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Cardoch, L; Day, J W

    2001-11-01

    An energy analysis was used to estimate nonmarket values under various land cover scenarios in the Mississippi Delta. Land loss since 1900 has led to a decline in nonmarket values from $3.1 billion/year in 1900 to $2.5 billion in 1990, resulting in a total loss of $29.4 billion. This loss is concentrated in the Barataria-Terrebonne basins, where nonmarket value has dropped from $1.6 billion/year in 1956 to $1.3 billion/year in 1988. Although values are projected to increase in the Atchafalaya basin (from $723 million/year in 1988 to $756 million/year in 2058), total nonmarket value for the Louisiana coast is projected to decrease to $2.1 billion/year under currently approved levels of restoration.

  8. Energy Management in Higher Education: Value for Money Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, Edinburgh.

    This Value for Money project provides an update of the 1996 "Energy Management Study in the Higher Education Sector: National Report." It reviews the management arrangement for utilities in the higher education (HE) sector, and it identifies key actions and future issues that must be addressed by HE institutions in developing a strategic policy…

  9. Prognostic value of serum angiogenic activity in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Francisco-Jesus; Quesada, Ana-Rodriguez; Sevilla, Isabel; Baca, Juan-Javier; Medina, Miguel-Angel; Amores, Jose; Diaz, Juan Miguel; Rius-Diaz, Francisca; Marques, Eduardo; Alba, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Angiogenesis, resulting from an imbalance between angiogenic activator factors and inhibitors, is required for tumour growth and metastasis. The determination of the circulating concentration of all angiogenic factors (activators and inhibitors) is not feasible at present. We have evaluated diagnostic and prognostic values of the measurement of serum angiogenic activity in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. Serum proliferative activity (PA) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were determined by ELISA in 53 patients with primary CRC, 16 subjects with non-neoplastic gastrointestinal disease (SC) and 34 healthy individuals. Data were compared with clinical outcome of the patients. Although serum from CRC patients significantly increased the PA of HUVEC, compared to culture control (HUVEC in medium + 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS); P < 0.001); our results indicate that serum PA in CRC patients was similar to that of SC or healthy individuals. There was no correlation between serum PA and circulating VEGF concentrations. Surgery produced a decrease of PA at 8 hrs after tumour resection in CRC patients compared to pre-surgery values (186 ± 47 versus 213 ± 41, P < 0.001). However, an increase in serum VEGF values was observed after surgery (280 [176–450] versus 251 [160–357] pg/ml, P = 0.004). Patients with lower PA values after surgery showed a worse outcome that those with higher PA values. Therefore, this study does not support a diagnostic value for serum angiogenic activity measured by proliferative activity on HUVEC but suggests it could have a prognostic value in CRC patients. PMID:17367506

  10. Value of storage technologies for wind and solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braff, William A.; Mueller, Joshua M.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2016-10-01

    Wind and solar industries have grown rapidly in recent years but they still supply only a small fraction of global electricity. The continued growth of these industries to levels that significantly contribute to climate change mitigation will depend on whether they can compete against alternatives that provide high-value energy on demand. Energy storage can transform intermittent renewables for this purpose but cost improvement is needed. Evaluating diverse storage technologies on a common scale has proved a major challenge, however, owing to their widely varying performance along the two dimensions of energy and power costs. Here we devise a method to compare storage technologies, and set cost improvement targets. Some storage technologies today are shown to add value to solar and wind energy, but cost reduction is needed to reach widespread profitability. The optimal cost improvement trajectories, balancing energy and power costs to maximize value, are found to be relatively location invariant, and thus can inform broad industry and government technology development strategies.

  11. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization.

  12. Low-Energy Monte Carlo and W-Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosswendt, B.

    Electrons in the low-energy range of about 1 keV or less play an important role in many fields of radiation research for two reasons: firstly, they are created in large numbers during the passage of all kinds of ionizing radiation through matter, and secondly, they have a linear energy transfer comparable to that of low-energy protons and a-particles, and accordingly they are responsible for the greater part of radiation damage observable in any material. A detailed understanding of the action of low-energy electrons in matter therefore is required in many contexts. In the fields of dosimetry, for example, the determination of the absorbed dose in water or the air kerma is great practical importance, but in most experiments only the amount of ionization produced by secondary electrons within the sensitive volume of a dosimeter can be measured. The results of ionization measurements therefore must converted to quantities based on energy absorption or energy transfer, either by calibration or numerically using an appropriate conversion factor. The most frequently used conversion factor is the so-called W-value, which is the mean energy required to produce an ion pair upon complete slowing down of a charged particle. Its relation to the primary particle kinetic energy T, and to the mean n umber N i of ionizations produced (ionization yield), is given by

  13. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  14. Values, perceived risks and benefits, and acceptability of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    2013-02-01

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that egoistic values are positively related to the perceived benefits and acceptability of NE. In contrast, altruistic and biospheric values were positively related to the perceived risks of NE. Although it has been argued that NE may help to combat climate change through lower CO(2) emissions, these environmental benefits were not acknowledged by people with strong biospheric values. Furthermore, results confirmed that the more risks respondents perceived, the less they were inclined to accept NE. In contrast, the more a person believed that NE has beneficial consequences, the more acceptable NE was. Finally, as expected, perceived risks and benefits were found to partly mediate the relationship between personal values and acceptability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  15. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-06-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  16. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Hummon, Marissa; Jenkin, Thomas; Palchak, David; Kirby, Brendan; Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  18. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  19. An active inference and epistemic value view of metacognition.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Chris; Souchay, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition concerns our monitoring and control of mental operations (knowing what you know). Much thinking about metacognition is liable to fall foul of the classic homunculus problem: Nobody can specify who or what does the "metacognition." We describe how the Active Inference and Epistemic Value (AIEV) model offers an operationalization of epistemic behaviors which can explain two example metacognitive phenomena: Control and monitoring of word learning, and the search for unretrieved information in the feeling of knowing. Curiosity drives a search forward, but it is held in check by considering the utility of what is retrieved from memory.

  20. Mo uc(v) Energy Levels and f values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) calculations have been done for the lowest 12 J=0 even parity levels, and the lowest 30 J=1 odd parity levels of Mo uc(v.) For the J=0 4d^2 and 4d 5d energy differences, the average error is 229 cm-1 ( M. I. Cabeza, F. G. Meijer, and L. Iglesias, Phys. Scr. 34), 223 (1986). For the other J=0 levels, the average difference with experiment (A. Tauheed, M. S. Z. Chaghtai, and K. Rahimullah, Phys. Scr. 31), 369 (1985) is considerably greater. Our average energy errors for the 11 known ^2 J=1 levels is 233 cm-1, excluding the 5s 5p ^1 P level, which is 1580 cm-1 higher than observed ^2. We predict positions of 19 4p^5 4d^3 levels, as well as f values for the 360 transitions between the calculated levels. Gauge agreements are good for transitions with f > .01. Details of the methodology have been published elsewhere (D. R. Beck and L. Pan, Phys. Scr. 69), 91 (2004).

  1. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  2. Active Inference, epistemic value, and vicarious trial and error

    PubMed Central

    Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits—the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are “forward sweeps” of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)—the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193

  3. Active Inference, epistemic value, and vicarious trial and error.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits-the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are "forward sweeps" of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)-the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193

  4. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  5. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1991-01-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  6. Linear solvation energy relationships: Rules of thumb' for estimation of variable values

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, J.P.; Passino-Reader, D.R. )

    1991-10-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (V{sub i}/100, {pi}{sup *}, {beta}{sub m}, {alpha}{sub m}) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. The authors give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper presents the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  7. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  8. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  9. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  10. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    PubMed

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-01

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules. PMID:23848436

  11. Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)

  12. Energy futures, human values, and lifestyles: a new look at the energy crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Harman, W.W.; Schwartz, P.

    1982-01-01

    A group of SRI International scholars looks beyond the technical difficulties of the energy crisis to determine the basic reasons for the severity of our energy and environmental problems, and finds them in our individual choices of life style. The authors depict two detailed energy-use scenarios for the year 2050, using California as a model. One scenario portrays a future that is a result of our present habits in which we have squandered nearly all of the world's nonrenewable energy resources and neither conserved nor developed renewable resources. The other envisions a slower economic progress that serves long-range human goals and values. As a pacesetter, California illustrates what is possible for the entire country. 82 references, 11 figures, 64 tables.

  13. Mathematical Modeling Activities as a Useful Tool for Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Values education is crucial since it is one of the factors to reach success in education in broader sense and in mathematics education in particular sense. It is also important for educating next generations of societies. However, previous research showed that expected importance for values education was not given in Mathematics courses. In a few…

  14. Research on Social Stability Mechanisms Based on Activation Energy and Gradual Activation Reaction Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Miao; Gu, Jifa

    This paper draws a comparison between social stability and chemical reaction process, and brings forward the concept of “social temperature” and “activation energy of social agent”. It is considered that social temperature turns out to be the macro symptom of social average energy, and its unceasing up-climbing roots in the energy accumulation of “inferiorization” process of social system; that “activation energy of social agent” stands for the social energy or temperature where individuals or groups reach the limit of their psychological bearing ability. This paper, basing on above concepts, elaborates on and demonstrates the gradual activation reaction mechanisms of social stability by a lot of concrete examples. It is thought that there is a threshold value for social stability, and the society will be unstable if social temperature goes higher than this value; that the larger the social average activation energy is, the higher the temperature threshold value of social stability will be; and considering that different groups have different activation energy, those fragile groups with low activation energy are often the risk source which might pose a threat to social stability.

  15. Amplifying Real Estate Value through Energy&WaterManagement: From ESCO to 'Energy Services Partner'

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-08

    The energy service company (ESCO) business model could become significantly more effective by integrating the energy-efficiency purveyor and their capital into the underlying building ownership and operation partnership, rather than the current model in which the ESCO remains an outsider with higher transaction costs and limited interest and participation in the value created by the cost savings. Resource conservation advocates rarely use the language of real estate to articulate the cost effectiveness of capital improvements aimed at reducing utility costs in commercial and residential income properties. Conventional methods that rely on rarefied academic notions of simple payback time or a narrow definition of return on investment fail to capture a significant component of the true market value created by virtue of reduced operating expenses. Improvements in energy and water efficiency can increase the fundamental profitability of real estate investments by raising Net Operating Income (NOI), and hence returns during the holding period, and, ultimately, proceeds at time of sale. We introduce the concept of an Energy Services Partner, who takes an equity interest in a real estate partnership in exchange for providing the expertise and capital required to reduce utility operating costs. Profit to all partners increases considerably as a result. This approach would also help to address a crisis facing ESCOs today stemming from their considerable liabilities (through guaranteed savings) and negligible offsetting assets.

  16. Energy Activities for the Classroom: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Bowman, Mary Lynne

    This resource book contains descriptions of over 100 classroom activities designed to illustrate concepts relating to energy, its production, characteristics, use, and conservations. Each activity integrates the energy lesson into a concept that relates to one or more subject areas common to public school curricula. Many of the activities included…

  17. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered.

  18. An Empirical Development of Critical Value Factors (CVF) of Online Learning Activities: An Application of Activity Theory and Cognitive Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yair

    2008-01-01

    According to activity theory, activities are at the center of human behavior. Extensive attention has been given in literature to the success and effectiveness of online learning programs. Value theory suggests that human perceived value is a critical construct in investigating what is important to individuals. However, very limited attention has…

  19. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  20. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  1. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard.

  2. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na). PMID:26286964

  3. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  4. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  5. Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, John H.; Randall, Brad

    2012-01-01

    By now the slogan of the National Trust for Historic Preservation that "the greenest building is the one already built" is widely known. In an era of increased environmental awareness and rising fuel prices, however, the question is how can historic building stock be made more energy efficient in a manner respectful of its historic integrity and…

  6. Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

  7. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  8. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard. PMID:23295678

  9. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  10. THE THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF SPORTS ACTIVITY IN NEUROTIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kranidiotis, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    Five cases of neurotic patients being oriented to sports practice as an additional therapeutic measure are reported in brief. The working mechanisms of sublimation, overcompensation, sharing aggressive guilt within group, displacement, turning aggressive feelings toward one's self, and denial of win used in the canalization of inner needs through sports activity are discussed. The favourable influence of sports activity in the expression of various conflictual tendencies and on the overall neurotic symptomatology is stressed and the usefulness of the dynamic exploration in sports orientation of athletes is concluded.

  11. Active Inference, Epistemic Value, and Vicarious Trial and Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; io-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits--the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments…

  12. The Role of Values in Promoting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…

  13. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  14. American, Chinese, and Japanese Students' Acceptance of Their Parents' Values about Academic and Social Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chuansheng

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in students' acceptance of their parents' values about education and social activities. It also examines the relation between acceptance of values and such factors as type of values, knowledge of parental values, mathematics achievement, and psychological well-being. Participants were over 3,000…

  15. Environment and energy in Iceland: A comparative analysis of values and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen . E-mail: theth@hi.is

    2007-08-15

    Within an Icelandic framework plan for energy, environmental values and impacts were estimated in multicriteria analyses for 19 hydroelectric and 22 geothermal developments. Four natural environment classes were defined (geology + hydrology, species, ecosystems + soils, landscape + wilderness) with cultural heritage as the fifth class. Values and impacts were assessed through 6 agglomerated attributes: richness/diversity, rarity, size/continuity/pristineness, information/symbolic value, international responsibility and visual value. The project offers a unique opportunity for comparing environmental values and impacts within a large sample of sites and energy alternatives treated within a common methodological framework. Total values were higher in hydroelectric than in geothermal areas. Hydroelectric areas scored high for cultural heritage (particularly in rarity and information value), landscape and wilderness. Geothermal areas had high bedrock and hydrological diversity and information values, and a high landscape visual value but little cultural heritage. High values were correlated among some classes of the natural environment, all of which are likely to reflect functional relationships. In contrast, cultural heritage values were not related to natural environment values. Overall, landscape and wilderness had the highest mean value and were also most affected by energy development. Over 40% of the hydroelectric development had a predicted mean impact value of > 4 (out of a maximum of 10), compared with 10% of the geothermal projects. Excluding two outsized hydropower options, there was a significant correlation between plant capacity and impact on geology and hydrology but not with other environmental variables.

  16. Beyond cost-of-energy, the value-of-energy metric and value-centric approaches to design, operations, and maintenance of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Kevin

    This thesis is oriented toward developers, owners, operators and investors of renewable energy projects. With increasing demand of renewables, our energy dependence comes down to reducing costs associated with this sector so as to compete with the existing sources. One way of valuing investment potential is to determine and then compare the overall value derived by investing in a particular project. Several engineering and financial levers, one of which is operation and maintenance, affect this value. This thesis provides a useful visual aid to owners and operators by which they can operate and maintain their wind farm so as to achieve maximum value throughout its lifetime. All the necessary components that go into developing a business model of a wind farm project will be discussed. Finally, this tool is valid within the assumptions that are explicitly stated. Real world data and trends are used to provide a practical approach to the optimization.

  17. Numerical values of the surface free energies of solid chemical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezey, L. Z.; Giber, J.

    1984-10-01

    The applicability of a 'standard table' of values of surface free energies (or enthalpies) obtained by the CCSS (complex calculation of surface segregation) method is demonstrated by comparing calculated surface-free-energy values with several recently published experimental results. The investigation (encompassing temperatures from 1023 to 2075 K) shows that a simplified variation of the second step of CCSS is applicable in the calculation of the surface free energies of polycrystalline solid elements for any temperature of interest.

  18. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  19. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  20. Exploring Dietary Kilocalories: An Activity Exemplifying the Personal Value of Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates mathematics and science and focuses on estimation, percent, proportionality, ratio, interconverting units, deriving algorithms mathematically, energy transformation, interactions of energy and matter, bioavailability, composition, density, inferring, and data gathering through scientific interpretation.…

  1. Relationship between digesta transit time and apparent metabolisable energy value of wheat in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R J

    2008-11-01

    1. This study tested the hypotheses that: (a) apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values and whole tract transit time (WTTT) were related, and that (b) the relationship between AME and WTTT differed between male and female Ross broiler chickens. 2. Enzyme products with xylanase activity were added to a basal diet to provide 4 dietary treatments comprising control (no enzyme), Avizyme 1300 (1 kg/tonne), Kemzyme W1 (1 kg/tonne), and Bio-Feed Wheat CT (200 g/tonne). The basal diet comprised (in g/kg), 800 wheat, 155 casein, 20 dicalcium phosphate, 11 limestone, 7 D,L-methionine, 2 vitamin and mineral premix, 3 sodium chloride and 2 choline chloride (60%). 3. AME values for diets were determined in a 7-d energy balance study commencing when chickens were 21 d of age. WTTT was the time elapsed (in min), from time of administration by oral gavage of 200 mg ferric oxide in a gelatine capsule, to time of first observation of the distinctive red colouration in droppings. 4. The mean AME value for the wheat was high (15.7 MJ/kg dry matter) and ranged from 14.4 to 16.3 MJ/kg dry matter for individual birds. Mean WTTT was 206 min and ranged from 105 to 429 min. AME and WTTT were unaffected by enzyme addition to the diet, and the interaction between diet and gender was not significant. 5. There was a significant but weak positive relationship between AME and whole tract transit time, with AME increasing by 2.2 kJ/min. This relationship was unaffected by gender of the chicken. PMID:19093244

  2. Channeling Children's Energy through Vocabulary Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares vocabulary development activities for young learners. These activities channel students' energy and make learning more effective and fun. The author stresses the importance of giving young learners a good language-learning experience, and the challenges of teaching young learners who are not literate in their L1.…

  3. Impurity-to-band activation energy in phosphorus doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, I.; Pinault-Thaury, M.-A.; Kociniewski, T.; Lusson, A.; Chikoidze, E.; Jomard, F.; Dumont, Y.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.

    2013-08-01

    The value of the impurity-to-band activation energy EA of a dopant is a basic feature of the electrical conductivity of semiconductors. Various techniques were used to determine EA in n-type diamond doped with phosphorus, giving values of EA varying from 0.43 eV to 0.63 eV, the value EA of 0.6 eV being commonly accepted for the ionization energy of phosphorus donors in diamond. Nevertheless, up to now, the dispersion of the experimental values of EA remains unexplained. In this work, we investigate the electrical properties of a set of n-type diamond homoepitaxial films with different phosphorus concentrations by Hall effect measurements in order to deduce EA and to understand the evolution of this energy with the dopant concentration. We show that, below 2 × 1019 cm-3 phosphorus, the decrease of EA is mainly controlled by the concentration of ionized defects resulting from the donor compensation. The role of ionized defects in the decrease of EA is analyzed on the basis of existing models adapted to the case of diamond. The proposed model provides a correct description of the experimental data. It can be used to quantitatively predict the activation energy of phosphorus in n-type diamond for given donor and compensating acceptor concentrations.

  4. 75 FR 61858 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or... Request for Determination of Reasonable Value, VA Form 26-1805 and 26-1805-1. OMB Control Number:...

  5. 78 FR 59773 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or... information technology. Title: VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value, VA Form 26-1805 and...

  6. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2016-01-15

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  7. The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents' task values and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kiuru, Noona; Watt, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity. PMID:21526593

  8. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  10. Triple Value System Dynamics Modeling to Help Stakeholders Engage with Food-Energy-Water Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triple Value (3V) Community scoping projects and Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models help decision makers and stakeholders apply systems-analysis methodology to complex problems related to food production, water quality, and energy use. 3VS models are decision support tools that...

  11. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  12. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-01

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  13. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  14. Values of activities of daily living. A survey of stroke patients and their home therapists.

    PubMed

    Chiou, I I; Burnett, C N

    1985-06-01

    People's values influence their actions and efforts. Based on the assumption that a patient's values can be a guide to successful rehabilitation, the values of 15 activities of daily living as perceived by stroke patients and their home therapists were studied. Twenty-six stroke patients living at home and their 10 visiting occupational and physical therapists participated in the study. The study results indicated that the relative importance of each activity of daily living perceived by the patient group and by the therapist group was similar. Among the 29 therapist-patient pairs, however, only 1 pair showed significantly similar views regarding the values of these activities to the patient. Patients' age, gender, income level, duration since onset of stroke, impaired body side, and independence level in activities were significantly related to their values of certain activities of daily living. The relative value stroke patients living at home place on each activity of daily living could serve as a guide for sequencing learning steps during activities of daily living training in a hospital or rehabilitation setting. Determining patient rehabilitation goals as influenced by personal values may shorten rehabilitation time, be more cost-effective, and aid in the retention of gains made in the rehabilitation setting. PMID:4001168

  15. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  16. Bioactive proteins and energy value of okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Jankovic, Vanja S; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2013-09-25

    The nutritional properties of raw okara obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. The composition and residual activity (rTIA) of trypsin inhibitors (TIs), contents of lectin, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and energy values (EV) were correlated with the respective physicochemical properties of soybean and okara. Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) TIs both comprised okara rTIA. TIs content was higher in okara (5.19-14.40%) than in soybean (3.10-12.17%), which additionally enriched okara by cysteine. Contents of KTI (r = 1.00;p < 0.05) and BBI (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) as well as BBI monomeric (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) and polymeric forms (r = 0.95;p < 0.05) in okara and in soybean were strongly correlated. Low urease index activity indicated that okara was heated adequately to inactivate antinutritional factors. The proximate composition of raw okara, advantageous rTIA, and a very low EV (2.74-3.78 kJ/g) qualify this byproduct for potential application in food preparation as a functional ingredient in dietary products. PMID:23978042

  17. Organic bee pollen: botanical origin, nutritional value, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesús; Vázquez-Tato, M Pilar; Estevinho, Leticia; Seijas, Julio A; Iglesias, Antonio

    2012-07-11

    Organic bee pollen (BP, n = 22) harvested from the Douro International Natural Park (DINP, Portugal) was studied. Nine botanical families were found in the mixture of the samples. The water activity and pH ranged 0.21-0.37 and 4.3-5.2, respectively. The BP analyses averaged 67.7% carbohydrates, 21.8% crude protein, 5.2% crude fat and 2.9% ash. The energy ranged from 396.4 to 411.1 kcal/100 g. The principal fatty acid found was linolenic, followed by linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. The phenolic and flavonoid contents varied from 12.9 to 19.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract and from 4.5 to 7.1 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract, respectively. The scavenger activity and β-carotene bleaching assays values (EC₅₀) were 3.0 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 4.6 mg/mL ± 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. E. coli, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, Salmonella and S. aureus were not found. Since there are studies indicating appreciable differences among BPs from different regions, the full characterization of BP from diverse origins still appears to be a sound research priority in order to obtain reliable data about this beehive product.

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  1. Energy conservation standards for new federal residential buildings: A decision analysis study using relative value discounting

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, C. . Coll. of Business Administration); Merkhofer, M.M.; Hamm, G.L. )

    1990-07-02

    This report presents a reassessment of the proposed standard for energy conservation in new federal residential buildings. The analysis uses the data presented in the report, Economic Analysis: In Support of Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings (June 1988)-to be referred to as the EASIECS report. The reassessment differs from that report in several respects. In modeling factual information, it uses more recent forecasts of future energy prices and it uses data from the Bureau of the Census in order to estimate the distribution of lifetimes of residential buildings rather than assuming a hypothetical 25-year lifetime. In modeling social preferences decision analysis techniques are used in order to examine issues of public values that often are not included in traditional cost-benefit analyses. The present report concludes that the public would benefit from the proposed standard. Several issues of public values regarding energy use are illustrated with methods to include them in a formal analysis of a proposed energy policy. The first issue places a value on costs and benefits that will occur in the future as an irreversible consequence of current policy choices. This report discusses an alternative method, called relative value discounting which permits flexible discounting of future events-and the possibility of placing greater values on future events. The second issue places a value on the indirect benefits of energy savings so that benefits accrue to everyone rather than only to the person who saves the energy. This report includes non-zero estimates of the indirect benefits. The third issue is how the costs and benefits discussed in a public policy evaluation should be compared. In summary, selection of individual projects with larger benefit to cost ratios leads to a portfolio of projects with the maximum benefit to cost difference. 30 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (JF)

  2. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  3. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…

  4. Personal Values and Mission Statement: A Reflective Activity to Aid Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird-Magee, Tyler; Gayle, Barbra Mae; Preiss, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Personal values guide ethical decision-making behaviors. Business professors have traditionally addressed undergraduate ethics-based learning through a learn ethics approach using case studies, simulations, presentations, and other activities. Few offer a live ethics orientation requiring completion of a personal values self-assessment and…

  5. 75 FR 78808 - Agency Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity Under... comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and... INFORMATION: Title: VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value VA Form 26- 1805 and 26-1805-1....

  6. Limiting factors in photosynthesis. V. Photochemical energy supply colimits photosynthesis at low values of intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Terry, N.

    1984-05-01

    Although there is now some agreement with the view that the supply of photochemical energy may influence photosynthetic rate (P) at high CO/sub 2/ pressures, it is less clear whether this limitation extends to P at low CO/sub 2/. This was investigated by measuring P per area as a function of the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (C/sub i/) at different levels of photochemical energy supply. Changes in the latter were obtained experimentally by varying the level of irradiance to normal (Fe-sufficient) leaves of Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1, and by varying photosynthetic electron transport capacity using leaves from Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. P and C/sub i/ were determined for attached sugar beet leaves using open flow gas exchange. The results suggest the P/area was colimited by the supply of photochemical energy at very low as well as high values of C/sub i/. Using the procedure developed by Perchorowicz et al., we investigated the effect or irradiance on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activation. The ratio of initial extractable activity to total inducible RuBPCase activity increased from 0.25 to 0.90 as leaf irradiance increased from 100 to 1500 microeinsteins photosynthetically active radiation per square meter per second. These data suggest that colimitation by photochemical energy supply at low C/sub i/ may be mediated via effects on RuBPCase activation.

  7. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  8. Energy Value Housing Award Guide: How to Build and Profit with Energy Efficiency in New Home Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    As concern over the environment grows, builders have the potential to fulfill a market niche by building homes that use fewer resources and have lower environmental impact than conventional construction. Builders can increase their marketability and customer satisfaction and, at the same time, reduce the environmental impact of their homes. However, it takes dedication to build environmentally sound homes along with a solid marketing approach to ensure that customers recognize the added value of energy and resource efficiency. This guide is intended for builders seeking suggestions on how to improve energy and resource efficiency in their new homes. It is a compilation of ideas and concepts for designing, building, and marketing energy- and resource-efficient homes based on the experience of recipients of the national Energy Value Housing Award (EVHA).

  9. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2012-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  10. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  11. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  12. Value Questionnaires For Marriage and Family Living; A Creative Classroom Activity by Edu-Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    This booklet is a series of 10 unit-organized questionnaires to stimulate discussion on a variety of topics in the area of marriage and family life. These values clarification activities can help 11th and 12th grade students confirm or reevaluate personal attitudes. The units included in this activity are: Love and Marriage; Male and Female…

  13. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  14. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  15. Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-11-01

    This analysis evaluates how the value of energy storage changes when adding variable generation (VG) renewable energy resources to the grid. A series of VG energy penetration scenarios from 16% to 55% were generated for a utility system in the western United States. This operational value of storage (measured by its ability to reduce system production costs) was estimated in each VG scenario, considering provision of different services and with several sensitivities to fuel price and generation mix. Overall, the results found that the presence of VG increases the value of energy storage by lowering off-peak energy prices more than on-peak prices, leading to a greater opportunity to arbitrage this price difference. However, significant charging from renewables, and consequently a net reduction in carbon emissions, did not occur until VG penetration was in the range of 40%-50%. Increased penetration of VG also increases the potential value of storage when providing reserves, mainly by increasing the amount of reserves required by the system. Despite this increase in value, storage may face challenges in capturing the full benefits it provides. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials, reserve prices, and incomplete capture of certain system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit (reduction in production costs) provided to the system. Furthermore, it is unclear how storage will actually incentivize large-scale deployment of renewables needed to substantially increase VG penetration. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  16. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  17. Trigger values for investigation of hormonal activity in drinking water and its sources using CALUX bioassays.

    PubMed

    Brand, Walter; de Jongh, Cindy M; van der Linden, Sander C; Mennes, Wim; Puijker, Leo M; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-05-01

    To screen for hormonal activity in water samples, highly sensitive in vitro CALUX bioassays are available which allow detection of estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR), progestagenic (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) activities. This paper presents trigger values for the ERα, AR, PR, and GR CALUX bioassays for agonistic hormonal activities in (drinking) water, which define a level above which human health risk cannot be waived a priori and additional examination of specific endocrine activity may be warranted. The trigger values are based on 1) acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI/TDI) values of specific compounds, 2) pharmacokinetic factors defining their bioavailability, 3) estimations of the bioavailability of unknown compounds with equivalent hormonal activity, 4) relative endocrine potencies, and 5) physiological, and drinking water allocation factors. As a result, trigger values of 3.8ng 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents (eq)/L, 11ng dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-eq/L, 21ng dexamethasone (DEX)-eq/L, and 333ng Org2058-eq/L were derived. Benchmark Quotient (BQ) values were derived by dividing hormonal activity in water samples by the derived trigger using the highest concentrations detected in a recent, limited screening of Dutch water samples, and were in the order of (value) AR (0.41)>ERα (0.13)>GR (0.06)>PR (0.04). The application of trigger values derived in the present study can help to judge measured agonistic hormonal activities in water samples using the CALUX bioassays and help to decide whether further examination of specific endocrine activity followed by a subsequent safety evaluation may be warranted, or whether concentrations of such activity are of low priority with respect to health concerns in the human population. For instance, at one specific drinking water production site ERα and AR (but no GR and PR) activities were detected in drinking water, however, these levels are at least a factor 83 smaller than the respective trigger values, and

  18. Enrichment and stability: a phenomenological coupling of energy value and carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shovonlal; Chattopadhyay, J

    2007-01-01

    Simple predator-prey models with a prey-dependent functional response predict that enrichment (increased carrying capacity) destabilizes community dynamics: this is the 'paradox of enrichment'. However, the energy value of prey is very important in this context. The intraspecific chemical composition of prey species determines its energy value as a food for the potential predator. Theoretical and experimental studies establish that variable chemical composition of prey affects the predator-prey dynamics. Recently, experimental and theoretical approaches have been made to incorporate explicitly the stoichiometric heterogeneity of simple predator-prey systems. Following the results of the previous experimental and theoretical advances, in this article we propose a simple phenomenological formulation of the variation of energy value at increased level of carrying capacity. Results of our study demonstrate that coupling the parameters representing the phenomenological energy value and carrying capacity in a realistic way, may avoid destabilization of community dynamics following enrichment. Additionally, under such coupling the producer-grazer system persists for only an intermediate zone of production--a result consistent with recent studies. We suggest that, while addressing the issue of enrichment in a general predator-prey model, the phenomenological relationship that we propose here might be applicable to avoid Rosenzweig's paradox.

  19. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  20. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  1. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  2. Fates worse than death: the role of valued life activities in health-state evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ditto, P H; Druley, J A; Moore, K A; Danks, J H; Smucker, W D

    1996-09-01

    One hundred eight college students (Study 1) and 109 elderly adults (Study 2) rated 28 health impairments for the quality of life perceived to be possible in that state, the extent to which the state was perceived as a fate better or worse than death, and the extent to which the state was perceived to interfere with the ability to engage in the activities each individual valued most in life. States perceived most negatively were those perceived to interfere most with valued life activities. For any given health state, evaluations were more negative the more the state was perceived by individuals as likely to interfere with engagement in their valued life activities. Implications of these results for end-of-life medical decision making in general and the use of advance medical directives in particular are discussed. PMID:8891712

  3. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  4. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  5. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  6. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management. PMID:25491114

  7. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  8. The Adaptive Value of Energy Efficiency Programs in a Warmer World

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2005-08-19

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). The U.S. government has long funded buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs to reduce energy consumption in buildings and to reduce air pollution and carbon emissions that result in global warming. These programs also have value in adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to1990 by 0.4°C to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in temperature-sensitive electricity demand. Calculations of the potential value of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) buildings-related energy efficiency programs on future U.S. energy consumption show site energy savings in 2020 of more than 2 quads, which would more than offset the growth in temperature-sensitive energy consumption due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  9. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  10. Separating value from choice: delay discounting activity in the lateral intraparietal area

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical formulations used to study the neurophysiological signals governing choice behavior fall under one of two major theoretical frameworks: “choice probability” or “subjective value”. These two formulations represent behavioral quantities closely tied to the decision process, but it is unknown whether one of these variables, or both, dominates the neural mechanisms that mediate choice. Value and choice probability are difficult to distinguish in practice, because higher-valued options are chosen more frequently in free choice tasks. This distinction is particularly relevant for sensorimotor areas such as parietal cortex, where both value information and motor signals related to choice have been observed. We recorded the activity of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) while monkeys performed an intertemporal choice task for rewards differing in delay to reinforcement. Here we show that the activity of parietal neurons is precisely correlated with the individual-specific discounted value of delayed rewards, with peak subjective value modulation occurring early in task trials. In contrast, late in the decision process these same neurons transition to encode the selected action. When directly compared, the strong delay-related modulation early during decision-making is driven by subjective value rather than the monkey's probability of choice. These findings show that in addition to information about gains, parietal cortex also incorporates information about delay into a precise physiological correlate of economic value functions, independent of the probability of choice. PMID:20410103

  11. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  12. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  13. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  14. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Miller, Mackay; Zhou, Ella; Wang, Caixia

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  15. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  16. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  17. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  18. Prediction of metabolisable energy value of broiler diets and water excretion from dietary chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Lessire, M; Juin, H

    2013-08-01

    Thirty various pelleted diets were given to broilers (8/diet) for in vivo measurements of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) value and digestibilities of proteins, lipids, starch and sugars from day 27 to day 31, with ad libitum feeding and total collection of excreta. Water excretion was also measured. Amino acid formulation of diets was done on the basis of ratios to crude proteins. Mean in vivo apparent ME values corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) were always lower than the AMEn values calculated for adult cockerels using predicting equations from literature based on the chemical analyses of diets. The difference between mean in vivo AMEn values and these calculated AMEn values increased linearly with increasing amount of wheat in diets (P = 0.0001). Mean digestibilities of proteins, lipids and starch were negatively related to wheat introduction (P = 0.0001). The correlations between mean in vivo AMEn values and diet analytical parameters were the highest with fibre-related parameters, such as water-insoluble cell-walls (WICW) (r = -0.91) or Real Applied Viscosity (RAV) (r = -0.77). Thirteen multiple regression equations relating mean in vivo AMEn values to dietary analytical data were calculated, with R² values ranging from 0.859 to 0.966 (P = 0.0001). The highest R² values were obtained when the RAV parameter was included in independent variables. The direct regression equations obtained with available components (proteins, lipids, starch, sucrose and oligosaccharides) and the indirect regression equations obtained with WICW and ash parameters showed similar R² values. Direct or indirect theoretical equations predicting AMEn values were established using the overall mean in vivo digestibility values. The principle of indirect equations was based on the assumption that WICW and ashes act as diluters. Addition of RAV or wheat content in variables improved the accuracy of theoretical equations. Efficiencies of theoretical equations for predicting AMEn

  19. Numerical values of the surface free energies of solid chemical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezey, L. Z.; Giber, J.

    1984-10-01

    The knowledge of the surface free energies γ {i/o}of solid chemical elements is necessary in many practically important subjects. The description of the quantities γ {i/o}(more correctly termed as the surface free enthalpies) is a part of a new “complex calculation of surface segregation” (CCSS) method, proposed by the authors. Here the applicability of a “standard table” of the values of γ {/i o }, obtained in that part of CCSS is shown by comparing the calculated values of γ {/i o }with several recently published experimental results.

  20. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  1. Reward value enhances post-decision error-related activity in the cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica E; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-06-01

    By saying "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new", Albert Einstein himself allegedly implied that the making and processing of errors are essential for behavioral adaption to a new or changing environment. These essential error-related cognitive and neural processes are likely influenced by reward value. However, previous studies have not dissociated accuracy and value and so the distinct effect of reward on error processing in the brain remained unknown. Therefore, we set out to investigate this at various points in decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they completed a random dot motion discrimination task where reward and non-reward were associated with stimuli via classical conditioning. Pre-error activity was found in the medial frontal cortex prior to response but this was not related to reward value. At response time, error-related activity was found to be significantly greater in reward than non-reward trials in the midcingulate cortex. Finally at outcome time, error-related activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex in non-reward trials. These results show that reward value enhances post-decision but not pre-decision error-related activities and these results therefore have implications for theories of error correction and confidence.

  2. Reward value enhances post-decision error-related activity in the cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica E; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-06-01

    By saying "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new", Albert Einstein himself allegedly implied that the making and processing of errors are essential for behavioral adaption to a new or changing environment. These essential error-related cognitive and neural processes are likely influenced by reward value. However, previous studies have not dissociated accuracy and value and so the distinct effect of reward on error processing in the brain remained unknown. Therefore, we set out to investigate this at various points in decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they completed a random dot motion discrimination task where reward and non-reward were associated with stimuli via classical conditioning. Pre-error activity was found in the medial frontal cortex prior to response but this was not related to reward value. At response time, error-related activity was found to be significantly greater in reward than non-reward trials in the midcingulate cortex. Finally at outcome time, error-related activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex in non-reward trials. These results show that reward value enhances post-decision but not pre-decision error-related activities and these results therefore have implications for theories of error correction and confidence. PMID:26739226

  3. Measuring Staff Perceptions of University Identity and Activities: The Mission and Values Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Velcoff, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to ascertain whether their stakeholders understand the school's mission, vision, and values. In the present study, the psychometric properties of a mission identity and activity measure were investigated with two staff samples. Using a principal component factor analysis (varimax rotation), respondents in Sample…

  4. Values-Oriented Public Policy Forums: Active Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevern, Vincent W.

    Students in an undergraduate course in abnormal psychology annually employ a cooperative active learning model to conduct a 4- to 6-day, values-oriented public policy forum (PPF) within the class itself on a general topic of concern to the field of mental health. A comprehensive and structured five-phase model for a PPF is detailed for course…

  5. The Perception of Communication Related Value-Added Educational Activities: A Survey of Graduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Randolph T.; Stowers, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate value-add methods and activities applied to organizational communication college-level course work. Graduate organizational communication faculty are aware that their classes serve as direct preparation for students entering business and professional careers. The knowledge learned and the skills acquired…

  6. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  7. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  8. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  9. The uncertainty analysis on energy scale due to the variation of W value for liquid xenon dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The average energy expended per electron-ion pair, W value, is critical in understanding a liquid xenon detector energy response to low energy recoils. The reduction of scintillation and ionization yield for electronic recoils and nuclear recoils are explained using the scintillation quenching mechanism due to the variation of the average energy expended per electron hole pair, W value, which includes the energy lost to scintillation and phonon generation. We show the theoretical calculation of scintillation efficiency with W value in comparison with experimental data. The impact of variation of W value on the analysis of energy scale is discussed in detail. We conclude that the W value determined with experimental data depends on recoil energy and particle type. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF OIA 1434142, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  10. Energy expectation value of the two-pion-exchange three-body force in the triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bömelburg, A.

    1983-07-01

    The energetic shift caused by the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon force in the triton is estimated in first order perturbation theory. The triton wave function ψ is gained through a Faddeev calculation using the Reid potential. Within the restricted presentation of ψ strong cancellations between terms of the order of 1 MeV lead to an unimportant small effect. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Energy expectation value of the two-pion-exchange three-nuclear force, Faddeev calculation.

  11. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation.

  12. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games (p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  13. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  14. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  15. A new iterative linear integral isoconversional method for the determination of the activation energy varying with the conversion degree.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Chen, Siyu

    2009-10-01

    The conventional linear integral isoconversional methods may lead to important errors in the determination of the activation energy when the significant variation of the activation energy with the conversion degree occurs. Vyazovkin proposed an advanced nonlinear isoconversional method, which allows the activation energy to be accurately determined [Vyazovkin, J Comput Chem 2001, 22, 178]. However, the use of the Vyazovkin method raises the problem of the time-consuming minimization without derivatives. A new iterative linear integral isoconversional method for the determination of the activation energy as a function of the conversion degree has been proposed, which is capable of providing valid values of the activation energy even if the latter strongly varies with the conversion degree. Also, the new method leads to the correct values of the activation energy in much less time than the Vyazovkin method. The application of the new method is illustrated by processing of theoretically simulated data of a strongly varying activation energy process.

  16. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  17. Correlates of reward-predictive value in learning-related hippocampal neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Okatan, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Temporal difference learning (TD) is a popular algorithm in machine learning. Two learning signals that are derived from this algorithm, the predictive value and the prediction error, have been shown to explain changes in neural activity and behavior during learning across species. Here, the predictive value signal is used to explain the time course of learning-related changes in the activity of hippocampal neurons in monkeys performing an associative learning task. The TD algorithm serves as the centerpiece of a joint probability model for the learning-related neural activity and the behavioral responses recorded during the task. The neural component of the model consists of spiking neurons that compete and learn the reward-predictive value of task-relevant input signals. The predictive-value signaled by these neurons influences the behavioral response generated by a stochastic decision stage, which constitutes the behavioral component of the model. It is shown that the time course of the changes in neural activity and behavioral performance generated by the model exhibits key features of the experimental data. The results suggest that information about correct associations may be expressed in the hippocampus before it is detected in the behavior of a subject. In this way, the hippocampus may be among the earliest brain areas to express learning and drive the behavioral changes associated with learning. Correlates of reward-predictive value may be expressed in the hippocampus through rate remapping within spatial memory representations, they may represent reward-related aspects of a declarative or explicit relational memory representation of task contingencies, or they may correspond to reward-related components of episodic memory representations. These potential functions are discussed in connection with hippocampal cell assembly sequences and their reverse reactivation during the awake state. The results provide further support for the proposal that neural

  18. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  19. Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Daniel W; Johnson, Emily E; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R

    2011-06-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which different odor cues indicated what reward was available on the left or on the right. The value of reward associated with a leftward or rightward movement was manipulated by varying the size of and delay to reward in separate blocks of trials. Rats were faster or slower depending on whether the expected reward value was high or low, respectively. The number of neurons that increased firing during performance of the task outnumbered those that decreased firing. Both increases and decreases were modulated by expected value and response direction. Neurons that fired more or less strongly for larger reward tended to fire, respectively, more or less strongly for immediate reward, reflecting their common motivational output. Finally, value selectivity was present prior to presentation of cues indicating the nature of the upcoming behavioral response for both increasing- and decreasing-type neurons, reflecting the internal bias or preparatory set of the rat. These results emphasize the importance of increasing-type neurons on behavioral output when animals are making decisions based on predicted reward value.

  20. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility…

  1. Evaluation of phytochemical content, nutritional value and antioxidant activity of Phanji - Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy leaf

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Sneha D.; Naik, Raghavendra; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy is known to be the source plant of Phanji, a classically delineated leafy vegetable which is till date used by some hill dwelling Kandha tribes of Odisha. Though it is in use since a long time, it is not yet evaluated for its nutritive value. Aim: The leaves of R. hypocrateriformis were evaluated for its nutritive value and antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antioxidant properties of the leaf of R. hypocrateriformis were screened through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant capacity. Phytochemicals, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy value, and mineral content of the leaves of the plant were evaluated with standard procedures. Results: In phytochemical analysis, tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and carbohydrates were present in leaf powder of R. hypocrateriformis. Energy content was found to be highest (331.54 kcals/100 g). Carbohydrate, fat, protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and zinc were present in 57.63%, 2.66%, 19.27%, 0.99%, 0.34%, 0.32%, and 0.011%, respectively. The IC50 values of the extract and ascorbic acid were found to be 254 ± 5.29 μg/ml and 11.67 ± 0.58 μg/ml, respectively. Percentage scavenging of DPPH radical was found to rise with increasing concentration of the crude extract. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be 111.30 ± 0.003 mcg. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the leaves of R. hypocrateriformis contain secondary metabolites such as tannin and possess mild antioxidant properties. Nutritional analysis indicates the presence of energy in highest amount, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, and magnesium. PMID:27313417

  2. Energy partitioning and GPP values in a rotating crop in the Spanish Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, María Luisa; Pardo, Nuria; Perez, Isidro A.; Garcia, M. Angeles

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess crop ability to act as a CO2 sink and to describe GPP dynamic evolution, in 2008 we installed an eddy correlation station located in an agricultural plot of the Spanish plateau. Continuous measurements of 30-min NEE fluxes and other common variables have been measured over four years. Agricultural practices at the selected plot consisted of annual rotation of non-irrigated rapeseed, wheat, peas, rye. The maximum canopy height of rapeseed, wheat and rye was 1.3, 0.6 and 1.6 m respectively, the values being reached at the end of May. Although no measurements were performed in the pea crop, according to the farmer's information the maximum height was approximately 0.45-0.5 m. The quality of long-term eddy covariance data was evaluated by calculating the energy balance closure. This paper presents and compares the seasonal variation of major components involved in the energy balance as well as GPP for each type of crop. An energy balance closure of 92% was found when using the global dataset. On a four-year basis, the sensible heat flux, H, played the main role in the energy balance with a ratio of 52%. Latent heat flux, LE, accounted for 40% of the energy, with soil heat flux contributing around 8% to the energy balance. These values changed during the period of maximum interest. For this period LE played the main role, using over half of the available energy, 51%, related to evapotranspiration processes. Over the four years of study annual accumulated GPP exhibited a great variability, 1680, 710, 730 and 1410 g C m-2 for rapeseed, wheat, peas and rye, respectively. The influence of crop architecture, phenology and climatic conditions dominated crop-to-crop seasonal evolution. The highest LE contributions to the energy balance were found for rapeseed and rye. Higher GPP were also obtained for denser and higher canopy height crops, rapeseed and rye, yielding annuals almost comparable to C4 plants. Both crops exhibited a marked seasonal variation of

  3. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  4. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches. PMID:25647962

  5. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  6. Age differences in medial prefrontal activity for subsequent memory of truth value

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Hedden, Trey; Yoon, Carolyn; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated that aging is marked by decreased source memory relative to young adults, yet a smaller body of work has demonstrated that increasing the socioemotional content of source information may be one way to reduce age-related performance differences. Although dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) activity may support source memory among young and older adults, the extent to which one activates dorsal vs. ventral mPFC may reflect one's personal connection with incoming information. Because truth value may be one salient marker that impacts one's connection with information and allocation of attention toward incoming material, we investigated whether the perceived truth value of information differently impacts differences in mPFC activity associated with encoding source information, particularly with age. Twelve young (18–23 years) and 12 older adults (63–80 years) encoded true and false statements. Behavioral results showed similar memory performance between the age groups. With respect to neural activity associated with subsequent memory, young adults, relative to older adults, exhibited greater activity in dmPFC while older adults displayed enhanced ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insula engagement relative to young. These results may potentially indicate that young adults focus on a general knowledge acquisition goal, while older adults focus on emotionally relevant aspects of the material. The findings demonstrate that age-related differences in recruitment of mPFC associated with encoding source information may in some circumstances underlie age-equivalent behavioral performance. PMID:24570672

  7. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  8. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  9. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  10. Tsallis’ non-extensive free energy as a subjective value of an uncertain reward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies in neuroeconomics and econophysics revealed the importance of reward expectation in decision under uncertainty. Behavioral neuroeconomic studies have proposed that the unpredictability and the probability of an uncertain reward are distinctly encoded as entropy and a distorted probability weight, respectively, in the separate neural systems. However, previous behavioral economic and decision-theoretic models could not quantify reward-seeking and uncertainty aversion in a theoretically consistent manner. In this paper, we have: (i) proposed that generalized Helmholtz free energy in Tsallis’ non-extensive thermostatistics can be utilized to quantify a perceived value of an uncertain reward, and (ii) empirically examined the explanatory powers of the models. Future study directions in neuroeconomics and econophysics by utilizing the Tsallis’ free energy model are discussed.

  11. A Novel Approach of Battery Energy Storage for Improving Value of Wind Power in Deregulated Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Y. Minh; Yoon, Yong Tae

    2013-06-01

    Wind power producers face many regulation costs in deregulated environment, which remarkably lowers the value of wind power in comparison with the conventional sources. One of these costs is associated with the real-time variation of power output and being paid in frequency control market according to the variation band. In this regard, this paper presents a new approach to the scheduling and operation of battery energy storage installed in wind generation system. This approach depends on the statistic data of wind generation and the prediction of frequency control market prices to determine the optimal charging and discharging of batteries in real-time, which ultimately gives the minimum cost of frequency regulation for wind power producers. The optimization problem is formulated as the trade-off between the decrease in regulation payment and the increase in the cost of using battery energy storage. The approach is illustrated in the case study and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  12. Corn cobs versus corn stalks: a comparison of energy values for drying corn

    SciTech Connect

    Riggins, J.K.; Vaughan, D.H.; Lambert, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Corn residue samples were tested as potential fuel sources for drying corn. Samples were taken during August and September, 1979 at Suffolk, Virginia. Each sample included the entire corn plant cut five inches above ground level. For each sample, bomb calorimeter tests were performed both on representative cob sections and representative plant sections (excluding kernels). All tests were made on non-dried samples and thus reflected variations in energy as a function of moisture content. The combustion results of cob versus the entire plant were compared at different harvested kernel moisture contents to determine the practical use of each fuel, from a combustion standpoint, in drying corn. Combustion results indicated: (1) cobs and stalks contained near identical energy values at the same moisture content and for the same weight of dry matter; (2) cobs averaged 5 percent higher in energy due to a lower moisture content when cobs and stalks were harvested simultaneously; and (3) cob energy can be predicted as a function of kernel moisture content.

  13. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  14. Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Uri; Rutishauser, Ueli; Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Lee, Daeyeol; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity in this task according to the animal's choice, while it deliberated (choice neurons). Here we found neurons whose spiking activities were predictive of the spatial location of the selected target (spatial-bias neurons) or the size of the chosen reward (reward-bias neurons) before the onset of the cue presenting the decision-alternatives, and thus before rational deliberation could begin. Their predictive power increased as the values the animals associated with the two decision alternatives became more similar. The ventral striatum (VS) preferentially contained spatial-bias neurons; the caudate nucleus (CD) preferentially contained choice neurons. In contrast, the DLPFC contained significant numbers of all three neuron types, but choice neurons were not preferentially also bias neurons of either kind there, nor were spatial-bias neurons preferentially also choice neurons, and vice versa. We suggest a simple winner-take-all (WTA) circuit model to account for the dissociation of choice and bias neurons. The model reproduced our results and made additional predictions that were borne out empirically. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the DLPFC and striatum harbor dissociated neural populations that represent choices and predeliberation biases that are combined after cue onset; the bias neurons have a weaker effect on the ultimate decision than the choice neurons, so their influence is progressively apparent for trials where the values associated with the decision alternatives are increasingly similar.

  15. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  16. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  17. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  18. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  19. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland.

    PubMed

    Horttanainen, M; Teirasvuo, N; Kapustina, V; Hupponen, M; Luoranen, M

    2013-12-01

    For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50-60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  20. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  1. Motivating the Skeptical and Unconcerned: Considering Values, Worldviews, and Norms When Planning Messages Encouraging Energy Conservation and Efficiency Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Opel, Andrew R.; Lu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association of personal values or worldviews with individual motivations for reduced energy use and energy-use-related risk perceptions. We also investigated how perceptions of others' energy use influenced motivation to reduce use among those with high, versus low, risk perceptions. The perception that others…

  2. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-06-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in J Chem Educ 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by considering which atomic models are used in pre-service teachers' explanations and how that relates to the causality ideas expressed. Thirty-one pre-service teachers were interviewed. Each was asked to describe and explain four different atomic representations (Rutherford, Electron cloud micrograph, Bohr and Schrödinger types) in as much detail as they could. They also provided an explanation for the subsequent ionisation energy values for an oxygen atom and identified which representations were helpful in explaining the values. Significantly, when pre-service teachers only used Bohr type representations, they did not use repelling electron ideas in their explanations. However, arguments that were based on electron-electron repulsion used features from Schrödinger type atoms. These findings suggest that many pre-service teachers need to develop their atomic modelling skills so that they select and use models more expertly and that subsequent ionisation explanations offer a context in which to explore different atomic models' limitations and their deployment as explanatory resources.

  3. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  4. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  5. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  6. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  7. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided. PMID:15018372

  8. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  9. Disability in Valued Life Activities Among Individuals With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of disability in a wide range of valued life activities (VLAs) among individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 1-year changes in such disability, and predictors of and changes in VLA disability. Methods Data were from 2 waves of a cohort of 829 individuals with SLE interviewed annually by telephone. VLA disability was assessed using a scale rating the difficulty of performing 21 activities. Scores were also calculated for subscales corresponding to obligatory, committed, and discretionary activities. Changes in VLA disability from baseline to 1-year followup were assessed. Sociodemographic and disease status measures were examined as predictors of and changes in VLA disability using multiple regression analyses. Results Almost half of the subjects were unable to perform ≥1 VLA at baseline. Almost all (91%) reported ≥1 VLA affected by SLE. One-quarter of the subjects experienced a significant increase in the number of activities they were unable to perform; approximately half experienced significant increases in the number of activities affected and in difficulty scores. Proportions of individuals whose disability increased and whose disability decreased were roughly equivalent. Disease status measures accounted for 62–72% of the variation in VLA difficulty. More severe disease status was predictive of increases in VLA difficulty; few predictors of improvements were identified. Conclusion VLA disability was common, with more disability noted in committed and discretionary activities than in obligatory activities. Because VLA disability has been linked to psychological well-being in previous studies, identification of factors that may protect against such disability is important. PMID:18383406

  10. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  11. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  12. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  13. Gauge-invariant expectation values of the energy of a molecule in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Anirban; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the full Hamiltonian for a molecule in an electromagnetic field can be separated into a molecular Hamiltonian and a field Hamiltonian, both with gauge-invariant expectation values. The expectation value of the molecular Hamiltonian gives physically meaningful results for the energy of a molecule in a time-dependent applied field. In contrast, the usual partitioning of the full Hamiltonian into molecular and field terms introduces an arbitrary gauge-dependent potential into the molecular Hamiltonian and leaves a gauge-dependent form of the Hamiltonian for the field. With the usual partitioning of the Hamiltonian, this same problem of gauge dependence arises even in the absence of an applied field, as we show explicitly by considering a gauge transformation from zero applied field and zero external potentials to zero applied field, but non-zero external vector and scalar potentials. We resolve this problem and also remove the gauge dependence from the Hamiltonian for a molecule in a non-zero applied field and from the field Hamiltonian, by repartitioning the full Hamiltonian. It is possible to remove the gauge dependence because the interaction of the molecular charges with the gauge potential cancels identically with a gauge-dependent term in the usual form of the field Hamiltonian. We treat the electromagnetic field classically and treat the molecule quantum mechanically, but nonrelativistically. Our derivation starts from the Lagrangian for a set of charged particles and an electromagnetic field, with the particle coordinates, the vector potential, the scalar potential, and their time derivatives treated as the variables in the Lagrangian. We construct the full Hamiltonian using a Lagrange multiplier method originally suggested by Dirac, partition this Hamiltonian into a molecular term Hm and a field term Hf, and show that both Hm and Hf have gauge-independent expectation values. Any gauge may be chosen for the calculations; but

  14. Characteristics of Value and Professional Orientation of the Technical University Students as Ideal Views on the Activity Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khinkanina, Alla L.; Serova, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the empirical investigation of the characteristics of value and professional orientation of the students taking studies in social and computer engineering related fields are presented. The types of value structure uncovered depend on the students' attitudes to the values significant for the professional evolution (active mode of…

  15. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API. PMID:26338232

  16. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  17. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  18. Reliability and validity of the valued activity inventory for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.

  19. Diagnostic value of blood gene expression signatures in active tuberculosis in Thais: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Satproedprai, N; Wichukchinda, N; Suphankong, S; Inunchot, W; Kuntima, T; Kumpeerasart, S; Wattanapokayakit, S; Nedsuwan, S; Yanai, H; Higuchi, K; Harada, N; Mahasirimongkol, S

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Routine laboratory tests or newly developed molecular detection are limited to the quality of sputum sample. Here we selected genes specific to TB by a minimum redundancy-maximum relevancy package using publicly available microarray data and determine level of selected genes in blood collected from a Thai TB cohort of 40 active TB patients, 38 healthy controls and 18 previous TB patients using quantitative real-time PCR. FCGR1A, FCGR1B variant 1, FCGR1B variant 2, APOL1, GBP5, PSTPIP2, STAT1, KCNJ15, MAFB and KAZN had significantly higher expression level in active TB individuals as compared with healthy controls and previous TB cases (P<0.01). A mathematical method was applied to calculate TB predictive score, which contains the level of expression of seven genes and this score can identify active TB cases with 82.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity as compared with conventional culture confirmation. In addition, TB predictive scores in active TB patients were reduced to normal after completion of standard short-course therapy, which was mostly in concordant with the disease outcome. These finding suggested that blood gene expression measurement and TB Sick Score could have potential value in terms of diagnosis of TB and anti-TB treatment monitoring.

  20. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of ‘self’ and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the ‘positivity’ or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. PMID:24837477

  1. Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Incremental Value

    PubMed Central

    Felker, Ely R.; Wu, Jason; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Raman, Steven S.; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Fred; Marks, Leonard S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether changes in serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can help predict the pathological progression of prostate cancer in men on active surveillance. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 49 consecutive men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer who underwent multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and again more than 6 months later, each followed by a targeted prostate biopsy, between January 2011 and May 2015. We evaluated whether progression on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (an increase in index lesion suspicion score, increase in index lesion volume or decrease in index lesion apparent diffusion coefficient) could predict pathological progression (Gleason 3 + 4 or greater on subsequent biopsy, in systematic or targeted cores). Diagnostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was determined with and without clinical data using a binary logistic regression model. Results The mean interval between baseline and followup multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 28.3 months (range 11 to 43). Pathological progression occurred in 19 patients (39%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 37%, 90%, 69% and 70%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.63. A logistic regression model using clinical information (maximum cancer core length greater than 3 mm on baseline biopsy or a prostate specific antigen density greater than 0.15 ng/ml2 at followup biopsy) had an AUC of 0.87 for predicting pathological progression. The addition of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging data significantly improved the AUC to 0.91 (p = 0.044). Conclusions Serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging adds incremental value to prostate specific antigen density and baseline cancer core length for predicting Gleason 6 upgrading in men on

  2. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2007-11-27

    This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the

  3. Teaching Energy Concepts by Working on Themes of Cultural and Environmental Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Energy is a central topic in physics and a key concept for understanding the physical, biological and technological worlds. It is a complex topic with multiple connections with different areas of science and with social, environmental and philosophical issues. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the teaching and learning of the energy concept, and report results of research on this issue. To immerse science teaching into the context of scientific culture and of the students' cultural world, we propose to select specific driving issues that promote motivation for the construction of science concepts and models. We describe the design and evaluation of a teaching learning path developed around the issue of greenhouse effect and global warming. The experimentation with high school students has shown that the approach based on driving issues promotes students' engagement toward a deeper understanding of the topic and favours further insight. The evolution of students' answers indicates a progressively more correct and appropriate use of the concepts of heat, radiation, temperature, internal energy, a distinction between thermal equilibrium and stationary non equilibrium conditions, and a better understanding of greenhouse effect. Based on the results of the experimentation and in collaboration with the teachers involved, new materials for the students have been prepared and a new cycle of implementation, evaluation and refinement has been activated with a larger group of teachers and students. This type of systematic and long term collaboration with teachers can help to fill the gap between the science education research and the actual school practice.

  4. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  5. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  6. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  7. The Analysis on Influence of Main Factors on Theoretical Value of Energy Saving Rate for Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peng; Cao, Wei

    For typical residential buildings, no-large-scale and large-scale public buildings, according to China's Technical Guide for the Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings, makes up missing data of the calculation benchmark and determines the boundary conditions for calculating the theoretical values of civil building energy efficiency. Based on equivalent full load hours method, develops a modular program and calculates building energy consumption for the demands of dynamic cooling and heating and lighting etc., finds out the corresponding relationship between star level's theoretical value of energy saving rate and specified-term limiting value in the Guide. With orthogonal experimental design and multiple linear regression, establishes the quantitative function of both the theoretical value of energy saving rate and main factors parameters, analyzes the impact of the control parameter on energy saving rate, and reveals the law of theoretical value of energy saving rate variation with the control parameter. For building energy efficiency labeling upgrade, presents technical measure need to be taken and analyses its feasibility. The results from the study can provide theoretical guidance for energy-saving design or retrofitting of civil buildings.

  8. Evaluation of activity through dynamic laser speckle using the absolute value of the differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, R. A.; Nobre, C. M. B.; Costa, A. G.; Sáfadi, T.; da Costa, F. M.

    2011-01-01

    When a material is illuminated with a laser beam, it is possible to verify a phenomenon known as dynamic speckle or biospeckle. It exhibits an interference image that contains lots of information about the process being analyzed, and one of its most important applications is determining the activity quantity from the materials under study. The numerical analysis of the dynamic speckle images can be carried out by means of a co-occurrence matrix (COM) that assembles the intensity distributions of a speckle pattern with regard to time. An operational method that is widely used on the biospeckle COMs is the inertia moment (IM). Some studies demonstrate that IM is more sensitive on analyzing processes that involve high activities or high frequencies if considering the spectral analysis of the phenomena. However, when this variation is not so intense, this method is less efficient. For low variations on the activity or low frequencies, qualitative methods such as wavelet based entropy and cross-spectrum analysis have presented better results; however, processes that are in the intermediate range of activity are not well covered for any of these techniques mentioned earlier. The contribution of this research is to present an alternative approach, based on the absolute value of the differences (AVD) when handling the biospeckle COM. By using AVD on the seed-drying process, was found that it is efficient on verifying the behavior of the intermediate frequencies. Accumulated sum test (Coates and Diggle) showed that AVD and IM are generated from the same stochastic process. Thus, AVD is useful as an alternative method in some cases or even as a complementary tool for analyzing the dynamic speckle, mainly when the information of the activity is not present on high frequencies.

  9. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  10. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  11. Chemical trends in the activation energies of DX centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, O.; Kawai, H.; Mori, Y.; Kaneko, K.

    1984-12-01

    The activation energies of DX centers in AlGaAs doped with six different impurities (S, Se, Te, Si, Ge, and Sn) are measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Remarkable trends are established, in which the activation energies of DX centers with group IV impurities become shallower as the mass number of the impurity increases, while those with group VI impurities remain constant.

  12. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  13. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  14. Singular Value Decomposition of Optically-Mapped Cardiac Rotors and Fibrillatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, A.; Biton, Y.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.; Yandrapalli, S.; Pandit, S. V.; Berenfeld, O.

    2015-01-01

    Our progress of understanding how cellular and structural factors contribute to the arrhythmia is hampered in part because of controversies whether a fibrillating heart is driven by a single, several, or multiple number of sources, and whether they are focal or reentrant, and how to localize them. Here we demonstrate how a novel usage of the neutral singular value decomposition (SVD) method enables the extraction of the governing spatial and temporal modes of excitation from a rotor and fibrillatory waves. Those modes highlight patterns and regions of organization in the midst of the otherwise seemingly-randomly propagating excitation waves. We apply the method to experimental models of cardiac fibrillation in rabbit hearts. We show that the SVD analysis is able to enhance the classification of the heart electrical patterns into regions harboring drivers in the form of fast reentrant activity and other regions of by-standing activity. This enhancement is accomplished without any prior assumptions regarding the spatial, temporal or spectral properties of those drivers. The analysis corroborates that the dominant mode has the highest activation rate and further reveals a new feature: A transfer of modes from the driving to the passive regions resulting in a partial reaction of the passive region to the driving region. PMID:26668401

  15. Singular value decomposition of optically-mapped cardiac rotors and fibrillatory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Biton, Y.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.; Yandrapalli, S.; Pandit, S. V.; Berenfeld, O.

    2015-03-01

    Our progress of understanding how cellular and structural factors contribute to arrhythmia is hampered in part because of controversies as to whether a fibrillating heart is driven by a single, several, or multiple number of sources, whether they are focal or reentrant and how to localize them. Here we demonstrate how a novel usage of the neutral singular value decomposition (SVD) method enables the extraction of the governing spatial and temporal modes of excitation from a rotor and fibrillatory waves. Those modes highlight patterns and regions of organization in the midst of the otherwise seemingly random propagating excitation waves. We apply the method to experimental models of cardiac fibrillation in rabbit hearts. We show that SVD analysis is able to enhance the classification of the heart electrical patterns into regions harboring drivers in the form of fast reentrant activity and other regions of by-standing activity. This enhancement is accomplished without any prior assumptions regarding the spatial, temporal or spectral properties of those drivers. The analysis corroborates that the dominant mode has the highest activation rate and further reveals a new feature: a transfer of modes from the driving to passive regions resulting in a partial reaction of the passive region to the driving region.

  16. Adaptive singular value cancelation of ventricular activity in single-lead atrial fibrillation electrocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José Joaquín

    2008-12-01

    The proper analysis and characterization of atrial fibrillation (AF) from surface electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings requires to cancel out the ventricular activity (VA), which is composed of the QRS complex and the T wave. Historically, for single-lead ECGs, the averaged beat subtraction (ABS) has been the most widely used technique. However, this method is very sensitive to QRST wave variations and, moreover, high-quality cancelation templates may be difficult to obtain when only short length and single-lead recordings are available. In order to overcome these limitations, a new QRST cancelation method based on adaptive singular value cancelation (ASVC) applied to each single beat is proposed. In addition, an exhaustive study about the optimal set of complexes for better cancelation of every beat is also presented for the first time. The whole study has been carried out with both simulated and real AF signals. For simulated AF, the cancelation performance was evaluated making use of a cross-correlation index and the normalized mean square error (nmse) between the estimated and the original atrial activity (AA). For real AF signals, two additional new parameters were proposed. First, the ventricular residue (VR) index estimated the presence of ventricular activity in the extracted AA. Second, the similarity (S) evaluated how the algorithm preserved the AA segments out of the QRST interval. Results indicated that for simulated AF signals, mean correlation, nmse, VR and S values were 0.945 +/- 0.024, 0.332 +/- 0.073, 1.552 +/- 0.386 and 0.986 +/- 0.012, respectively, for the ASVC method and 0.866 +/- 0.042, 0.424 +/- 0.120, 2.161 +/- 0.564 and 0.922 +/- 0.051 for ABS. In the case of real signals, the mean VR and S values were 1.725 +/- 0.826 and 0.983 +/- 0.038, respectively, for ASVC and 3.159 +/- 1.097 and 0.951 +/- 0.049 for ABS. Thus, ASVC provides a more accurate beat-to-beat ventricular QRST representation than traditional techniques. As a consequence, VA

  17. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  18. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  19. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  20. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  1. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, M. M.; Iji, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  2. Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.

    PubMed

    Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

    1987-11-01

    1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students

  3. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    PubMed Central

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; de ARAÚJO, Alexandre; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Results: Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Conclusions: Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. PMID:27759783

  4. Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, M. C.

    1980-12-01

    Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects, and a list of projects having multiple utility participants. Project categories include solar heating and cooling of buildings, wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric power, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, process heat, and ocean energy conversion.

  5. A critical study of the Miura-Maki integral method for the estimation of the kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Li, Tao; Liu, Ronghou

    2011-02-01

    Using some theoretically simulated data constructed from known sets of the activation energy distribution f(E) (assumed to follow the Gaussian distribution [Formula in text] where E is the activation energy, E(0) is the mean value of the activation energy distribution, and σ is the standard deviation of the activation energy distribution) and the frequency factor k(0), a critical study of the use of the Miura-Maki integral method for the estimation of the kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model has been performed from three cases. For all cases, the use of the Miura-Maki integral method leads to important errors in the estimation of k(0). There are some differences between the assumed and calculated activation energy distributions and the differences decrease with increasing the assumed k(0) values (for Case 1), with increasing the assumed σ values (for Case 2), and with decreasing the b values (for Case 3).

  6. Active knee range of motion assessment in elite track and field athletes: normative values

    PubMed Central

    Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Kakoura, Lena; Tsitas, Kostas; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Siozos, Alexandros; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background flexibility is an important physical characteristic in athletes in terms of performance and injury prevention. Active Range Of Motion (AROM) was assessed in elite Greek track and field athletes. Methods prospective cohort study was carried out. In the period 2000–2010, the AROM was measured bilaterally with the Active Knee Extension (AKE) test during an in-season period with a goniometer in 127 athletes. Results male runners and jumpers had a higher mean AROM than throwers, but this result was not statistically significant. Female jumpers had a higher mean AROM than both runners and throwers, but the difference was also not statistically significant. Conclusion in athletes, mean posterior thigh muscle flexibility is likely to be between 72.3° and 73.9°. Posterior thigh muscle flexibility is associated with performance, the higher the AROM, the better performance is achieved athletes have generally high AROM, and this may be a result of their increased muscle flexibility. The normative values of posterior thigh flexibility may assist in better monitoring rehabilitation of the posterior thigh muscle injuries and be useful in pre-season screening of athletes’ flexibility. PMID:26605196

  7. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  8. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  9. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA.

  10. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  11. A Real Valued Neural Network Based Autoregressive Energy Detector for Cognitive Radio Application.

    PubMed

    Onumanyi, A J; Onwuka, E N; Aibinu, A M; Ugweje, O C; Salami, M J E

    2014-01-01

    A real valued neural network (RVNN) based energy detector (ED) is proposed and analyzed for cognitive radio (CR) application. This was developed using a known two-layered RVNN model to estimate the model coefficients of an autoregressive (AR) system. By using appropriate modules and a well-designed detector, the power spectral density (PSD) of the AR system transfer function was estimated and subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the detector generated and analyzed. A high detection performance with low false alarm rate was observed for varying signal to noise ratio (SNR), sample number, and model order conditions. The proposed RVNN based ED was then compared to the simple periodogram (SP), Welch periodogram (WP), multitaper (MT), Yule-Walker (YW), Burg (BG), and covariance (CV) based ED techniques. The proposed detector showed better performance than the SP, WP, and MT while providing better false alarm performance than the YW, BG, and CV. Data provided here support the effectiveness of the proposed RVNN based ED for CR application.

  12. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.

  13. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment. PMID:26117239

  14. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  15. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  16. El Jefe: balancing tribal values with business realities. [Council for Energy Resource Tribes and cooperation with state governments

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, R.

    1981-03-01

    Navajo chairman Peter MacDonald is also chairman of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) board and its natural leader. When Indians began to assert control over their own resources, MacDonald was among the leaders of the movement. He continues to dominate the situation, speaking publicly for CERT in Washington as well as from the Navajo capital, Window Rock, Az. MacDonald speaks articulately and forcefully in favor of traditional Navajo values; values, he says, are more important than the potential income from Navajo energy resources. Although MacDonald strongly supports development of energy resources, his bargains with energy companies always reflect a commitment to concerns beyond dollars and cents. The western states, with their concentration of energy resources, should share his concerns, MacDonald said in this interview with the Business Journal at his Windor Rock office.

  17. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  18. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  19. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets1234

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Janet A; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which substantial evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. Objective: A study was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from the Atwater factors. Design: Eighteen healthy adults consumed a controlled diet or an almond-containing diet for 18 d. Three treatments were administered to subjects in a crossover design, and diets contained 1 of 3 almond doses: 0, 42, or 84 g/d. During the final 9 d of the treatment period, volunteers collected all urine and feces, and samples of diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for macronutrient and energy contents. The metabolizable energy content of the almonds was determined. Results: The energy content of almonds in the human diet was found to be 4.6 ± 0.8 kcal/g, which is equivalent to 129 kcal/28-g serving. This is significantly less than the energy density of 6.0–6.1 kcal/g as determined by the Atwater factors, which is equivalent to an energy content of 168–170 kcal/serving. The Atwater factors, when applied to almonds, resulted in a 32% overestimation of their measured energy content. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the inaccuracies of the Atwater factors for certain applications and provides a rigorous method for determining empirically the energy value of individual foods within the context of a mixed diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01007188. PMID:22760558

  20. Effects of TiB2 particles and Ag on the activation energy of Ω phase in Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melotti, F.; Hirst, T.; Dustan, A.; Griffiths, W. D.

    2016-03-01

    This work analyses the effects of TiB2 reinforcement particles and silver additions on the activation energy of the GP zones and the Ω phase in an aluminium matrix composite (AMC). Several additions of TiB2 and Ag were made to a 2xxx series alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to identify the temperature peaks and the Kissinger approach used to calculate activation energies. Results showed that the activation energy for the Ω phase was greatly reduced by the addition of both elements; however, the TiB2 particles were more effective. In addition, experimental results show that the lowest value of the activation energy, 68 kJmol-1, was not affected by the silver content. This value is lower than any value found in literature and suggests that the formation of the Ω phase is related to the pipe diffusion of Cu in Al.

  1. Time dependence of energy spectra of brachytherapy sources and its impact on the half and the tenth value layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Chen Zhe; Hearn, Robert A.; Rodgers, Joseph J.; Nath, Ravinder

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Several factors including radionuclide purity influence the photon energy spectra from sealed brachytherapy sources. The existence of impurities and trace elements in radioactive materials as well as the substrate and encapsulation may not only alter the spectrum at a given time but also cause change in the spectra as a function of time. The purpose of this study is to utilize a semiempirical formalism, which quantitatively incorporates this time dependence, to calculate and evaluate the shielding requirement impacts introduced by this time dependence for a {sup 103}Pd source. Methods: The formalism was used to calculate the NthVL thicknesses in lead for a {sup 103}Pd model 200 seed. Prior to 2005, the {sup 103}Pd in this source was purified to a level better than 0.006% of the total {sup 103}Pd activity, the key trace impurity consisting of {sup 65}Zn. Because {sup 65}Zn emits higher energy photons and has a much longer half-life of 244 days compared to {sup 103}Pd, its presence in {sup 103}Pd seeds led to a time dependence of the photon spectrum and other related physical quantities. This study focuses on the time dependence of the NthVL and the analysis of the corresponding shielding requirements. Results: The results indicate that the first HVL and the first TVL in lead steadily increased with time for about 200 days and then reached a plateau. The increases at plateau were more than 1000 times compared to the corresponding values on the zeroth day. The second and third TVLs in lead reached their plateaus in about 100 and 60 days, respectively, and the increases were about 19 and 2.33 times the corresponding values on the zeroth day, respectively. All the TVLs demonstrated a similar time dependence pattern, with substantial increases and eventual approach to a plateau. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the time dependence of the emitted photon spectra from brachytherapy sources can introduce substantial variations in the values of the NthVL with

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Values Tracker: A Two-Item Measure of Engagement in Valued Activities in Those With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Pielech, Melissa; Bailey, Robert W; McEntee, Mindy L; Ashworth, Julie; Levell, Jayne; Sowden, Gail; Vowles, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in valued activities is an important outcome, particularly in treatments that aim to enhance quality of life in those with chronic conditions. The present study describes the initial evaluation of the Values Tracker (VT), a two-item measure of values engagement, in 302 treatment-seeking adults with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the utility of the VT in the statistical prediction of pain-related functioning, after controlling for demographic variables, pain intensity, and pain-related distress. Across analyses, pain intensity accounted for significant variance (range ΔR2 = .06-.09) with pain-related distress adding additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .07-.19). The VT accounted for additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .02-.17) for all variables with the exception of physical disability. These findings provide initial support for the utility of the VT in those with chronic pain. Given the VT's brevity, it may be particularly useful for tracking changes in engagement in values across sessions. PMID:26611467

  3. Subjective Task Value in Physical Activity Participation: The Perspective of Hong Kong Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie; Ha, Amy Sau Ching

    2010-01-01

    Subjective Task Value (STV) is a multidimensional construct of values predominantly used to examine western culture (Eccles et al., 1983); it is influential in motivating individuals to make choices and display long-lasting behaviours. While existing studies were conducted with western populations, the manifestation of value has yet to be…

  4. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  5. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  6. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  7. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-01

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  8. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  9. Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2013-02-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  10. Energy deposition in the earth's atmosphere due to impact of solar activity-generated disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Kan, L. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Dryer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy deposition in and dynamic responses of the terrestrial atmosphere to solar flare-generated shocks and other physical processes - such as particle precipitation and local heating - are investigated self-consistently in the context of hydrodynamics, the problem being treated as an initial boundary-value problem. It is extremely difficult to construct a general model for the line solar activity-magnetosphere-atmosphere; however, a limited model for this link is possible. The paper describes such a model, and presents some results on energy deposition into the earth's atmosphere due to solar activity-generated disturbances. Results from the present calculations are presented and discussed.

  11. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  12. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  13. Validation of Prediction Equations of Energy Values of a Single Ingredient or Their Combinations in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, R. R.; Rodrigues, P. B.; Zangeronimo, M. G.; Oliveira, E. C.; Mariano, F. C. M. Q.; Lima, E. M. C.; Garcia, A. A. P.; Naves, L. P.; Nardelli, N. B. S.

    2015-01-01

    A set of prediction equations to estimate the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of individual ingredients and diets used in the poultry feed industry was evaluated. The AMEn values of three energy ingredients (maize, sorghum and defatted maize germ meal), four protein ingredients (soybean meal, maize gluten meal 60% crude protein, integral micronized soy and roasted whole soybean) and four diets (three containing four feedstuffs, complex diets, and one containing only corn-soybean meal, basal diet) were determined using a metabolism assay with male broilers from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35, and 36 to 42 days old. These values were compared to the AMEn values presented in the tables of energy composition or estimated by equation predictions based on chemical composition data of feedstuffs. In general, the equation predictions more precisely estimated the AMEn of feedstuffs when compared to the tables of energy composition. The equation AMEn (dry matter [DM] basis) = 4,164.187+51.006 ether extract (% in DM basis)–197.663 ash–35.689 crude fiber (% in DM basis)–20.593 neutral detergent fiber (% in DM basis) (R2 = 0.75) was the most applicable for the prediction of the energy values of feedstuffs and diets used in the poultry feed industry. PMID:26194230

  14. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  15. Monitoring integrin activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Craig T; Hyun, Young-Min; Kim, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant integrin activation is associated with several immune pathologies. In leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), the absence or inability of β(2) integrins to undergo affinity upregulation contributes to recurrent infectious episodes and impaired wound healing, while excessive integrin activity leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage. Therefore, integrin activation is an attractive target for immunotherapies, and monitoring the effect of agents on integrin activation is necessary during preclinical drug development. The activation of integrins involves the structural rearrangement of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. Here, we describe methods for monitoring integrin conformational activation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

  16. Final Report for Clean, Reliable, Affordable Energy that Reflects the Values of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Lenora; Sampsel, Zachary N

    2014-07-21

    This report aims to present and analyze information on the potential of renewable energy power systems and electric vehicle charging near the Pinoleville Pomo Nation in Ukiah, California to provide an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective energy and transportation options for development. For each renewable energy option we examine, solar, wind, microhydro, and biogas in this case, we compiled technology and cost information for construction, estimates of energy capacity, and data on electricity exports rates.

  17. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  18. The experience matters more than you think: People value intrinsic incentives more inside than outside an activity.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-12-01

    We document a shift in the value assigned to intrinsic incentives: people value these incentives more inside an activity than outside the activity (i.e., during vs. before or after pursuit). For example, people care more about the level of interest of their present work task than of past or future work tasks. We document this shift across a variety of activities (exercising, visiting a museum, and lab tasks) and using various measures, including rated importance of intrinsic incentives inside and outside pursuit, actual and planned persistence on activities that offer these incentives, and regret when choosers outside pursuit forgo intrinsic incentives that pursuers later seek. This shift in valuation occurs because intrinsic incentives improve the experience during action pursuit, and therefore, this shift is unique to intrinsic incentives. Extrinsic incentives, by contrast, are valued similarly inside and outside pursuit. PMID:26371401

  19. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  20. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  1. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  2. The potential of value management (VM) to improve the consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Rajemi, Mohamad Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Energy demand and consumption in buildings will rise rapidly in the near future because of several social economics factors and this situation occurs not only in developed countries but also in developing countries such as Malaysia. There is demand towards building with energy efficiency features at this time, however most of the current buildings types are still being constructed with conventional designs, thus contribute to inefficient of energy consumption during the operation stage of the building. This paper presents the concept and the application of Value Management (VM) approach and its potential to improve consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction process. Based on the relevant literatures, VM has provides an efficient and effective delivery system to fulfill the objectives and client's requirements. Generally in this paper, VM is discussed and scrutinized with reference to previous studies to see how these concepts contribute to better optimize the energy consumption in a building by seeking the best value energy efficiency through the design and construction process. This paper will not draw any conclusion but rather a preliminary research to propose the most energy efficiency measures to reliably accomplish a function that will meet the client's needs, desires and expectations. For further research in future, simple quantitative industry survey and VM workshops will be conducted to validate and further improve the research.

  3. Predictors of Turkish Elementary Teacher Candidates' Energy Conservation Behaviors: An Approach on Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elvan

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to explain elementary teacher candidates' energy conservation behaviors by using Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) Theory. Participants in this study were 512 students at Faculty of Education from two public universities in Turkey. Of the 512 students, 35.5% were enrolled in the early childhood education program, 30.9% were in the…

  4. A review of UK wind energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Wind power activities in Great Britain are reviewed, including a brief summary of historical windmill usage and details of developmental efforts in large and small wind turbines. An annual average resource of 5 m/sec at 10 m has been extrapolated to predict an 8-10 m/sec resource at the hub heights of large wind turbines. Initial estimates indicate that at least half of Great Britain's annual electricity consumption can be produced from windpowered generators. The potential of offshore large WECS siting is being examined, although the wind-derived electricity from those regions are projected to cost three times that of land-based operation. Recorded wind patterns with 12-48 hr. duration have indicated that at least 20% penetration into the national grid is acceptable. A test 250 kW machine is being built as a model for a 3.7 MW machine, both intended for installation at Orkney, Scotland. Additionally, construction has begun on a 25-m diameter, vertical axis, variable geometry Musgrove wind turbine. The straight-bladed machine will produce a maximum of 130 kW, and is a prototype of multi-MW offshore units.

  5. The Educational Value of High Risk Activities in the Physical Education Program: A Social Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Robert E. C.

    A growing number of schools and institutions in North America have begun offering training in high risk activities such as high element rope courses, rock climbing, white water kayaking and canoeing, and scuba diving in conjunction with their regular physical education activity programs. High risk activities are those activities which occur in or…

  6. Prefrontal and Striatal Activity Related to Values of Objects and Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Hwang, Jaewon; Lee, Daeyeol

    2012-01-01

    The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values (DVs) associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and DVs of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute DVs of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations. PMID:22822390

  7. Active Teaching Methods: Personal Experience of Integrating Spiritual and Moral Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Tengku Sarina Aini Tengku; Yusoff, Yusmini Md

    2014-01-01

    Islamic education has always recognized spiritual and moral values as significant elements in developing a "balanced" human being. One way of demonstrating spiritual and moral concepts is through effective teaching methods that integrate and forefront these values. This article offers an investigation of how the authors' teaching…

  8. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  9. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  10. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  11. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-29

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  12. An Assessment of the Value and Applicability of the Water-Energy Nexus Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    There have been major advances in the past decade in thinking about the links between water and energy resources, often called the Water-Energy Nexus. While past resource practices addressed these resource issues separately, both the scientific and the policy communities now acknowledge the close connections between them. Substantial work has been done quantifying and analyzing water requirements of both specific energy systems and integrated scenario projections. Less (albeit some) work has been done evaluating and analyzing the energy and greenhouse gas implications of building and operating water systems. But acknowledging and even quantifying these links is not the same as truly integrating them into decisions about water or energy use, changing policies or infrastructure to account for the connections, or actually advancing sustainable resource management. This talk will review the key scientific findings associated with recent work on the "nexus," including estimates of water requirements for energy systems and energy for water systems, the links with climate change mitigation and adaptation, and examples where work on the nexus has actually produced real change in resource policy.

  13. Sustainable development of tyre char-based activated carbons with different textural properties for value-added applications.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; Yeung, Kit Ying; Guo, Jiaxin; Wang, Huaimin; McKay, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims at the sustainable development of activated carbons for value-added applications from the waste tyre pyrolysis product, tyre char, in order to make pyrolysis economically favorable. Two activation process parameters, activation temperature (900, 925, 950 and 975 °C) and residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) with steam as the activating agent have been investigated. The textural properties of the produced tyre char activated carbons have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments at -196 °C. The activation process has resulted in the production of mesoporous activated carbons confirmed by the existence of hysteresis loops in the N2 adsorption-desorption curves and the pore size distribution curves obtained from BJH method. The BET surface area, total pore volume and mesopore volume of the activated carbons from tyre char have been improved to 732 m(2)/g, 0.91 cm(3)/g and 0.89 cm(3)/g, respectively. It has been observed that the BET surface area, mesopore volume and total pore volume increased linearly with burnoff during activation in the range of experimental parameters studied. Thus, yield-normalized surface area, defined as the surface area of the activated carbon per gram of the precursor, has been introduced to optimize the activation conditions. Accordingly, the optimized activation conditions have been demonstrated as an activation temperature of 975 °C and an activation time of 4 h.

  14. Sustainable development of tyre char-based activated carbons with different textural properties for value-added applications.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; Yeung, Kit Ying; Guo, Jiaxin; Wang, Huaimin; McKay, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims at the sustainable development of activated carbons for value-added applications from the waste tyre pyrolysis product, tyre char, in order to make pyrolysis economically favorable. Two activation process parameters, activation temperature (900, 925, 950 and 975 °C) and residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) with steam as the activating agent have been investigated. The textural properties of the produced tyre char activated carbons have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments at -196 °C. The activation process has resulted in the production of mesoporous activated carbons confirmed by the existence of hysteresis loops in the N2 adsorption-desorption curves and the pore size distribution curves obtained from BJH method. The BET surface area, total pore volume and mesopore volume of the activated carbons from tyre char have been improved to 732 m(2)/g, 0.91 cm(3)/g and 0.89 cm(3)/g, respectively. It has been observed that the BET surface area, mesopore volume and total pore volume increased linearly with burnoff during activation in the range of experimental parameters studied. Thus, yield-normalized surface area, defined as the surface area of the activated carbon per gram of the precursor, has been introduced to optimize the activation conditions. Accordingly, the optimized activation conditions have been demonstrated as an activation temperature of 975 °C and an activation time of 4 h. PMID:26775155

  15. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349

  16. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  17. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  18. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  19. On apparent activation energies of creep in nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Picasso, A.C. |; Marzocca, A.J.

    1999-09-10

    Generally, the steady state is well defined in the creep curve in pure metals and some single-phase alloys. In this case, the diagram log {dot {epsilon}} vs. {epsilon} (where {epsilon} is the plastic strain) shows an extensive range of strain where the steady-state creep rate is maintained approximately constant. However, in those materials which present an unstable substructure, such as the particle strengthened alloys, the strain rate reaches a momentary minimum value instead of a steady-state creep rate. In this way, the minimum creep rate is observed in a regime of unstable transition. In this work, a study of the apparent activation energy of creep for IN-X750 was performed, using the differential temperature step technique. The tests were carried out near the minimum strain rate in order to analyze the influence of the material substructure on the values of the apparent activation energy.

  20. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  1. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  2. High-value energy storage for the grid: a multi-dimensional look

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, Walter J.

    2010-12-15

    The conceptual attractiveness of energy storage in the electrical power grid has grown in recent years with Smart Grid initiatives. But cost is a problem, interwoven with the complexity of quantifying the benefits of energy storage. This analysis builds toward a multi-dimensional picture of storage that is offered as a step toward identifying and removing the gaps and ''friction'' that permeate the delivery chain from research laboratory to grid deployment. (author)

  3. Increasing Property Value with Energy Saving Practices: Hines Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-13

    Hines partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  4. Exact Energy Computation of the One Component Plasma on a Sphere for Even Values of the Coupling Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, R.; Téllez, G.

    2016-08-01

    The two dimensional one component plasma 2dOCP is a classical system consisting of N identical particles with the same charge q confined in a two dimensional surface with a neutralizing background. The Boltzmann factor at temperature T may be expressed as a Vandermonde determinant to the power Γ =q^2/(k_B T). Several statistical properties of the 2dOCP have been studied by expanding the Boltzmann factor in the monomial basis for even values of Γ . In this work, we use this formalism to compute the energy of the 2dOCP on a sphere. Using the same approach the entropy is computed. The entropy as well as the free energy in the thermodynamic limit have a universal finite-size correction term χ /12log N, where χ =2 is the Euler characteristic of the sphere. A non-recursive formula for coefficients of monomial functions expansion is used for exploring the energy as well as structural properties for sufficiently large values of Γ to appreciate the crystallization features for N=2,3,ldots ,9 particles. Finally, we make a brief comparison between the exact and numerical energies obtained with the Metropolis method for even values of Γ.

  5. Calculation of absolute free energy of binding for theophylline and its analogs to RNA aptamer using nonequilibrium work values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, Yoshiaki; Ito, Masakatsu; Fujitani, Hideaki

    2007-08-01

    The massively parallel computation of absolute binding free energy with a well-equilibrated system (MP-CAFEE) has been developed [H. Fujitani, Y. Tanida, M. Ito, G. Jayachandran, C.D. Snow, M.R. Shirts, E.J. Sorin, V.S. Pande, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 084108]. As an application, we perform the binding affinity calculations of six theophylline-related ligands with RNA aptamer. Basically, our method is applicable when using many compute nodes to accelerate simulations, thus a parallel computing system is also developed. To further reduce the computational cost, the adequate non-uniform intervals of coupling constant λ, connecting two equilibrium states, namely bound and unbound, are determined. The absolute binding energies Δ G thus obtained have effective linear relation between the computed and experimental values. If the results of two other different methods are compared, thermodynamic integration (TI) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) by the paper of Gouda et al. [H. Gouda, I.D. Kuntz, D.A. Case, P.A. Kollman, Biopolymers 68 (2003) 16], the predictive accuracy of the relative values ΔΔ G is almost comparable to that of TI: the correlation coefficients ( R) obtained are 0.99 (this work), 0.97 (TI), and 0.78 (MM-PBSA). On absolute binding energies meanwhile, a constant energy shift of ˜-7 kcal/mol against the experimental values is evident. To solve this problem, several presumable reasons are investigated.

  6. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  7. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01

    More than fifteen years after the launch of programs in theU.K. and U.S., industry still offers one of the largest opportunities forenergy savings worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimatesthe savings potential from cost-optimization of industrial motor-drivensystems alone at 7 percent of global electricity use. The U.S. Departmentof Energy (USDOE) Industrial Technologies Program estimates 7 percentsavings potential in total US industrial energy use through theapplication of proven best practice. Simple paybacks for these types ofprojects are frequently two years or less. The technology required toachieve these savings is widely available; the technical skills requiredto identify energy saving opportunities are known and transferable.Although programs like USDOE's Best Practices have been highlysuccessful, most plants, as supported by 2002 MECS data, remain eitherunaware or unmotivated to improve their energy efficiency--as evidencedby the 98 percent of US industrial facilities reporting to MECS say thatthey lack a full-time energy manager. With the renewed interest in energyefficiency worldwide and the emergence of carbon trading and newfinancial instruments such as white certificates1, there is a need tointroduce greater transparency into the way that industrial facilitiesidentify, develop, and document energy efficiency projects. Historically,industrial energy efficiency projects have been developed by plantengineers, frequently with assistance from consultants and/or supplierswith highly specialized technical skills. Under this scenario,implementation of energy efficiency improvements is dependent onindividuals. These individuals typically include "champions" within anindustrial facility or corporation, working in cooperation withconsultants or suppliers who have substantial knowledge based on years ofexperience. This approach is not easily understood by others without thisspecialized technical knowledge, penetrates the market fairly slowly

  8. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2009-10-01

    Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation. PMID:19459891

  9. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2009-10-01

    Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation.

  10. An assessment of the net value of CSP systems integrated with thermal energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Mehos, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Turchi, C.

    2015-05-01

    Within this study, we evaluate the operational and capacity value—or total system value—for multiple concentrating solar power (CSP) plant configurations under an assumed 33% renewable penetration scenario in California. We calculate the first-year bid price for two CSP plants, including a 2013 molten-salt tower integrated with a conventional Rankine cycle and a hypothetical 2020 molten-salt tower system integrated with an advanced supercritical carbon-dioxide power block. The overall benefit to the regional grid, defined in this study as the net value, is calculated by subtracting the first-year bid price from the total system value.

  11. On the problem of optimal control of the thrust value of the electric propulsion rocket with solar energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiforenko, Boris N.; Vasil'ev, Igor Yu.; Tkachenko, Yaroslav V.

    2013-08-01

    Under consideration is the optimal control problem on a spacecraft motion in Newtonian central gravity field. With the use of the mathematical model of electrojet propulsion device (EPD) with solar energy source, proposed earlier in paper [1], the dependence of the EPD working substance choice on both the duration of the given dynamic maneuver and the propellant expenditures for its fulfillment is investigated. The efficiency evaluation is carrying out of optimal control of variable valued thrust as well as that for relay mode thrust and relay mode thrust with optimal fixed thrust value.

  12. The energy and protein value of wheat, maize and blend DDGS for cattle and evaluation of prediction methods.

    PubMed

    De Boever, J L; Blok, M C; Millet, S; Vanacker, J; De Campeneere, S

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition inclusive amino acids (AAs) and the energy and protein value of three wheat, three maize and seven blend (mainly wheat) dried distillers grains and solubles (DDGS) were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The digestible protein in the intestines (DVE) and the degraded protein balance (OEB) were determined by nylon bag incubations in the rumen and the intestines of cannulated cows. Additional chemical parameters like acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), protein solubility in water, in borate-phosphate buffer and in pepsin-HCl, in vitro digestibility (cellulase, protease, rumen fluid) and colour scores (L*, a*, b*) were evaluated as potential predictors of the energy and protein value. Compared to wheat DDGS (WDDGS), maize DDGS (MDDGS) had a higher NEL-value (8.49 v. 7.38 MJ/kg DM), a higher DVE-content (216 v. 198 g/kg DM) and a lower OEB-value (14 v. 66 g/kg DM). The higher energy value of MDDGS was mainly due to the higher crude fat (CFA) content (145 v. 76 g/kg DM) and also to better digestible cell-walls, whereas the higher protein value was mainly due to the higher percentage of rumen bypass protein (RBP: 69.8 v. 55.6%). The NEL-value of blend DDGS (BDDGS) was in between that of the pure DDGS-types, whereas its DVE-value was similar to MDDGS. Although lower in CP and total AAs, MDDGS provided a similar amount of essential AAs as the other DDGS-types. Lysine content was most reduced in the production of WDDGS and cysteine in MDDGS. Fat content explained 68.6% of the variation in NEL, with hemicellulose and crude ash as extra explaining variables. The best predictor for RBP as well as for OEB was the protein solubility in pepsin-HCl (R 2=77.3% and 83.5%). Intestinal digestibility of RBP could best be predicted by ADF (R 3=73.6%) and the combination of CFA and NDF could explain 60.2% of the variation in the content of absorbable microbial protein. The availability of

  13. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  14. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  15. Impact of the temperature dependency of fiberglass insulation R-value on cooling energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, R.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1996-08-01

    Building energy models usually employ a constant, room-temperature-measured value for the thermal resistance of fiberglass roof insulation. In summer, however, the mean temperature of roof insulation can rise significantly above room temperature, lowering the insulation`s thermal resistance by 10% to 20%. Though the temperature dependence of the thermal resistance of porous materials like fiberglass has been extensively studied, it is difficult to theoretically predict the variation with temperature of a particular fiberglass blanket, from first principles. Heat transfer within fiberglass is complicated by the presence of three significant mechanisms - conduction through air, conduction through the glass matrix, and radiative exchange within the matrix - and a complex, unknown internal geometry. Purely theoretical models of fiberglass heat transfer assume highly simplified matrix structures and require typically-unavailable information about the fiberglass, such as its optical properties. There is also a dearth of useful experimental data. While the thermal resistances of many individual fiberglass samples have been measured, there is only one practical published table of thermal resistance vs. both temperature and density. Data from this table was incorporated in the DOE-2 building energy model. DOE-2 was used to simulate the roof surface temperature, roof heat flux, and cooling energy consumption of a school bungalow whose temperature and energy use had been monitored in 1992. The DOE-2 predictions made with and without temperature variation of thermal conductivity were compared to measured values. Simulations were also run for a typical office building. Annual cooling energy loads and annual peak hourly cooling powers were calculated for the office building using both fixed and variable thermal conductivities, and using five different climates. The decrease in the R-value of the office building`s roof led to a 2% to 4% increase in annual cooling energy load.

  16. A Fluorescent Reporter of AMPK activity and Cellular Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Peiling; Zheng, Bin; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the AMP/ATP ratio in cells is elevated due to energy stress. Here we describe a biosensor, AMPKAR, which exhibits enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in response to phosphorylation by AMPK, allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of AMPK activity in single cells. We show that this reporter responds to a variety of stimuli that are known to induce energy stress and that the response is dependent on AMPK α1 & α2 and on the upstream kinase, LKB1. Interestingly we found that AMPK activation is confined to the cytosol in response to energy stress but can be observed in both the cytosol and nucleus in response to calcium elevation. Finally, using this probe with U2OS cells in a microfluidics device, we observed a very high cell-to-cell variability in the amplitude and time course of AMPK activation and recovery in response to pulses of glucose deprivation. PMID:21459332

  17. Capacity Value: Evaluation of WECC Rule of Thumb; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo

    2015-06-09

    This presentation compares loss of load expectation and wind and solar capacity values to the rules of thumb used in the Western Interconnection planning and provides alternative recommendations to the modeling efforts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council's Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee.

  18. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P < 0.01) the digestibility coefficients of DM, energy, ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizability coefficients of DM, nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively.

  19. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P < 0.01) the digestibility coefficients of DM, energy, ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizability coefficients of DM, nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively. PMID:26976902

  20. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex co-varies with revealed social preferences: evidence for person-invariant value

    PubMed Central

    López, Gilberto; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Although altruistic and selfish behaviors seem fundamentally incommensurable humans regularly choose between them. One model of such choices suggests that individuals ascribe a common form of subjective value to their own outcomes and those of others. To test this ‘person invariance’ hypothesis, we asked individuals to choose between allocating varying amounts of money to themselves or to a partner. Participants’ choice patterns provided an estimate of the relative value they placed on their own and others’ gains. These estimates were used to isolate neural activity correlating with the subjective value of gains irrespective of the recipient (self or other) during a separate set of trials in which rewards were offered only to the self or partner. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex scaled with this person-invariant value parameter, consistent with earlier demonstrations that this region supports common value computation. These data suggest that individuals reduce the value associated with their own and others’ experiences to a common subjective scale, which is used to guide social decision-making. PMID:23314009

  1. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs. PMID:21410278

  2. 77 FR 31006 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Valuing Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Water Quality in the Chesapeake Bay Using Stated Preference Methods; EPA ICR No. 2456.01, OMB Control No..., NCEE plans to conduct a broad-based inquiry into benefits using a state-of-the-art stated preference...'' and estimating the monetary value can only be achieved through a stated preference survey. In...

  3. 77 FR 4299 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Valuing Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Water Quality in the Chesapeake Bay Using Stated Preference Methods; EPA ICR No. 2456.01 AGENCY..., NCEE plans to conduct a broad-based inquiry into benefits using a state-of-the-art stated preference...'' and estimating the monetary value can only be achieved through a stated preference survey. In...

  4. Values Development through Physical Activity: Promoting Sportsmanlike Behaviors, Perceptions, and Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandzilak, Thomas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of two junior high male basketball teams tested the ability of an intervention model to alter values-related behavior, perceptions, and moral reasoning of the experimental group. Results suggest the treatment was effective in positively altering sportsmanlike and unsportsmanlike behavior. (IAH)

  5. Response to "A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; McClain, James J.; Hart, Teresa L.; Sisson, Susan B.; Washington, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    As researchers and science writers, the authors are always pleased when anyone takes enough interest in their work, but this time it was especially pleasing to have inspired Beets to comment on it (Beets, 2010)! The focus of his commentary is "Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth" (Tudor-Locke, McClain, Hart, Sisson,…

  6. Puerto Rican Adolescents' Disclosure and Lying to Parents about Peer and Risky Activities: Associations with Teens' Perceptions of Latino Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M = 15.58 years, SD = 1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to…

  7. Teachers' Understanding of Students' Attitudes and Values toward Physical Activity in Physical Education Dropout Rates and Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…

  8. Puerto Rican adolescents' disclosure and lying to parents about peer and risky activities: associations with teens' perceptions of Latino values.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G

    2012-08-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.

  9. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.

    PubMed

    Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

    2012-01-21

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  10. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanconelli, N.; Pacilio, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Botta, F.; Di Dia, A.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Pérez, M. A.; Cremonesi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  11. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles was investigated. For all particle sizes investigated, a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction was observed reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T >- 38°C). The frozen fraction in the plateau region was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, an asymptotic value for ice active surface site density ns, which we named ns⋆, could be determined for the investigated feldspar sample. The comparison of these results with those of other studies not only elucidates the general feasibility of determining such an asymptotic value but also shows that the value of ns⋆ strongly depends on the method of the particle surface area determination. However, such an asymptotic value might be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. At least it shows that care should be taken when ns is extrapolated to lower or higher temperature.

  12. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  13. Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two reference states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these reference states for internal energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)

  14. Up Close and Personal: The Value of Feedback in Implementing an Individual Energy-Saving Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Carol Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the drivers of computer-related sustainability behavior at a medium-sized US university and the extent to which an inexpensive energy-saving device installed on 146 administrator, faculty and general staff workstations achieved significant savings in kWh, CO[subscript 2] kg and dollars.…

  15. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  16. Energy value of crude glycerol in 11 and 110 kg pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of biofuels is increasing due to rising energy prices, uncertain access to petroleum supplies, and recognition of the environmental impacts of using fossil fuel. Biodiesel is alternative to diesel fuel consisting of the monoalkyl esters formed by a catalyzed reaction of the triacylglyceri...

  17. Teaching Energy Concepts by Working on Themes of Cultural and Environmental Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a central topic in physics and a key concept for understanding the physical, biological and technological worlds. It is a complex topic with multiple connections with different areas of science and with social, environmental and philosophical issues. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the teaching and learning of the energy…

  18. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25th-75th) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25th-75th) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual’s heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p < 0.001) and 24.8 (21.6-28.9) vs.26.2 (24.5-30.8) %HRR, p < 0.01], respectively. Overweight children allocated more of their day to sedentary pursuits [385 (336-468) vs 297 (235-468) min/d, p < 0.001], and less time to moderate physical activity [381(321-457) vs. 460 (380-534) min/d, p < 0.01]. Nevertheless, because of the greater energy cost of a given task, total and active daily energy expenditure did not differ from those with a normal BMI. Key points The physical activity intensity for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals. However, because the energy cost of activity is greater in those who are overweight, they do not differ in total energy expenditure or in active energy expenditure. Normal children spend more time in moderate activity and less time in

  19. Measurements of Generated Energy/Electrical Quantities from Locomotion Activities Using Piezoelectric Wearable Sensors for Body Motion Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Bibbo, Daniele; Vala, David; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, two different piezoelectric transducers-a ceramic piezoelectric, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and a polymeric piezoelectric, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-were compared in terms of energy that could be harvested during locomotion activities. The transducers were placed into a tight suit in proximity of the main body joints. Initial testing was performed by placing the transducers on the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle; then, five locomotion activities-walking, walking up and down stairs, jogging and running-were chosen for the tests. The values of the power output measured during the five activities were in the range 6 µW-74 µW using both transducers for each joint.

  20. Measurements of Generated Energy/Electrical Quantities from Locomotion Activities Using Piezoelectric Wearable Sensors for Body Motion Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Bibbo, Daniele; Vala, David; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two different piezoelectric transducers-a ceramic piezoelectric, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and a polymeric piezoelectric, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-were compared in terms of energy that could be harvested during locomotion activities. The transducers were placed into a tight suit in proximity of the main body joints. Initial testing was performed by placing the transducers on the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle; then, five locomotion activities-walking, walking up and down stairs, jogging and running-were chosen for the tests. The values of the power output measured during the five activities were in the range 6 µW-74 µW using both transducers for each joint. PMID:27077867

  1. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities since 1986. (76 FR 55278) The NOPR reflected a need.... ] DATES: DOE will continue to accept written comments on the SNOPR published August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46829... a second opportunity to comment. (78 FR 46829) II. Second Public Meeting A public meeting on...

  2. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  3. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  4. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  5. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  6. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  7. The Impact of the Campus Culture on Students' Civic Activities, Values, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Meredith S.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2014-01-01

    A supportive campus culture is critical to institutionalizing civic engagement and instilling the principles of active citizenship. This chapter explores a model that quantitatively measures the impact of the campus environment on civic engagement outcomes.

  8. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in plasma: statistical distributions, individual variations, and reference values.

    PubMed

    Siest, G; Schiele, F; Galteau, M M; Panek, E; Steinmetz, J; Fagnani, F; Gueguen, R

    1975-07-01

    The determination of frequency value (percentile limits) and the classification of the different variation factors allow us to define more and more homogeneous subpopulations as we use these factors for sorting. Using as our study population those persons coming to the Centre for Preventive Medicine, we were able to: (a) Describe and measure the significance and importance of physiological variations or of variations attributed to age--the latter largely related only to excessive weight, which it seems to us is often the case. (b) Establish a classification for variation factors; the recapitulatory table should be useful to clinical chemists in helping physicians interpret a laboratory test result that falls within the zone of incertitude. (c) Suggest a preliminary group of reference values for healthy subjects, to be used in interpreting a laboratory test in this way.

  9. The Effects of Values Dilemma Activities on the Content Retention and Attitudes of Social Studies Students: An Empirical Investigation Based upon the Casteel-Stahl Approach to Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Robert J.

    The paper reports results of a study to determine the impact of values decision-making activities on the content retention and attitudes of high school social studies students. The study used the Casteel-Stahl approach to values education. This approach maintains that students must engage in four phases of thinking during values/moral classroom…

  10. Thera-band(®) elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band(®) elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  11. Thera-band® elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band® elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  12. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  13. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  14. Thermodynamic derivation of the activation energy for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  15. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  16. Combined Chemical Activation and Fenton Degradation to Convert Waste Polyethylene into High-Value Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Chan, Chung-Sum; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste is a valuable organic resource. However, proper technologies to recover usable materials from plastic are still very rare. Although the conversion/cracking/degradation of certain plastics into chemicals has drawn much attention, effective and selective cracking of the major waste plastic polyethylene is extremely difficult, with degradation of C-C/C-H bonds identified as the bottleneck. Pyrolysis, for example, is a nonselective degradation method used to crack plastics, but it requires a very high energy input. To solve the current plastic pollution crisis, more effective technologies are needed for converting plastic waste into useful substances that can be fed into the energy cycle or used to produce fine chemicals for industry. In this study, we demonstrate a new and effective chemical approach by using the Fenton reaction to convert polyethylene plastic waste into carboxylic acids under ambient conditions. Understanding the fundamentals of this new chemical process provides a possible protocol to solve global plastic-waste problems.

  17. Animal activity around the clock with no overt circadian rhythms: patterns, mechanisms and adaptive value.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Barnes, Brian M; Gerkema, Menno P; Helm, Barbara

    2013-08-22

    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in many organisms. Animals that are forced to be active around the clock typically show reduced performance, health and survival. Nevertheless, we review evidence of animals showing prolonged intervals of activity with attenuated or nil overt circadian rhythms and no apparent ill effects. We show that around-the-clock and ultradian activity patterns are more common than is generally appreciated, particularly in herbivores, in animals inhabiting polar regions and habitats with constant physical environments, in animals during specific life-history stages (such as migration or reproduction), and in highly social animals. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, but studies suggest that some circadian pacemakers continue to measure time in animals active around the clock. The prevalence of around-the-clock activity in diverse animals and habitats, and an apparent diversity of underlying mechanisms, are consistent with convergent evolution. We suggest that the basic organizational principles of the circadian system and its complexity encompass the potential for chronobiological plasticity. There may be trade-offs between benefits of persistent daily rhythms versus plasticity, which for reasons still poorly understood make overt daily arrhythmicity functionally adaptive only in selected habitats and for selected lifestyles.

  18. Animal activity around the clock with no overt circadian rhythms: patterns, mechanisms and adaptive value

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Barnes, Brian M.; Gerkema, Menno P.; Helm, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in many organisms. Animals that are forced to be active around the clock typically show reduced performance, health and survival. Nevertheless, we review evidence of animals showing prolonged intervals of activity with attenuated or nil overt circadian rhythms and no apparent ill effects. We show that around-the-clock and ultradian activity patterns are more common than is generally appreciated, particularly in herbivores, in animals inhabiting polar regions and habitats with constant physical environments, in animals during specific life-history stages (such as migration or reproduction), and in highly social animals. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, but studies suggest that some circadian pacemakers continue to measure time in animals active around the clock. The prevalence of around-the-clock activity in diverse animals and habitats, and an apparent diversity of underlying mechanisms, are consistent with convergent evolution. We suggest that the basic organizational principles of the circadian system and its complexity encompass the potential for chronobiological plasticity. There may be trade-offs between benefits of persistent daily rhythms versus plasticity, which for reasons still poorly understood make overt daily arrhythmicity functionally adaptive only in selected habitats and for selected lifestyles. PMID:23825202

  19. Animal activity around the clock with no overt circadian rhythms: patterns, mechanisms and adaptive value.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Barnes, Brian M; Gerkema, Menno P; Helm, Barbara

    2013-08-22

    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in many organisms. Animals that are forced to be active around the clock typically show reduced performance, health and survival. Nevertheless, we review evidence of animals showing prolonged intervals of activity with attenuated or nil overt circadian rhythms and no apparent ill effects. We show that around-the-clock and ultradian activity patterns are more common than is generally appreciated, particularly in herbivores, in animals inhabiting polar regions and habitats with constant physical environments, in animals during specific life-history stages (such as migration or reproduction), and in highly social animals. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, but studies suggest that some circadian pacemakers continue to measure time in animals active around the clock. The prevalence of around-the-clock activity in diverse animals and habitats, and an apparent diversity of underlying mechanisms, are consistent with convergent evolution. We suggest that the basic organizational principles of the circadian system and its complexity encompass the potential for chronobiological plasticity. There may be trade-offs between benefits of persistent daily rhythms versus plasticity, which for reasons still poorly understood make overt daily arrhythmicity functionally adaptive only in selected habitats and for selected lifestyles. PMID:23825202

  20. Evaluating the value of concentrated solar power in electricity systems with fluctuating energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Stöcker, Philipp; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a method for evaluating the value of CSP in electricity systems in comparison to other technologies. The low parametrization effort of the presented model allows for conducting studies for different electricity systems and scenarios within a manageable time frame. CSP systems in possible German electricity systems in the year 2050 can be used at its best, when the share of fluctuating renewables (FRES) is low. Under these conditions CSP is a cost-effective solution to meet CO2-reduction goals of 90 % in comparison to 1990. With FRES shares above 70 % the utilization of CSP systems would be too low to be competitive.

  1. Clinical value of fecal calprotectin in determining disease activity of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jun-Ying; Ouyang, Qin; Li, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Nan-Ping

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate possibility and clinical application of fecal calprotectin in determining disease activity of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the concentrations of calprotectin in feces obtained from 66 patients with UC and 20 controls. C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), acid glycoprotein (AGP) were also measured and were compared with calprotectin in determining disease activity of UC. The disease activity of UC was also determined by the Sutherland criteria. RESULTS: The fecal calprotectin concentration in the patients with active UC was significantly higher than that in the inactive UC and in the controls (402.16 ± 48.0 μg/g vs 35.93 ± 3.39 μg/g, 11.5 ± 3.42 μg/g, P < 0.01). The fecal calprotectin concentration in the inactive UC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also found in the patients with active UC of mild, moderate and severe degrees. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics (AUCROC) was 0.975, 0.740, 0.692 and 0.737 for fecal calprotectin, CRP, ESR and AGP, respectively. There was a strong correlation between the fecal calprotectin concentration and the endoscopic gradings for UC (r = 0.866, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Calprotectin in the patient’s feces can reflect the disease activity of UC and can be used as a rational fecal marker for intestinal inflammation in clinical practice. This kind of marker is relatively precise, simple and noninvasive when compared with other commonly-used markers such as CRP, ESR and AGP. PMID:18176961

  2. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.

    PubMed

    Özelçam, H; Kırkpınar, F; Tan, K

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  3. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    PubMed Central

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  4. The value of prevention: managing the risks associated with targeted violence and active shooters.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Every time we turn on the news, or open our Internet browsers, a story about an active shooter--at a school, house of worship, public place and even in our workplace--spills onto the page, the author reports. In this article he focuses on how we can prevent these incidents from occurring. What exactly is "targeted violence"--and why is what experts call "behavioral threat assessment" one of the single most effective ways to prevent the next active shooter incident in any organization?

  5. The value of prevention: managing the risks associated with targeted violence and active shooters.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Every time we turn on the news, or open our Internet browsers, a story about an active shooter--at a school, house of worship, public place and even in our workplace--spills onto the page, the author reports. In this article he focuses on how we can prevent these incidents from occurring. What exactly is "targeted violence"--and why is what experts call "behavioral threat assessment" one of the single most effective ways to prevent the next active shooter incident in any organization? PMID:26978957

  6. Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Tutuncu, Emin Ediz; Sencan, Irfan; Cicek Senturk, Gonul; Altay, Fatma Aybala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease in Turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet. Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine the levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as predictors of prognosis in CCHF. Patients and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM positivity in the reference laboratory were included in this study. Tissue Plasminogen activator and PAI-1 levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercial kit (human t-PA ELISA and human PAL-1 ELISA; BioVendor research and diagnostic products, BioVendor-Laboratorni medicina a.s., Brno, Czech Republic). Results: A total of 46 patients participated in this study. The significant differences between recovering patients and the patients who died, regarding Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombocyte and fibrinogen levels, were consistent with many clinical studies in the literature. The fatal cases were found to have higher tPA and PAI-1 levels in contrast to the patients who completely recovered. Conclusions: We think that these findings may help the progress of understanding of CCHF pathogenesis. PMID:26587219

  7. A strategic value management approach for energy and maintenance management in a building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Dahlan, Nofri Yenita; Nadarajan, Santhirasegaran

    2015-05-01

    Fragmentation process is always been highlighted by the stakeholders in the construction industry as one of the `critical' issue that diminishing the opportunity for stakeholders that involved during the operation and maintenance stage to influence design decisions. Failure of design professionals to consider how a maintenance contractor or facility manager will construct the design thus results in higher operating cost, wastage, defects during the maintenance and operation process. Moving towards team integration is considered a significant strategy for overcoming the issue. Value Management is a style of management dedicated to guiding people and promoting innovation with the aim to improve overall building performance through structured, team-oriented exercises which make explicit, and appraise subsequent decisions, by reference to the value requirements of the clients. Accordingly, this paper discusses the fragmentation issue in more detail including the definition, causes and effects to the maintenance and operation of building and at the same time will highlighted the potential of VM integrated team approach as a strategic management approach for overcoming that issue. It also explores that the team integration strategy alleviates scheduling problems, delays and disputes during the construction process, and, hence, prevent harming the overall building performance.

  8. The Clinical Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toldi, Gergely; Balog, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls. suPAR provided valuable clinical information on disease activity in RA, SLE and SSc. We identified a subgroup of remitted RA patients, who presented still clinical symptoms of inflammatory activity which correlated to high plasma suPAR (while ESR and CRP were normal). In SLE we established specific suPAR cut-off values that support the discrimination between patients with high and those with moderate SLE activity. In patients with SSc suPAR correlated with objective measures of lung and other complications. In the majority of ACTDs including SLE, SSc or RA, suPAR is seemingly a good biomarker that would provide valuable clinical information. However, before the introduction of this novel parameter in laboratory repertoire important issues should be elucidated. These include the establishment of appropriate and disease specific cutoff values, clarification of interfering preanalytical values and underlying conditions and declaration of age- and gender-specific reference ranges. PMID:27683525

  9. The Clinical Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vasarhelyi, Barna; Toldi, Gergely; Balog, Attila

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls. suPAR provided valuable clinical information on disease activity in RA, SLE and SSc. We identified a subgroup of remitted RA patients, who presented still clinical symptoms of inflammatory activity which correlated to high plasma suPAR (while ESR and CRP were normal). In SLE we established specific suPAR cut-off values that support the discrimination between patients with high and those with moderate SLE activity. In patients with SSc suPAR correlated with objective measures of lung and other complications. In the majority of ACTDs including SLE, SSc or RA, suPAR is seemingly a good biomarker that would provide valuable clinical information. However, before the introduction of this novel parameter in laboratory repertoire important issues should be elucidated. These include the establishment of appropriate and disease specific cutoff values, clarification of interfering preanalytical values and underlying conditions and declaration of age- and gender-specific reference ranges. PMID:27683525

  10. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  11. Adding Value: Using On-Line Activities To Ensure Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Griff; Fong, Rosamaria

    This paper describes a Web site containing activities for chemistry that aid student learning. Used as an adjunct to the normal classroom and laboratory sessions, instructional goals of the Web site were to provide guidance and encourage regular and timely study. Initially learners were able to review the weekly objectives, see short explanations…

  12. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  13. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  14. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  15. Modeling moisture diffusivity, activation energy and specific energy consumption of squash seeds in a semi fluidized and fluidized bed drying.

    PubMed

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Salari, Kamran; Abedi, Qasem; Sabziparvar, Ali Akbar

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated thin layer drying of squash seeds under semi fluidized and fluidized bed conditions with initial moisture content about 83.99% (d.b.). An experimental fluidized bed dryer was also used in this study. Air temperature levels of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C were applied in drying samples. To estimate the drying kinetic of squash seed, seven mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data of thin layer drying. Among the applied models, Two-term model has the best performance to estimate the thin layer drying behavior of the squash seeds. Fick's second law in diffusion was used to determine the effective moisture diffusivity of squash seeds. The range of calculated values of effective moisture diffusivity for drying experiments were between 0.160 × 10(-9) and 0.551 × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Moisture diffusivity values decreased as the input air temperature decreased. Activation energy values were found to be between 31.94 and 34.49 kJ/mol for 50 °C to 80 °C, respectively. The specific energy consumption for squash seeds was calculated at the boundary of 0.783 × 10(6) and 2.303 × 10(6) kJ/kg. Increasing in drying air temperature in different bed conditions led to decrease in specific energy value. Results showed that applying the semi fluidized bed condition is more effective for convective drying of squash seeds. The aforesaid drying characteristics are useful to select the best operational point of fluidized bed dryer and to precise design of system.

  16. Modeling moisture diffusivity, activation energy and specific energy consumption of squash seeds in a semi fluidized and fluidized bed drying.

    PubMed

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Salari, Kamran; Abedi, Qasem; Sabziparvar, Ali Akbar

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated thin layer drying of squash seeds under semi fluidized and fluidized bed conditions with initial moisture content about 83.99% (d.b.). An experimental fluidized bed dryer was also used in this study. Air temperature levels of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C were applied in drying samples. To estimate the drying kinetic of squash seed, seven mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data of thin layer drying. Among the applied models, Two-term model has the best performance to estimate the thin layer drying behavior of the squash seeds. Fick's second law in diffusion was used to determine the effective moisture diffusivity of squash seeds. The range of calculated values of effective moisture diffusivity for drying experiments were between 0.160 × 10(-9) and 0.551 × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Moisture diffusivity values decreased as the input air temperature decreased. Activation energy values were found to be between 31.94 and 34.49 kJ/mol for 50 °C to 80 °C, respectively. The specific energy consumption for squash seeds was calculated at the boundary of 0.783 × 10(6) and 2.303 × 10(6) kJ/kg. Increasing in drying air temperature in different bed conditions led to decrease in specific energy value. Results showed that applying the semi fluidized bed condition is more effective for convective drying of squash seeds. The aforesaid drying characteristics are useful to select the best operational point of fluidized bed dryer and to precise design of system. PMID:24425968

  17. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  18. Multistability of delayed complex-valued recurrent neural networks with discontinuous real-imaginary-type activation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Jiao; Hu, Hai-Gen

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the multistability issue is discussed for delayed complex-valued recurrent neural networks with discontinuous real-imaginary-type activation functions. Based on a fixed theorem and stability definition, sufficient criteria are established for the existence and stability of multiple equilibria of complex-valued recurrent neural networks. The number of stable equilibria is larger than that of real-valued recurrent neural networks, which can be used to achieve high-capacity associative memories. One numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374094 and 61503338) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LQ15F030005).

  19. Value of Web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Du, Hui Yun; Andrew, Sharon; Frost, Steven A; Dunncliff, Kirstin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-07-01

    There is an increasing need to address the educational needs of students with English as a second language. The authors assessed the value of a Web-based activity to meet the needs of students with English as a second language in a bioscience subject. Using telephone contact, we interviewed 21 Chinese students, 24 non-Chinese students with English as a second language, and 7 native English-speaking students to identify the perception of the value of the intervention. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) Language is a barrier to achievement and affects self-confidence; (2) Enhancement intervention promoted autonomous learning; (3) Focusing on the spoken word increases interaction capacity and self-confidence; (4) Assessment and examination drive receptivity and sense of importance. Targeted strategies to promote language acculturation and acquisition are valued by students. Linking language acquisition skills to assessment tasks is likely to leverage improvements in competence.

  20. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  1. Short-term foreshock activity and its value for the earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Daskalaki, Elena; Minadakis, George; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity often occurs in space-time clusters: swarms, short-term foreshocks, aftershocks. Swarms are space-time clusters that do not conclude with a mainshock. Earthquake statistics shows that in areas of good seismicity monitoring foreshocks precede sizeable (M5.5 or more) mainshocks at a rate of about half percent. Therefore, discrimination between foreshocks and swarms is of crucial importance with the aim to use foreshocks as a diagnostic of forthcoming strong mainshock in real-time conditions. We analyzed seismic sequences in Greece and Italy with the application of our algorithm FORMA (Foreshocks-Mainshock-Aftershocks) and discriminate between foreshocks and swarms based on the seismicity significant changes in the space-time-magnitude domains. We support that different statistical properties is a diagnostic of foreshocks (e.g. b-value drop) against swarms (b-value increase). A complementary approach is based on the development of Poisson Hidden Markov Models (PHMM's) which are introduced to model significant temporal seismicity changes. In a PHMM the unobserved sequence of states is a finite-state Markov chain and the distribution of the observation at any time is Poissonian with rate depending only on the current state of the chain. Thus, PHMM allows a region to have varying seismicity rate. PHMM is a promising diagnostic since the transition from one state to another does not only depend on the total number of events involved but also on the current state of the system. A third methodological experiment was performed based on the complex network theory. We found that the earthquake networks examined form a scale-free degree distribution. By computing their basic statistical measures, such as the Average Clustering Coefficient, Mean Path Length and Entropy, we found that they underline the strong space-time clustering of swarms, foreshocks and aftershocks but also their important differences. Therefore, network theory is an additional, promising tool to

  2. Prognostic value of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity in 249 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Romain, S.; Chinot, O.; Klijn, J. G.; van Putten, W. L.; Guirou, O.; Look, M.; Martin, P. M.; Foekens, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Tyrosine-specific protein kinase (TPK) has been associated with the cytoplasmic domain of growth factor receptors as well as oncoproteins. Enzymatic activation appears to be a major initial event in these signal transduction pathways. In this study, TPK was determined in the cytosols of 249 node-positive primary breast tumours. Enzyme activity was measured using [32P]ATP and poly(glutamic acid-tyrosine) (4:1) as an artificial substrate. Levels of TPK varied from 0 to 35.9 pmol ATP min-1 mg-1 protein (median 11.4). No correlation was found with tumour size or number of positive lymph nodes. In contrast, levels of TPK were negatively associated with age (P = 0.01) and menopausal status (P < 0.05) of the patients. Higher concentrations of TPK were in addition found in tumours negative for oestradiol (P < 0.01) and progesterone (P < 0.05) receptors. Finally, a positive correlation was found between TPK and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA) (P < 0.05). Patients whose tumours contained high levels of TPK had reduced disease-free (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.05). In Cox multivariate analysis, including patient's age, menopausal status, tumour size, number of positive lymph nodes, steroid receptors and UPA, TPK retained its independent prognostic importance. PMID:8054279

  3. Activation energy of aggregation-disaggregation self-oscillation of polymer chain.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Jahan, Rumana A

    2012-12-03

    In this paper, we investigated the activation energies of the aggregation−disaggregation self-oscillation induced by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction by utilizing the nonthermoresponsive polymer chain in a wide temperature range. This is because the conventional type self-oscillating polymer chain, with thermoresponsive poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm) main-chain covalently bonded to the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)(3)) of the BZ reaction, cannot evaluate the activation energy over the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain is composed of a poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) main-chain with the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)(3)). As a result, we clarified that the activation energy of the aggregation−disaggregation self-oscillation of the polymer chain is hardly affected by the concentrations of the BZ substrates. In addition, the activation energy of the nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain was found to be almost the same value as normal BZ reaction, i.e., not including the self-oscillating polymer system with Ru moiety.

  4. Predictive value of nuclear factor kappaB activity and plasma cytokine levels in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Arnalich, F; Garcia-Palomero, E; López, J; Jiménez, M; Madero, R; Renart, J; Vázquez, J J; Montiel, C

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between fluctuating cytokine concentrations in plasma and the outcome of sepsis is complex. We postulated that early measurement of the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in proinflammatory cytokine expression, may help to predict the outcome of sepsis. We determined NF-kappaB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 34 patients with severe sepsis (23 survivors and 11 nonsurvivors) and serial concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor) and various endogenous antagonists in plasma. NF-kappaB activity was significantly higher in nonsurvivors and correlated strongly with the severity of illness (APACHE II score), although neither was related to the cytokine levels. Apart from NF-kappaB activity, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was the only cytokine tested whose level in plasma was of value in predicting mortality by logistic regression analysis. These results underscore the prognostic value of early measurement of NF-kappaB activity in patients with severe sepsis.

  5. Predictive Value of Nuclear Factor κB Activity and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Arnalich, Francisco; Garcia-Palomero, Esther; López, Julia; Jiménez, Manuel; Madero, Rosario; Renart, Jaime; Vázquez, Juan José; Montiel, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between fluctuating cytokine concentrations in plasma and the outcome of sepsis is complex. We postulated that early measurement of the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in proinflammatory cytokine expression, may help to predict the outcome of sepsis. We determined NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 34 patients with severe sepsis (23 survivors and 11 nonsurvivors) and serial concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor) and various endogenous antagonists in plasma. NF-κB activity was significantly higher in nonsurvivors and correlated strongly with the severity of illness (APACHE II score), although neither was related to the cytokine levels. Apart from NF-κB activity, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was the only cytokine tested whose level in plasma was of value in predicting mortality by logistic regression analysis. These results underscore the prognostic value of early measurement of NF-κB activity in patients with severe sepsis. PMID:10722586

  6. Symptom Screening Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Is Acceptable and Has High Negative Predictive Value for Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupte, Nikhil; Patil, Sandesh; Bhosale, Ramesh; Sambarey, Pradeep; Ghorpade, Shivahari; Nayak, Uma; Garda, Laila; Sastry, Jayagowri; Bharadwaj, Renu; Bollinger, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated tuberculosis (TB) screening among 799 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected pregnant women in India. Eleven (1.4%) had active TB. The negative predictive value of screening using cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss was 99.3%. Tuberculin skin test and targeted chest radiography provided no substantial benefit. TB symptom screening, as recommended by the World Health Organization, is effective for ruling out TB in HIV-infected pregnant women. PMID:21940417

  7. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  8. On the Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Solar Cycle Using Annual Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The aa index can be decomposed into two separate components: the leading sporadic component due to solar activity as measured by sunspot number and the residual or recurrent component due to interplanetary disturbances, such as coronal holes. For the interval 1964-2006, a highly statistically important correlation (r = 0.749) is found between annual averages of the aa index and the solar wind speed (especially between the residual component of aa and the solar wind speed, r = 0.865). Because cyclic averages of aa (and the residual component) have trended upward during cycles 11-23, cyclic averages of solar wind speed are inferred to have also trended upward.

  9. A model to predict anti-tuberculosis activity: value proposition for marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Grkovic, Tanja; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The development of new antibiotics effective against all strains of tuberculosis (TB) is needed. To evaluate the potential of marine microbe-derived natural products as anti-TB leads, we analyzed and compared the physico-chemical properties of 39 current TB drugs and candidates against 60 confirmed mycobacteria-active natural products. We showed that anti-TB natural products sourced from marine microbes have a large overlap with TB drug-like space. A model to predict potential anti-TB drugs is proposed. PMID:27406906

  10. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  11. The value of different fat supplements as sources of digestible energy for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; Wyatt, D J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of fat supplements that differed in fatty acid composition (chain length and degree of saturation) and chemical form (free fatty acids, Ca salts of fatty acids, and triacylglyceride) on digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet and DE intake by lactating cows were measured. Holstein cows were fed a control diet [2.9% of dry matter (DM) as long-chain fatty acids] or 1 of 3 diets with 3% added fatty acids (that mainly replaced starch). The 3 fat supplements were (1) mostly saturated (C18:0) free fatty acids (SFA), (2) Ca-salts of fatty acids (CaFA), and (3) triacylglyceride high in C16:0 fatty acids (TAG). Cows fed CaFA (22.8 kg/d) consumed less DM than cows fed the control (23.6 kg/d) and TAG (23.8 kg/d) diets but similar to cows fed SFA (23.2 kg/d). Cows fed fat produced more fat-corrected milk than cows fed the control diet (38.2 vs. 41.1 kg/d), mostly because of increased milk fat percentage. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed among the fat-supplemented diets. Digestibility of DM, energy, carbohydrate fractions, and protein did not differ between diets. Digestibility of long-chain fatty acids was greatest for the CaFA diet (76.3%), intermediate for the control and SFA diets (70.3%), and least for the TAG diet (63.3%). Fat-supplemented diets had more DE (2.93 Mcal/kg) than the control diet (2.83 Mcal/kg), and DE intake by cows fed supplemented diets was 1.6 Mcal/d greater than by cows fed the control, but no differences were observed among the supplements. Because the inclusion rate of supplemental fats is typically low, large differences in fatty acid digestibility may not translate into altered DE intake because of small differences in DM intake or digestibility of other nutrients.

  12. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  14. Value added cleaning and disinfection of the root canal: laser-activated irrigation and laser-induced photoporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Roeland J. G.; Meire, Maarten A.

    2016-03-01

    Among present-day marketed systems ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate endodontic irrigants. An alternative for ultrasonic activation of irrigants is laser activated irrigation (LAI) or photoninitiated acoustic streaming. Based on present-day research it appears that LAI (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient for debris removal out of root canals and interaction with the endodontic biofilms thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for LAI. Another way to interact with biofilms is to rely on laser-induced photoporation in combination with gold nanoparticles ( AuNPs). The latter is an alternative physical method for delivering macromolecules in cells. Nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapour nanobubbles that can emerge around the AuNPs.

  15. Measurements of Generated Energy/Electrical Quantities from Locomotion Activities Using Piezoelectric Wearable Sensors for Body Motion Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Bibbo, Daniele; Vala, David; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two different piezoelectric transducers—a ceramic piezoelectric, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and a polymeric piezoelectric, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)—were compared in terms of energy that could be harvested during locomotion activities. The transducers were placed into a tight suit in proximity of the main body joints. Initial testing was performed by placing the transducers on the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle; then, five locomotion activities—walking, walking up and down stairs, jogging and running—were chosen for the tests. The values of the power output measured during the five activities were in the range 6 µW–74 µW using both transducers for each joint. PMID:27077867

  16. Magnetic helicity and free energy in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, K.; Georgoulis, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Archontis, V.

    2013-09-01

    We study the evolution of the non-potential free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in solar active regions (ARs). For this we use a time-series of a three-dimensional, synthetic AR produced by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. As a first step, we calculate the potential magnetic field that has the same normal components with the MHD field along all boundaries of the AR, by solving Laplace's equation. The free magnetic energy of the AR is then easily derived. From the two fields, MHD and potential one, we calculate the corresponding vector potentials with a recently proposed integration method. The knowledge of both fields and their respective vector potentials throughout the AR, allows us to estimate the relative magnetic helicity budget of the AR. Following this procedure for each snapshot of the AR, we reconstruct the evolution of free energy and helicity in the AR. Our method reproduces, for a synthetic AR, the energy/helicity relations known to hold in real active regions.

  17. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124. PMID:26628339

  18. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124.

  19. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-04-09

    This report compares the relative costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax benefits in these three different ways – applying them against outside income , carrying them forward in time until they can be fully absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under current law and late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. In other words, for most project sponsors, bringing in third-party tax equity currently provides net benefits to a project.

  20. Euphorbia characias as bioenergy crop: a study of variations in energy value components according to phenology and water status.

    PubMed

    Escrig, P V; Iglesias, D J; Corma, A; Primo, J; Primo-Millo, E; Cabedo, N

    2013-10-23

    Euphorbia characias has drawn much attention as a potential bioenergy crop given its considerable amount of latex, rich in hydrocarbon-like compounds, and its ability to grow in large areas of semiarid lands. Compositions of major constituents with an energy value have been determined for the three phenological stages of this plant (preflowering, flowering, and postflowering) and different irrigation treatments. Metabolites from both nonpolar and polar extracts have been identified and quantified by GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC-ELSD, and UPLC-PDA-MS. The results highlight that the end of the flowering period is the optimal harvesting time to maximize the yields of E. characias as a potential energy crop. The total water requirements to obtain the maximum yields of hexane- and methanol-extractables were determined for its annual development cycle. PMID:24079468

  1. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  2. Predictive value of serum myeloperoxidase activity for thrombosis of arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Stolic, Radojica V; Trajkovic, Goran Z; Kostic, Mirjana; Stolic, Dragica Z; Miric, Dijana J; Kisic, Bojana M; Pajovic, Slavica D; Peric, Vladan M

    2014-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a proinflammatory protein that appears as a result of increased oxidative stress. It plays an important role in the promotion and progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of MPO as a predictive parameter for thrombosis of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The study involved monitoring patients with AVFs for hemodialysis over a period of 2 years. There were 41 patients, 19 (46%) men and 22 (54%) women, with mean age of 65 ± 12.7 years. Routine laboratory analyses were carried out in all respondents, including determination of MPO concentration. Gender, demographic and anthropometrical characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, as well as the presence of diabetic nephropathy, as an etiological factor of kidney disease, were recorded. The group of patients who developed initial thrombosis of the AVFs had significantly different values for leukocytes (8.5 ± 3.8 vs. 7.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.024), erythrocytes (2.8 ± 0.27 vs. 3.2 ± 0.65; P = 0.019), hemoglobin (88.5 ± 81 vs. 99.1 ± 6.02; P = 0.041), and myeloperoxidase (19.3 ± 4.67 vs. 11.1 ± 4.43; P = 0.007) when compared with the group without fistula thrombosis. Diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.02) characterized the group of patients with thrombosis of the fistula. Diabetic nephropathy (B = 2.53, P = 0.049) and MPO (B = 0.03, P = 0.029) were statistically significant predictors of fistula thrombosis. In our study, MPO and diabetic nephropathy were predictors of thrombosis of the AVF.

  3. The Value of Energy Efficiency Programs for U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings in a Warmer World

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2007-06-15

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). U.S. government buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs are expected to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This has value both in reducing carbon emissions that result in global warming and adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to 1990 by 0.4ºC to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in space cooling. Buildings-related energy efficiency programs should reduce energy consumption in buildings by more than 2 quads in 2020, which would more than offset the growth in space cooling due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  4. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce.

  5. The effect of activated clotting time values for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yi-Yue; Huang, Fang-Yang; Huang, Bao-Tao; Peng, Yong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Shi-Jian; Pu, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Peng-Ju; Chen, Mao

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to illustrate the effect of higher activated clotting time (ACT) values versus lower ACT values on thrombotic or hemorrhagic events in coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. Observational studies assessing ACT related major adverse cardiac event (MACE) and major bleeding were included. Studies were allocated into three groups. Group 1 included studies with low percentage of participants prescribed with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors ([GPI] ≤30%), Group 2 with high percentage of participants prescribed with GPI (>30%), and Group 3 with routine direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) prescription. The cutoff is designed as 300s (290-310s) for Group 1, and 250s (240-260s) for Group 2. With regard to MACE and major bleeding in Group 1, there was no significant difference between higher ACT values and lower ACT values (risk ratio [RR] for MACE, 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-2.05, p=0.62, I(2)=94%, RR for major bleeding, 0.96, 95% CI, 0.66-1.40, p=0.83, I(2)=0%). Likewise, no significant difference was found in Group 2 between higher ACT values and lower ACT values (RR for MACE, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.97-1.35, p=0.10, I(2)=0%, RR for major bleeding, 0.85, 95% CI, 0.45-1.60, p=0.61, I(2)=83%). In conclusion, ACT may not have a substantial effect on thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications. Under current clinical practice, target ACT may be higher than what is necessary to prevent thrombotic events. We may achieve a relative low ACT level to preserve efficacy and enhance safety. PMID:27395438

  6. On the Periodicity of Energy Release in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldvarg, T. B.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Solov'Ev, A. A.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the periodic regimes of energy release on the Sun, namely, the recurrence of solar flares in active regions using the Solar Geophysical Data Journal on Hα flares from 1979 until 1981, which corresponds to the maximum of solar cycle 21. We obtained the following series of periods in the manifestation of flare activity bymeans of a correlation periodogram analysis, a self-similarity function, and a wavelet analysis: ˜1, 2, 3 h as well as ˜0.4, 1, 2, 5 days. We suggest a diffusive model for the quasi-periodic transfer of toroidal magnetic fields from under the photosphere to interpret the retrieved sequence of periods in the enhancement of flare activity. We estimated the typical spatial scales of the magnetic field variations in the solar convection zone: ˜17 000 km.

  7. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  8. Energy value and digestibility of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol are similar to those of triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, H; Nagao, T; Watanabe, H; Onizawa, K; Matsuo, N; Tokimitsu, I; Itakura, H

    2001-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a component of various vegetable oils. Approximately 70% of the DAG in edible oils are in the configuration of 1,3-DAG. We recently showed that long-term ingestion of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-DAG reduces body fat accumulation in humans as compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) oil with a similar fatty acid composition. As the first step to elucidate the mechanism for this result, we examined the difference in the bioavailabilities of both oils by measuring food energy values and digestibilities in rats. Energy values of the DAG oil and the TAG oil, measured by bomb calorimeter, were 38.9 and 39.6 kJ/g, respectively. Apparent digestibility expressed according to the formula: (absorbed) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 = (ingested - excreted in feces) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 for the DAG oil and the TAG oil were 96.3+/-0.4 and 96.3+/-0.3% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. The similarity in the bioavailabilities of both oils supports the hypothesis that the reduced fat accumulation by dietary DAG is caused by the different metabolic fates after the absorption into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11383689

  9. Determination of nutritional and energy value of Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham. Ex D. Don (Indian cranberry).

    PubMed

    Maikhuri, Rakesh K; Dhyani, Deepak; Tyagi, Yasha; Singh, Dalbeer; Negi, Vikram S; Rawat, Lakhpat S

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional and energy value of an underutilized wild edible Viburnum mullaha was determined. Vitamin analysis confirmed that the fruit contains high amounts of vitamin C (122.27 mg/100 g), vitamin B2 (0.14 mg/g), and vitamin E (13.47 mg/g). Macronutrient profile revealed that Viburnum mullaha is a rich source of carbohydrates (18.4 g/100 g), proteins (11.3 g/100 g), and lipids (18.4 g/100 g). It was calculated that 100 g of fruit berries can provide an average of 284.4 kcal (1185.7 kJ) energy. Analysis of magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, and manganese estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer confirmed that fruit berries of Viburnum mullaha can be utilized for developing various edible products. This is the first study ever on the biochemical analysis and nutritional value of this species; hence, it will provide nutritional statistics that scientific societies and the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries can use for their expanding investigations of the ultrasonically assisted technique described here in food and medicine.

  10. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  11. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  12. Evaluation of Thiol Raman Activities and pKa Values Using Internally Referenced Raman-Based pH Titration.

    PubMed

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi; Hu, Juan; Siriwardana, Kumudu; Gadogbe, Manuel; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-04-01

    Thiols, including organothiol and thiol-containing biomolecules, are among the most important classes of chemicals that are used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. Reported herein is an internally referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and dithiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature in the 2600 cm(-1) region relative to an internal reference peak as a function of the titration solution's pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, we determined for the first time the first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithiol in water. This Raman-based method is convenient to implement, and its underlying theory is easy to follow. It should therefore have broad application for thiol pKa determinations and verification.

  13. Evaluation of thiol Raman activities and pKa values using internally referenced Ramanbased pH titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi

    Thiols are one of the most important classes of chemicals used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. This study is an internally-referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and di-thiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature relative to an internal reference peak as a function of solution pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve-fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithol in water were determined for the first time. This method is convenient to implement and its underlying theory is easy to follow.

  14. The relationship between active ghrelin levels and human obesity involves alterations in resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Paolo; Verti, Barbara; Savia, Giulio; Walker, Gillian E; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Mariantonella; Di Blasio, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and fat accumulation. Ser(3) octanoylation is regarded as a prerequisite for ghrelin biological activity, although des-octanoylated forms may retain biological functions in vitro. Circulating ghrelin levels are usually low in obesity and in states of positive energy balance. Hence, the aim of our study was to analyze plasma active and serum total ghrelin levels in 20 obese (ages, 22-42 yr; body mass index, 41.3 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) and 20 lean subjects (ages, 22-43 yr; body mass index, 22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)) as well as their relationship to measures of glucose homeostasis, body fat, and resting energy expenditure (REE). The measured/predicted REE percentage ratio was calculated to subdivide groups into those with positive (> or = 100% ) and negative (<100%) ratio values. In obese patients, plasma active (180 +/- 18 vs. 411 +/- 57 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and serum total ghrelin levels (3650 +/- 408 vs. 5263 +/- 643 pg/ml; P < 0.05) were significantly lower when compared with lean subjects. Hence, ghrelin activity, defined as the proportion of active over total ghrelin levels, was similarly reduced in the obese state (6.1 +/- 0.9% vs. 8.4 +/- 1%; P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between active and total ghrelin (r = 0.62; P < 0.001), and between total ghrelin and insulin (r = -0.53; P < 0.001) or insulin resistance using the homeostatis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r = -0.49; P < 0.001) approach. Significantly higher active ghrelin levels (214 +/- 22 vs. 159 +/- 30 pg/ml; P < 0.05) and ghrelin activity (8 +/- 1.7% vs. 4.9 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05) were observed in patients with positive compared with negative measured/predicted REE ratio values. Our study shows that obesity is associated with an impairment of the entire ghrelin system. The observation that ghrelin is further decreased in cases of abnormal energy profit adds new evidence to the relationship between ghrelin activity and

  15. Energy expenditure, physical activity, and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Goran, M I; Treuth, M S

    2001-08-01

    Although there are physiologic and genetic influences on the various components of energy metabolism and body weight regulation, and a major portion of individual differences in body weight can be explained by genetic differences, it seems unlikely that the increased global prevalence of obesity has been driven by a dramatic change in the gene pool. It is more likely and more reasonable that acute changes in behavior and environment have contributed to the rapid increase in obesity and that genetic factors may be important in the deferring individual susceptibilities to these changes. The most striking behavioral changes that have occurred have been an increased reliance on high-fat and energy-dense "fast foods," with larger portion sizes, coupled with an ever-increasing sedentary lifestyle. The more sedentary lifestyle is caused by an increased reliance on technology and labor-saving devices, which has reduced the need for physical exertion for everyday activities. Examples of energy-saving devices that have resulted in a secular decline in physical activity include: Increased use of automated transport rather than walking or biking Central heating and use of automated equipment, such as washing machines, in the household. Reduction in physical activity in the workplace because of computers, automated equipment, and electronic mail. Increased use of television and computers for entertainment and leisure activities. Use of elevators and escalators rather than stairs. Increased concern for crime, which has reduced the likelihood of outdoor playing. Poor urban planning that does not provide adequate biking paths or even sidewalks in some communities. Thus, the increasing prevalence, numerous health risks, and astounding economic costs of obesity clearly justify widespread efforts toward prevention efforts. These prevention efforts should begin in childhood because the behaviors are learned and continue through the lifetime.

  16. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  17. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  18. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  19. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  20. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  1. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  3. Estimation of water activity from pH and °Brix values of some food products.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2008-06-01

    In this study, a predictive model for the estimation of water activity (aw(25°C)) as a function of pH (1.00-8.00) and °Brix (0-82.00) values of simulated food solutions (SFS) was developed, through response surface methodology. Response fit analyses resulted in a highly significant (pH<0.0001) square root polynomial model that can predict aw(25°C) of SFS in terms of pH and °Brix values within the defined variable ranges. The linear, quadratic and interactive influences of pH and °Brix on aw(25°C) were all significant (pH<0.0001). Model validations in SFS and in a number of actual food systems showed that the model had acceptable predictive performance, as indicated by the calculated accuracy and bias indices. PMID:26065778

  4. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  5. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  6. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  7. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on the DE and ME values and the digestibility of fiber in canola meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed expellers fed to pigs. This experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, ADF, and NDF and to calculate DE and ME values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 27.7 ± 2.92 kg) were allotted to an 8 × 23 Youden square design with 8 periods and 23 animals. Twenty-three diets were prepared: a corn basal diet and 22 diets based on corn and 1 of 22 test ingredients. The test ingredients were 6 canola meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, eleven 00-rapeseed meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and five 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME values were calculated for each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers using the difference procedure. The ATTD of GE and the DE and ME values in canola meal were not different from the values in 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater ( < 0.01) ATTD of GE and DE and ME values than 00-rapeseed meal. Average DE and ME values were 3,378 and 3,127 kcal/kg DM in canola meal, 3,461 and 3,168 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed, and 4,005 and 3,691 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD of ADF was 12.3% greater ( < 0.01) in 00-rapeseed meal than in canola meal, but no differences were observed in ATTD of NDF between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers. The models for predicting the DE and ME values of canola and rapeseed products were DE = -1,583 + 6.64 × ash + 7.01 × ADF - 33.17 × NDF + 98.66 × ADL + 1.07 × GE ( = 0.94) and ME = -630.8 + 14.13 × ash + 5

  8. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on the DE and ME values and the digestibility of fiber in canola meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed expellers fed to pigs. This experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, ADF, and NDF and to calculate DE and ME values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 27.7 ± 2.92 kg) were allotted to an 8 × 23 Youden square design with 8 periods and 23 animals. Twenty-three diets were prepared: a corn basal diet and 22 diets based on corn and 1 of 22 test ingredients. The test ingredients were 6 canola meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, eleven 00-rapeseed meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and five 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME values were calculated for each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers using the difference procedure. The ATTD of GE and the DE and ME values in canola meal were not different from the values in 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater ( < 0.01) ATTD of GE and DE and ME values than 00-rapeseed meal. Average DE and ME values were 3,378 and 3,127 kcal/kg DM in canola meal, 3,461 and 3,168 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed, and 4,005 and 3,691 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD of ADF was 12.3% greater ( < 0.01) in 00-rapeseed meal than in canola meal, but no differences were observed in ATTD of NDF between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers. The models for predicting the DE and ME values of canola and rapeseed products were DE = -1,583 + 6.64 × ash + 7.01 × ADF - 33.17 × NDF + 98.66 × ADL + 1.07 × GE ( = 0.94) and ME = -630.8 + 14.13 × ash + 5

  9. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  10. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  11. The added value of a European Union tuberculosis reference laboratory network--analysis of the national reference laboratory activities.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A; Nikolayevskyy, V; Hoffner, S; Pogoryelova, O; Manissero, D; Ozin, A J

    2008-03-18

    National reference laboratories (NRL) and other laboratories are the cornerstones of well-functioning tuberculosis programmes and surveillance activities. However, the scope and activity of NRL services for mycobacterial identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) has not been examined in detail across the European Union (EU), nor has the added value of cooperation and networking at the European level been explored with regard to strengthening laboratory services. Therefore, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has commissioned a survey to explore these issues and to identify areas of work that could bring added value by supporting networking activities of tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratories in the EU. Structured questionnaires were sent to TB reference laboratory experts in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, and in three additional countries selected on the basis of their networking activities with EU projects and other initiatives (Switzerland, Croatia and Israel). The compiled results describe the activities and structure of 32 NRLs (29 countries replied, a response rate of 91%). The analysis of the survey led to the following recommendations for strengthening TB laboratory services: (1) implementing of the published European standards for TB laboratory services with respect to infrastructure, national reference functions, biosafety, human resources, quality assurance, operational research (including evaluation of new medical diagnostics), accuracy and speed, appropriately trained staff; (2) ensuring that laboratories only perform activities for which they have demonstrated proficiency; (3) implement validated and standardised second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), including drugs used to define extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB); (4) aiming to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in over 90% of cultures and cases from smear-positive sputum

  12. Heat and mass transfer in unsteady rotating fluid flow with binary chemical reaction and activation energy.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faiz G; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

  13. Heat and Mass Transfer in Unsteady Rotating Fluid Flow with Binary Chemical Reaction and Activation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faiz G.; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

  14. The Energy Challenge: An Activity Master Program About our Energy Past, Present, and Future for Grades 5 Through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents 24 spirit duplicating activity masters and background materials for energy education in grades 5 through 8. These interdisciplinary materials are arranged in 6 units. Unit titles are: (1) Energy Overview; (2) Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas; (3) Energy Resources for Today and Tomorrow; (4) Energy Conservation;…

  15. Nutritional value of 15 corn gluten meals for growing pigs: chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Zuo, Lei; Wang, Fengli; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility for corn gluten meals (CGM) and to develop prediction equations for estimating energy content and amino acid digestibility for growing pigs based on the chemical characteristics of these meals. The 15 CGM tested were obtained from seven Chinese companies. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) of the 15 CGM. The 18 growing barrows (38 +/- 4 kg) were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 CGM test diets were formulated to contain 19.20% CGM, which replaced 20% of the energy supplied by corn and crystalline amino acid in the basal diet. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility of the crude protein (CP) and amino acids in the 15 CGM using chromic oxide as an inert marker. The 18 growing barrows (25 +/- 2 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 test diets contained 35% of one of the 15 CGM as the sole source of amino acids in the diet. The results showed a considerable variation in the chemical composition of CGM within and among plants. On dry matter basis, the DE and ME content of the CGM ranged from 18.8 to 21.0 MJ/kg and from 18.0 to 19.9 MJ/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences in the AID and SID for CP, arginine, lysine, glycine and proline among the 15 CGM, however, for all the other amino acids, significant differences were found for their AID and SID. With R2 values exceeding 0.50, the DE of CGM can be predicted accurately from CP and fibre content and ME from starch and fibre content. Suitable prediction equations for SID of methionine were also developed.

  16. Predictive value of low tube voltage and dual-energy CT for successful shock wave lithotripsy: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Largo, Remo; Stolzmann, Paul; Fankhauser, Christian D; Poyet, Cédric; Wolfsgruber, Pirmin; Sulser, Tullio; Alkadhi, Hatem; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the capabilities of low tube voltage computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy CT (DECT) for predicting successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) of urinary stones in vitro. A total of 33 urinary calculi (six different chemical compositions; mean size 6 ± 3 mm) were scanned using a dual-source CT machine with single- (120 kVp) and dual-energy settings (80/150, 100/150 Sn kVp) resulting in six different datasets. The attenuation (Hounsfield Units) of calculi was measured on single-energy CT images and the dual-energy indices (DEIs) were calculated from DECT acquisitions. Calculi underwent SWL and the number of shock waves for successful disintegration was recorded. The prediction of required shock waves regarding stone attenuation/DEI was calculated using regression analysis (adjusted for stone size and composition) and the correlation between CT attenuation/DEI and the number of shock waves was assessed for all datasets. The median number of shock waves for successful stone disintegration was 72 (interquartile range 30-361). CT attenuation/DEI of stones was a significant, independent predictor (P < 0.01) for the number of required shock waves with the best prediction at 80 kVp (β estimate 0.576) (P < 0.05). Correlation coefficients between attenuation/DEI and the number of required shock waves ranged between ρ = 0.31 and 0.68 showing the best correlation at 80 kVp (P < 0.001). The attenuation of urinary stones at low tube voltage CT is the best predictor for successful stone disintegration, being independent of stone composition and size. DECT shows no added value for predicting the success of SWL.

  17. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate.

  18. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  19. Geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations in Cartesian coordinates: accurate reduction in zero-point energy.

    PubMed

    Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2005-08-22

    An approach for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations is introduced. An important aspect of the approach is that Cartesian coordinates are used throughout. We devised an algorithm for the constrained sampling of initial conditions through the use of multivariate Gaussian distribution based on a projected Hessian. We also propose an approach for the constrained evaluation of the so-called Herman-Kluk prefactor in its exact log-derivative form. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare-gas trimers. The results show that the proposed approach provides an accurate evaluation of the reduction in zero-point energy. Exact basis set calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the semiclassical results. Since Cartesian coordinates are used, the approach is general and applicable to a variety of molecular and atomic systems.

  20. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial sufus by odour activity value, gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma recombination and omission studies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Shang, Yi; Chen, Feng; Niu, Yunwei; Gu, Yongbo; Liu, Shengjiang; Zhu, Jiancai

    2015-01-01

    Sufu is a solid-state fermented product made from soya beans. For the sake of quality control and regulation purposes, it is essential to be able to identify key odorants of various commercial sufus. To identify the aroma-active compounds in sufus, gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) was performed, and odour activity value (OAV) was estimated. The correlations between aroma profiles and identified aroma-active compounds were also investigated by principal component analysis. Results showed that 35 aroma-active compounds were detected through OAV calculation, while 28 compounds were identified by using GC-O/AEDA. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that aroma recombination model based on OAV calculation was more similar to original sufu in terms of aroma comparing to aroma recombination model based on GC-O/AEDA. Omission experiments further confirmed that the aroma compounds, such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, contributed most significantly to the characteristic aroma of a commercial sufu.

  1. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The formation of ice in atmospheric clouds has a substantial influence on the radiative properties of clouds as well as on the formation of precipitation. Therefore much effort has been made to understand and quantify the major ice formation processes in clouds. Immersion freezing has been suggested to be a dominant primary ice formation process in low and mid-level clouds (mixed-phase cloud conditions). It also has been shown that mineral dust particles are the most abundant ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere and thus may play an important role for atmospheric ice nucleation (Murray et al., 2012). Additionally, biological particles like bacteria and pollen are suggested to be potentially involved in atmospheric ice formation, at least on a regional scale (Murray et al., 2012). In recent studies for biological particles (SNOMAX and birch pollen), it has been demonstrated that freezing is induced by ice nucleating macromolecules and that an asymptotic value for the mass density of these ice nucleating macromolecules can be determined (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013, Wex et al., 2014). The question arises whether such an asymptotic value can also be determined for the ice active surface site density ns, a parameter which is commonly used to describe the ice nucleation activity of e.g., mineral dust. Such an asymptotic value for ns could be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. In the presented study, we therefore investigated the immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For all particle sizes considered in the experiments, we observed a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T > -38°C) which was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, we could determine an asymptotic value for the ice

  2. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  3. Slow recovery of tropical old-field rainforest regrowth and the value and limitations of active restoration.

    PubMed

    Shoo, Luke P; Freebody, Kylie; Kanowski, John; Catterall, Carla P

    2016-02-01

    There is current debate about the potential for secondary regrowth to rescue tropical forests from an otherwise inevitable cascade of biodiversity loss due to land clearing and scant evidence to test how well active restoration may accelerate recovery. We used site chronosequences to compare developmental trajectories of vegetation between self-organized (i.e., spontaneous) forest regrowth and biodiversity plantings (established for ecological restoration, with many locally native tree species at high density) in the Australian wet tropics uplands. Across 28 regrowth sites aged 1-59 years, some structural attributes reached reference rainforest levels within 40 years, whereas wood volume and most tested components of native plant species richness (classified by species' origins, family, and ecological functions) reached less than 50% of reference rainforest values. Development of native tree and shrub richness was particularly slow among species that were wind dispersed or animal dispersed with large (>10 mm) seeds. Many species with animal-dispersed seeds were from near-basal evolutionary lineages that contribute to recognized World Heritage values of the study region. Faster recovery was recorded in 25 biodiversity plantings of 1-25 years in which wood volume developed more rapidly; native woody plant species richness reached values similar to reference rainforest and was better represented across all dispersal modes; and species from near-basal plant families were better (although incompletely) represented. Plantings and regrowth showed slow recovery in species richness of vines and epiphytes and in overall resemblance to forest in species composition. Our results can inform decision making about when and where to invest in active restoration and provide strong evidence that protecting old-growth forest is crucially important for sustaining tropical biodiversity.

  4. Slow recovery of tropical old-field rainforest regrowth and the value and limitations of active restoration.

    PubMed

    Shoo, Luke P; Freebody, Kylie; Kanowski, John; Catterall, Carla P

    2016-02-01

    There is current debate about the potential for secondary regrowth to rescue tropical forests from an otherwise inevitable cascade of biodiversity loss due to land clearing and scant evidence to test how well active restoration may accelerate recovery. We used site chronosequences to compare developmental trajectories of vegetation between self-organized (i.e., spontaneous) forest regrowth and biodiversity plantings (established for ecological restoration, with many locally native tree species at high density) in the Australian wet tropics uplands. Across 28 regrowth sites aged 1-59 years, some structural attributes reached reference rainforest levels within 40 years, whereas wood volume and most tested components of native plant species richness (classified by species' origins, family, and ecological functions) reached less than 50% of reference rainforest values. Development of native tree and shrub richness was particularly slow among species that were wind dispersed or animal dispersed with large (>10 mm) seeds. Many species with animal-dispersed seeds were from near-basal evolutionary lineages that contribute to recognized World Heritage values of the study region. Faster recovery was recorded in 25 biodiversity plantings of 1-25 years in which wood volume developed more rapidly; native woody plant species richness reached values similar to reference rainforest and was better represented across all dispersal modes; and species from near-basal plant families were better (although incompletely) represented. Plantings and regrowth showed slow recovery in species richness of vines and epiphytes and in overall resemblance to forest in species composition. Our results can inform decision making about when and where to invest in active restoration and provide strong evidence that protecting old-growth forest is crucially important for sustaining tropical biodiversity. PMID:26310383

  5. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  6. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  7. The economic value of transportation energy contingency planning: An objective model for analyzing the economics of domestic renewable energy for supply augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaten, Richard Jay

    1998-12-01

    Petroleum provides 90% of transportation energy needs. Domestic production is decreasing and global demand is increasing. Risk of escalating prices and supply interruptions are compounded by environmental and military externalities and lost opportunities from the failure to develop alternative domestic resources. Within the context of "energy contingency planning" municipalities should evaluate crisis mitigation strategies. Supply augmentation using domestic renewable fuels is proposed to avert future financial liabilities. A method for calculating the economic value of this strategy is demonstrated. An objective function and associated constraints represent the cost of preparing for each of three possible scenarios: status quo, inflationary and crisis. Constraints ensure that municipal fuel needs are met. Environmental costs may be included. Optimal solutions determine the fuel supply mix for each scenario. A 3 x 3 matrix presents the range of actual costs resulting from preparing for each scenario and subsequent three possible outcomes. The distribution of probabilities of the outcomes is applied to the cost matrix and an "expected value" of preparing for each scenario is calculated. An unanticipated crisis outcome results in. The expected value of the cost of preparing for a crisis is cast as an insurance premium against potential economic liability. Policy makers accept the crisis preparation fuel mix if: (a) they agree with the calculated penalty cost, or (b) they accept the burden of the insurance premium. Green Bay Wisconsin was chosen as a sample municipality. Results show that a perceived 10% chance of crisis requires an annual tax of 4.00 per household to avert economic impacts of 50 million. At a perceived 50% chance of crisis preparing for the crisis would begin to save the municipality money.

  8. Design of a Water Soluble Fluorescent 3-Hydroxy-4-Pyridinone Ligand Active at Physiological pH Values.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andreia; Silva, Ana M G; Coutinho, Catarina; Cunha-Silva, Luís; de Castro, Baltazar; Rangel, Maria

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we report the structure and the spectroscopic characterization of a new fluorescent 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone ligand D-3,4-HPO. The synthesis of the compound was performed in two steps, which involve the reaction of the commercially available fluorophore dansyl chloride with a 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelating unit and further deprotection. The new fluorescent chelator was characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and in solution by NMR, MS, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The analysis of the variation of the absorption spectrum with pH allowed the determination of four pK a values (pK a1  = 3.50, pK a2  = 4.50, pK a3  = 9.60, pK a4  = 10.20) and establishment of the corresponding distribution diagram. The study of the fluorescence properties of the ligand show that in the pH range between 4 and 9 the fluorescence intensity is constant and has its maximum value thus allowing its further use at physiological pH values. The interaction of the ligand with copper(II) was accessed by fluorescence spectroscopy in MOPS buffer and the results show that the presence of copper(II) quenches the fluorescence of the ligand in ca 94 % at a ligand: metal ratio of 2:1. The latter result is consistent with the formation of a copper(II) complex with the bidentate ligand, as confirmed by the EPR spectroscopy. Graphical Abstract New water soluble fluorescent ligand active at physiological pH values. PMID:27357392

  9. Design of a Water Soluble Fluorescent 3-Hydroxy-4-Pyridinone Ligand Active at Physiological pH Values.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andreia; Silva, Ana M G; Coutinho, Catarina; Cunha-Silva, Luís; de Castro, Baltazar; Rangel, Maria

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we report the structure and the spectroscopic characterization of a new fluorescent 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone ligand D-3,4-HPO. The synthesis of the compound was performed in two steps, which involve the reaction of the commercially available fluorophore dansyl chloride with a 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelating unit and further deprotection. The new fluorescent chelator was characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and in solution by NMR, MS, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The analysis of the variation of the absorption spectrum with pH allowed the determination of four pK a values (pK a1  = 3.50, pK a2  = 4.50, pK a3  = 9.60, pK a4  = 10.20) and establishment of the corresponding distribution diagram. The study of the fluorescence properties of the ligand show that in the pH range between 4 and 9 the fluorescence intensity is constant and has its maximum value thus allowing its further use at physiological pH values. The interaction of the ligand with copper(II) was accessed by fluorescence spectroscopy in MOPS buffer and the results show that the presence of copper(II) quenches the fluorescence of the ligand in ca 94 % at a ligand: metal ratio of 2:1. The latter result is consistent with the formation of a copper(II) complex with the bidentate ligand, as confirmed by the EPR spectroscopy. Graphical Abstract New water soluble fluorescent ligand active at physiological pH values.

  10. Conservation of vector-valued forms and the question of the existence of gravitational energy-momentum in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-06-01

    Recently, Dalton has shown that conserved vector-valued currents have nullcovariant (rather than partial) derivatives and has discussed the corollary that there is no gravitational energy-momentum in general relativity (GR). An equivalent statement on conservation of vector-valued currents was given by E. Cartan in 1922. Given the potential implications of the Dalton corollary, Cartan's contribution to this problem is reproduced here in more modern but very powerful and relatively simple language. For completeness, his accompanying work on the current of GR is also included. The question then arises of whether or not the absence of a gravitational source in GR is a problem. For the purpose of comparison, we consider the gravitational sector of teleparallelism-withtorsion theories. These exhibit field equations of the formG μν =T μν, whereG μνis the Einstein tensor for the Levi-Civita (part of the total) connection, which is conserved. The source now has two distinct parts, one depending on both the metric and the torsion and the other metric independent. They can be viewed as being respectively gravitational and non-gravitational. In addition, the conservation law of these theories is global. It thus follows that several unesthetic (and certainly controversial) features of GR should be viewed as real problems, and not as necessary concomitants of the geometrization of the physics.

  11. Updated activated sludge model number 1 parameter values for improved prediction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge processes: validation at 13 full-scale plants.

    PubMed

    Choubert, Jean-Marc; Stricker, Anne-Emmanuelle; Marquot, Aurélien; Racault, Yvan; Gillot, Sylvie; Héduit, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model number 1 (ASM1) is the main model used in simulation projects focusing on nitrogen removal. Recent laboratory-scale studies have found that the default values given 20 years ago for the decay rate of nitrifiers and for the heterotrophic biomass yield in anoxic conditions were inadequate. To verify the relevance of the revised parameter values at full scale, a series of simulations were carried out with ASM1 using the original and updated set of parameters at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The simulation results were compared with data collected at 13 full-scale nitrifying-denitrifying municipal treatment plants. This work shows that simulations using the original ASM1 default parameters tend to overpredict the nitrification rate and underpredict the denitrification rate. The updated set of parameters allows more realistic predictions over a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:19860142

  12. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  13. Evaluation of Dynamical Downscaling Resolution Effect on Wind Energy Forecast Value for a Wind Farm in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosgaard, Martin; Hahmann, Andrea; Skov Nielsen, Torben; Giebel, Gregor; Ejnar Sørensen, Poul; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    For any energy system relying on wind power, accurate forecasts of wind fluctuations are essential for efficient integration into the power grid. Increased forecast precision allows end-users to plan day-ahead operation with reduced risk of penalties which in turn supports the feasibility of wind energy. This study aims to quantify value added to wind energy forecasts in the 12-48 hour leadtime by downscaling global numerical weather prediction (NWP) data using a limited-area NWP model. The accuracy of statistical wind power forecasting tools depends strongly on this NWP input. Typical performance metrics are mean absolute error or root mean square error for predicted- against observed wind power production, and these metrics are closely related to wind speed forecast bias and correlation with observations. Wind speed bias can be handled in the statistical wind power forecasting model, though it is entirely up to it's NWP input to describe the wind speed correlation correctly. The basis of comparison for forecasts is data from the Stor-Rotliden wind farm in central Sweden. The surrounding forest adds to the forecasting challenge, thus motivating the downscaling experiment as the potential for wind power forecast improvement is higher in complex terrain. The 40 Vestas V90 turbines were erected in 2009 and correspond to 78MWe installed electrical capacity. Forecasts from global and limited-area NWP models, together covering five different horizontal computational grid spacings of ~50km down to ~1km, are studied for a yearlong, continuous time period. The preliminary results shown quantify forecast strengths and weaknesses for each NWP model resolution.

  14. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  15. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children’s health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children’s physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children’s physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most

  16. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  17. Corresponding relation between the result of real-time fluid analysis and estimated energy value of aftershock during drilling in WFSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Luo, L.; Lao, C.; Zeng, Y.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The real-time fluid analysis has been applied in some important drilling engineering. Recently the fluid analysis has just been completed in WFSD-1, WFSD- 2 and WFSD-4 holes, the accumulated analytical period of which is about 1200 days and the completed drilling depth is probable 8000 meters. We could see from the real-time analysis results in May 19, 2009, that the multi components of drilling mud gas change significantly, especially the abnormal changes of methane, oxygen and helium. And the high abnormal value of methane reaches 8.37% (v/v), which has exceeded the explosion concentration value of methane. Due to a few actual reasons, such as no mud circulation, the period of real-time fluid analysis would shorter than that of drilling process. The actual period of fluid analysis in WFSD-2 hole is from October 14, 2009 to April 5, 2012, so the statistical analysis of the aftershock information and the magnitude effort were both considered during this period. According to the relationship between magnitude and seismic energy of earthquake, the monthly earthquake energy values were estimated. Estimation approach is based on the formula proposed by the seismologist Richter in 1953, in which the energy value of aftershock between Ms. 3.0 and Ms. 4.0 is defined as 1, that of aftershocks between Ms. 4.0 and Ms. 5.0 is multiplied by 31.6, and that of between Ms. 5.0 and Ms. 6.0 is multiplied by 1000. Then the monthly curve of estimated energy values is showed in Fig. (Monthly curve of estimated energy value of aftershock more than 3.0 during drilling WFSD-2. X-axis represents the month, Y-axis represents the estimated energy value). We could find that some special corresponding periods through the comparison of fluid change and the energy estimated values of aftershocks from the Fig. and the poster (Fall Meeting AGU 2013, San Francisco, T23E-2645), which had showed the ratio curves of the minimum and mean value, the maximum and mean value over time. We can see that the

  18. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  19. Polaron activation energy of nano porphyrin nickel(II) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, M.; El-Denglawey, A.; Elhady, A. F.; Abuelwafa, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphyrin nickel(II), NiTPP films were prepared by thermal evaporation method of mother powder material. Electrical as well as thermo-electric properties were investigated for the as-deposited and annealed NiTPP films. The effect of NiTPP film thickness (160-460 nm) and isochronal annealing in temperature range (300-348 K) on DC electrical properties were studied. Both bulk resistivity and the mean free path were determined; their values are 1.38 × 105 Ω cm and 0.433 nm, respectively. The electrical conductivity exhibits intrinsic and extrinsic conduction. The values of activation energy in extrinsic and intrinsic regions are 0.204 and 1.12 eV, respectively. Mott's parameters were determined at low temperature. Seebeck coefficient indicates p-type conduction of NiTPP films. Carrier density, mobility and holes concentration were determined. Seebeck coefficient decreases with the increasing of temperature, while the conductivity increases with the increasing of temperature. The difference between the conductivity and the thermoelectric power activation energies was attributed to the potential barrier grain boundaries.

  20. Polaron activation energy of nano porphyrin nickel(II) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, M.; El-Denglawey, A.; Elhady, A. F.; Abuelwafa, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21 H, 23 H-porphyrin nickel(II), NiTPP films were prepared by thermal evaporation method of mother powder material. Electrical as well as thermo-electric properties were investigated for the as-deposited and annealed NiTPP films. The effect of NiTPP film thickness (160-460 nm) and isochronal annealing in temperature range (300-348 K) on DC electrical properties were studied. Both bulk resistivity and the mean free path were determined; their values are 1.38 × 105 Ω cm and 0.433 nm, respectively. The electrical conductivity exhibits intrinsic and extrinsic conduction. The values of activation energy in extrinsic and intrinsic regions are 0.204 and 1.12 eV, respectively. Mott's parameters were determined at low temperature. Seebeck coefficient indicates p-type conduction of NiTPP films. Carrier density, mobility and holes concentration were determined. Seebeck coefficient decreases with the increasing of temperature, while the conductivity increases with the increasing of temperature. The difference between the conductivity and the thermoelectric power activation energies was attributed to the potential barrier grain boundaries.

  1. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mosha, T C; Gaga, H E

    1999-01-01

    Proximate composition, energy, mineral and vitamin contents and the effect of blanching methods and times on the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities were studied using cabbage, collard, turnip, peanut, and sweet potato leaves. Results of this study indicated that, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate and ash contents were in the range of 15.5-25.6%, 1.4-6.5%, 60.4-73.1% and 6.8-7.5%, respectively. Total dietary fiber was lowest in cabbage (28.2 g/100 g) and highest in the collard leaves (43.1%) while energy content per 100 g of vegetables was highest in sweet potato leaves (402 kcal) and lowest in cabbage (379 kcal). The mineral content per 100 g of vegetables were in the range of 33.4-249.8 mg, 241.2-471.2 mg, 12.1-75.1 mg, 14.9-98.9 mg, 0.5-3.5 mg and 0.9-3.1 mg for Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe and Zn, respectively. For ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and total carotenoids, concentrations in 100 g of vegetables were in the range of 45.1-112.7 mg, 0.2-0.3 mg, 0.3-0.8 mg and 2.0-7.3 mg, respectively. The trypsin inhibitory activity per gram of the vegetables was highest in collard (60.1 TIU/g) and lowest in peanut leaves (41.0 TIU/g). Chymotrypsin inhibitor activity was highest in the peanut (69.6 CIU/g) but lowest in the collard leaves (48.0 CIU/g). Both trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by most of the treatments in either the conventional or microwave blanching methods. In the conventional blanching method, trypsin inhibitor activity was reduced by 0.5, 6.8, 11.9, 9.0 and 19.3 percent in cabbage, collard, turnip, sweet potato and peanut leaves, respectively, when the vegetables were blanched for 2.5 minutes but after blanching for 10 minutes, the trypsin inhibitor activity was reduced by 29.7, 34.9, 54.3, 52.3 and 65.6 percent in cabbage, collard, turnip, sweet potato and peanut greens, respectively. For the microwave oven blanching, trypsin inhibitor activity was reduced by 3.8, 3.3, 32.7, 5.0 and 9.5 percent

  2. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called "blazars". The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future "Cherenkov Telescope Array", in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  3. Impact of Complex-Valued Energy Function Singularities on the Behaviour of RAYLEIGH-SCHRöDINGER Perturbation Series. H_2CO Molecule Vibrational Energy Spectrum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchko, Andrey; Bykov, Alexandr

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays the task of spectra processing is as relevant as ever in molecular spectroscopy. Nevertheless, existing techniques of vibrational energy levels and wave functions computation often come to a dead-lock. Application of standard quantum-mechanical approaches often faces inextricable difficulties. Variational method requires unimaginable computational performance. On the other hand perturbational approaches beat against divergent series. That's why this problem faces an urgent need in application of specific resummation techniques. In this research Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory is applied to vibrational energy levels calculation of excited vibrational states of H_2CO. It is known that perturbation series diverge in the case of anharmonic resonance coupling between vibrational states [1]. Nevertheless, application of advanced divergent series summation techniques makes it possible to calculate the value of energy with high precision (more than 10 true digits) even for highly excited states of the molecule [2]. For this purposes we have applied several summation techniques based on high-order Pade-Hermite approximations. Our research shows that series behaviour completely depends on the singularities of complex energy function inside unit circle. That's why choosing an approximation function modelling this singularities allows to calculate the sum of divergent series. Our calculations for formaldehyde molecule show that the efficiency of each summation technique depends on the resonant type. REFERENCES 1. J. Cizek, V. Spirko, and O. Bludsky, ON THE USE OF DIVERGENT SERIES IN VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL OSCILLATORS, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7331 (1993). 2. A. V. Sergeev and D. Z. Goodson, SINGULARITY ANALYSIS OF FOURTH-ORDER MöLLER-PLESSET PERTURBATION THEORY, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 4111 (2006).

  4. Impacts of vigorous and non-vigorous activity on daily energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2003-08-01

    Activity intensity is a potential determinant of activity-induced energy expenditure. Tri-axial accelerometery is the most objective measurement technique for the assessment of activity intensity, in combination with doubly-labelled water for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. Data on the effects of subject characteristics, including body size and age, and exercise training on the relationship between activity intensity and daily energy expenditure are reviewed. Average daily metabolic rate and non-basal energy expenditure are positively related to body size. The duration and intensity of physical activities do not need to be equivalent to the energy spent on activity. Obese subjects spend more energy on physical activity but can perform fewer activities, especially high-intensity (weight-bearing) activities, because of their higher body weight. Physical activity generally declines gradually from about 60 years of age onwards. Most subjects > 80 years have an activity level well below the level defined for sedentary middle-aged adults. Spending relatively more time on low-intensity activities has a negative effect on the mean physical activity level. To obtain a higher physical activity level does not necessarily imply high-intensity activities. In an average subject 25% of the activity-induced energy expenditure may be attributed to high-intensity activities. Exercise training, as a form of high-intensity activity, affects the physical activity level more in younger subjects than in elderly subjects.

  5. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  6. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    . The DE, ME, and NE of wheat bran determined using the difference procedure were 2,168, 2,117, and 896 kcal/kg, respectively, and these values were within the 95% confidence interval of the DE (2,285 kcal/kg), ME (2,217 kcal/kg), and NE (961 kcal/kg) estimated by linear regression. In conclusion, increasing the inclusion of wheat bran in a corn-soybean meal based diet reduced energy and nutrient digestibility and heat production as well as DE, ME, and NE of diets, but values for DE, ME, and NE for wheat bran determined using the difference procedure were not different from values determined using linear regression. PMID:27482688

  7. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  8. Critical State of Energy Metabolism in Brain Slices: The Principal Role of Oxygen Delivery and Energy Substrates in Shaping Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The interactive vasculo-neuro-glial system controlling energy supply in the brain is absent in vitro where energy provision is determined by experimental conditions. Despite the fact that neuronal activity is extremely energy demanding, little has been reported on the state of energy metabolism in submerged brain slices. Without this information, the arbitrarily chosen oxygenation and metabolic provisions make questionable the efficient oxidative metabolism in slices. We show that in mouse hippocampal slices (postnatal day 19–44), evoked neuronal discharges, spontaneous network activity (initiated by 4-aminopyridine), and synaptic stimulation-induced NAD(P)H autofluorescence depend strongly on the oxygen availability. Only the rate of perfusion as high as ~15 ml/min (95% O2) provided appropriate oxygenation of a slice. Lower oxygenation resulted in the decrease of both local field potentials and spontaneous network activity as well as in significant modulation of short-term synaptic plasticity. The reduced oxygen supply considerably inhibited the oxidation phase of NAD(P)H signaling indicating that the changes in neuronal activity were paralleled by the decrease in aerobic energy metabolism. Interestingly, the dependence of neuronal activity on oxygen tension was clearly shifted toward considerably larger pO2 values in slices when compared to in vivo conditions. With sufficient pO2 provided by a high perfusion rate, partial substitution of glucose in ACSF for β-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate, or lactate enhanced both oxidative metabolism and synaptic function. This suggests that the high pO2 in brain slices is compulsory for maintaining oxidative metabolism, and glucose alone is not sufficient in fulfilling energy requirements during neuronal activity. Altogether, our results demonstrate that energy metabolism determines the functional state of neuronal network, highlighting the need for the adequate metabolic support to be insured in the in vitro experiments. PMID

  9. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian.

  10. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing.

  11. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing. PMID:23659432

  12. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. PMID:20621275

  13. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume II. A user's guide. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method for determining the value of wind energy systems to electric utilities. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This volume, the second of two volumes, is a user's guide for the computer programs available from SERI. The first volume describes the value determination methodology and gives detailed discussion on each step of the computer modeling.

  14. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume I. A methodology. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method electric utilities can use to determine the value of wind energy systems. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This report, first of two volumes, describes the value determination method and gives detailed discussion on each computer program available from SERI. The second volume is a user's guide for these computer programs.

  15. Energy expenditure in children predicted from heart rate and activity calibrated against respiration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Treuth, M S; Adolph, A L; Butte, N F

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) and activity calibrated against 24-h respiration calorimetry in 20 children. HR, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and EE were measured during rest, sleep, exercise, and over 24 h by room respiration calorimetry on two separate occasions. Activity was monitored by a leg vibration sensor. The calibration day (day 1) consisted of specified behaviors categorized as inactive (lying, sitting, standing) or active (two bicycle sessions). On the validation day (day 2), the child selected activities. Separate regression equations for VO2, VCO2, and EE for method 1 (combining awake and asleep using HR, HR2, and HR3), method 2 (separating awake and asleep), and method 3 (separating awake into active and inactive, and combining activity and HR) were developed using the calibration data. For day 1, the errors were similar for 24-h VO2, VCO2, and EE among methods and also among HR, HR2, and HR3. The methods were validated using measured data from day 2. There were no significant differences in HR, VO2, VCO2, respiratory quotient, and EE values during rest, sleep, or over the 24 h between days 1 and 2. Applying the linear HR equations to day 2 data, the errors were the lowest with the combined HR/activity method (-2.6 +/- 5.2%, -4.1 +/- 5.9%, -2.9 +/- 5.1% for VO2, VCO2, and EE, respectively). To demonstrate the utility of the HR/activity method, HR and activity were monitored for 24 h at home (day 3). Free-living EE was predicted as 7,410 +/- 1,326 kJ/day. In conclusion, the combination of HR and activity is an acceptable method for determining EE not only for groups of children, but for individuals.

  16. Bulgur processes increase nutrition value: possible role in in-vitro protein digestability, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity and mineral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Türker, Selman

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the chemical constituents and nutritive quality of chickpea bulgur process, were studied in seeds that were soaked at different time (2, 8 and 12 h), different soaking water pH (pH 4, 6 and 8). Soaking in pH 8 soaking water and 12 h soaking time significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the ash content of chickpea bulgur samples. Compared to the raw material, the protein content and in-vitro protein digestibility increased, but starch, crude fiber, fat and energy values decreased and trypsin inhibitor activity was completely eliminated by bulgur process. As the soaking time increased, the phytic acid content also decreased. The highest total phenolic content was determinated with bulgur samples soaked in pH 4 soaking water. The P, Ca, and K values decreased with increasing soaking time. The HCl-extractability of P, Ca, Mg, Fe and K present in chickpea bulgur samples were significantly higher than the raw chickpea seeds. PMID:24966437

  17. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  18. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms.

  19. Activation Energy for Grain Growth in Aluminum Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Ferreira, J L; Hayes, J P

    2004-10-14

    To produce a specific grain size in metallic coatings requires precise control of the time at temperature during the deposition process. Aluminum coatings are deposited using electron-beam evaporation onto heated substrate surfaces. The grain size of the coating is determined upon examination of the microstructure in plan view and cross-section. Ideal grain growth is observed over the entire experimental range of temperature examined from 413 to 843 K. A transition in the activation energy for grain growth from 0.7 to 3.8 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} is observed as the temperature increases from <526 K to >588 K. The transition is indicative of the dominant mechanism for grain growth shifting with increasing temperature from grain boundary to lattice diffusion.

  20. An assessment of selected solar energy industry activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessner, J. D.

    1980-11-01

    The past, present, and near-term conditions of four industries based on solar energy technologies are examined-solar heating; photovoltaics; concentrating solar collectors for process heat and electric power applications; and passive components such as skylights and greenhouses. The report identifies key, unresolved issues for government policies intended to influence future solar industrial development; assesses the past and current federal role in these industries; and draws tentative conclusions about how government policies have affected their evolution. This evolution is compared to the evolution of typical, innovation-based industries. For each of the four solar industries researched, the collected data are discussed as follows: characteristics of sales; the government role; investment strategies and R & D activities; near-term trends; and comparisons with other industries.

  1. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  2. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  3. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  4. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  5. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  6. Model verification of thermal programmed desorption-mass spectrometry for estimation of release energy values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on mineral sorbents.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Sara I; Talley, Jeffrey W; Silliman, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The physical availability of organic compounds in soil and sediment strongly influences their bioavailability and toxicity. Previous work has indicated that physical availability changes throughout the processes of aging and treatment and that it can be linked to the energy required to release the compound from its sorbent matrix, with a higher energy indicating a more tightly bound compound. This study focused on determining release energy values for various mineral geosorbents (glass beads, sand, and kaolin) contaminated with a 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture. The sorbents were analyzed using thermal program desorption/mass spectrometry (TPD/MS) and the release energy values were calculated from the resulting thermograms utilizing a nonlinear fit of the analytical solution to a simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation. This solution method resulted in a series of combinations of values for the pre-exponential factor (v) and release energy (E) that produced desorption rate curves with similar errors when fit to actual data sets. These combinations can be viewed as an error surface, which clearly shows a valley of minimum error values spanning the range of both E and v. This indicates that this method may not provide a unique set of E- and v-values and suggests that the simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation cannot be used to determine release energy based on TPD data alone.

  7. Model verification of thermal programmed desorption-mass spectrometry for estimation of release energy values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on mineral sorbents.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Sara I; Talley, Jeffrey W; Silliman, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The physical availability of organic compounds in soil and sediment strongly influences their bioavailability and toxicity. Previous work has indicated that physical availability changes throughout the processes of aging and treatment and that it can be linked to the energy required to release the compound from its sorbent matrix, with a higher energy indicating a more tightly bound compound. This study focused on determining release energy values for various mineral geosorbents (glass beads, sand, and kaolin) contaminated with a 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture. The sorbents were analyzed using thermal program desorption/mass spectrometry (TPD/MS) and the release energy values were calculated from the resulting thermograms utilizing a nonlinear fit of the analytical solution to a simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation. This solution method resulted in a series of combinations of values for the pre-exponential factor (v) and release energy (E) that produced desorption rate curves with similar errors when fit to actual data sets. These combinations can be viewed as an error surface, which clearly shows a valley of minimum error values spanning the range of both E and v. This indicates that this method may not provide a unique set of E- and v-values and suggests that the simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation cannot be used to determine release energy based on TPD data alone. PMID:15559267

  8. Cortical energy demands of signaling and nonsignaling components in brain are conserved across mammalian species and activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Bennett, Maxwell R.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous need for ion gradient restoration across the cell membrane, a prerequisite for synaptic transmission and conduction, is believed to be a major factor for brain’s high oxidative demand. However, do energy requirements of signaling and nonsignaling components of cortical neurons and astrocytes vary with activity levels and across species? We derived oxidative ATP demand associated with signaling (Ps) and nonsignaling (Pns) components in the cerebral cortex using species-specific physiologic and anatomic data. In rat, we calculated glucose oxidation rates from layer-specific neuronal activity measured across different states, spanning from isoelectricity to awake and sensory stimulation. We then compared these calculated glucose oxidation rates with measured glucose metabolic data for the same states as reported by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography. Fixed values for Ps and Pns were able to predict the entire range of states in the rat. We then calculated glucose oxidation rates from human EEG data acquired under various conditions using fixed Ps and Pns values derived for the rat. These calculated metabolic data in human cerebral cortex compared well with glucose metabolism measured by PET. Independent of species, linear relationship was established between neuronal activity and neuronal oxidative demand beyond isoelectricity. Cortical signaling requirements dominated energy demand in the awake state, whereas nonsignaling requirements were ∼20% of awake value. These predictions are supported by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy results. We conclude that mitochondrial energy support for signaling and nonsignaling components in cerebral cortex are conserved across activity levels in mammalian species. PMID:23319606

  9. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs.

  10. Energy Crisis. Teaching Resources. A Special Publication Suggesting School Activities Which Stress Individual Responsibility Towards Energy Crisis Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Wendell; And Others

    This handbook provides public school teachers and administrators of Oregon with teaching ideas and information about the energy crisis. Suggested activities are intended to inform students (kindergarten through community college) about their responsibility toward the energy crisis and to motivate energy conservation. The handbook is divided into…

  11. Valued Life Activity Disability Played a Significant Role in Self-Rated Health among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Gregorich, Steve; Yazdany, Jinoos; Eisner, Mark; Yelin, Edward; Blanc, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because self-rated health (SRH) is strongly associated with health outcomes, it is important to identify factors that individuals take into account when they assess their health. We examined the role of valued life activities (VLAs), the wide range of activities deemed to be important to individuals, in SRH assessments. Study Design and Setting Data were from 3 cohort studies of individuals with different chronic conditions – rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Each cohort’s data were collected through structured telephone interviews. Logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ratings of fair/poor SRH. All analyses included sociodemographic characteristics, general and disease-specific health-related factors, and general measures of physical functioning. Results Substantial portions of each group rated their health as fair/poor (RA 37%, SLE 47%, COPD 40%). In each group, VLA disability was strongly associated with fair/poor health (RA: OR=4.44 [1.86,10.62]; SLE: OR=3.60 [2.10,6.16]; COPD: OR=2.76 [1.30,5.85], even after accounting for covariates. Conclusion VLA disability appears to play a substantial role in individual perceptions of health, over and above other measures of health status, disease symptoms, and general physical functioning. PMID:18722089

  12. Computer-Aided Energy Analysis for Buildings: An Assessment of Its Value for Students of Technology and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that computer aided energy analysis improves students' (N=29) comprehension and prediction accuracy of energy consumption in buildings and confirms that a reasonably accurate building energy analysis computer program can be designed for student users. (Author/SK)

  13. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles. PMID:25184988

  14. Experimental and numerical study of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    In this present study experimental and finite element analysis of cellulose based electro-active paper energy harvester is presented. Electro-active paper coated with metal electrode is a smart form of cellulose and exhibit piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by depositing electrodes on both sides of the cellulose film. A 50 mm x 50 mm cellulose film coated with aluminum electrodes was bonded on 100 mm x 50 mm x 1 mm aluminum host structure. The voltage output to input acceleration frequency response across a load resistor of 1 MΩ is recorded by conventional energy harvesting experimental setup at the fundamental vibration mode of the EAPap cantilever beam. A coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model is developed in which load resistor is directly connected to energy scavenging device. Voltage output FRF is measured for the cases, without proof mass, and by adding a 2 grams proof mass near the tip of the cantilever. The experimental voltage FRF value is 7.6 V/g at 75.1 Hz and is improved to 13.8 V/g at 62.2 Hz when a stainless steel proof mass of 2 grams is added. The presented CPC-FEM model results agree reasonably well with the experimental results. Despite the fact that the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of electro-active paper is lower than other available piezoelectric materials, it is biocompatible, cheap and naturally occurring polymeric material. It is also very flexible and posses similar piezoelectric characteristics such a PVDF which inspire to use EAPap in energy harvesting applications.

  15. Thermodynamic view of activation energies of proton transfer in various gramicidin A channels.

    PubMed

    Chernyshev, Anatoly; Cukierman, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependencies (range: 5-45 degrees C) of single-channel proton conductances (g(H)) in native gramicidin A (gA) and in two diastereoisomers (SS and RR) of the dioxolane-linked gA channels were measured in glycerylmonooleate/decane (GMO) and diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine/decane (DiPhPC) bilayers. Linear Arrhenius plots (ln (g(H)) versus K(-1)) were obtained for the native gA and RR channels in both types of bilayers, and for the SS channel in GMO bilayers only. The Arrhenius plot for proton transfer in the SS channel in DiPhPC bilayers had a break in linearity around 20 degrees C. This break seems to occur only when protons are the permeating cations in the SS channel. The activation energies (E(a)) for proton transfer in various gA channels (approximately 15 kJ/mol) are consistent with the rate-limiting step being in the channel and/or at the membrane-channel/solution interface, and not in bulk solution. E(a) values for proton transfer in gA channels are considerably smaller than for the permeation of nonproton currents in gA as well as in various other ion channels. The E(a) values for proton transfer in native gA channels are nearly the same in both GMO and DiPhPC bilayers. In contrast, for the dioxolane linked gA dimers, E(a) values were strongly modulated by the lipid environment. The Gibbs activation free energies (Delta G(#)(o)) for protons in various gA channels are within the range of 27-29 kJ/mol in GMO bilayers and of 20-22 kJ/mol in DiPhPC bilayers. The largest difference between Delta G(#)(o) for proton currents occurs between native gA (or SS channels) and the RR channel. In general, the activation entropy (Delta S) is mostly responsible for the differences between g(H) values in various gA channels, and also in distinct bilayers. However, significant differences between the activation enthalpies (Delta H(#)(o)) for proton transfer in the SS and RR channels occur in distinct membranes.

  16. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    centers are adequately separated by the linking molecules and constitute promising candiates for heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in synthesis, characterization, and catalytic performance of metal-organic networks are highlighted in this Account. Experimental results like structure determination of the networks, charge and spin distribution in the metal centers, and catalytic mechanisms for electrochemical reactions are presented. In particular, we describe the activity of two networks for the oxygen reduction reaction in a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical study. The similarities and differences of the networks compared to metallo-enzymes will be discussed, such as the metal surface that operates as a geometric template and concomitantly functions as an electron reservoir, and how this leads to a new class of bioinspired catalysts. The possibility to create functional two-dimensional coordination complexes at surfaces taking inspiration from nature opens up a new route for the design of potent nanocatalyst materials for energy conversion.

  17. Optimal Time-Resource Allocation for Energy-Efficient Physical Activity Detection

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Gautam; Li, Ming; Lee, Sangwon; Emken, B. Adar; Annavaram, Murali; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Mitra, Urbashi

    2011-01-01

    The optimal allocation of samples for physical activity detection in a wireless body area network for health-monitoring is considered. The number of biometric samples collected at the mobile device fusion center, from both device-internal and external Bluetooth heterogeneous sensors, is optimized to minimize the transmission power for a fixed number of samples, and to meet a performance requirement defined using the probability of misclassification between multiple hypotheses. A filter-based feature selection method determines an optimal feature set for classification, and a correlated Gaussian model is considered. Using experimental data from overweight adolescent subjects, it is found that allocating a greater proportion of samples to sensors which better discriminate between certain activity levels can result in either a lower probability of error or energy-savings ranging from 18% to 22%, in comparison to equal allocation of samples. The current activity of the subjects and the performance requirements do not significantly affect the optimal allocation, but employing personalized models results in improved energy-efficiency. As the number of samples is an integer, an exhaustive search to determine the optimal allocation is typical, but computationally expensive. To this end, an alternate, continuous-valued vector optimization is derived which yields approximately optimal allocations and can be implemented on the mobile fusion center due to its significantly lower complexity. PMID:21796237

  18. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  19. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    PubMed

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p < .001), negative mood, β = -2.92, 95% CI [-4.13, -1.72] (p < .001), and urge to smoke. β = -7.13, 95% CI [-9.39, -4.86] (p < .001). Also, physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p < .001) and pleasurable feelings, β = 1.07, 95% CI [0.58, 1.55] (p < .001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 211.76, 95% CI [32.54, 390.98] (p = .02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings, β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.43] (p = .045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.08] (p = .02), and reduced time to first cigarette, β = -163.00, 95% CI [-323.50, -2.49] (p = .047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative.

  20. A Study of the Value of Information and the Effect on Value of Intermediary Organizations, Timeliness of Services & Products, and Comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1: The Value of Libraries as an Intermediary Information Service; Volume 2: The Value of the Network Energy Software Center and the Radiation Shielding Information Center; Volume 3: The Effects of Timeliness and Comprehensiveness on Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King Research, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This document reports in three volumes the results of a series of surveys designed to: (1) determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information; (2) assess the value of two somewhat different software information analysis centers and the…