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Sample records for activation inhibits rapamycin

  1. Rapamycin Exerts Antifungal Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of Tor

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Robert J.; Shertz, Cecelia A.; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis. PMID:22210828

  2. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  3. Dual inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway by nab-rapamycin and perifosine induces anti-tumor activity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cirstea, Diana; Hideshima, Teru; Rodig, Scott; Santo, Loredana; Pozzi, Samantha; Vallet, Sonia; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Perrone, Giulia; Patel, Kishan; Desai, Neil; Sportelli, Peter; Kapoor, Shweta; Vali, Shireen; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Raje, Noopur

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates multiple myeloma (MM) cell proliferation, survival, and development of drug resistance, underscoring the role of mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin with potential anti-MM activity. However, recent data demonstrate a positive feedback loop from mTOR/S6K1 to Akt, whereby Akt activation confers resistance to mTOR inhibitors. We confirmed that suppression of mTOR signaling in MM cells by rapamycin was associated with upregulation of Akt phosphorylation. We hypothesized that inhibiting this positive feedback by a potent Akt inhibitor perifosine would augment rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells. Perifosine inhibited rapamycin-induced p-Akt, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity in MM.1S cells even in the presence of IL-6, IGF-1 or bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, rapamycin induced autophagy in MM.1S MM cells as evidenced by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, was augmented by perifosine. Combination therapy increased apoptosis detected by Annexin/PI analysis and caspase/PARP cleavage. Importantly, in vivo antitumor activity and prolongation of survival in a MM mouse xenograft model after treatment was enhanced with combination of nab-rapamycin and perifosine. Utilizing the in silico predictive analysis we confirmed our experimental findings of this drug combination on PI3K, Akt, mTOR kinases, and the caspases. Our data suggests that mutual suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by rapamycin and perifosine combination induces synergistic MM cell cytotoxicity, providing the rationale for clinical trials in patients with relapsed / refractory MM. PMID:20371718

  4. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) - Rapamycin and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lamming, Dudley W.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is an FDA-approved immunosuppressant and anti-cancer agent discovered in the soil of Easter Island in the early 1970s. Rapamycin is a potent and selective inhibitor of the mTOR (mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin) protein kinase, which acts as a central integrator of nutrient signaling pathways. During the last decade, genetic and pharmaceutical inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling has been found to promote longevity in yeast, worms, flies and mice. In this chapter, we will discuss the molecular biology underlying the effects of rapamycin and its physiological effects; evidence for rapamycin as an anti-aging compound; mechanisms by which rapamycin may extend lifespan; and the potential limitations of rapamycin as an anti-aging molecule. Finally, we will discuss possible strategies that may allow us to inhibit mTOR signaling safely while minimizing side effects, and reap the health, social and economic benefits from slowing the aging process. PMID:27048303

  5. A Burkholderia pseudomallei Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator-Like Protein Has Rapamycin-Inhibitable Peptidylprolyl Isomerase Activity and Pleiotropic Effects on Virulence ▿

    PubMed Central

    Norville, Isobel H.; Harmer, Nicholas J.; Harding, Sarah V.; Fischer, Gunter; Keith, Karen E.; Brown, Katherine A.; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Titball, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage infectivity potentiators (Mips) are a group of virulence factors encoded by pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella, Chlamydia, and Neisseria species. Mips are part of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) family, whose members typically exhibit peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity which is inhibitable by the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. Here we describe the identification and characterization of BPSS1823, a Mip-like protein in the intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Recombinant BPSS1823 protein has rapamycin-inhibitable PPIase activity, indicating that it is a functional FKBP. A mutant strain generated by deletion of BPSS1823 in B. pseudomallei exhibited a reduced ability to survive within cells and significant attenuation in vivo, suggesting that BPSS1823 is important for B. pseudomallei virulence. In addition, pleiotropic effects were observed with a reduction in virulence mechanisms, including resistance to host killing mechanisms, swarming motility, and protease production. PMID:21859853

  6. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition With Rapamycin Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Joo; Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Chung, Su I; Mitchell, James B; Citrin, Deborah E

    2016-11-15

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a late toxicity of therapeutic radiation. Signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin drives several processes implicated in RIPF, including inflammatory cytokine production, fibroblast proliferation, and epithelial senescence. We sought to determine if mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition with rapamycin would mitigate RIPF. C57BL/6NCr mice received a diet formulated with rapamycin (14 mg/kg food) or a control diet 2 days before and continuing for 16 weeks after exposure to 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy of thoracic irradiation. Fibrosis was assessed with Masson trichrome staining and hydroxyproline assay. Cytokine expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Senescence was assessed by staining for β-galactosidase activity. Administration of rapamycin extended the median survival of irradiated mice compared with the control diet from 116 days to 156 days (P=.006, log-rank test). Treatment with rapamycin reduced hydroxyproline content compared with the control diet (irradiation plus vehicle, 45.9 ± 11.8 μg per lung; irradiation plus rapamycin, 21.4 ± 6.0 μg per lung; P=.001) and reduced visible fibrotic foci. Rapamycin treatment attenuated interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β induction in irradiated lungs compared with the control diet. Type II pneumocyte senescence after irradiation was reduced with rapamycin treatment at 16 weeks (3-fold reduction at 16 weeks, P<.001). Rapamycin protected against RIPF in a murine model. Rapamycin treatment reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, extracellular matrix production, and senescence in type II pneumocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Inhibition of target of rapamycin signaling by rapamycin in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Crespo, José L; Díaz-Troya, Sandra; Florencio, Francisco J

    2005-12-01

    The macrolide rapamycin specifically binds the 12-kD FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), and this complex potently inhibits the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. The identification of TOR in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) revealed that TOR is conserved in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, research on TOR signaling in plants has been hampered by the natural resistance of plants to rapamycin. Here, we report TOR inactivation by rapamycin treatment in a photosynthetic organism. We identified and characterized TOR and FKBP12 homologs in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Whereas growth of wild-type Chlamydomonas cells is sensitive to rapamycin, cells lacking FKBP12 are fully resistant to the drug, indicating that this protein mediates rapamycin action to inhibit cell growth. Unlike its plant homolog, Chlamydomonas FKBP12 exhibits high affinity to rapamycin in vivo, which was increased by mutation of conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket. Furthermore, pull-down assays demonstrated that TOR binds FKBP12 in the presence of rapamycin. Finally, rapamycin treatment resulted in a pronounced increase of vacuole size that resembled autophagic-like processes. Thus, our findings suggest that Chlamydomonas cell growth is positively controlled by a conserved TOR kinase and establish this unicellular alga as a useful model system for studying TOR signaling in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  8. Rapamycin inhibits mTOR/p70S6K activation in CA3 region of the hippocampus of the rat and impairs long term memory.

    PubMed

    Lana, D; Di Russo, J; Mello, T; Wenk, G L; Giovannini, M G

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing whether the mTOR pathway and its downstream effector p70S6K in CA3 pyramidal neurons are under the modulation of the cholinergic input to trigger the formation of long term memories, similar to what we demonstrated in CA1 hippocampus. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions. We examined the effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist or mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition was conducted 30min after i.c.v. injection of rapamycin. Recall testing was performed 1h, 4h or 24h after acquisition. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in CA3 pyramidal neurons were involved in long term memory formation; (2) rapamycin significantly inhibited mTOR and of p70S6K activation at 4h, and long term memory impairment 24h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine impaired short but not long term memory, with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine and scopolamine co-administration impaired short term memory at 1h and 4h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1h and 4h; (5) mecamylamine and scopolamine treatment did not impair long term memory formation; (6) unexpectedly, rapamycin increased mTORC2 activation in microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that in CA3 pyramidal neurons the mTOR/p70S6K pathway is under the modulation of the cholinergic system and is involved in long-term memory encoding, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the CA3 region of the hippocampus is involved in memory mechanisms based on rapid, one-trial object-place learning and recall. Furthermore, our results are in accordance with previous reports that selective

  9. Activation of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle following blood flow restriction exercise is inhibited by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Gundermann, David M.; Walker, Dillon K.; Reidy, Paul T.; Borack, Michael S.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Volpi, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of blood flow to a contracting muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise (BFR exercise) stimulates mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle within 3 h postexercise. However, there is a lack of mechanistic data to provide a direct link between mTORC1 activation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle following BFR exercise. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mTORC1 signaling is necessary for stimulating muscle protein synthesis after BFR exercise. A secondary aim was to describe the 24-h time course response in muscle protein synthesis and breakdown following BFR exercise. Sixteen healthy young men were randomized to one of two groups. Both the control (CON) and rapamycin (RAP) groups completed BFR exercise; however, RAP was administered 16 mg of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin 1 h prior to BFR exercise. BFR exercise consisted of four sets of leg extension exercise at 20% of 1 RM. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before exercise and at 3, 6, and 24 h after BFR exercise. Mixed-muscle protein fractional synthetic rate increased by 42% at 3 h postexercise and 69% at 24 h postexercise in CON, whereas this increase was inhibited in the RAP group. Phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448) and S6K1 (Thr389) was also increased in CON but inhibited in RAP. Mixed-muscle protein breakdown was not significantly different across time or groups. We conclude that activation of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle following BFR exercise is inhibited in the presence of rapamycin. PMID:24691032

  10. Acute rapamycin treatment improved glucose tolerance through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiwei; Panserat, Stéphane; Terrier, Frédéric; Seiliez, Iban; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2014-11-15

    Our aim was to investigate the potential role of TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in rainbow trout. Fasted fish were first treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin or vehicle and then submitted to a second intraperitoneal administration of glucose 4 h later. Our results revealed that intraperitoneal administration of glucose induced hyperglycemia for both vehicle and rapamycin treatments, which peaked at 2 h. Plasma glucose level in vehicle-treated fish was significantly higher than in rapamycin-treated fish at 8 and 17 h, whereas it remained at the basal level in rapamycin-treated fish. Glucose administration significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) in vehicle-treated fish, while rapamycin completely abolished the activation of S6K1 in rapamycin-treated fish, without inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt on Thr-308 or Ser-473. Despite the lack of significant variation in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA abundance, mRNA abundance for glucokinase (GK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) I and II, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) was reduced by rapamycin 17 h after glucose administration. The inhibition effect of rapamycin on GK and FBPase was further substantiated at the activity level. The suppression of GK gene expression and activity by rapamycin provided the first in vivo evidence in fish that glucose regulates hepatic GK gene expression and activity through a TORC1-dependent manner. Unlike in mammals, we observed that acute rapamycin treatment improved glucose tolerance through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Insights from yeast into whether the inhibition of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) by rapamycin can prevent the Hsf1 activation that results from treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Millson, Stefan H; Piper, Peter W

    2014-07-15

    In human cells TORC1 mTOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase complex renders heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) competent for stress activation. In such cells, as well as in yeast, the selective TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocks this activation in contrast to Hsp90 inhibitors which potently activate Hsf1. Potentially therefore rapamycin could prevent the Hsf1 activation that frequently compromises the efficiency of Hsp90 inhibitor cancer drugs. Little synergy was found between the effects of rapamycin and the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on yeast growth. However certain rapamycin resistance mutations sensitised yeast to Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and an Hsp90 mutation that overactivates Hsf1 sensitised cells to rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibition of the yeast Hsf1 was abolished by this Hsp90 mutation, as well as with the loss of Ppt1, the Hsp90-interacting protein phosphatase that is the ortholog of mammalian PP5. Unexpectedly Hsf1 activation was found to have a requirement for the rapamycin binding immunophilin FKBP12 even in the absence of rapamycin, while TORC1 "bypass" strains revealed that the rapamycin inhibition of yeast Hsf1 is not exerted through two of the major downstream targets of TORC1, the protein phosphatase regulator Tap42 and the protein kinase Sch9--the latter the ortholog of human S6 protein kinase 1. A problem with most of the Hsp90 inhibitor drugs now in cancer clinic trials is that they potently activate Hsf1. This leads to an induction of heat shock proteins, many of which have a "pro-survival" role in that they help to protect cells from apopotosis. As the activation of Hsf1 requires TORC1, inhibitors of mTOR kinase could potentially block this activation of Hsf1 and be of value when used in combination drug therapies with Hsp90 inhibitors. However many of the mechanistic details of the TORC1 regulation of Hsf1, as well as the interplay between cellular resistances to rapamycin and to Hsp90 inhibitors, still remain to be resolved.

  12. Insights from yeast into whether the rapamycin inhibition of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) can prevent the Hsf1 activation that results from treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Millson, Stefan H.; Piper, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    In human cells TORC1 mTOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase complex renders heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) competent for stress activation. In such cells, as well as in yeast, the selective TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocks this activation in contrast to Hsp90 inhibitors which potently activate Hsf1. Potentially therefore rapamycin could prevent the Hsf1 activation that frequently compromises the efficiency of Hsp90 inhibitor cancer drugs. Little synergy was found between the effects of rapamycin and the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on yeast growth. However certain rapamycin resistance mutations sensitised yeast to Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and an Hsp90 mutation that overactivates Hsf1 sensitised cells to rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibition of the yeast Hsf1 was abolished by this Hsp90 mutation, as well as with the loss of Ppt1, the Hsp90-interacting protein phosphatase that is the ortholog of mammalian PP5. Unexpectedly Hsf1 activation was found to have a requirement for the rapamycin binding immunophilin FKBP12 even in the absence of rapamycin, while TORC1 “bypass” strains revealed that the rapamycin inhibition of yeast Hsf1 is not exerted through two of the major downstream targets of TORC1, the protein phosphatase regulator Tap42 and the protein kinase Sch9 – the latter the ortholog of human S6 protein kinase 1. Significance: A problem with most of the Hsp90 inhibitor drugs now in cancer clinic trials is that they potently activate Hsf1. This leads to an induction of heat shock proteins, many of which have a “pro-survival” role in that they help to protect cells from apopotosis. As the activation of Hsf1 requires TORC1, inhibitors of mTOR kinase could potentially block this activation of Hsf1 and be of value when used in combination drug therapies with Hsp90 inhibitors. However many of the mechanistic details of the TORC1 regulation of Hsf1, as well as the interplay between cellular resistances to rapamycin and to Hsp90 inhibitors, still remain

  13. Autophagy Induction by Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide II Contributes to the Inhibition of Malignant Biological Behaviors by the Combination of EMAP II with Rapamycin in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Meng, Fanjie; Li, Shuai; Liu, Libo; Zhao, Lini; Liu, Yunhui; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhen; Yao, Yilong; Xi, Zhuo; Teng, Hao; Xue, Yixue

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) on human glioblastoma (GBM) cells and glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) as well as its possible mechanisms. In this study, EMAP II inhibited the cell viability and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in human GBM cells and GSCs, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) blocked these effects. Autophagic vacuoles were formed in these cells after EMAP II treatment and this phenomenon was blocked by 3-MA. In addition, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3)-II and the down-regulation of autophagic degraded substrate p62/SQSTM1 caused by EMAP II were observed. Cells treated with EMAP-II inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, and PI3K/Akt agonist insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) blocked the effect of EMAP II on the expression of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1. Cells exposed to EMAP-II experienced mitophagy and ER stress. Furthermore, the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells and GSCs were more remarkable by the combination of EMAP II and rapamycin than either agent alone in vitro and in vivo. The current study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of EMAP II in human GBM cells and GSCs was induced by autophagy, accompanied by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, mitophagy and ER stress. The combination of EMAP II with rapamycin demonstrated the inhibitory effect on the malignant biological behaviors of human GBM cells and GSCs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26648842

  14. Characterization of the cloned full-length and a truncated human target of rapamycin: Activity, specificity, and enzyme inhibition as studied by a high capacity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang Weiguo; Lamison, Craig; LaRocque, James; Gibbons, James; Yu, Ker . E-mail: yuk@wyeth.com

    2005-06-24

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR/TOR) is implicated in cancer and other human disorders and thus an important target for therapeutic intervention. To study human TOR in vitro, we have produced in large scale both the full-length TOR (289 kDa) and a truncated TOR (132 kDa) from HEK293 cells. Both enzymes demonstrated a robust and specific catalytic activity towards the physiological substrate proteins, p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase 1 (p70S6K1) and eIF4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), as measured by phosphor-specific antibodies in Western blotting. We developed a high capacity dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) for analysis of kinetic parameters. The Michaelis constant (K {sub m}) values of TOR for ATP and the His6-S6K substrate were shown to be 50 and 0.8 {mu}M, respectively. Dose-response and inhibition mechanisms of several known inhibitors, the rapamycin-FKBP12 complex, wortmannin and LY294002, were also studied in DELFIA. Our data indicate that TOR exhibits kinetic features of those shared by traditional serine/threonine kinases and demonstrate the feasibility for TOR enzyme screen in searching for new inhibitors.

  15. Recovery from rapamycin: drug-insensitive activity of yeast target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) supports residual proliferation that dilutes rapamycin among progeny cells.

    PubMed

    Evans, Stephanie K; Burgess, Karl E V; Gray, Joseph V

    2014-09-19

    The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a key conserved regulator of eukaryotic cell growth. The xenobiotic rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of the yeast complex. Surprisingly, the EGO complex, a nonessential in vivo activator of TORC1, is somehow required for yeast cells to recover efficiently from a period of treatment with rapamycin. Why? Here, we found that rapamycin is only a partial inhibitor of TORC1. We confirmed that saturating amounts of rapamycin do not fully inhibit proliferation of wild-type cells, and we found that the residual proliferation in the presence of the drug is dependent on the EGO complex and on the activity of TORC1. We found that this residual TORC1-dependent proliferation is key to recovery from rapamycin treatment. First, the residual proliferation rate correlates with the ability of cells to recover from treatment. Second, the residual proliferation rate persists long after washout of the drug and until cells recover. Third, the total observable pool of cell-associated rapamycin is extremely stable and decreases only with increasing cell number after washout of the drug. Finally, consideration of the residual proliferation rate alone accurately and quantitatively accounts for the kinetics of recovery of wild-type cells and for the nature and severity of the ego- mutant defect. Overall, our results revealed that rapamycin is a partial inhibitor of yeast TORC1, that persistence of the drug limits recovery, and that rapamycin is not detoxified by yeast but is passively diluted among progeny cells because of residual proliferation.

  16. Quercetin Inhibits Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving the Suppression of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and β-catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Liu, Xin; Feng, Ye; Gui, Yuan; Yang, Junwei; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants and presented in human diet, displays promising potential in preventing kidney fibroblast activation. However, whether quercetin can ameliorate kidney fibrosis in mice with obstructive nephropathy and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, we found that administration of quercetin could largely ameliorate kidney interstitial fibrosis and macrophage accumulation in the kidneys with obstructive nephropathy. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin as well as Smad signaling were activated in the obstructive kidneys, whereas quercetin could markedly reduce their abundance except Smad3 phosphorylation. In cultured NRK-49F cells, quercetin could inhibit α-SMA and fibronectin (FN) expression induced by TGFβ1 treatment. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin and Smad signaling pathways were stimulated by TGFβ1 at a time dependent manner. Similar to those findings in the obstructive kidneys, mTORC1, mTORC2 and β-catenin, but not Smad signaling pathways were remarkably blocked by quercetin treatment. Together, these results suggest that quercetin inhibits fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis involving a combined inhibition of mTOR and β-catenin signaling transduction, which may act as a therapeutic candidate for patients with chronic kidney diseases. PMID:27052477

  17. Quercetin Inhibits Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving the Suppression of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and β-catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Liu, Xin; Feng, Ye; Gui, Yuan; Yang, Junwei; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun

    2016-04-07

    Quercetin, a flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants and presented in human diet, displays promising potential in preventing kidney fibroblast activation. However, whether quercetin can ameliorate kidney fibrosis in mice with obstructive nephropathy and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, we found that administration of quercetin could largely ameliorate kidney interstitial fibrosis and macrophage accumulation in the kidneys with obstructive nephropathy. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin as well as Smad signaling were activated in the obstructive kidneys, whereas quercetin could markedly reduce their abundance except Smad3 phosphorylation. In cultured NRK-49F cells, quercetin could inhibit α-SMA and fibronectin (FN) expression induced by TGFβ1 treatment. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin and Smad signaling pathways were stimulated by TGFβ1 at a time dependent manner. Similar to those findings in the obstructive kidneys, mTORC1, mTORC2 and β-catenin, but not Smad signaling pathways were remarkably blocked by quercetin treatment. Together, these results suggest that quercetin inhibits fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis involving a combined inhibition of mTOR and β-catenin signaling transduction, which may act as a therapeutic candidate for patients with chronic kidney diseases.

  18. Curcumin inhibits carcinogen and nicotine-induced Mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cheryl A; McEachern, Matthew D; Shah, Shivang H; Rong, Youhua; Rong, Xiaohua; Smelley, Christopher L; Caldito, Gloria C; Abreo, Fleurette W; Nathan, C O

    2010-12-01

    Curcumin appears to be a safe, bioactive food compound that is a potential chemopreventive for patients at a high risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identification and validation of intermediate endpoints is an important step in evaluating chemopreventive agents. AKT/MTOR pathway biomarkers are intrinsic to the carcinogenic process as well as the mechanism of intervention with curcumin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were assayed in 9 HNSCC and a keratinocyte cell line. Nicotine, a genotoxic alkaloid involved in tobacco addiction, forms DNA adducts and has been implicated in upper aerodigestive tract cancer promotion. The antiproliferative effects of curcumin were associated with inhibition of the AKT/MTOR pathway in presence and absence of nicotine, which also induced this pathway. Curcumin was highly effective at suppressing growth of SCC40 xenografts and its activity is associated with modulation of MTOR's downstream target pS6. Curcumin at 15 mg significantly increased survival (286 ± 37 vs. 350 days) in the 4NQO carcinogenic model survival study. A major cause of lethal progression of HNSCC is local regional migration and invasion of malignant cells, and curcumin significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo where downregulation of pS6 was associated with a significant decrease in MMP-9. This is the first study to demonstrate that curcumin inhibits the adverse effects of nicotine by blocking nicotine-induced activation of the AKT/MTOR pathway in HNSCC, which retards cell migration. These studies indicate that inhibiting the AKT/MTOR pathway with curcumin may be useful as an oral chemopreventive agent. ©2010 AACR.

  19. Rapamycin antagonizes TNF induction of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells by inhibiting mTORC2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Qin, Lingfeng; Manes, Thomas D.; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C.; Tellides, George

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment of circulating leukocytes into inflamed tissues depends on adhesion molecules expressed by endothelial cells (ECs). Here we report that rapamycin pretreatment reduced the ability of TNF-treated ECs to capture T cells under conditions of venular flow. This functional change was caused by inhibition of TNF-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and could be mimicked by knockdown of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or rictor, but not raptor, implicating mTORC2 as the target of rapamycin for this effect. Mechanistically, mTORC2 acts through Akt to repress Raf1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling, and inhibition of mTORC2 consequently results in hyperactivation of ERK1/2. Increased ERK1/2 activity antagonizes VCAM-1 expression by repressing TNF induction of the transcription factor IRF-1. Preventing activation of ERK1/2 reduced the ability of rapamycin to inhibit TNF-induced VCAM-1 expression. In vivo, rapamycin inhibited mTORC2 activity and potentiated activation of ERK1/2. These changes correlated with reduced endothelial expression of TNF-induced VCAM-1, which was restored via pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2. Functionally, rapamycin reduced infiltration of leukocytes into renal glomeruli, an effect which was partially reversed by inhibition of ERK1/2. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which rapamycin modulates the ability of vascular endothelium to mediate inflammation and identifies endothelial mTORC2 as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24516119

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and has a protective effect in a rat model of status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    SAN, YONG-ZHI; LIU, YU; ZHANG, YU; SHI, PING-PING; ZHU, YU-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) has a protective role in several neurological diseases. The present study investigated the effect of the PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone, on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in a rat model of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus (SE). The investigation proceeded in two stages. First, the course of activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in PTZ-induced SE was examined to determine the time-point of peak activity, as reflected by phopshorylated (p)-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6/S6 ratios. Subsequently, pioglitazone was administrated intragastrically to investigate its effect on the mTOR signaling pathway, through western blot and immunochemical analyses. The levels of the interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines were detected using ELISA, and neuronal loss was observed via Nissl staining. In the first stage of experimentation, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated, and the p-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6/S6 ratios peaked on the third day. Compared with the vehicle treated-SE group, pretreatment with pioglitazone was associated with the loss of fewer neurons, lower levels of IL-1β and IL-6, and inhibition of the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated in the PTZ-induced SE rat model, and the PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone, had a neuroprotective effect, by inhibiting activation of the mTOR pathway and preventing the increase in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. PMID:25891824

  1. Rapamycin promotes β-amyloid production via ADAM-10 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheqing; Salemi, Jon; Hou, Huayan; Zhu, Yuyan; Mori, Takashi; Giunta, Brian; Obregon, Demian; Tan, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Rapamycin is a well known immunosuppressant drug for rejection prevention in organ transplantation. Numerous clinical trials using rapamycin analogs, involving both children and adults with various disorders are currently ongoing worldwide. Most recently, rapamycin gained much attention for what appears to be life-span extending properties when administered to mice. The risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) is strongly and positively correlated with advancing age and is characterized by deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain. We report that rapamycin (2.5 μM), significantly increases Aβ generation in murine neuron-like cells (N2a) transfected with the human “Swedish” mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP). In concert with these observations, we found rapamycin significantly decreases the neuroprotective amino-terminal APP (amyloid precursor protein) cleavage product, soluble APP-α (sAPP-α) while increasing production of the β-carboxyl-terminal fragment of APP (β-CTF). These cleavage events are associated with decreased activation of a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain-10 (ADAM-10), an important candidate α-secretase which opposes Aβ generation. To validate these findings in vivo, we intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected Tg2576 Aβ-overproducing transgenic mice with rapamycin (3 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. We found increased Aβ levels associated with decreased sAPP-α at an average rapamycin plasma concentration of 169.7 ± 23.5 ng/mL by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These data suggest that although rapamycin may increase the lifespan in some mouse models, it may not decrease the risk for age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. PMID:20542014

  2. Inhibition of Galectin-1 Sensitizes HRAS-driven Tumor Growth to Rapamycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Michael, James V; Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Goldfinger, Lawrence E

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to develop combinatorial application of two drugs currently either in active use as anticancer agents (rapamycin) or in clinical trials (OTX008) as a novel strategy to inhibit Harvey RAS (HRAS)-driven tumor progression. HRAS anchored to the plasma membrane shuttles from the lipid ordered (Lo) domain to the lipid ordered/lipid disordered border upon activation, and retention of HRAS at these sites requires galectin-1. We recently showed that genetically enforced Lo sequestration of HRAS inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, but not phoshatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. Here we show that inhibition of galectin-1 with OTX008 sequestered HRAS in the Lo domain, blocked HRAS-mediated MAPK signaling, and attenuated HRAS-driven tumor progression in mice. HRAS-driven tumor growth was also attenuated by treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin, and this effect was further enhanced in tumors driven by Lo-sequestered HRAS. These drugs also revealed bidirectional cross-talk in HRAS pathways. Moreover, dual pathway inhibition with OTX008 and rapamycin resulted in nearly complete ablation of HRAS-driven tumor growth. These findings indicate that membrane microdomain sequestration of HRAS with galectin-1 inhibition, coupled with mTOR inhibition, may support a novel therapeutic approach to treat HRAS-mutant cancer.

  3. Labor inhibits placental mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lager, S; Aye, I L M H; Gaccioli, F; Ramirez, V I; Jansson, T; Powell, T L

    2014-12-01

    Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n = 15 no-labor; n = 12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFĸB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFĸB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  5. Rapamycin inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation and obstructive arteriopathy attributable to elastin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Qingle; Qin, Lingfeng; Ali, Rahmat; Qyang, Yibing; Tassabehji, May; Pober, Barbara R; Sessa, William C; Giordano, Frank J; Tellides, George

    2013-05-01

    Patients with elastin deficiency attributable to gene mutation (supravalvular aortic stenosis) or chromosomal microdeletion (Williams syndrome) are characterized by obstructive arteriopathy resulting from excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, mural expansion, and inadequate vessel size. We investigated whether rapamycin, an inhibitor of the cell growth regulator mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and effective against other SMC proliferative disorders, is of therapeutic benefit in experimental models of elastin deficiency. As previously reported, Eln(-/-) mice demonstrated SMC hyperplasia and severe stenosis of the aorta, whereas Eln(+/-) mice exhibited a smaller diameter aorta with more numerous but thinner elastic lamellae. Increased mTOR signaling was detected in elastin-deficient aortas of newborn pups that was inhibited by maternal administration of rapamycin. mTOR inhibition reduced SMC proliferation and aortic obstruction in Eln(-/-) pups and prevented medial hyperlamellation in Eln(+/-) weanlings without compromising aortic size. However, rapamycin did not prolong the survival of Eln(-/-) pups, and it retarded the somatic growth of juvenile Eln(+/-) and Eln(+/+) mice. In cell cultures, rapamycin inhibited prolonged mTOR activation and enhanced proliferation of SMC derived from patients with supravalvular aortic stenosis and with Williams syndrome. mTOR inhibition may represent a pharmacological strategy to treat diffuse arteriopathy resulting from elastin deficiency.

  6. Rapamycin inhibits the secretory phenotype of senescent cells by a Nrf2-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Yu, Zhen; Sunchu, Bharath; Shoaf, James; Dang, Ivana; Zhao, Stephanie; Caples, Kelsey; Bradley, Lynda; Beaver, Laura M; Ho, Emily; Löhr, Christiane V; Perez, Viviana I

    2017-03-31

    Senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology and loss of function, and their selective removal improves physiological function and extends longevity. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell senescence in vitro and increases longevity in several species. Nrf2 levels have been shown to decrease with aging and silencing Nrf2 gene induces premature senescence. Therefore, we explored whether Nrf2 is involved in the mechanism by which rapamycin delays cell senescence. In wild-type (WT) mouse fibroblasts, rapamycin increased the levels of Nrf2, and this correlates with the activation of autophagy and a reduction in the induction of cell senescence, as measured by SA-β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and p16 and p21 molecular markers. In Nrf2KO fibroblasts, however, rapamycin still decreased β-gal staining and the SASP, but rapamycin did not activate the autophagy pathway or decrease p16 and p21 levels. These observations were further confirmed in vivo using Nrf2KO mice, where rapamycin treatment led to a decrease in β-gal staining and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and fat tissue; however, p16 levels were not significantly decreased in fat tissue. Consistent with literature demonstrating that the Stat3 pathway is linked to the production of SASP, we found that rapamycin decreased activation of the Stat3 pathway in cells or tissue samples from both WT and Nrf2KO mice. Our data thus suggest that cell senescence is a complex process that involves at least two arms, and rapamycin uses Nrf2 to regulate cell cycle arrest, but not the production of SASP.

  7. FLZ protects dopaminergic neuron through activating protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and inhibiting RTP801 expression in Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Bao, X-Q; Kong, X-C; Qian, C; Zhang, D

    2012-01-27

    The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra (SNpc). FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, it is still unclear whether FLZ protects against PD through regulating the function of dopaminergic system. In this study, we carried out a set of in vitro and in vivo experiments to address these questions. Oral administration of FLZ significantly improved motor dysfunction of mice challenged by MPTP. The beneficial effects of FLZ on motor behavior attributed to the elevation of dopamine level in striatum, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, and TH activity in the middle brain of mouse. Mechanism study showed that treatment of FLZ increased the phosphorylation of activating protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Using LY294002 to block phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway prevented the phosphorylation of mTOR and attenuated the neuroprotection of FLZ in MN9D cells challenged by MPP(+). In addition, FLZ reduced the expression of RTP801, an important protein in PD, in mice and cells intoxicated by MPTP/MPP(+). Taken together, these results revealed a novel role that FLZ elevated TH expression and activity in dopaminergic neuron through activation of Akt/mTOR survival pathway and inhibition of RTP801 in MPTP/MPP(+)-induced PD models. The data also provided evidence that FLZ had potent neuroprotecive effects and might become a new promising anti-PD drug.

  8. Relative resistance to Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition in vascular smooth muscle cells of diabetic donors.

    PubMed

    Lightell, Daniel J; Woods, T Cooper

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Intimal thickening, a component of cardiovascular disease, entails the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) blocks VSMC proliferation, in part through an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27(Kip1). The use of mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin, is effective clinically in inhibiting intimal thickening. This efficacy is reduced in diabetic subjects, however, suggesting a change in the role of the mTOR pathway in intimal thickening under diabetic conditions. To examine whether diabetes induced changes in the role of mTOR in VSMC proliferation, we compared the response to rapamycin of human coronary artery VSMCs from diabetic (DM-huCASMC [human coronary artery smooth muscle cell]) and nondiabetic (ND-huCASMC) subjects. The DM-huCASMCs exhibited a relative resistance to rapamycin's inhibition of proliferation. Activation of the mTOR effector p70(S6kinase) was inhibited in rapamycin-treated DM-huCASMCs as in ND-huCASMCs. While ND-huCASMCs exhibited the normal increase in p27(Kip1) in response to rapamycin treatment, the DM-huCASMCs did not. Additionally, activation of the extracellular signal response kinase pathway was increased in the DM-huCASMCs, suggesting a potential pathway mediating the mTOR-independent decrease in p27(Kip1). We conclude that diabetes is accompanied by a relative resistance to the effects of mTOR inhibition on VSMC proliferation through a loss of mTOR's effects on p27(Kip1) levels. These data provide insight into the effects of insulin resistance on the role of mTOR in regulating intimal thickening.

  9. Growth of Streptomyces Hygroscopicus in Rotating-Wall Bioreactor Under Simulated Microgravity Inhibits Rapamycin Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  10. Growth of Steptomyces hygroscopicus in rotating-wall bioreactor under simulated microgravity inhibits rapamycin production.

    PubMed

    Fang, A; Pierson, D L; Mishra, S K; Demain, A L

    2000-07-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin, in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  11. Growth of Steptomyces hygroscopicus in rotating-wall bioreactor under simulated microgravity inhibits rapamycin production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin, in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  12. Growth of Steptomyces hygroscopicus in rotating-wall bioreactor under simulated microgravity inhibits rapamycin production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin, in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  13. Reperfusion Therapy with Rapamycin Attenuates Myocardial Infarction through Activation of AKT and ERK

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Scott M.; Samidurai, Arun; Roh, Sean K.; Cain, Chad K.; He, Jun; Salloum, Fadi N.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt coronary reperfusion is the gold standard for minimizing injury following acute myocardial infarction. Rapamycin, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, exerts preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that Rapamycin, given at the onset of reperfusion, reduces myocardial infarct size through modulation of mTOR complexes. Adult C57 male mice were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion for 1 hour/24 hours. Rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg) or DMSO (7.5%) was injected intracardially at the onset of reperfusion. Post-I/R survival (87%) and cardiac function (fractional shortening, FS: 28.63 ± 3.01%) were improved in Rapamycin-treated mice compared to DMSO (survival: 63%, FS: 17.4 ± 2.6%). Rapamycin caused significant reduction in myocardial infarct size (IS: 26.2 ± 2.2%) and apoptosis (2.87 ± 0.64%) as compared to DMSO-treated mice (IS: 47.0 ± 2.3%; apoptosis: 7.39 ± 0.81%). Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of AKT S473 (target of mTORC2) but abolished ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (target of mTORC1) after I/R. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but inhibited p38 phosphorylation. Infarct-limiting effect of Rapamycin was abolished with ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Rapamycin also attenuated Bax and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results suggest that reperfusion therapy with Rapamycin protects the heart against I/R injury by selective activation of mTORC2 and ERK with concurrent inhibition of mTORC1 and p38. PMID:28373901

  14. CWF-145, a novel synthetic quinolone derivative exerts potent antimitotic activity against human prostate cancer: Rapamycin enhances antimitotic drug-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Liu, Liang-Chih; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2016-12-25

    CWF-145, a synthetic 2-phenyl-4-quinolone derivative exerted potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer. CWF-145 inhibited prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 and LNCap. It had a very low IC50 about 200 nM against castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) PC-3. We found that CWF-145 had a similar effect to clinical trial antimitotic agents in cancer cells and normal cells. CWF-145 arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase by binding to the β-tubulin at the colchicine-binding site then disrupted microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, the damaged microtubule affected the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that CWF-145 activated Akt and mTOR expression to increase emi1 accumulation and inhibit APC. The increased cyclin B1 and securin arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase. Moreover, we showed that Akt activation markedly increased resistance to microtubule-directed agents, including CWF-145, colchicine, and paclitaxel. Interestingly, rapamycin inhibited Akt-mediated therapeutic resistance, indicating that these effects were dependent on mTOR. Taken together, these observations suggest that activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can promote resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that do not directly target metabolic regulation. These data may provide insight into potentially synergistic combinations of anticancer therapies.

  15. Rapamycin inhibits human renal epithelial cell proliferation: effect on cyclin D3 mRNA expression and stability.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Le Corre, Delphine; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Nusbaum, Patrick; Tomkiewicz, Céline; Meria, Paul; Flinois, Jean-Pierre; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2005-06-01

    Recent data have suggested that rapamycin use during the initial period after transplantation is associated with prolonged delayed graft function (DGF). Because of the known effects of rapamycin in other cell types, we speculated that this action may be secondary to human renal epithelial cells (HRECs) inhibition of proliferation. Primary cultures of HRECs were incubated with various concentrations of rapamycin. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cytotoxicity assays. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Protein expression levels were assessed by Western blot. Cyclin D3 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcriptional activity of the cyclin D3 gene was evaluated using transient transfection. Rapamycin exerted a significant concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on growing HRECs by inhibiting the G(1) to S transition. The p70(S6) kinase pathway leading to cell cycle progression was found to be active, and low concentrations of rapamycin dramatically reduced p70(S6) kinase phosphorylation. Rapamycin completely inhibited the increase in cyclin D3 protein expression and mRNA accumulation induced by fetal calf serum, but did not affect cyclin E or cdk-inhibitor expression levels. This regulation of cyclin D3 protein expression is mainly due to a destabilization of its mRNA. Rapamycin reduced the mRNA half-life by 26% (4.8 +/- 1.3 hours vs. 6.5 +/- 1.0 hours, P < 0.001). Rapamycin inhibits the proliferative response of HRECs to mitogenic stimuli, and causes cell cycle arrest in the early G(1) phase, not only by a nonspecific process due to inhibition of the p70(S6k) pathway, but also by a direct effect on cyclin D3 mRNA stability.

  16. Rapamycin attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction via activation of mitophagy in experimental ischemic stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jixian; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhai, Yu; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Rapamycin enhances mitophagy via increasing p62 translocation to the mitochondria. • Rapamycin attenuates brain ischemic damage and improves mitochondrial function. • The protection of rapamycin to mitochondrial is linked to enhanced mitophagy. - Abstract: Rapamycin has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective functions via the activation of autophagy in a cerebral ischemia model. However, the involvement of mitophagy in this process and its contribution to the protection of mitochondrial function remains unknown. The present study explored the characteristics of mitophagy after cerebral ischemia and the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial function. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Neurological deficits scores; infarct volumes; mitophagy morphology; and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (Δψm) were examined. The expression of LC3, Beclin-1 and p62 in the mitochondrial fraction combined with transmission electronic microscopy were used to explore mitophagic activity after ischemia. We also blocked autophagosome formation using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to check the linkage between the mitochondrial protective effect of rapamycin and enhanced mitophagy. We observed that rapamycin significantly enhanced mitophagy, as evidenced by the increase in LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression in the mitochondria and p62 translocation to the mitochondria. Rapamycin reduced infarct volume, improved neurological outcomes and inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction compared with the control animals (p < 0.05). However, these protective effects were reversed by 3-methyladenine treatment after rapamycin. The present study indicates that rapamycin treatment attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction following cerebral ischemia, which is linked to enhanced mitophagy.

  17. Rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiheng; Tai, Wenlin; Qu, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Wenjuan; Li, ZhenKun; Deng, Shuhao; Vongphouttha, Chanthasone; Dong, Zhaoxing

    2017-08-19

    Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide indeveloping countries worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity especially how to treat PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis is still largely unknown. In animal model of pulmonary fibrosis, we used HE staining, western blotting assay and Real-time PCR assay to analyze the effects of rapamycin on the PQ-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that PQ induced the pulmonary fibrosis using HE staining and Masson's staining, and up-regulated the activity of HYP and the mRNA expressions of Collagen I and III (COL-1and COL-3) in pulmonary tissues. We also found that rapamycin down-regulated the mesenchymal cell marker Vimentin and up-regulated the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin both in mRNA and protein levels compared with PQ group. And the EMT associated transcription factor Snail was decreased by rapamycin treatment compared with PQ group. And PQ decreased the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels, and rapamycin inhibited these effects of PQ. SFN, a activator of Nrf2, could inhibit the EMT and the expression of Snail. And knockdowon of Nrf2 could abolish the inhibitory effects of rapamycin of PQ-induced EMT. In conclusion, rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, induced growth inhibition in retinoblastoma Y79 cell via down-regulation of Bmi-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Su, Yong-Jing; Li, Jian-Ying; Yao, Xiang-Chao; Liang, Guang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is useful in the treatment of certain cancers by inhibiting mTOR(mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Here, anticancer activity and its acting mechanisms of rapamycin were investigated in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. CCK-8 assay showed that the IC50 value of rapamycin against human retinoblastoma Y79 cells was 0.122±0.026 μmol/L. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that rapamycin induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Western blot assay demonstrated that the mTOR pathway in Y79 cells was blocked by rapamycin. Western blot and RT-PCR assay showed that Bmi-1 was downregulated in protein and mRNA level by rapamycin treatment. Further Western blot and RNA interference assays showed that rapamycin-mediated downregulation of Bmi-1 induced decreases of cyclin E1, which accounted for rapamycin-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest in human retinoblastoma cells. Together, all these results illustrated that rapamycin induced growth inhibition of human retinoblastoma cells, and inactive of mTOR pathway and downregulation of Bmi-1 was involved in its action mechanism.

  19. Protective effect of silymarin against rapamycin-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition in endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Han, Guohua; Gao, Pei; Qiao, Kun; Ren, Yusheng; Liang, Chun; Leng, Bing; Wu, Zonggui

    2015-02-01

    For this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers. Mononuclear cells (MNC) were separated by density centrifugation and were induced to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro. Different concentrations of rapamycin and silymarin were introduced to the EPCs over 24 hours and then EPCs were analyzed for proliferation, migration, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Compared with the control group, rapamycin (1, 10, 100 ng/mL) inhibited the proliferation and migration of EPCs in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). Silymarin (50, 100 μg/mL) enhanced the proliferation and migration of EPCs and inhibited apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). By adding rapamycin (1 ng/mL) and silymarin (25, 50, 100 μg/mL) over 24 hours, silymarin inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of rapamycin on EPCs, and reversed the inhibition of proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of EPCs by rapamycin (P<0.05).

  20. The ketogenic diet inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Sharon S; Rensing, Nicholas R; Thio, Liu Lin; Yamada, Kelvin A; Wong, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for epilepsy, but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that the KD inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway signaling. The expression of pS6 and pAkt, markers of mTOR pathway activation, was reduced in hippocampus and liver of rats fed KD. In the kainate model of epilepsy, KD blocked the hippocampal pS6 elevation that occurs after status epilepticus. Because mTOR signaling has been implicated in epileptogenesis, these results suggest that the KD may have anticonvulsant or antiepileptogenic actions via mTOR pathway inhibition.

  1. Downregulation of cancer stem cell properties via mTOR signaling pathway inhibition by rapamycin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YANG, CHUNGUANG; ZHANG, YUE; ZHANG, YU; ZHANG, ZIHENG; PENG, JIANHUA; LI, ZHI; HAN, LIANG; YOU, QUANJIE; CHEN, XIAOYU; RAO, XINGWANG; ZHU, YI; LIAO, ZHISU

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling inhibitor, inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor formation, including in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which we proved in a previous study. However, whether rapamycin affects cancer stem cells (CSCs) is unclear. In examining samples of NPCs, we found regions of CD44-positive cancer cells co-expressing the stem cell biomarker OCT4, suggesting the presence of CSCs. Following this, we used double-label immunohistochemistry to identify whether the mTOR signaling pathway was activated in CD44-positive CSCs in NPCs. We used a CCK-8 assay and western blotting to explore whether the stem cell biomarkers CD44 and SOX2 and the invasion protein MMP-2 could be suppressed by treatment with rapamycin in cultured primary NPC cells and secondary tumors in BALB/c nude mice. Interestingly, we found that rapamycin inhibited mTOR signaling in addition to simultaneously downregulating the expression of CD44, SOX2 and MMP-2 and that it affected cell growth and tumor size and weight both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, we confirmed for the first time that CSC properties are reduced and invasion potential is restrained in response to mTOR signaling inhibition in NPC. This evidence indicates that the targeted inhibition of CSC properties may provide a novel strategy to treat cancer. PMID:26202311

  2. Rapamycin requires AMPK activity and p27 expression for promoting autophagy-dependent Tsc2-null cell survival.

    PubMed

    Campos, Tania; Ziehe, Javiera; Fuentes-Villalobos, Francisco; Riquelme, Orlando; Peña, Daniela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Lavandero, Sergio; Morin, Violeta; Pincheira, Roxana; Castro, Ariel F

    2016-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) disease results from inactivation of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, and is characterized by benign tumors in several organs. Because TSC tumorigenesis correlates with hyperactivation of mTORC1, current therapies focus on mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin or its analogs. Rapamycin-induced tumor shrinkage has been reported, but tumor recurrence occurs on withdrawal from rapamycin. Autophagy has been associated with development of TSC tumors and with tumor cell survival during rapamycin treatment. mTORC1 and AMPK directly inhibit and activate autophagy, respectively. AMPK is hyperactivated in TSC cells and tumors, and drives cytoplasmic sequestration of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27KIP (p27). Whether AMPK and p27 are involved in rapamycin-induced autophagy and survival of TSC cells remain unexplored. Here, we show that inhibition of AMPK by compound C or by shRNA-mediated depletion of LKB1 reduces activation of autophagy by rapamycin in Tsc2-null cells. Similarly, shRNA-mediated depletion of p27 inhibited rapamycin-induced autophagy. In support of p27 lying downstream of AMPK on the activation of autophagy in Tsc2-null cells, a p27 mutant that preferentially localizes in the cytosol recovered the effect of rapamycin on autophagy in both p27- and LKB1-depleted cells, but a nuclear p27 mutant was inactive. Finally, we show that p27-dependent activation of autophagy is involved in Tsc2-null cell survival under rapamycin treatment. These results indicate that an AMPK/p27 axis is promoting a survival mechanism that could explain in part the relapse of TSC tumors treated with rapamycin, exposing new avenues for designing more efficient treatments for TSC patients.

  3. Oral rapamycin inhibits growth of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE knock-out mice

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Pakala, Rajbabu; Burnett, Mary S.; Gulick, Cindy P.; Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David

    2003-03-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells are known to play significant roles in atherosclerotic plaque development. Rapamycin with antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties has been shown to reduce neointima formation when coated on stents. This study is designed to test the potential of oral rapamycin to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque development. Methods: Eight-week-old apoE knock-out mice were fed with 0.25% cholesterol supplemented diet (control diet), control diet containing 50 {mu}g/kg rapamycin (low-dose rapamycin) or 100 {mu}g/kg rapamycin (high-dose rapamycin) for 4 or 8 weeks. Subsets of mice from each group (n=10) were weighed and euthanized. Whole blood rapamycin levels were determined using HPLC-MS/MS, and histological analyses of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root were performed. Results: Mice fed with high-dose rapamycin did not gain weight (18.5{+-}1.5 vs. 20.6{+-}0.9 g, P=.01). Blood levels of rapamycin 117{+-}7 pg/ml were detected in the blood of mice fed with high-dose rapamycin for 8 weeks. The plaque area in mice fed with high dose oral rapamycin is significantly less as compared to control (0.168{+-}0.008 vs. 0.326{+-}0.013 mm{sup 2}, P=.001 at 4 weeks; 0.234{+-}0.013 vs. 0.447{+-}0.011 mm{sup 2}, P=.001 at 8 weeks). Lumen area was inversely proportional to the plaque area. Conclusions: The results indicate that oral rapamycin is effective in attenuating the progression of atherosclerotic plaque in the mice.

  4. Targeted Inhibition of Rictor/mTORC2 in Cancer Treatment: A New Era after Rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhipeng; Chen, Juan; Yang, Jun; Bai, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms two functionally distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1, consisting of mTOR, raptor, and mLST8 (GβL), is sensitive to rapamycin and thought to control autonomous cell growth in response to nutrient availability and growth factors. mTORC2, containing the core components mTOR, mLST8, Rictor, mSIN1, and Protor1/2 is largely insensitive to rapamycin. mTORC2 specifically senses growth factors and regulates cell proliferation, metabolism, actin rearrangement, and survival. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling often occurs in a variety of human malignant diseases, rendering it a crucial and validated target in cancer treatment. However, the effectiveness of rapamycin as single-agent therapy is suppressed, in part, by the numerous strong mTORC1-dependent negative feedback loops. Although preclinical and clinical studies of ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors that target both mTORC1 and mTORC2 have shown greater effectiveness than rapalogs for cancer treatment, the mTORC1 inhibition-induced negative feedback activation of PI3- K/PDK1 and Akt (Thr308) may be sufficient to promote cell survival. Recent cancer biology studies indicated that mTORC2 is a promising target, since its activity is essential for the development of a number of cancers. These studies provide a rationale for developing inhibitors specifically targeting mTORC2, which do not perturb the mTORC1- dependent negative feedback loops and have a more acceptable therapeutic window. This review summarizes the present understanding of mTORC2 signaling and functions, especially tumorigenic functions, highlighting the current status and future perspectives for targeting mTORC2 in cancer treatment.

  5. Binding of rapamycin analogs to calcium channels and FKBP52 contributes to their neuroprotective activities

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Benfang; Pong, Kevin; Jow, Flora; Bowlby, Mark; Crozier, Robert A.; Liu, Danni; Liang, Shi; Chen, Yi; Mercado, Mary Lynn; Feng, Xidong; Bennett, Frann; von Schack, David; McDonald, Leonard; Zaleska, Margaret M.; Wood, Andrew; Reinhart, Peter H.; Magolda, Ronald L.; Skotnicki, Jerauld; Pangalos, Menelas N.; Koehn, Frank E.; Carter, Guy T.; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Graziani, Edmund I.

    2008-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive immunophilin ligand reported as having neurotrophic activity. We show that modification of rapamycin at the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) binding region yields immunophilin ligands, WYE-592 and ILS-920, with potent neurotrophic activities in cortical neuronal cultures, efficacy in a rodent model for ischemic stroke, and significantly reduced immunosuppressive activity. Surprisingly, both compounds showed higher binding selectivity for FKBP52 versus FKBP12, in contrast to previously reported immunophilin ligands. Affinity purification revealed two key binding proteins, the immunophilin FKBP52 and the β1-subunit of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (CACNB1). Electrophysiological analysis indicated that both compounds can inhibit L-type Ca2+ channels in rat hippocampal neurons and F-11 dorsal root ganglia (DRG)/neuroblastoma cells. We propose that these immunophilin ligands can protect neurons from Ca2+-induced cell death by modulating Ca2+ channels and promote neurite outgrowth via FKBP52 binding. PMID:18162540

  6. Involvement of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase and p38MAPK in rapamycin-mediated inhibition of neointimal formation in rat carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Omura, Takashi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Kim, Shokei; Matsumoto, Ryo; Enomoto, Soichiro; Kusuyama, Takanori; Nishiya, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Akioka, Kaname; Iwao, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2005-10-01

    Rapamycin-coated stents in coronary artery lesions have recently been shown to be effective in inhibiting neointimal formation. However, little is known about the effects of rapamycin on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is an important signal for neointimal formation. Therefore, we examined the effects of rapamycin on MAPK and transcriptional factors in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) and in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Activation of ERK, JNK, p38MAPK, AP-1, and NF-kB in coronary artery smooth muscle cells was increased by 2% fetal bovine serum. Ten nmol/L of rapamycin prevented the activation of JNK, p38MAPK, AP-1, and NF-kB (65%, 65%, 67%, and 26% respectively, P<0.01). In an in vivo study, remarkable neointimal formation was observed 14 days after injury. Coating Pluronic gel with 20 and 50 mug rapamycin around the injured artery significantly decreased the intimal area/medial area ratio, compared with vehicle (0.75 vs. 1.2, P<0.01). Rapamycin prevented the increase in activation of JNK, p38MAPK, AP-1, and NF-kB in injured artery (42%, 70%, 75%, and 60% respectively, P<0.05). Neointimal formation after balloon injury is inhibited by rapamycin, which is partially mediated by inhibition of JNK and p38MAPK, followed by AP-1 and NF-kB.

  7. Rapamycin Inhibition of Polyposis and Progression to Dysplasia in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hardiman, Karin M.; Liu, Jianhua; Feng, Ying; Greenson, Joel K.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is often due to adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene germline mutations. Somatic APC defects are found in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) and adenomas. Rapamycin inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein, which is often expressed in human adenomas and CRCs. We sought to assess the effects of rapamycin in a mouse polyposis model in which both Apc alleles were conditionally inactivated in colon epithelium. Two days after inactivating Apc, mice were given rapamycin or vehicle in cycles of two weeks on and two weeks off. Polyps were scored endoscopically. Mice were euthanized at time points or when moribund, and tissue analyses were performed. In other studies, mice with demonstrable Apc-defective colon polyps were given rapamycin, followed by analysis of their colon tissues. The median survival of mice receiving rapamycin treatment cycles was 21.5 versus 6.5 weeks in control mice (p = 0.03), and rapamycin-treated mice had a significantly lower percentage of their colon covered with polyps (4.3+/− 2 vs 56.5+/− 10.8 percent, p = 0.001). Mice with Apc-deficient colon tissues that developed high grade dysplasia treated with rapamycin underwent treatment for significantly longer than mice treated with vehicle (15.8 vs 5.1 weeks, p = 0.003). In Apc-defective colon tissues, rapamycin treatment was linked to decreased levels of β-catenin and Sox9 at 7 weeks. Other effects of rapamycin in Apc-defectivecolon tissues included decreased proliferation and increased numbers of differentiated goblet cells at 7 weeks. Rapamycin did not affect β-catenin-regulated gene expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Rapamycin has potent inhibitory effects in a mouse colon polyposis model, and mTOR inhibition is linked to decreased proliferation and increased expression of differentiation markers in Apc-mutant colon epithelium and delays development of dysplasia. Our findings highlight the possibility that m

  8. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of rapamycin by the coproduced elaiophylin and nigericin.

    PubMed

    Fang, A; Wong, G K; Demain, A L

    2000-02-01

    Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 29253 produces rapamycin, elaiophylin and nigericin. Although elaiophylin has no activity against Candida albicans ATCC 11651, it markedly enhances rapamycin's antifungal activity. Nigericin has only weak activity on its own but it also enhances rapamycin action. Surprisingly, elaiophylin does not enhance nigericin activity on C. albicans.

  9. Systemic Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibits Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Kouser, Mehreen; Powell, Craig M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Established traumatic memories have a selective vulnerability to pharmacologic interventions following their reactivation that can decrease subsequent memory recall. This vulnerable period following memory reactivation is termed reconsolidation. The pharmacology of traumatic memory reconsolidation has not been fully characterized despite its potential as a therapeutic target for established, acquired anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is known to be involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We have examined the role of mTOR in traumatic memory reconsolidation. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were injected systemically with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (1 – 40 mg/kg), at various time points relative to contextual fear conditioning training or fear memory retrieval, and compared to vehicle or anisomycin-treated groups (N = 10–12 in each group). Results Inhibition of mTOR via systemic administration of rapamycin blocks reconsolidation of an established fear memory in a lasting manner. This effect is specific to reconsolidation as a series of additional experiments make an effect on memory extinction unlikely. Conclusions Systemic rapamycin, in conjunction with therapeutic traumatic memory reactivation, can decrease the emotional strength of an established traumatic memory. This finding not only establishes mTOR regulation of protein translation in the reconsolidation phase of traumatic memory, but also implicates a novel, FDA-approved drug treatment for patients suffering from acquired anxiety disorders such as PTSD and specific phobia. PMID:18316213

  10. Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Lubet, Ronald A; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2015-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase mTOR. Both 3-BrPA and rapamycin show chemopreventive efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer. Aerosol delivery of therapeutic drugs for lung cancer has been reported to be an effective route of delivery with little systemic distribution in humans. In this study, 3-BrPA and rapamycin were evaluated in combination for their preventive effects against lung cancer in mice by aerosol treatment, revealing a synergistic ability as measured by tumor multiplicity and tumor load compared treatment with either single-agent alone. No evidence of liver toxicity was detected by monitoring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes. To understand the mechanism in vitro experiments were performed using human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. 3-BrPA and rapamycin also synergistically inhibited cell proliferation. Rapamycin alone blocked the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas 3-BrPA did not potentiate this effect. Given the known role of 3-BrPA as an inhibitor of glycolysis, we investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics changes in vitro in 3-BrPA-treated NSCLC cells. 3-BrPA significantly decreased glycolytic activity, which may be due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and decreased expression of GAPDH. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 3-BrPA, and that dual inhibition of mTOR signaling and glycolysis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention.

  11. High mobility group box 1 induces the activation of the Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway in pancreatic acinar cells in rats, while AG490 and rapamycin inhibit their activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Jingchao; Dui, Danhua; Ren, Haoyuan; Liu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains unclear. The Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is important for various cytokines and growth factors. This study investigated the effect of the late inflammatory factor high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) on the activation of JAK2/STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells and the inhibitory effects of AG490 (a JAK2 inhibitor) and rapamycin (a STAT3 inhibitor) on this pathway. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were randomly divided into the control, HMGB1, AG490, and rapamycin groups. The mRNA levels of JAK2 and STAT3 at 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein levels of JAK2 and STAT3 at 60 and 120 minutes were observed using Western blotting. Compared with the control group, the HMGB1 group exhibited significantly increased levels of JAK2 mRNA at each time point; STAT3 mRNA at 30, 60, and 120 minutes; and JAK2 and STAT3 proteins at 60 and 120 minutes (p < 0.01). Compared with the HMGB1 group, the AG490 and rapamycin groups both exhibited significantly decreased levels of JAK2 mRNA at each time point (p < 0.05); STAT3 mRNA at 30, 60, and 120 minutes (p < 0.01); and JAK2 and STAT3 proteins at 60 and 120 minutes (p < 0.01). HMGB1 induces the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in rat pancreatic acinar cells, and this activation can be inhibited by AG490 and rapamycin. The results of this study may provide new insights for the treatment of SAP. PMID:27754827

  12. Inhibition of akt enhances the chemopreventive effects of topical rapamycin in mouse skin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Petricoin, Emmanuel; Calvert, Valerie; Einspahr, Janine G.; Dickinson, Jesse; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  13. Inhibition of Akt Enhances the Chemopreventive Effects of Topical Rapamycin in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Calvert, Valerie S; Einspahr, Janine; Dickinson, Jesse E; Stratton, Steven P; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S; Timothy Bowden, G

    2016-03-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared with those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here, we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared with controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared with vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  14. Rapamycin Inhibits Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via mTOR/NF-κB/LOX-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Lin; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Previously, we found that rapamycin inhibited ox-LDL accumulation in HUVECs, and this effect was related to its role in increasing the activity of autophagy-lysosome pathway. In this study, we determined whether rapamycin could also reduce ox-LDL uptake in HUVECs and investigated the underlying signaling mechanisms. Results Flow cytometry and live cell imaging showed that rapamycin reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in HUVECs. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the ox-LDL-induced increase in LOX-1 mRNA and protein levels. Western blotting showed that rapamycin inhibited mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70s6k and IκBα phosphorylation triggered by ox-LDL. Flow cytometry implied that mTOR, NF-κB knockdown and NF-κB inhibitors significantly reduced Dil-ox-LDL uptake. Moreover, immunofluorescent staining showed that rapamycin reduced the accumulation of p65 in the nucleus after ox-LDL treatment for 30 h. mTOR knockdown decreased LOX-1 protein production and IκBα phosphorylation induced by ox-LDL. NF-κB knockdown and NF-κB inhibitors reduced LOX-1 protein production, but did not inhibit mTOR phosphorylation stimulated by ox-LDL. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that rapamycin reduce mTOR phosphorylation and subsequently inhibit NF-κB activation and suppresses LOX-1, resulting in a reduction in ox-LDL uptake in HUVECs. PMID:26752047

  15. Rapamycin Inhibits Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via mTOR/NF-κB/LOX-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-De; Cao, Xue-Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Lin; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Previously, we found that rapamycin inhibited ox-LDL accumulation in HUVECs, and this effect was related to its role in increasing the activity of autophagy-lysosome pathway. In this study, we determined whether rapamycin could also reduce ox-LDL uptake in HUVECs and investigated the underlying signaling mechanisms. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging showed that rapamycin reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in HUVECs. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the ox-LDL-induced increase in LOX-1 mRNA and protein levels. Western blotting showed that rapamycin inhibited mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70s6k and IκBα phosphorylation triggered by ox-LDL. Flow cytometry implied that mTOR, NF-κB knockdown and NF-κB inhibitors significantly reduced Dil-ox-LDL uptake. Moreover, immunofluorescent staining showed that rapamycin reduced the accumulation of p65 in the nucleus after ox-LDL treatment for 30 h. mTOR knockdown decreased LOX-1 protein production and IκBα phosphorylation induced by ox-LDL. NF-κB knockdown and NF-κB inhibitors reduced LOX-1 protein production, but did not inhibit mTOR phosphorylation stimulated by ox-LDL. These findings demonstrate that rapamycin reduce mTOR phosphorylation and subsequently inhibit NF-κB activation and suppresses LOX-1, resulting in a reduction in ox-LDL uptake in HUVECs.

  16. Covalent modification of pericardial patches for sustained rapamycin delivery inhibits venous neointimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hualong; Lee, Jung Seok; Chen, Elizabeth; Wang, Mo; Xing, Ying; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Dardik, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic grafts and patches are commonly used in cardiovascular surgery, however neointimal hyperplasia remains a significant concern, especially under low flow conditions. We hypothesized that delivery of rapamycin from nanoparticles (NP) covalently attached to patches allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents targeted to inhibit localized neointimal hyperplasia. NP were covalently linked to pericardial patches using EDC/NHS chemistry and could deliver at least 360 ng rapamycin per patch without detectable rapamycin in serum; nanoparticles were detectable in the liver, kidney and spleen but no other sites within 24 hours. In a rat venous patch angioplasty model, control patches developed robust neointimal hyperplasia on the patch luminal surface characterized by Eph-B4-positive endothelium and underlying SMC and infiltrating cells such as macrophages and leukocytes. Patches delivering rapamycin developed less neointimal hyperplasia, less smooth muscle cell proliferation, and had fewer infiltrating cells but retained endothelialization. NP covalently linked to pericardial patches are a novel composite delivery system that allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutics; NP delivering rapamycin inhibit patch neointimal hyperplasia. NP linked to patches may represent a next generation of tissue engineered cardiovascular implants.

  17. Covalent modification of pericardial patches for sustained rapamycin delivery inhibits venous neointimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hualong; Lee, Jung Seok; Chen, Elizabeth; Wang, Mo; Xing, Ying; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Dardik, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic grafts and patches are commonly used in cardiovascular surgery, however neointimal hyperplasia remains a significant concern, especially under low flow conditions. We hypothesized that delivery of rapamycin from nanoparticles (NP) covalently attached to patches allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents targeted to inhibit localized neointimal hyperplasia. NP were covalently linked to pericardial patches using EDC/NHS chemistry and could deliver at least 360 ng rapamycin per patch without detectable rapamycin in serum; nanoparticles were detectable in the liver, kidney and spleen but no other sites within 24 hours. In a rat venous patch angioplasty model, control patches developed robust neointimal hyperplasia on the patch luminal surface characterized by Eph-B4-positive endothelium and underlying SMC and infiltrating cells such as macrophages and leukocytes. Patches delivering rapamycin developed less neointimal hyperplasia, less smooth muscle cell proliferation, and had fewer infiltrating cells but retained endothelialization. NP covalently linked to pericardial patches are a novel composite delivery system that allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutics; NP delivering rapamycin inhibit patch neointimal hyperplasia. NP linked to patches may represent a next generation of tissue engineered cardiovascular implants. PMID:28071663

  18. Covalent modification of pericardial patches for sustained rapamycin delivery inhibits venous neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hualong; Lee, Jung Seok; Chen, Elizabeth; Wang, Mo; Xing, Ying; Fahmy, Tarek M; Dardik, Alan

    2017-01-10

    Prosthetic grafts and patches are commonly used in cardiovascular surgery, however neointimal hyperplasia remains a significant concern, especially under low flow conditions. We hypothesized that delivery of rapamycin from nanoparticles (NP) covalently attached to patches allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents targeted to inhibit localized neointimal hyperplasia. NP were covalently linked to pericardial patches using EDC/NHS chemistry and could deliver at least 360 ng rapamycin per patch without detectable rapamycin in serum; nanoparticles were detectable in the liver, kidney and spleen but no other sites within 24 hours. In a rat venous patch angioplasty model, control patches developed robust neointimal hyperplasia on the patch luminal surface characterized by Eph-B4-positive endothelium and underlying SMC and infiltrating cells such as macrophages and leukocytes. Patches delivering rapamycin developed less neointimal hyperplasia, less smooth muscle cell proliferation, and had fewer infiltrating cells but retained endothelialization. NP covalently linked to pericardial patches are a novel composite delivery system that allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutics; NP delivering rapamycin inhibit patch neointimal hyperplasia. NP linked to patches may represent a next generation of tissue engineered cardiovascular implants.

  19. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling pathway reduces itch behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Obara, Ilona; Medrano, Maria C; Signoret-Genest, Jérémy; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Géranton, Sandrine M; Hunt, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Activated mammalian target of rapamycin (P-mTOR) has been shown to maintain the sensitivity of subsets of small-diameter primary afferent A-nociceptors. Local or systemic inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway reduced punctate mechanical and cold sensitivity in neuropathic pain and therefore offered a new approach to chronic pain control. In this study, we have investigated the effects of the rapamycin analog temsirolimus (CCI-779) on itch. Bouts of scratching induced by the histamine-dependent pruritogenic compound 48/80 and histamine-independent pruritogens, chloroquine and SLIGRL-NH2, injected intradermally were significantly reduced by local (intradermal) or systemic (intraperitoneal, i.p.) pretreatment with CCI-779. We also investigated the action of metformin, a drug taken to control type 2 diabetes and recently shown to inhibit mTORC1 in vivo. Although the response to nonhistaminergic stimuli was reduced at all of the time points tested, scratching to compound 48/80 was modified by metformin only when the drug was injected 24 hours before this pruritogen. We also examined the colocalization of P-mTOR with gastrin-releasing peptide, a putative marker for some itch-sensitive primary afferents, and found that P-mTOR was coexpressed in less than 5% of gastrin-releasing peptide-positive fibers in the mouse skin. Taken together, the data highlight the role that P-mTOR-positive A-fibers play in itch signaling and underline the importance of the mTORC1 pathway in the regulation of homeostatic primary afferent functions such as pain and itch. The actions of the antidiabetic drug metformin in ameliorating nonhistamine-mediated itch also suggest a new therapeutic route for the control of this category of pruritus.

  20. Rapid cytoplasmic turnover of yeast ribosomes in response to rapamycin inhibition of TOR.

    PubMed

    Pestov, Dimitri G; Shcherbik, Natalia

    2012-06-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is the central regulator of cell growth in eukaryotes. Inhibition of TOR by rapamycin elicits changes in translation attributed mainly to altered translation initiation and repression of the synthesis of new ribosomes. Using quantitative analysis of rRNA, we found that the number of existing ribosomes present in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture during growth in rich medium rapidly decreases by 40 to 60% when the cells are treated with rapamycin. This process is not appreciably affected by a suppression of autophagy, previously implicated in degradation of ribosomes in eukaryotes upon starvation. Yeast cells deficient in the exosome function or lacking its cytoplasmic Ski cofactors show an abnormal pattern of rRNA degradation, particularly in the large ribosomal subunit, and accumulate rRNA fragments after rapamycin treatment and during diauxic shift. The exosome and Ski proteins are thus important for processing of rRNA decay intermediates, although they are probably not responsible for initiating rRNA decay. The role of cytoplasmic nucleases in rapamycin-induced rRNA degradation suggests mechanistic parallels of this process to nutrient-controlled ribosome turnover in prokaryotes. We propose that ribosome content is regulated dynamically in eukaryotes by TOR through both ribosome synthesis and the cytoplasmic turnover of mature ribosomes.

  1. TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

    2013-08-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  2. TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. PMID:23551936

  3. Inhibition of mTOR kinase via rapamycin blocks persistent predator stress-induced hyperarousal.

    PubMed

    Fifield, Kathleen; Hebert, Mark; Angel, Rebecca; Adamec, Robert; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    Traumatic, stressful life events are thought to trigger acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent data suggests that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in the formation of traumatic memories. The predator stress paradigm allows us to determine whether mTOR mediates the formation of both context-dependent (associative) and context-independent (non-associative) fear memories. Predator stress involves an acute, unprotected exposure of a rat to a cat which causes long-lasting non-associative fear memories manifested as generalized hyperarousal and increased anxiety-like behavior. Here, we show that rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, attenuates predator stress-induced hyperarousal, lasting at least three weeks. In addition, rapamycin blocks a subset of anxiety-like behaviors as measured in the elevated plus maze and hole board. Furthermore, when re-exposed to the predator stress context, rapamycin-treated stressed rats showed increased activity compared to vehicle controls suggesting that rapamycin blocks predator stress-induced associative fear memory. Taken together with past research, our results indicate that mTOR regulation of protein translation is required for the formation of both associative and non-associative fear memories. Overall, these data suggest that mTOR activation may contribute to the development of acquired anxiety disorders such as PTSD.

  4. Inhibiting the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Blocks the Development of Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Emile B.; Hart, Geoffrey T.; Tran, Tuan M.; Waisberg, Michael; Akkaya, Munir; Skinner, Jeff; Zinöcker, Severin; Pena, Mirna; Yazew, Takele; Qi, Chen-Feng; Miller, Louis H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of several Plasmodium spp. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common form of severe malaria resulting in nearly 700,000 deaths each year in Africa alone. At present, there is no adjunctive therapy for CM. Although the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CM are incompletely understood, it is likely that both intrinsic features of the parasite and the human host’s immune response contribute to disease. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of immune responses, and drugs that inhibit the mTOR pathway have been shown to be antiparasitic. In a mouse model of CM, experimental CM (ECM), we show that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin protects against ECM when administered within the first 4 days of infection. Treatment with rapamycin increased survival, blocked breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and brain hemorrhaging, decreased the influx of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the brain and the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells in the brain. Rapamycin induced marked transcriptional changes in the brains of infected mice, and analysis of transcription profiles predicted that rapamycin blocked leukocyte trafficking to and proliferation in the brain. Remarkably, animals were protected against ECM even though rapamycin treatment significantly increased the inflammatory response induced by infection in both the brain and spleen. These results open a new avenue for the development of highly selective adjunctive therapies for CM by targeting pathways that regulate host and parasite metabolism. PMID:26037126

  5. Rapamycin and Less Immunosuppressive Analogs Are Toxic to Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans via FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of TOR

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, M. Cristina; Goldstein, Alan L.; Blankenship, Jill; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Perfect, John R.; McCusker, John H.; Bennani, Youssef L.; Cardenas, Maria E.; Heitman, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans cause both superficial and disseminated infections in humans. Current antifungal therapies for deep-seated infections are limited to amphotericin B, flucytosine, and azoles. A limitation is that commonly used azoles are fungistatic in vitro and in vivo. Our studies address the mechanisms of antifungal activity of the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (sirolimus) and its analogs with decreased immunosuppressive activity. C. albicans rbp1/rbp1 mutant strains lacking a homolog of the FK506-rapamycin target protein FKBP12 were found to be viable and resistant to rapamycin and its analogs. Rapamycin and analogs promoted FKBP12 binding to the wild-type Tor1 kinase but not to a rapamycin-resistant Tor1 mutant kinase (S1972R). FKBP12 and TOR mutations conferred resistance to rapamycin and its analogs in C. albicans, C. neoformans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our findings demonstrate the antifungal activity of rapamycin and rapamycin analogs is mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and Tor kinase homologs in divergent yeasts. Taken together with our observations that rapamycin and its analogs are fungicidal and that spontaneous drug resistance occurs at a low rate, these mechanistic findings support continued investigation of rapamycin analogs as novel antifungal agents. PMID:11600372

  6. A spectrophotometric assay for routine measurement of mammalian target of rapamycin activity in cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Dekter, Hinke E; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Temmink, Wouter P M; van Pelt, Johannes; de Fijter, Johan W; Smit, Nico P M

    2010-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important mediator in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. mTOR is the target of immunosuppressive drugs, such as rapamycin and everolimus, that are used in transplant patients but also for the treatment of various cancers. We have developed a method for mTOR activity measurement in cell lysates that measures the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol. Using an optimized lysis composition, activity could be measured in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from blood. For the PBMCs, intra- and interassay variations of 7 and 10%, respectively, were found using one lot number of the kit. With different lot numbers, the interassay variation increased up to 21%. Activity remained constant for PBMC pool samples on storage for a period of more than 7 months. Activity could also be measured in CD3+ T-cells isolated from blood. In vitro experiments revealed maximum mTOR inhibition of 30% in PBMCs and 44% in T-cells. The in vitro inhibition in PBMCs could also be demonstrated by Western blotting. The mTOR activity measurements may be used to show in vivo inhibition in renal allograft patients during everolimus treatment and to study mTOR activity in various (tumor) cell types.

  7. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin increases chemosensitivity of CaSki cells to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Faried, L S; Faried, A; Kanuma, T; Nakazato, T; Tamura, T; Kuwano, H; Minegishi, T

    2006-05-01

    Paclitaxel, a potent anti-neoplastic agent, has been found to be effective against several tumours, including cervical cancer. However, the exact mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of pacitaxel, especially in the survival-signalling pathway, is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular pathway of the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in human cervical cancer cell lines. Four human cervical cancer cell lines were treated for 24 h with various concentration of paclitaxel, and the sensitivity was analysed by an MTT assay. The cell cycle progression and sub-G1 population were analysed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was further measured by DNA fragmentation and microscope examination. The protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Our results showed that HeLa cells demonstrated the highest sensitivity to paclitaxel, whereas CaSki cells showed the lowest. In cervical cancer cells, paclitaxel induced apoptosis through an intrinsic pathway with prior G2/M arrest. In addition, we showed that paclitaxel downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt in both HeLa and CaSki cells. Interestingly, in CaSki cells, which were more suggestive of a resistant phenotype, paclitaxel induced the activation of mTOR as a downstream target of Akt. Pre-treatment with rapamycin inhibited activation of mTOR signalling and significantly enhanced the sensitivity of CaSki cells to paclitaxel by increasing apoptotic cell death. This effect was mediated, at least partly, through caspase activation. Overall, paclitaxel exerts its anti-tumour effects on cervical cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through intrinsic pathway, and rapamycin targeted to mTOR can sensitise paclitaxel-resistant cervical cancer cells.

  8. Activation of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, also known as mammalian target of rapamycin) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival. These effects are cell-type-specific, and are elicited in response to stimulation by growth factors, hormones and cytokines, as well as to internal and external metabolic cues. Rapamycin was initially developed as an inhibitor of T-cell proliferation and allograft rejection in the organ transplant setting. Subsequently, its molecular target (mTOR) was identified as a component of two interacting complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate T-cell lineage specification and macrophage differentiation. mTORC1 drives the proinflammatory expansion of T helper (TH) type 1, TH17, and CD4−CD8− (double-negative, DN) T cells. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibit the development of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory (TREG) cells and, indirectly, mTORC2 favours the expansion of Tfollicular helper (TFH) cells which, similarly to DN T cells, promote B-cell activation and autoantibody production. In contrast to this proinflammatory effect of mTORC2, mTORC1 favours, to some extent, an anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization that is protective against infections and tissue inflammation. Outside the immune system, mTORC1 controls fibroblast proliferation and chondrocyte survival, with implications for tissue fibrosis and osteoarthritis, respectively. Rapamycin (which primarily inhibits mTORC1), ATP-competitive, dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors and upstream regulators of the mTOR pathway are being developed to treat autoimmune, hyperproliferative and degenerative diseases. In this regard, mTOR blockade promises to increase life expectancy through treatment and prevention of rheumatic diseases. PMID:26698023

  9. Rapamycin inhibits BAFF-stimulated cell proliferation and survival by suppressing mTOR-mediated PP2A-Erk1/2 signaling pathway in normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingyu; Zhang, Hai; Qin, Jiamin; Xu, Zhigang; Gui, Lin; Liu, Beibei; Liu, Chunxiao; Xu, Chong; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Shuangquan; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2015-12-01

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is involved in not only physiology of normal B cells, but also pathophysiology of aggressive B cells related to malignant and autoimmune diseases. Rapamycin, a lipophilic macrolide antibiotic, has recently shown to be effective in the treatment of human lupus erythematosus. However, how rapamycin inhibits BAFF-stimulated B-cell proliferation and survival has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that rapamycin inhibited human soluble BAFF (hsBAFF)-induced cell proliferation and survival in normal and B-lymphoid (Raji and Daudi) cells by activation of PP2A and inactivation of Erk1/2. Pretreatment with PD98059, down-regulation of Erk1/2, expression of dominant negative MKK1, or overexpression of wild-type PP2A potentiated rapamycin's suppression of hsBAFF-activated Erk1/2 and B-cell proliferation/viability, whereas expression of constitutively active MKK1, inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid, or expression of dominant negative PP2A attenuated the inhibitory effects of rapamycin. Furthermore, expression of a rapamycin-resistant and kinase-active mTOR (mTOR-T), but not a rapamycin-resistant and kinase-dead mTOR-T (mTOR-TE), conferred resistance to rapamycin's effects on PP2A, Erk1/2 and B-cell proliferation/viability, implying mTOR-dependent mechanism involved. The findings indicate that rapamycin inhibits BAFF-stimulated cell proliferation/survival by targeting mTOR-mediated PP2A-Erk1/2 signaling pathway in normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells. Our data highlight that rapamycin may be exploited for preventing excessive BAFF-induced aggressive B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases.

  10. P-Rex1 links mammalian target of rapamycin signaling to Rac activation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Negrete, Ivette; Carretero-Ortega, Jorge; Rosenfeldt, Hans; Hernández-García, Ricardo; Calderón-Salinas, J Victor; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Gutkind, J Silvio; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2007-08-10

    Polarized cell migration results from the transduction of extra-cellular cues promoting the activation of Rho GTPases with the intervention of multidomain proteins, including guanine exchange factors. P-Rex1 and P-Rex2 are Rac GEFs connecting Gbetagamma and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling to Rac activation. Their complex architecture suggests their regulation by protein-protein interactions. Novel mechanisms of activation of Rho GTPases are associated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase known as a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Recently, two independent multiprotein complexes containing mTOR have been described. mTORC1 links to the classical rapamycin-sensitive pathways relevant for protein synthesis; mTORC2 links to the activation of Rho GTPases and cytoskeletal events via undefined mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that P-Rex1 and P-Rex2 establish, through their tandem DEP domains, interactions with mTOR, suggesting their potential as effectors in the signaling of mTOR to Rac activation and cell migration. This possibility was consistent with the effect of dominant-negative constructs and short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of P-Rex1, which decreased mTOR-dependent leucine-induced activation of Rac and cell migration. Rapamycin, a widely used inhibitor of mTOR signaling, did not inhibit Rac activity and cell migration induced by leucine, indicating that P-Rex1, which we found associated to both mTOR complexes, is only active when in the mTORC2 complex. mTORC2 has been described as the catalytic complex that phosphorylates AKT/PKB at Ser-473 and elicits activation of Rho GTPases and cytoskeletal reorganization. Thus, P-Rex1 links mTOR signaling to Rac activation and cell migration.

  11. A Rapamycin-Releasing Perivascular Polymeric Sheath Produces Highly Effective Inhibition of Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xaohua; Takayama, Toshio; Goel, Shakti A.; Shi, Xudong; Zhou, Yifan; Kent, K. Craig; Murphy, William L.; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia produces restenosis (re-narrowing) of the vessel lumen following vascular intervention. Drugs that inhibit intimal hyperplasia have been developed, however there is currently no clinical method of perivascular drug-delivery to prevent restenosis following open surgical procedures. Here we report a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) sheath that is highly effective in preventing intimal hyperplasia through perivascular delivery of rapamycin. We first screened a series of bioresorbable polymers, i.e., poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(lactic acid) (PLLA), PCL, and their blends, to identify desired release kinetics and sheath physical properties. Both PLGA and PLLA sheaths produced minimal (<30%) rapamycin release within 50 days in PBS buffer. In contrast, PCL sheaths exhibited more rapid and near-linear release kinetics, as well as durable integrity (>90 days) as evidenced in both scanning electron microscopy and subcutaneous embedding experiments. Moreover, a PCL sheath deployed around balloon-injured rat carotid arteries was associated with a minimum rate of thrombosis compared to PLGA and PLLA. Morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed that rapamycin-loaded perivascular PCL sheaths produced pronounced (85%) inhibition of intimal hyperplasia (0.15±0.05 vs 1.01±0.16), without impairment of the luminal endothelium, the vessel’s anti-thrombotic layer. Our data collectively show that a rapamycin-loaded PCL delivery system produces substantial mitigation of neointima, likely due to its favorable physical properties leading to a stable yet flexible perivascular sheath and steady and prolonged release kinetics. Thus, a PCL sheath may provide useful scaffolding for devising effective perivascular drug delivery particularly suited for preventing restenosis following open vascular surgery. PMID:24852098

  12. A rapamycin-releasing perivascular polymeric sheath produces highly effective inhibition of intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohua; Takayama, Toshio; Goel, Shakti A; Shi, Xudong; Zhou, Yifan; Kent, K Craig; Murphy, William L; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2014-10-10

    Intimal hyperplasia produces restenosis (re-narrowing) of the vessel lumen following vascular intervention. Drugs that inhibit intimal hyperplasia have been developed, however there is currently no clinical method of perivascular drug-delivery to prevent restenosis following open surgical procedures. Here we report a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) sheath that is highly effective in preventing intimal hyperplasia through perivascular delivery of rapamycin. We first screened a series of bioresorbable polymers, i.e., poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(lactic acid) (PLLA), PCL, and their blends, to identify desired release kinetics and sheath physical properties. Both PLGA and PLLA sheaths produced minimal (<30%) rapamycin release within 50days in PBS buffer. In contrast, PCL sheaths exhibited more rapid and near-linear release kinetics, as well as durable integrity (>90days) as evidenced in both scanning electron microscopy and subcutaneous embedding experiments. Moreover, a PCL sheath deployed around balloon-injured rat carotid arteries was associated with a minimum rate of thrombosis compared to PLGA and PLLA. Morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed that rapamycin-loaded perivascular PCL sheaths produced pronounced (85%) inhibition of intimal hyperplasia (0.15±0.05 vs 1.01±0.16), without impairment of the luminal endothelium, the vessel's anti-thrombotic layer. Our data collectively show that a rapamycin-loaded PCL delivery system produces substantial mitigation of neointima, likely due to its favorable physical properties leading to a stable yet flexible perivascular sheath and steady and prolonged release kinetics. Thus, a PCL sheath may provide useful scaffolding for devising effective perivascular drug delivery particularly suited for preventing restenosis following open vascular surgery.

  13. Intrathecal administration of rapamycin inhibits the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8 and attenuates STZ-induced painful diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Wan-You; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Qing-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Cheng; He, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Han-Bing

    2016-04-21

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation and protein synthesis, and it is specifically inhibited by rapamycin. In chronic pain conditions, mTOR-mediated local protein synthesis is crucial for neuronal hyperexcitability and synaptic plasticity. The tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a major role in action potential initiation and propagation and cellular excitability in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons. In this study, we investigated if mTOR modulates the phosphorylation of Nav1.8 that is associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioral hypersensitivity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ) at 60mg/kg. After the onset of PDN, the rats received daily intrathecal administrations of rapamycin (1μg, 3μg, or 10μg/day) for 7 days; other diabetic rats received the same volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Herein, we demonstrate a marked increase in protein expression of total mTOR and phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) together with the up-regulation of phosphor-Nav1.8 (p-Nav1.8) prior to the mechanical withdrawal threshold reaching a significant reduction in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Furthermore, the intrathecal administration of rapamycin, inhibiting the activity of mTOR, suppressed the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8, reduced the TTX-R current density, heightened the voltage threshold for activation and lowered the voltage threshold for inactivation and relieved mechanical hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. An intrathecal injection (i.t.) of rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation and enhanced the functional availability of DRG Nav1.8 attenuated STZ-induced hyperalgesia. These results suggest that rapamycin is a potential therapeutic intervention for clinical PDN.

  14. Ubiquilin-mediated Small Molecule Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Rory T.; Shi, Yuntao; Long, Marcus J. C.; Marr, Michael T.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cellular metabolism, growth, and proliferation. mTORC1 has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration, and is a target to prolong lifespan. Here we report a small molecule inhibitor (Cbz-B3A) of mTORC1 signaling. Cbz-B3A inhibits the phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) and blocks 68% of translation. In contrast, rapamycin preferentially inhibits the phosphorylation of p70S6k and blocks 35% of translation. Cbz-B3A does not appear to bind directly to mTORC1, but instead binds to ubiquilins 1, 2, and 4. Knockdown of ubiquilin 2, but not ubiquilins 1 and 4, decreases the phosphorylation of 4EBP1, suggesting that ubiquilin 2 activates mTORC1. The knockdown of ubiquilins 2 and 4 decreases the effect of Cbz-B3A on 4EBP1 phosphorylation. Cbz-B3A slows cellular growth of some human leukemia cell lines, but is not cytotoxic. Thus Cbz-B3A exemplifies a novel strategy to inhibit mTORC1 signaling that might be exploited for treating many human diseases. We propose that Cbz-B3A reveals a previously unappreciated regulatory pathway coordinating cytosolic protein quality control and mTORC1 signaling. PMID:26740621

  15. Inhibiting the Mammalian target of rapamycin blocks the development of experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Emile B; Hart, Geoffrey T; Tran, Tuan M; Waisberg, Michael; Akkaya, Munir; Skinner, Jeff; Zinöcker, Severin; Pena, Mirna; Yazew, Takele; Qi, Chen-Feng; Miller, Louis H; Pierce, Susan K

    2015-06-02

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of several Plasmodium spp. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common form of severe malaria resulting in nearly 700,000 deaths each year in Africa alone. At present, there is no adjunctive therapy for CM. Although the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CM are incompletely understood, it is likely that both intrinsic features of the parasite and the human host's immune response contribute to disease. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of immune responses, and drugs that inhibit the mTOR pathway have been shown to be antiparasitic. In a mouse model of CM, experimental CM (ECM), we show that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin protects against ECM when administered within the first 4 days of infection. Treatment with rapamycin increased survival, blocked breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and brain hemorrhaging, decreased the influx of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into the brain and the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells in the brain. Rapamycin induced marked transcriptional changes in the brains of infected mice, and analysis of transcription profiles predicted that rapamycin blocked leukocyte trafficking to and proliferation in the brain. Remarkably, animals were protected against ECM even though rapamycin treatment significantly increased the inflammatory response induced by infection in both the brain and spleen. These results open a new avenue for the development of highly selective adjunctive therapies for CM by targeting pathways that regulate host and parasite metabolism. Malaria is a highly prevalent infectious disease caused by parasites of several Plasmodium spp. Malaria is usually uncomplicated and resolves with time; however, in about 1% of cases, almost exclusively among young children, malaria becomes severe and life threatening, resulting in nearly 700,000 deaths each year in Africa alone. Among the most severe complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection

  16. Rapamycin protects neurons from brain contusion-induced inflammatory reaction via modulation of microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QI; XIE, DUJIANG; PAN, SHIYONG; XU, WEIJUN

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory reaction is important in secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rapamycin has been demonstrated as a neuroprotective agent in a mouse model of TBI, however, there is a lack of data regarding the effects of rapamycin on the inflammatory reaction following TBI. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the effects of treatment with rapamycin on inflammatory reactions and examine the possible involvement of microglial activation following TBI. Male imprinting control region mice were randomly divided into four groups: Sham group (n=23), TBI group (n=23), TBI + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group (n=31) and TBI + rapamycin group (n=31). Rapamycin was dissolved in DMSO (50 mg/ml) and injected 30 min after TBI (2 mg/Kg; intraperitoneally). A weight-drop model of TBI was induced, and the brain tissues were harvested 24 h after TBI. The findings indicated that the administration of rapamycin following TBI was associated with decreased levels of activated microglia and neuron degeneration at the peri-injury site, reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased neurobehavioral function, possibly mediated by inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. The results of the present study offer novel insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of rapamycin, possibly involving the modulation of microglial activation. PMID:26458361

  17. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yingjie; Yang, Xu; Yang, Wentian; Charbonneau, Cherie; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stress regulates development by modulating cell signaling and gene expression. However, the cytoplasmic components mediating mechanotransduction remain unclear. In this study, elimination of muscle contraction during chicken embryonic development resulted in a reduction in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the cartilaginous growth plate. Inhibition of mTOR activity led to significant inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation, cartilage tissue growth, and expression of chondrogenic genes, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a critical mediator of mechanotransduction. Conversely, cyclic loading (1 Hz, 5% matrix deformation) of embryonic chicken growth plate chondrocytes in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolding induced sustained activation of mTOR. Mechanical activation of mTOR occurred in serum-free medium, indicating that it is independent of growth factor or nutrients. Treatment of chondrocytes with Rapa abolished mechanical activation of cell proliferation and Ihh gene expression. Cyclic loading of chondroprogenitor cells deficient in SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) further enhanced mechanical activation of mTOR, cell proliferation, and chondrogenic gene expression. This result suggests that Shp2 is an antagonist of mechanotransduction through inhibition of mTOR activity. Our data demonstrate that mechanical activation of mTOR is necessary for cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, and cartilage growth during bone development, and that mTOR is an essential mechanotransduction component modulated by Shp2 in the cytoplasm.—Guan, Y., Yang, X., Yang, W., Charbonneau, C., Chen, Q. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development. PMID:25002119

  18. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J; Burbank, Raquel R; Hussong, Stacy A; Hart, Matthew J; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias. PMID:23801246

  19. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J; Burbank, Raquel R; Hussong, Stacy A; Hart, Matthew J; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias.

  20. Low-dose rapamycin treatment increases the ability of human regulatory T cells to inhibit transplant arteriosclerosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hester, J; Schiopu, A; Nadig, S N; Wood, K J

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) are currently being tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in cell and solid organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin has been shown to preferentially promote T(reg) expansion. Here, we hypothesized that adjunctive rapamycin therapy might potentiate the ability of ex vivo expanded human T(reg) to inhibit vascular allograft rejection in a humanized mouse model of arterial transplantation. We studied the influence of combined treatment with low-dose rapamycin and subtherapeutic T(reg) numbers on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) in human arterial grafts transplanted into immunodeficient BALB/cRag2(-/-) Il2rg(-/-) mice reconstituted with allogeneic human peripheral blood mononuclear cell. In addition, we assessed the effects of the treatment on the proliferation and apoptosis of naïve/effector T cells. The combined therapy efficiently suppressed T-cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Neointima formation in the human arterial allografts was potently inhibited compared with each treatment alone. Interestingly, CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T lymphocytes were sensitive to T(reg) and rapamycin-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our data support the concept that rapamycin can be used as an adjunctive therapy to improve efficacy of T(reg)-based immunosuppressive protocols in clinical practice. By inhibiting TA, T(reg) and rapamycin may prevent chronic transplant dysfunction and improve long-term allograft survival.

  1. Inhibition of mTOR Pathway by Rapamycin Reduces Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Transient Forebrain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Hei, Changhun; Liu, Ping; Song, Yaozu; Thomas, Taylor; Tshimanga, Sylvie; Wang, Feng; Niu, Jianguo; Sun, Tao; Li, P. Andy

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to clarify the role of mTOR in mediating cerebral ischemic brain damage and the effects of rapamycin on ischemic outcomes. Ten minutes of forebrain ischemia was induced in rats, and their brains were sampled after 3 h, 16 h, and 7 days reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis. Our data demonstrated that cerebral ischemia resulted in both apoptotic and necrotic neuronal death; cerebral ischemia and reperfusion led to significant increases of mRNA and protein levels of p-mTOR and its downstream p-P70S6K and p-S6; elevation of LC3-II, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm in both the cortex and hippocampus. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin markedly reduced ischemia-induced damage; suppressed p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K and p-S6 protein levels; decreased LC3-II and Beclin-1; and prevented cytochrome c release in the two structures. All together, these data provide evidence that cerebral ischemia activates mTOR and autophagy pathways. Inhibition of mTOR deactivates the mTOR pathway, suppresses autophagy, prevents cytochrome c release and reduces ischemic brain damage. PMID:26681922

  2. Rapamycin-Resistant mTOR Activity Is Required for Sensory Axon Regeneration Induced by a Conditioning Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Na; Ding, Yue; Chan, Leung Ting; Wang, Xu; Gao, Xin; Jiang, Songshan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neuronal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is a critical determinant of the intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, whether its action also applies to peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury remains elusive. To address this issue unambiguously, we used genetic approaches to determine the role of mTOR signaling in sensory axon regeneration in mice. We showed that deleting mTOR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons suppressed the axon regeneration induced by conditioning lesions. To establish whether the impact of mTOR on axon regeneration results from functions of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) or 2 (mTORC2), two distinct kinase complexes, we ablated either Raptor or Rictor in DRG neurons. We found that suppressing mTORC1 signaling dramatically decreased the conditioning lesion effect. In addition, an injury to the peripheral branch boosts mTOR activity in DRG neurons that cannot be completely inhibited by rapamycin, a widely used mTOR-specific inhibitor. Unexpectedly, examining several conditioning lesion–induced pro-regenerative pathways revealed that Raptor deletion but not rapamycin suppressed Stat3 activity in neurons. Therefore, our results demonstrate that crosstalk between mTOR and Stat3 signaling mediates the conditioning lesion effect and provide genetic evidence that rapamycin-resistant mTOR activity contributes to the intrinsic axon growth capacity in adult sensory neurons after injury. PMID:28101526

  3. Rapamycin-Resistant mTOR Activity Is Required for Sensory Axon Regeneration Induced by a Conditioning Lesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weitao; Lu, Na; Ding, Yue; Wang, Yuan; Chan, Leung Ting; Wang, Xu; Gao, Xin; Jiang, Songshan; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is a critical determinant of the intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, whether its action also applies to peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury remains elusive. To address this issue unambiguously, we used genetic approaches to determine the role of mTOR signaling in sensory axon regeneration in mice. We showed that deleting mTOR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons suppressed the axon regeneration induced by conditioning lesions. To establish whether the impact of mTOR on axon regeneration results from functions of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) or 2 (mTORC2), two distinct kinase complexes, we ablated either Raptor or Rictor in DRG neurons. We found that suppressing mTORC1 signaling dramatically decreased the conditioning lesion effect. In addition, an injury to the peripheral branch boosts mTOR activity in DRG neurons that cannot be completely inhibited by rapamycin, a widely used mTOR-specific inhibitor. Unexpectedly, examining several conditioning lesion-induced pro-regenerative pathways revealed that Raptor deletion but not rapamycin suppressed Stat3 activity in neurons. Therefore, our results demonstrate that crosstalk between mTOR and Stat3 signaling mediates the conditioning lesion effect and provide genetic evidence that rapamycin-resistant mTOR activity contributes to the intrinsic axon growth capacity in adult sensory neurons after injury.

  4. Grape polyphenols inhibit Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and potentiate the effects of gefitinib in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that a combination of dietary grape polyphenols resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (RQC), at low concentrations, was effective at inhibiting metastatic cancer progression. Herein, we investigate the molecular mechanisms of RQC in breast cancer and explore the potential of RQC as a potentiation agent for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapeutic gefitinib. Our in vitro experiments showed RQC induced apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant breast cancer cells via regulation of a myriad of proapoptotic proteins. Because the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is often elevated during development of anti-EGFR therapy resistance, the effect of RQC on the mTOR upstream effector Akt and the negative regulator AMP kinase (AMPK) was investigated. RQC was found to reduce Akt activity, induce the activation of AMPK, and inhibit mTOR signaling in breast cancer cells. Combined RQC and gefitinib decreased gefitinib resistant breast cancer cell viability to a greater extent than RQC or gefitinib alone. Moreover, RQC inhibited Akt and mTOR and activated AMPK even in the presence of gefitinib. Our in vivo experiments showed combined RQC and gefitinib was more effective than the individual treatments at inhibiting mammary tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. Therefore, RQC treatment inhibits breast cancer progression and may potentiate anti-EGFR therapy by inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling.

  5. Differential effects of rapamycin treatment on tonic and phasic GABAergic inhibition in dentate granule cells after focal brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corwin R; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Smith, Bret N

    2016-06-01

    The cascade of events leading to post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Altered inhibition in the hippocampal formation and dentate gyrus is a hallmark of several neurological disorders, including TBI and PTE. Inhibitory synaptic signaling in the hippocampus is predominately driven by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, and is prominently mediated by postsynaptic type A GABA receptors (GABAAR's). Subsets of these receptors involved in tonic inhibition of neuronal membranes serve a fundamental role in maintenance of inhibitory state, and GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition is altered functionally in animal models of both TBI and epilepsy. In this study, we assessed the effect of mTOR inhibition on hippocampal hilar inhibitory interneuron loss and synaptic and tonic GABAergic inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells (DGCs) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) to determine if mTOR activation after TBI modulates GABAAR function. Hilar inhibitory interneuron density was significantly reduced 72h after CCI injury in the dorsal two-thirds of the hemisphere ipsilateral to injury compared with the contralateral hemisphere and sham controls. Rapamycin treatment did not alter this reduction in cell density. Synaptic and tonic current measurements made in DGCs at both 1-2 and 8-13weeks post-injury indicated reduced synaptic inhibition and THIP-induced tonic current density in DGCs ipsilateral to CCI injury at both time points post-injury, with no change in resting tonic GABAAR-mediated currents. Rapamycin treatment did not alter the reduced synaptic inhibition observed in ipsilateral DGCs 1-2weeks post-CCI injury, but further reduced synaptic inhibition of ipsilateral DGCs at 8-13weeks post-injury. The reduction in THIP-induced tonic current after injury, however, was prevented by rapamycin treatment at both time points. Rapamycin treatment thus differentially modifies CCI-induced changes in synaptic and tonic GABAAR

  6. Target of rapamycin activation predicts lifespan in fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Naudí, Alba; Ayala, Victoria; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Sanz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Aging and age-related diseases are one of the most important health issues that the world will confront during the 21st century. Only by understanding the proximal causes will we be able to find treatments to reduce or delay the onset of degenerative diseases associated with aging. Currently, the prevalent paradigm in the field is the accumulation of damage. However, a new theory that proposes an alternative explanation is gaining momentum. The hyperfunction theory proposes that aging is not a consequence of a wear and tear process, but a result of the continuation of developmental programs during adulthood. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster, where evidence supporting both paradigms has been reported, to identify which parameters that have been previously related with lifespan best predict the rate of aging in wild type flies cultured at different temperatures. We find that mitochondrial function and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation correlates with metabolic rate, but not with the rate of aging. Importantly, we find that activation of nutrient sensing pathways (i.e. insulin-PI3K/Target of rapamycin (Tor) pathway) correlates with lifespan, but not with metabolic rate. Our results, dissociate metabolic rate and lifespan in wild type flies and instead link nutrient sensing signaling with longevity as predicted by the hyperfunction theory. PMID:26259964

  7. The inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 in the rat skeletal muscle cell line L6 is blocked by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin: evidence that wortmannin blocks activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in L6 cells between Ras and Raf.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, D A; Alessi, D R; Vandenheede, J R; McDowell, H E; Hundal, H S; Cohen, P

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is inactivated in vitro by p70 S6 kinase or MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-1 beta (MAPKAP kinase-1 beta; also known as Rsk-2). Here we show that GSK3 isoforms are inhibited by 40% within minutes after stimulation of the rat skeletal-muscle cell line L6 with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or insulin. GSK3 was similarly inhibited in rabbit skeletal muscle after an intravenous injection of insulin. Inhibition resulted from increased phosphorylation of GSK3, probably at a serine/threonine residue(s), because it was reversed by incubation with protein phosphatase-2A. Rapamycin blocked the activation of p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 in L6 cells, but had no effect on the inhibition of GSK3 or the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta. In contrast, wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase, prevented the inactivation of GSK3 and the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta and p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 or insulin. Wortmannin also blocked the activation of p74raf-1. MAP kinase kinase and p42 MAP kinase, but not the formation of GTP-Ras by IGF-1. The results suggest that the stimulation of glycogen synthase by insulin/IGF-1 in skeletal muscle involves the MAP-KAP kinase-1-catalysed inhibition of GSK3, as well as the previously described activation of the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1. Images Figure 1 PMID:7945242

  8. Ketamine Exhibits Different Neuroanatomical Profile After Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex: the Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ignácio, Zuleide M; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; Demo, Júlia P; da Silva, Júlia B I; Danielski, Lucineia G; Petronilho, Fabricia; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been identified as a novel MDD therapy; however, the antidepressant mechanism is not fully understood. In addition, the effects of ketamine after mTOR inhibition have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of ketamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens after inhibition of mTOR signaling in the PFC. Male adult Wistar rats received pharmacological mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (0.2 nmol) or vehicle into the PFC and then a single dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Immobility was assessed in forced swimming tests, and then oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory markers were evaluated in the brain and periphery. mTOR activation in the PFC was essential to ketamine's antidepressant-like effects. Ketamine increased lipid damage in the PFC, hippocampus, and amygdala. Protein carbonyl was elevated in the PFC, amygdala, and NAc after ketamine administration. Ketamine also increased nitrite/nitrate in the PFC, hippocampus, amygdala, and NAc. Myeloperoxidase activity increased in the hippocampus and NAc after ketamine administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced after ketamine administration in all brain areas studied. Inhibition of mTOR signaling pathways by rapamycin in the PFC was required to protect against oxidative stress by reducing damage and increasing antioxidant enzymes. Finally, the TNF-α level was increased in serum by ketamine; however, the rapamycin plus treatment group was not able to block this increase. Activation of mTOR in the PFC is involved in the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine; however, the inhibition of this pathway was able to protect certain brain areas against

  9. Immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin have different effects on the biosynthesis of cytoplasmic actin during the early period of T cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, S; Safer, B

    1999-01-01

    FK506 and rapamycin are immunosuppressants that interfere with T cell activation. FK506 inhibits early events of T cell activation such as the induction of cytokine transcription, whereas rapamycin inhibits later interleukin 2 signalling events. However, both reagents either directly or indirectly reduce protein synthesis. Therefore a kinetic study was conducted in human primary T lymphocytes examining increased synthesis of proteins stimulated by either ionomycin+phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or PMA alone. Three patterns of protein expression were observed. Synthesis of one group of proteins had enhanced synthesis with FK506, but reduced synthesis with rapamycin. A second group had reduced synthesis with rapamycin and either no change or a slight reduction with FK506 and a third group had reduction with both FK506 and rapamycin. One major protein of the first group, p42, had a rapid increase in synthesis that decreased by 8 h. Its synthesis was strongly enhanced by FK506, but reduced by rapamycin after ionomycin+PMA stimulation. In contrast, this protein was strongly induced by PMA alone in these cells and not affected by FK506 treatment, but still reduced by rapamycin. p42 was identified as cytoplasmic actin. mRNA levels of both gamma- and beta-actin were found to be enhanced with FK506 treatment suggesting that regulation of actin was at a transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Results with actinomycin D indicated that FK506 is regulating actin biosynthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Rapamycin, however, appeared to be operating at the level of translation. PMID:10585867

  10. Different patterns of Akt and ERK feedback activation in response to rapamycin, active-site mTOR inhibitors and metformin in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Soares, Heloisa P; Ni, Yang; Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The mTOR pathway is aberrantly stimulated in many cancer cells, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and thus it is a potential target for therapy. However, the mTORC1/S6K axis also mediates negative feedback loops that attenuate signaling via insulin/IGF receptor and other tyrosine kinase receptors. Suppression of these feed-back loops unleashes over-activation of upstream pathways that potentially counterbalance the antiproliferative effects of mTOR inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of PANC-1 or MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells with either rapamycin or active-site mTOR inhibitors suppressed S6K and S6 phosphorylation induced by insulin and the GPCR agonist neurotensin. Rapamycin caused a striking increase in Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) while the active-site inhibitors of mTOR (KU63794 and PP242) completely abrogated Akt phosphorylation at this site. Conversely, active-site inhibitors of mTOR cause a marked increase in ERK activation whereas rapamycin did not have any stimulatory effect on ERK activation. The results imply that first and second generation of mTOR inhibitors promote over-activation of different pro-oncogenic pathways in PDAC cells, suggesting that suppression of feed-back loops should be a major consideration in the use of these inhibitors for PDAC therapy. In contrast, metformin abolished mTORC1 activation without over-stimulating Akt phosphorylation on Ser(473) and prevented mitogen-stimulated ERK activation in PDAC cells. Metformin induced a more pronounced inhibition of proliferation than either KU63794 or rapamycin while, the active-site mTOR inhibitor was more effective than rapamycin. Thus, the effects of metformin on Akt and ERK activation are strikingly different from allosteric or active-site mTOR inhibitors in PDAC cells, though all these agents potently inhibited the mTORC1/S6K axis.

  11. Rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1 signaling is involved in physiological primordial follicle activation in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuanyuan; Li, Fei; Lu, Yi; Cao, Yanlan; Gao, Jimin; Liu, Jianghuai

    2013-12-01

    In mammals, resting female oocytes reside in primordial ovarian follicles. An individual primordial follicle may stay quiescent for a protracted period of time before initiating follicular growth, which is also termed “activation.” Female reproductive capacity is sustained by the gradual, streamlined activation of the entire population of primordial follicles, but this process also results in reproductive senescence in older animals. Based on the recent findings that genetically triggered, excessive mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation in mouse oocytes leads to accelerated primordial follicle activation, we examined the necessity of mTORC1 signaling in physiological primordial follicle activation. We found that induction of oocyte mTORC1 activity is associated with early follicular growth in neonatal mouse ovaries. Pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin treatment leads to a marked, but partial, suppression of primordial follicle activation. The suppressive effect of rapamycin on primordial follicle activation was reproduced in cultured ovaries. While rapamycin did not apparently affect several plausible cellular targets in neonatal mouse ovaries, such as mTORC2, AKT, or cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27-KIP1, its inhibitory effect on Cyclin A2 gene expression implies that mTORC1 signaling in oocytes may engage a Cyclin A/CDK regulatory network that promotes primordial follicle activation. The current work strengthens the concept that mTORC1-dependent events in the oocytes of primordial follicles may represent potential targets for intervention in humans to slow the depletion of the ovarian reserve. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Wollner, Clayton; Kurth, Theresa; Bukowy, John D; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H2O2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H2O2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H2O2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3(+)) and macrophages (ED1(+)) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H2O2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Targeted inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances radiosensitivity in pancreatic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Kang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Yu-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Lu, Wang-Feng; Lin, Shuai; Ma, Hong-Bing; Wang, Xi-Jing; Wu, Wen-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that regulates protein translation, cell growth, and apoptosis. Rapamycin (RPM), a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exhibits potent and broad in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity against leukemia, breast cancer, and melanoma. Recent studies showing that RPM sensitizes cancers to chemotherapy and radiation therapy have attracted considerable attention. This study aimed to examine the radiosensitizing effect of RPM in vitro, as well as its mechanism of action. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony formation assay showed that 10 nmol/L to 15 nmol/L of RPM had a radiosensitizing effects on pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, a low dose of RPM induced autophagy and reduced the number of S-phase cells. When radiation treatment was combined with RPM, the PC-2 cell cycle arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the expression of DDB1, RAD51, and XRCC5 were downregulated, whereas the expression of PCNA and ABCC4 were upregulated in PC-2 cells. The results demonstrated that RPM effectively enhanced the radiosensitivity of pancreatic carcinoma cells. PMID:23662044

  14. Rapamycin Inhibits Proliferation of Hemangioma Endothelial Cells by Reducing HIF-1-Dependent Expression of VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Damian; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas are tumors formed by hyper-proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. This is caused by elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Here we show that elevated VEGF levels produced by hemangioma endothelial cells are reduced by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. mTOR activates p70S6K, which controls translation of mRNA to generate proteins such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). VEGF is a known HIF-1 target gene, and our data show that VEGF levels in hemangioma endothelial cells are reduced by HIF-1α siRNA. Over-expression of HIF-1α increases VEGF levels and endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, both rapamycin and HIF-1α siRNA reduce proliferation of hemangioma endothelial cells. These data suggest that mTOR and HIF-1 contribute to hemangioma endothelial cell proliferation by stimulating an autocrine loop of VEGF signaling. Furthermore, mTOR and HIF-1 may be therapeutic targets for the treatment of hemangiomas. PMID:22900063

  15. Rapamycin inhibition of mTORC1 reverses lithium-induced proliferation of renal collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J.; Cai, Qi; Price, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common renal side effect in patients undergoing lithium therapy for bipolar affective disorders. Approximately 2 million US patients take lithium of whom ∼50% will have altered renal function and develop NDI (2, 37). Lithium-induced NDI is a defect in the urinary concentrating mechanism. Lithium therapy also leads to proliferation and abundant renal cysts (microcysts), commonly in the collecting ducts of the cortico-medullary region. The mTOR pathway integrates nutrient and mitogen signals to control cell proliferation and cell growth (size) via the mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1). To address our hypothesis that mTOR activation may be responsible for lithium-induced proliferation of collecting ducts, we fed mice lithium chronically and assessed mTORC1 signaling in the renal medulla. We demonstrate that mTOR signaling is activated in the renal collecting ducts of lithium-treated mice; lithium increased the phosphorylation of rS6 (Ser240/Ser244), p-TSC2 (Thr1462), and p-mTOR (Ser2448). Consistent with our hypothesis, treatment with rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR, reversed lithium-induced proliferation of medullary collecting duct cells and reduced levels of p-rS6 and p-mTOR. Medullary levels of p-GSK3β were increased in the renal medullas of lithium-treated mice and remained elevated following rapamycin treatment. However, mTOR inhibition did not improve lithium-induced NDI and did not restore the expression of collecting duct proteins aquaporin-2 or UT-A1. PMID:23884148

  16. Rapamycin inhibition of mTORC1 reverses lithium-induced proliferation of renal collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Cai, Qi; Price, Theodore J; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2013-10-15

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common renal side effect in patients undergoing lithium therapy for bipolar affective disorders. Approximately 2 million US patients take lithium of whom ∼50% will have altered renal function and develop NDI (2, 37). Lithium-induced NDI is a defect in the urinary concentrating mechanism. Lithium therapy also leads to proliferation and abundant renal cysts (microcysts), commonly in the collecting ducts of the cortico-medullary region. The mTOR pathway integrates nutrient and mitogen signals to control cell proliferation and cell growth (size) via the mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1). To address our hypothesis that mTOR activation may be responsible for lithium-induced proliferation of collecting ducts, we fed mice lithium chronically and assessed mTORC1 signaling in the renal medulla. We demonstrate that mTOR signaling is activated in the renal collecting ducts of lithium-treated mice; lithium increased the phosphorylation of rS6 (Ser240/Ser244), p-TSC2 (Thr1462), and p-mTOR (Ser2448). Consistent with our hypothesis, treatment with rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR, reversed lithium-induced proliferation of medullary collecting duct cells and reduced levels of p-rS6 and p-mTOR. Medullary levels of p-GSK3β were increased in the renal medullas of lithium-treated mice and remained elevated following rapamycin treatment. However, mTOR inhibition did not improve lithium-induced NDI and did not restore the expression of collecting duct proteins aquaporin-2 or UT-A1.

  17. Rapamycin Protects from Type-I Peritoneal Membrane Failure Inhibiting the Angiogenesis, Lymphangiogenesis, and Endo-MT

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Anna Rita; Loureiro, Jesús; Abensur, Hugo; Sandoval, Pilar; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; del Peso, Gloria; Jiménez-Heffernan, José Antonio; Ruiz-Carpio, Vicente; Selgas, Rafael; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Aguilera, Abelardo; Liappas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of peritoneal membrane (PM) is essential for long-term survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Continuous presence of PD fluids (PDF) in the peritoneal cavity generates chronic inflammation and promotes changes of the PM, such as fibrosis, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. Mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Endo-MT) seem to play a central role in this pathogenesis. We speculated that Rapamycin, a potent immunosuppressor, could be beneficial by regulating blood and lymphatic vessels proliferation. We demonstrate that mice undergoing a combined PD and Rapamycin treatment (PDF + Rapa group) presented a reduced PM thickness and lower number of submesothelial blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as decreased MMT and Endo-MT, comparing with their counterparts exposed to PD alone (PDF group). Peritoneal water transport in the PDF + Rapa group remained at control level, whereas PD effluent levels of VEGF, TGF-β, and TNF-α were lower than in the PDF group. Moreover, the treatment of mesothelial cells with Rapamycin in vitro significantly decreased VEGF synthesis and selectively inhibited the VEGF-C and VEGF-D release when compared with control cells. Thus, Rapamycin has a protective effect on PM in PD through an antifibrotic and antiproliferative effect on blood and lymphatic vessels. Moreover, it inhibits Endo-MT and, at least partially, MMT. PMID:26688823

  18. Rapamycin Protects from Type-I Peritoneal Membrane Failure Inhibiting the Angiogenesis, Lymphangiogenesis, and Endo-MT.

    PubMed

    González-Mateo, Guadalupe Tirma; Aguirre, Anna Rita; Loureiro, Jesús; Abensur, Hugo; Sandoval, Pilar; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; del Peso, Gloria; Jiménez-Heffernan, José Antonio; Ruiz-Carpio, Vicente; Selgas, Rafael; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Aguilera, Abelardo; Liappas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of peritoneal membrane (PM) is essential for long-term survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Continuous presence of PD fluids (PDF) in the peritoneal cavity generates chronic inflammation and promotes changes of the PM, such as fibrosis, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. Mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Endo-MT) seem to play a central role in this pathogenesis. We speculated that Rapamycin, a potent immunosuppressor, could be beneficial by regulating blood and lymphatic vessels proliferation. We demonstrate that mice undergoing a combined PD and Rapamycin treatment (PDF + Rapa group) presented a reduced PM thickness and lower number of submesothelial blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as decreased MMT and Endo-MT, comparing with their counterparts exposed to PD alone (PDF group). Peritoneal water transport in the PDF + Rapa group remained at control level, whereas PD effluent levels of VEGF, TGF-β, and TNF-α were lower than in the PDF group. Moreover, the treatment of mesothelial cells with Rapamycin in vitro significantly decreased VEGF synthesis and selectively inhibited the VEGF-C and VEGF-D release when compared with control cells. Thus, Rapamycin has a protective effect on PM in PD through an antifibrotic and antiproliferative effect on blood and lymphatic vessels. Moreover, it inhibits Endo-MT and, at least partially, MMT.

  19. The Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway is activated in IgA nephropathy and rapamycin may represent a viable treatment option.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Guo, Haixiu; Li, Rongshan

    2015-12-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most frequent forms of glomerulonephritis, and 20 to 40% of patients progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within 20 years of disease onset. However, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in the altered physiology of mesangial cells during IgAN progression. This study was designed to explore the role of mTOR signaling and the potential of targeted rapamycin therapy in a rat model of IgAN. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, control+rapamycin, IgAN and IgA+rapamycin. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine phospho-Akt, p70S6K and S6 protein levels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was utilized to measure 24-h urinary protein levels. The biochemical parameters of the rats were analyzed with an autoanalyzer. To evaluate IgA deposition in the glomeruli, FITC-conjugated goat anti-rat IgA antibody was used for direct immunofluorescence. Cellular proliferation and the mesangial matrix in glomeruli were assayed via histological and morphometric procedures. Our results showed that p70S6K, S6 and Akt phosphorylation were significantly upregulated in IgAN rats, and rapamycin effectively inhibited p70S6K and S6 phosphorylation. A low dose of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced proteinuria, inhibited IgA deposition, and protected kidney function in an IgAN rat model. Low-dose rapamycin treatment corresponded to significantly lower cellular proliferation rates and a decreased mesangial matrix in the glomeruli. In conclusion, the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated in IgAN, and our findings suggested that rapamycin may represent a viable option for the treatment of IgAN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapamycin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth through cyclin D1 and enhances the cytotoxic efficacy of cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Imrali, Ahmet; Mao, Xueying; Yeste-Velasco, Marc; Shamash, Jonathan; Lu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in Western men and hormone refractory cancer (HRPC) kills most of the patients. Chemo-resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of prostate cancer. Platinum-complexes have been used to treat a number of malignancies including prostate cancer. However, it has limited effect to prostate cancer and with significant toxicity at higher doses. In recent years, increasing numbers of new agents targeting cancer specific pathways have become available and with low toxic side-effects. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) is an mTORC1 inhibitor, which inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which is commonly altered in prostate cancer. We determined the expression of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-mTOR proteins in association with the response to rapamycin in two androgen sensitive (22RV1 and LNCaP) and two androgen independent (DU145 and PC3) prostate cancer cell lines and found that the base-line and changes of cyclin D1 level, but not the expression level of p-mTOR, correlated with rapamycin sensitivity. We evaluated the cell killing effect of combined rapamycin and cisplatin treatment and showed that the combination had a more than additive effect in both androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells, which may be partially explained by the reduction of cyclin D1 expression by rapamycin. We also evaluated a range of combined treatment schedules, simultaneously or sequentially and found that continuous rapamycin treatment after a short cisplatin exposure was effective. The clinical application of these findings for prostate cancer treatment should be further investigated. PMID:27648364

  1. Loss of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoform 1 impairs cardiac autophagy and mitochondrial structure through mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Cooper, Daniel E.; Young, Pamela A.; Ellis, Jessica M.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Because hearts with a temporally induced knockout of acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (Acsl1T−/−) are virtually unable to oxidize fatty acids, glucose use increases 8-fold to compensate. This metabolic switch activates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which initiates growth by increasing protein and RNA synthesis and fatty acid metabolism, while decreasing autophagy. Compared with controls, Acsl1T−/− hearts contained 3 times more mitochondria with abnormal structure and displayed a 35–43% lower respiratory function. To study the effects of mTORC1 activation on mitochondrial structure and function, mTORC1 was inhibited by treating Acsl1T−/− and littermate control mice with rapamycin or vehicle alone for 2 wk. Rapamycin treatment normalized mitochondrial structure, number, and the maximal respiration rate in Acsl1T−/− hearts, but did not improve ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption, which was likely caused by the 33–51% lower ATP synthase activity present in both vehicle- and rapamycin-treated Acsl1T−/− hearts. The turnover of microtubule associated protein light chain 3b in Acsl1T−/− hearts was 88% lower than controls, indicating a diminished rate of autophagy. Rapamycin treatment increased autophagy to a rate that was 3.1-fold higher than in controls, allowing the formation of autophagolysosomes and the clearance of damaged mitochondria. Thus, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoform 1 (ACSL1) deficiency in the heart activated mTORC1, thereby inhibiting autophagy and increasing the number of damaged mitochondria.—Grevengoed, T. J., Cooper, D. E., Young, P. A., Ellis, J. M., Coleman, R. A. Loss of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoform 1 impairs cardiac autophagy and mitochondrial structure through mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation. PMID:26220174

  2. Novel withanolides target medullary thyroid cancer through inhibition of both RET phosphorylation and the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Abbas K.; Bazzill, Joseph; Zhang, Xuan; Gallagher, Rob; Zhang, Hauping; Gollapudi, Rao; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara; Cohen, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite development of current targeted therapies for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), long-term survival remains unchanged. Recently isolated novel withanolide compounds from Solanaceae physalis are highly potent against MTCs. We hypothesize that these withanolides uniquely inhibit RET phosphorylation and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in MTC cells as a mechanism of antiproliferation and apoptosis. Methods MTC cells were treated with novel withanolides and MTC-targeted drugs. In vitro studies assessed cell viability and proliferation (MTS; trypan blue assays), apoptosis (flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining; confirmed by Western blot analysis), long-term cytotoxic effects (clonogenic assay), and suppression of key regulatory proteins such as RET, Akt, and mTOR (by Western blot analysis). Results The novel withanolides potently reduced MTC cell viability (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 270–2,850 nmol/L; 250–1,380 nmol/L for vandetanib; 360–1,640 nmol/L for cabozantinib) with induction of apoptosis at <1,000 nmol/L of drug. Unique from other targeted therapies, withanolides suppressed RET and Akt phosphorylation and protein expression (in a concentration- and time-dependent manner) as well as mTOR activity and translational activity of 4E-BP1 and protein synthesis mediated by p70S6kinase activation at IC50 concentrations. Conclusion Novel withanolides from Physalis selectively and potently inhibit MTC cells in vitro. Unlike other MTC-targeted therapies, these compounds uniquely inhibit both RET kinase activity and the Akt/mTOR prosurvival pathway. Further translational studies are warranted to evaluate their clinical potential. PMID:23158190

  3. Systemic inhibition of mTOR kinase via rapamycin disrupts consolidation and reconsolidation of auditory fear memory.

    PubMed

    Mac Callum, Phillip E; Hebert, Mark; Adamec, Robert E; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a critical regulator of mRNA translation and is known to be involved in various long lasting forms of synaptic and behavioural plasticity. However, information concerning the temporal pattern of mTOR activation and susceptibility to pharmacological intervention during both consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term memory (LTM) remains scant. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected systemically with rapamycin at various time points following conditioning or retrieval in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm, and compared to vehicle (and/or anisomycin) controls for subsequent memory recall. Systemic blockade of mTOR with rapamycin immediately or 12h after training or reactivation impairs both consolidation and reconsolidation of an auditory fear memory. Further behavioural analysis revealed that the enduring effects of rapamycin on reconsolidation are dependent upon reactivation of the memory trace. Rapamycin, however, has no effect on short-term memory or the ability to retrieve an established fear memory. Collectively, our data suggest that biphasic mTOR signalling is essential for both consolidation and reconsolidation-like activities that contribute to the formation, re-stabilization, and persistence of long term auditory-fear memories, while not influencing other aspects of the memory trace. These findings also provide evidence for a cogent treatment model for reducing the emotional strength of established, traumatic memories analogous to those observed in acquired anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and specific phobias, through pharmacologic blockade of mTOR using systemic rapamycin following reactivation.

  4. Rictor/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 promotes macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Feng, Ye; Shu, Bingyan; Gui, Yuan; Wei, Wei; He, Weichun; Yang, Junwei; Dai, Chunsun

    2017-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling controls many essential cellular functions. However, the role of Rictor/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) in regulating macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis remains largely unknown. We report here that Rictor/mTORC2 was activated in macrophages from the fibrotic kidneys of mice. Ablation of Rictor in macrophages reduced kidney fibrosis, inflammatory cell accumulation, macrophage proliferation and polarization after unilateral ureter obstruction or ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), deletion of Rictor or blockade of protein kinase Cα inhibited cell migration. Additionally, deletion of Rictor or blockade of Akt abolished interleukin-4-stimulated or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated macrophage M2 polarization. Furthermore, deletion of Rictor downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated upregulation of multiple profibrotic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor, in BMMs. Conditioned medium from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor(-/-) macrophages stimulated fibroblast activation less efficiently than that from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor(+/+) macrophages. These results demonstrate that Rictor/mTORC2 signalling can promote macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis. Targeting this signalling pathway in macrophages may shine light on ways to protect against kidney fibrosis in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Overexpression of TOR (target of rapamycin) inhibits cell proliferation in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Mishra, Himanshu; Lohia, Rakhee; Saran, Shweta

    2016-05-01

    TOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase acts as a central controller of cell growth and development of an organism. Present study was undertaken to find the expression pattern and role of TOR during growth and development of Dictyostelium discoideum. Failures to generate either knockout and/or knockdown mutants indicate that interference with its levels led to cellular defects. Thus, the effects of TOR (DDB_G0281569) overexpression specifically, cells expressing Dd(Δ211-TOR)-Eyfp mutant was analyzed. Elevated expression of (Δ211-TOR)-Eyfp reduced both cell size and cell proliferation. DdTOR was found to be closer to fungus. mRNA level of TOR was found maximally in the freshly starved/aggregate cells that gradually declined. This was also strengthened by the expression patterns observed by in situ and the analysis of β-galactosidase reporter driven by the putative TOR promoter. The TOR protein was found to be highest at the aggregate stage. The fusion protein, (Δ211-TOR)-Eyfp was localized to the cell membrane, cytosol, and the nucleus. We suggest, DdTOR to be an essential protein and high TOR expression inhibits cell proliferation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B-independent Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Is Sufficient to Induce Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Craig A.; Miu, Man Hing; Frey, John W.; Mabrey, Danielle M.; Lincoln, Hannah C.; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely proposed that signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Evidence for this hypothesis is largely based on studies that used stimuli that activate mTOR via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent mechanism. However, the stimulation of signaling by PI3K/PKB also can activate several mTOR-independent growth-promoting events; thus, it is not clear whether signaling by mTOR is permissive, or sufficient, for the induction of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the presumed role of mTOR in hypertrophy is derived from studies that used rapamycin to inhibit mTOR; yet, there is very little direct evidence that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that confers the hypertrophic response. In this study, we determined that, in skeletal muscle, overexpression of Rheb stimulates a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling, and this is sufficient for the induction of a rapamycin-sensitive hypertrophic response. Transgenic mice with muscle specific expression of various mTOR mutants also were used to demonstrate that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that conferred the hypertrophic response and that the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. Combined, these results provide direct genetic evidence that a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In summary, overexpression of Rheb activates mTOR signaling via a PI3K/PKB-independent mechanism and is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophic effects of Rheb are driven through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) mechanism, mTOR is the RS element that confers the hypertrophy, and the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. PMID:20668162

  7. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B-independent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Craig A; Miu, Man Hing; Frey, John W; Mabrey, Danielle M; Lincoln, Hannah C; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie; Hornberger, Troy A

    2010-09-15

    It has been widely proposed that signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Evidence for this hypothesis is largely based on studies that used stimuli that activate mTOR via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent mechanism. However, the stimulation of signaling by PI3K/PKB also can activate several mTOR-independent growth-promoting events; thus, it is not clear whether signaling by mTOR is permissive, or sufficient, for the induction of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the presumed role of mTOR in hypertrophy is derived from studies that used rapamycin to inhibit mTOR; yet, there is very little direct evidence that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that confers the hypertrophic response. In this study, we determined that, in skeletal muscle, overexpression of Rheb stimulates a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling, and this is sufficient for the induction of a rapamycin-sensitive hypertrophic response. Transgenic mice with muscle specific expression of various mTOR mutants also were used to demonstrate that mTOR is the rapamycin-sensitive element that conferred the hypertrophic response and that the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event. Combined, these results provide direct genetic evidence that a PI3K/PKB-independent activation of mTOR signaling is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In summary, overexpression of Rheb activates mTOR signaling via a PI3K/PKB-independent mechanism and is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophic effects of Rheb are driven through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) mechanism, mTOR is the RS element that confers the hypertrophy, and the kinase activity of mTOR is necessary for this event.

  8. Hepatitis C virus inhibits AKT-tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway, through endoplasmic reticulum stress to induce autophagy.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Kang, Rongyan; Wang, Ji; Luo, Guangxiang; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is able to induce autophagy via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but the exact molecular signaling pathway is not well understood. We found that the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) was inhibited in Huh7 cells either harboring HCV-N (genotype 1b) full-genomic replicon or infected with JFH1 (genotype 2a) virus, which led to the activation of UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and thus to autophagy. We then analyzed activity upstream of MTORC1, and found that both protein kinase, AMP-activated, α (PRKAA, including PRKAA1 and PRKAA2, also known as AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPKα) and AKT (refers to pan AKT, including three isoforms of AKT1-3, also known as protein kinase B, PKB) were inhibited by HCV infection. The inhibition of the AKT-TSC-MTORC1 pathway contributed to upregulating autophagy, but inhibition of PRKAA downregulated autophagy. The net effect on autophagy was from AKT, which overrode the inhibition effect from PRKAA. It was further found that HCV-induced ER stress was responsible for the inhibition of the AKT pathway. Metformin, a PRKAA agonist, inhibited HCV replication not only by activating PRKAA as previously reported, but also by activating AKT independently of the autophagy pathway. Taken together, our data suggested HCV inhibited the AKT-TSC-MTORC1 pathway via ER stress, resulting in autophagy, which may contribute to the establishment of the HCV-induced autophagy.

  9. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucocorticoids (GC) downregulated hypothalamic gene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Inhibiting PLK1 induces autophagy of acute myeloid leukemia cells via mammalian target of rapamycin pathway dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yan-Fang; Li, Zhi-Heng; Du, Wei-Wei; Xu, Li-Xiao; Ren, Jun-Li; Li, Xiao-Lu; Fang, Fang; Xie, Yi; Li, Mei; Qian, Guang-Hui; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Yi-Ping; Li, Gang; Wu, Yi; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian; He, Wei-Qi; Hu, Shao-Yan; Lu, Jun; Pan, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Decreased autophagy is accompanied by the development of a myeloproliferative state or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML cells are often sensitive to autophagy-inducing stimuli, prompting the idea that targeting autophagy can be useful in AML cytotoxic therapy. AML NB4 cells overexpressing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-green fluorescent protein were screened with 69 inhibitors to analyze autophagy activity. AML cells were treated with the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors RO3280 and BI2536 before autophagy analysis. Cleaved LC3 (LC3-II) and the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and Unc-51-like kinase 1 during autophagy was detected with western blotting. Autophagosomes were detected using transmission electron microscopy. Several inhibitors had promising autophagy inducer effects: BI2536, MLN0905, SK1-I, SBE13 HCL and RO3280. Moreover, these inhibitors all targeted PLK1. Autophagy activity was increased in the NB4 cells treated with RO3280 and BI2536. Inhibition of PLK1 expression in NB4, K562 and HL-60 leukemia cells with RNA interference increased LC3-II and autophagy activity. The phosphorylation of mTOR was reduced significantly in NB4 cells treated with RO3280 and BI2536, and was also reduced significantly when PLK1 expression was downregulated in the NB4, K562 and HL-60 cells. We demonstrate that PLK1 inhibition induces AML cell autophagy and that it results in mTOR dephosphorylation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of PLK1 in regulating autophagy. PMID:28184925

  11. Inhibiting PLK1 induces autophagy of acute myeloid leukemia cells via mammalian target of rapamycin pathway dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan-Fang; Li, Zhi-Heng; Du, Wei-Wei; Xu, Li-Xiao; Ren, Jun-Li; Li, Xiao-Lu; Fang, Fang; Xie, Yi; Li, Mei; Qian, Guang-Hui; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Yi-Ping; Li, Gang; Wu, Yi; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian; He, Wei-Qi; Hu, Shao-Yan; Lu, Jun; Pan, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Decreased autophagy is accompanied by the development of a myeloproliferative state or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML cells are often sensitive to autophagy‑inducing stimuli, prompting the idea that targeting autophagy can be useful in AML cytotoxic therapy. AML NB4 cells overexpressing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-green fluorescent protein were screened with 69 inhibitors to analyze autophagy activity. AML cells were treated with the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors RO3280 and BI2536 before autophagy analysis. Cleaved LC3 (LC3-II) and the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and Unc-51-like kinase 1 during autophagy was detected with western blotting. Autophagosomes were detected using transmission electron microscopy. Several inhibitors had promising autophagy inducer effects: BI2536, MLN0905, SK1-I, SBE13 HCL and RO3280. Moreover, these inhibitors all targeted PLK1. Autophagy activity was increased in the NB4 cells treated with RO3280 and BI2536. Inhibition of PLK1 expression in NB4, K562 and HL-60 leukemia cells with RNA interference increased LC3-II and autophagy activity. The phosphorylation of mTOR was reduced significantly in NB4 cells treated with RO3280 and BI2536, and was also reduced significantly when PLK1 expression was downregulated in the NB4, K562 and HL-60 cells. We demonstrate that PLK1 inhibition induces AML cell autophagy and that it results in mTOR dephosphorylation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of PLK1 in regulating autophagy.

  12. MicroRNA-99a inhibits insulin-induced proliferation, migration, dedifferentiation, and rapamycin resistance of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Wei; Guo, Rui-Wei; Lv, Jin-Lin; Wang, Xian-Mei; Ye, Jin-Shan; Lu, Ni-Hong; Liang, Xing; Yang, Li-Xia

    2017-04-29

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by insulin resistance and are subsequently at high risk for atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been demonstrated to be the underlying signaling pathways. Recently, microRNA-99a (miR-99a) has been suggested to regulate the phenotypic changes of VSMCs in cancer cells. However, whether it is involved in insulin-induced changes of VSCMs has not been determined. In this study, we found that insulin induced proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the stimulating effects of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs were found to be associated with the attenuation of the inhibitory effects of miR-99a on IGF-1R and mTOR signaling activities. Finally, we found that the inducing effect of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of VSMCs was partially inhibited by an active mimic of miR-99a. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-99a plays a key regulatory role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced proliferation, migration, and phenotype conversion of VSMCs at least partly via inhibition of IGF-1R and mTOR signaling. Our results provide evidence that miR-99a may be a novel target for the treatment of hyperinsulinemia-induced atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistically distinct cancer-associated mTOR activation clusters predict sensitivity to rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianing; Pham, Can G.; Albanese, Steven K.; Dong, Yiyu; Lee, Chung-Han; Yao, Zhan; Han, Song; Chen, David; Parton, Daniel L.; Chodera, John D.; Rosen, Neal; Cheng, Emily H.; Hsieh, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have linked mTORC1 pathway–activating mutations with exceptional response to treatment with allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1 called rapalogs. Rapalogs are approved for selected cancer types, including kidney and breast cancers. Here, we used sequencing data from 22 human kidney cancer cases to identify the activating mechanisms conferred by mTOR mutations observed in human cancers and advance precision therapeutics. mTOR mutations that clustered in focal adhesion kinase targeting domain (FAT) and kinase domains enhanced mTORC1 kinase activity, decreased nutrient reliance, and increased cell size. We identified 3 distinct mechanisms of hyperactivation, including reduced binding to DEP domain–containing MTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR), resistance to regulatory associated protein of mTOR–mediated (RAPTOR-mediated) suppression, and altered kinase kinetics. Of the 28 mTOR double mutants, activating mutations could be divided into 6 complementation groups, resulting in synergistic Rag- and Ras homolog enriched in brain–independent (RHEB-independent) mTORC1 activation. mTOR mutants were resistant to DNA damage–inducible transcript 1–mediated (REDD1-mediated) inhibition, confirming that activating mutations can bypass the negative feedback pathway formed between HIF1 and mTORC1 in the absence of von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor expression. Moreover, VHL-deficient cells that expressed activating mTOR mutants grew tumors that were sensitive to rapamycin treatment. These data may explain the high incidence of mTOR mutations observed in clear cell kidney cancer, where VHL loss and HIF activation is pathognomonic. Our study provides mechanistic and therapeutic insights concerning mTOR mutations in human diseases. PMID:27482884

  14. Rapamycin and Glucose-Target of Rapamycin (TOR) Protein Signaling in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2012-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates energy, nutrients, growth factors, and stress signals to promote survival and growth in all eukaryotes. The reported land plant resistance to rapamycin and the embryo lethality of the Arabidopsis tor mutants have hindered functional dissection of TOR signaling in plants. We developed sensitive cellular and seedling assays to monitor endogenous Arabidopsis TOR activity based on its conserved S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Surprisingly, rapamycin effectively inhibits Arabidopsis TOR-S6K1 signaling and retards glucose-mediated root and leaf growth, mimicking estradiol-inducible tor mutants. Rapamycin inhibition is relieved in transgenic plants deficient in Arabidopsis FK506-binding protein 12 (FKP12), whereas FKP12 overexpression dramatically enhances rapamycin sensitivity. The role of Arabidopsis FKP12 is highly specific as overexpression of seven closely related FKP proteins fails to increase rapamycin sensitivity. Rapamycin exerts TOR inhibition by inducing direct interaction between the TOR-FRB (FKP-rapamycin binding) domain and FKP12 in plant cells. We suggest that variable endogenous FKP12 protein levels may underlie the molecular explanation for longstanding enigmatic observations on inconsistent rapamycin resistance in plants and in various mammalian cell lines or diverse animal cell types. Integrative analyses with rapamycin and conditional tor and fkp12 mutants also reveal a central role of glucose-TOR signaling in root hair formation. Our studies demonstrate the power of chemical genetic approaches in the discovery of previously unknown and pivotal functions of glucose-TOR signaling in governing the growth of cotyledons, true leaves, petioles, and primary and secondary roots and root hairs. PMID:22134914

  15. Rapamycin and glucose-target of rapamycin (TOR) protein signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2012-01-20

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates energy, nutrients, growth factors, and stress signals to promote survival and growth in all eukaryotes. The reported land plant resistance to rapamycin and the embryo lethality of the Arabidopsis tor mutants have hindered functional dissection of TOR signaling in plants. We developed sensitive cellular and seedling assays to monitor endogenous Arabidopsis TOR activity based on its conserved S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Surprisingly, rapamycin effectively inhibits Arabidopsis TOR-S6K1 signaling and retards glucose-mediated root and leaf growth, mimicking estradiol-inducible tor mutants. Rapamycin inhibition is relieved in transgenic plants deficient in Arabidopsis FK506-binding protein 12 (FKP12), whereas FKP12 overexpression dramatically enhances rapamycin sensitivity. The role of Arabidopsis FKP12 is highly specific as overexpression of seven closely related FKP proteins fails to increase rapamycin sensitivity. Rapamycin exerts TOR inhibition by inducing direct interaction between the TOR-FRB (FKP-rapamycin binding) domain and FKP12 in plant cells. We suggest that variable endogenous FKP12 protein levels may underlie the molecular explanation for longstanding enigmatic observations on inconsistent rapamycin resistance in plants and in various mammalian cell lines or diverse animal cell types. Integrative analyses with rapamycin and conditional tor and fkp12 mutants also reveal a central role of glucose-TOR signaling in root hair formation. Our studies demonstrate the power of chemical genetic approaches in the discovery of previously unknown and pivotal functions of glucose-TOR signaling in governing the growth of cotyledons, true leaves, petioles, and primary and secondary roots and root hairs.

  16. Protein Kinase Activity and Identification of a Toxic Effector Domain of the Target of Rapamycin TOR Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Clara M.; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E.

    1999-01-01

    In complex with FKBP12, the immunosuppressant rapamycin binds to and inhibits the yeast TOR1 and TOR2 proteins and the mammalian homologue mTOR/FRAP/RAFT1. The TOR proteins promote cell cycle progression in yeast and human cells by regulating translation and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. A C-terminal domain of the TOR proteins shares identity with protein and lipid kinases, but only one substrate (PHAS-I), and no regulators of the TOR-signaling cascade have been identified. We report here that yeast TOR1 has an intrinsic protein kinase activity capable of phosphorylating PHAS-1, and this activity is abolished by an active site mutation and inhibited by FKBP12-rapamycin or wortmannin. We find that an intact TOR1 kinase domain is essential for TOR1 functions in yeast. Overexpression of a TOR1 kinase-inactive mutant, or of a central region of the TOR proteins distinct from the FRB and kinase domains, was toxic in yeast, and overexpression of wild-type TOR1 suppressed this toxic effect. Expression of the TOR-toxic domain leads to a G1 cell cycle arrest, consistent with an inhibition of TOR function in translation. Overexpression of the PLC1 gene, which encodes the yeast phospholipase C homologue, suppressed growth inhibition by the TOR-toxic domains. In conclusion, our findings identify a toxic effector domain of the TOR proteins that may interact with substrates or regulators of the TOR kinase cascade and that shares sequence identity with other PIK family members, including ATR, Rad3, Mei-41, and ATM. PMID:10436010

  17. Rapamycin induces Bad phosphorylation in association with its resistance to human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Shi-Yong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Sica, Gabriel L; Curran, Walter J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Deng, Xingming

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 or 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt in various types of cancer cells, which contributes to rapamycin resistance. However, the downstream effect of rapamycin-activated ERKs and Akt on survival or death substrate(s) remains unclear. We discovered that treatment of human lung cancer cells with rapamycin results in enhanced phosphorylation of Bad at serine (S) 112 and S136 but not S155 in association with activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. A higher level of Bad phosphorylation was observed in rapamycin-resistant cells compared with parental rapamycin-sensitive cells. Thus, Bad phosphorylation may contribute to rapamycin resistance. Mechanistically, rapamycin promotes Bad accumulation in the cytosol, enhances Bad/14-3-3 interaction, and reduces Bad/Bcl-XL binding. Rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, with a significant reduction of its half-life (i.e., from 53.3-37.5 hours). Inhibition of MEK/ERK by PD98059 or depletion of Akt by RNA interference blocks rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation at S112 or S136, respectively. Simultaneous blockage of S112 and S136 phosphorylation of Bad by PD98059 and silencing of Akt significantly enhances rapamycin-induced growth inhibition in vitro and synergistically increases the antitumor efficacy of rapamycin in lung cancer xenografts. Intriguingly, either suppression of Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 sites or expression of the nonphosphorylatable Bad mutant (S112A/S136A) can reverse rapamycin resistance. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of rapamycin resistance, which may promote the development of new strategies for overcoming rapamycin resistance by manipulating Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 in human lung cancer.

  18. Rapamycin Induces Bad Phosphorylation in Association with Its Resistance to Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Shi-Yong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Sica, Gabriel L.; Curran, Walter J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Deng, Xingming

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin has been demonstrated to activate ERK1/2 and Akt in various types of cancer cells, which contributes to rapamycin resistance. However, the downstream effect of rapamycin-activated ERKs and Akt on survival or death substrate(s) remains unclear. We discovered that treatment of human lung cancer cells with rapamycin results in enhanced phosphorylation of Bad at serine (S) 112 and S136 but not S155 in association with activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. A higher level of Bad phosphorylation was observed in rapamycin-resistant cells compared to parental rapamycin-sensitive cells. Thus, Bad phosphorylation may contribute to rapamycin resistance. Mechanistically, rapamycin promotes Bad accumulation in the cytosol, enhances Bad/14-3-3 interaction and reduces Bad/Bcl-XL binding. Rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, with a significant reduction of its half-life (i.e. from 53.3 h to 37.5 h). Inhibition of MEK/ERK by PD98059 or depletion of Akt by RNA interference blocks rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation at S112 or S136, respectively. Simultaneous blockage of S112 and S136 phosphorylation of Bad by PD98059 and silencing of Akt significantly enhances rapamycin-induced growth inhibition in vitro and synergistically increases the anti-tumor efficacy of rapamycin in lung cancer xenografts. Intriguingly, either suppression of Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 sites or expression of the non-phosphorylatable Bad mutant (S112A/S136A) can reverse rapamycin resistance. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of rapamycin resistance, which may promote the development of new strategies for overcoming rapamycin resistance by manipulating Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 in human lung cancer. PMID:22057915

  19. Inhibition of mTOR Pathway by Rapamycin Decreases P-glycoprotein Expression and Spontaneous Seizures in Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaosa; Huang, Cheng; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Wu, Mengqian; Li, Jinmei; Zhou, Dong

    2017-04-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin. Non-responders were treated for 4 weeks with vehicle only or with the mTOR pathway inhibitor rapamycin at doses of 1, 3, and 6 mg/kg. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of phospho-S6 (P-S6) and P-gp at different time points (1 h, 8 h, 1 day, 3 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks) after the onset of treatment. Overexpression of P-S6 and P-gp was detected in both refractory mTLE patients and non-responder rats. Rapamycin showed an inhibitory effect on P-S6 and P-gp expression 1 week after treatment in rats. In addition, the expression levels of P-S6 and P-gp in the 6 mg/kg group were significantly lower than those in the 1 mg/kg or the 3 mg/kg group at the same time points (all P < 0.05). Moreover, rapamycin decreased the duration and number of CL-induced seizures, as well as the stage of non-responders (all P < 0.05). The current study indicates that the mTOR signaling pathway plays a critical role in P-gp expression in drug-resistant epilepsy. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin may be a potential therapeutic approach for pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  20. Chronic mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition: preventing cancer to delay aging, or vice versa?.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Zelton Dave; Curiel, Tyler Jay; Livi, Carolina Becker

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and aging appear to be inexorably linked, yet approaches to ameliorate them in concert are lacking. Although not (easily) feasible in humans, years of preclinical research show that diet and growth factor restriction each successfully address cancer and aging together. Chronic treatment of genetically heterogeneous mice with an enteric formulation of rapamycin (eRapa) extended maximum lifespan of both genders when started in mid or late life. In part, cancer amelioration in treated mice suggested that long-term eRapa, like diet restriction, could be a pharmacological approach feasible for use in the clinic. We review the current understanding of the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cancer and aging. We also discuss the tumor immune surveillance system, and the need for a better understanding of its responses to mTOR inhibitors. We also address the issue of the misperception that rapamycin is a potent immunosuppressant. Finally, we review the current state of mTOR inhibitors in the cancer clinic. Because of the burgeoning elderly population most at risk for cancer, there is a great need for our eRapa findings to be a proof of concept for the development of new and more comprehensive approaches to cancer prevention that are safe and also mitigate other deleterious effects of aging. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Inhibition of mTOR by Rapamycin Results in Auditory Hair Cell Damage and Decreased Spiral Ganglion Neuron Outgrowth and Neurite Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leitmeyer, Katharina; Glutz, Andrea; Radojevic, Vesna; Setz, Cristian; Huerzeler, Nathan; Bumann, Helen; Bodmer, Daniel; Brand, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is an antifungal agent with immunosuppressive properties. Rapamycin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by blocking the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). mTOR is an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, which controls cell growth, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism. However, less is known about the mTOR pathway in the inner ear. First, we evaluated whether or not the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2, resp.) are present in the mammalian cochlea. Next, tissue explants of 5-day-old rats were treated with increasing concentrations of rapamycin to explore the effects of rapamycin on auditory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Auditory hair cell survival, spiral ganglion neuron number, length of neurites, and neuronal survival were analyzed in vitro. Our data indicates that both mTOR complexes are expressed in the mammalian cochlea. We observed that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin results in a dose dependent damage of auditory hair cells. Moreover, spiral ganglion neurite number and length of neurites were significantly decreased in all concentrations used compared to control in a dose dependent manner. Our data indicate that the mTOR may play a role in the survival of hair cells and modulates spiral ganglion neuronal outgrowth and neurite formation. PMID:25918725

  2. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway suppresses dentate granule cell axon sprouting in a rodent model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Paul S; Ingram, Elizabeth A; Wen, Xiling

    2009-06-24

    Dentate granule cell axon (mossy fiber) sprouting is a common abnormality in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fiber sprouting creates an aberrant positive-feedback network among granule cells that does not normally exist. Its role in epileptogenesis is unclear and controversial. If it were possible to block mossy fiber sprouting from developing after epileptogenic treatments, its potential role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy could be tested. Previous attempts to block mossy fiber sprouting have been unsuccessful. The present study targeted the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which regulates cell growth and is blocked by rapamycin. Rapamycin was focally, continuously, and unilaterally infused into the dorsal hippocampus for prolonged periods beginning within hours after rats sustained pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Infusion for 1 month reduced aberrant Timm staining (a marker of mossy fibers) in the granule cell layer and molecular layer. Infusion for 2 months inhibited mossy fiber sprouting more. However, after rapamycin infusion ceased, aberrant Timm staining developed and approached untreated levels. When onset of infusion began after mossy fiber sprouting had developed for 2 months, rapamycin did not reverse aberrant Timm staining. These findings suggest that inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway suppressed development of mossy fiber sprouting. However, suppression required continual treatment, and rapamycin treatment did not reverse already established axon reorganization.

  3. The Prolyl Peptidases PRCP/PREP Regulate IRS-1 Stability Critical for Rapamycin-induced Feedback Activation of PI3K and AKT*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lei; Ying, Guoguang; Danzer, Brian; Perez, Ricardo E.; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Levenson, Victor V.; Maki, Carl G.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway conveys signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to regulate cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, and motility. Previously we found that prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulate proliferation and survival in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that PRCP and the related family member prolylendopeptidase (PREP) are essential for proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Depletion/inhibition of PRCP and PREP-induced serine phosphorylation and degradation of IRS-1, leading to inactivation of the cellular PI3K and AKT. Notably, depletion/inhibition of PRCP/PREP destabilized IRS-1 in the cells treated with rapamycin, blocking the feedback activation PI3K/AKT. Consequently, inhibition of PRCP/PREP enhanced rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we have identified PRCP and PREP as a stabilizer of IRS-1 which is critical for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24936056

  4. Rapamycin extends life span of Rb1+/− mice by inhibiting neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Livi, Carolina B.; Hardman, Rulon L.; Christy, Barbara A.; Dodds, Sherry G.; Jones, Diane; Williams, Charnae; Strong, Randy; Bokov, Alex; Javors, Martin A.; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton Dave

    2013-01-01

    Chronic treatment of mice with an enterically released formulation of rapamycin (eRapa) extends median and maximum life span, partly by attenuating cancer. The mechanistic basis of this response is not known. To gain a better understanding of these in vivo effects, we used a defined preclinical model of neuroendocrine cancer, Rb1+/− mice. Previous results showed that diet restriction (DR) had minimal or no effect on the lifespan of Rb1+/− mice, suggesting that the beneficial response to DR is dependent on pRb1. Since long-term eRapa treatment may at least partially mimic chronic DR in lifespan extension, we predicted that it would have a minimal effect in Rb1+/− mice. Beginning at 9 weeks of age until death, we fed Rb1+/− mice a diet without or with eRapa at 14 mg/kg food, which results in an approximate dose of 2.24 mg/kg body weight per day, and yielded rapamycin blood levels of about 4 ng/ml. Surprisingly, we found that eRapa dramatically extended life span of both female and male Rb1+/− mice, and slowed the appearance and growth of pituitary and decreased the incidence of thyroid tumors commonly observed in these mice. In this model, eRapa appears to act differently than DR, suggesting diverse mechanisms of action on survival and anti-tumor effects. In particular the beneficial effects of rapamycin did not depend on the dose of Rb1. PMID:23454836

  5. Effects of chronic Akt/mTOR inhibition by rapamycin on mechanical overload-induced hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition in masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Umeki, Daisuke; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Okumura, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway on masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain (MHC) transition in response to mechanical overload, we analyzed the effects of bite-opening (BO) on the hypertrophy and MHC composition of masseter muscle of BO-rats treated or not treated with rapamycin (RAPA), a selective mTOR inhibitor. The masseter muscle weight in BO-rats was significantly greater than that in controls, and this increase was attenuated by RAPA treatment. Expression of slow-twitch MHC isoforms was significantly increased in BO-rats with/without RAPA treatment, compared with controls, but the magnitude of the increase was much smaller in RAPA-treated BO-rats. Phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2), which preserves fast-twitch MHC isoforms in skeletal muscle, was significantly decreased in BO-rats, but the decrease was abrogated by RAPA treatment. Calcineurin signaling is known to be important for masseter muscle hypertrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition, but expression of known calcineurin activity modulators was unaffected by RAPA treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that the Akt/mTOR pathway is involved in both development of masseter muscle hypertrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition in response to mechanical overload with inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway and operates independently of the calcineurin pathway.

  6. Loss of ypk1 function causes rapamycin sensitivity, inhibition of translation initiation and synthetic lethality in 14-3-3-deficient yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Gelperin, Daniel; Horton, Lynn; DeChant, Anne; Hensold, Jack; Lemmon, Sandra K

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind to phosphorylated proteins and regulate a variety of cellular activities as effectors of serine/threonine phosphorylation. To define processes requiring 14-3-3 function in yeast, mutants with increased sensitivity to reduced 14-3-3 protein levels were identified by synthetic lethal screening. One mutation was found to be allelic to YPK1, which encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase. Loss of Ypk function causes hypersensitivity to rapamycin, similar to 14-3-3 mutations and other mutations affecting the TOR signaling pathway in yeast. Similar to treatment with rapamycin, loss of Ypk function disrupted translation, at least in part by causing depletion of eIF4G, a central adaptor protein required for cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation. In addition, Ypk1 as well as eIF4G protein levels were rapidly depleted upon nitrogen starvation, but not during glucose starvation, even though both conditions inhibit translation initiation. These results suggest that Ypk regulates translation initiation in response to nutrient signals, either through the TOR pathway or in a functionally related pathway parallel to TOR. PMID:12196392

  7. Functionally conserved effects of rapamycin exposure on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sucularli, Ceren; Shehwana, Huma; Kuscu, Cem; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Konu, Ozlen

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase important in cell proliferation, growth and protein translation. Rapamycin, a well‑known anti‑cancer agent and immunosuppressant drug, inhibits mTOR activity in different taxa including zebrafish. In the present study, the effect of rapamycin exposure on the transcriptome of a zebrafish fibroblast cell line, ZF4, was investigated. Microarray analysis demonstrated that rapamycin treatment modulated a large set of genes with varying functions including protein synthesis, assembly of mitochondrial and proteasomal machinery, cell cycle, metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation in ZF4 cells. A mild however, coordinated reduction in the expression of proteasomal and mitochondrial ribosomal subunits was detected, while the expression of numerous ribosomal subunits increased. Meta‑analysis of heterogeneous mouse rapamycin microarray datasets enabled the comparison of zebrafish and mouse pathways modulated by rapamycin, using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology pathway analysis. The analyses demonstrated a high degree of functional conservation between zebrafish and mice in response to rapamycin. In addition, rapamycin treatment resulted in a marked dose‑dependent reduction in body size and pigmentation in zebrafish embryos. The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to evaluate the conservation of rapamycin‑modulated functional pathways between zebrafish and mice, in addition to the dose‑dependent growth curves of zebrafish embryos upon rapamycin exposure.

  8. Fructose leads to hepatic steatosis in zebrafish that is reversed by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Valerie; Gaffney, Leah; EauClaire, Steven F; Matthews, Randolph P

    2014-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the accumulation of lipid within hepatocytes, is increasing in prevalence. Increasing fructose consumption correlates with this increased prevalence, and rodent studies directly support fructose leading to NAFLD. The mechanisms of NAFLD and in particular fructose-induced lipid accumulation remain unclear, although there is evidence for a role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. We have evidence that NAFLD models demonstrate activation of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (Torc1) pathway. We set out to assess the contribution of ER stress, oxidative stress, and Torc1 up-regulation in the development of steatohepatitis in fructose-treated larval zebrafish. Zebrafish were treated with fructose or glucose as a calorie-matched control. We also treated larvae with rapamycin, tunicamycin (ER stress), or valinomycin (oxidative stress). Fish were stained with oil red O to assess hepatic lipid accumulation, and we also performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)and western blot analysis. We performed immunostaining on samples from patients with NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Treatment with fructose induced hepatic lipid accumulation, mitochondrial abnormalities, and ER defects. In addition, fructose-treated fish showed activation of inflammatory and lipogenic genes. Treatment with tunicamycin or valinomycin also induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression microarray studies of zebrafish NAFLD models showed an elevation of genes downstream of Torc1 signaling. Rapamycin treatment of fructose-treated fish prevented development of hepatic steatosis, as did treatment of tunicamycin- or valinomycin-treated fish. Examination of liver samples from patients with hepatic steatosis demonstrated activation of Torc1 signaling. Fructose treatment of larval zebrafish induces hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that Torc1 activation is required

  9. Inhibition of mTOR by Rapamycin Abolishes Cognitive Deficits and Reduces Amyloid-β Levels in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spilman, Patricia; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Hart, Matthew J.; Debnath, Jayanta; Gorostiza, Olivia; Bredesen, Dale; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Galvan, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced TOR signaling has been shown to significantly increase lifespan in a variety of organisms [1], [2], [3], [4]. It was recently demonstrated that long-term treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway[5], or ablation of the mTOR target p70S6K[6] extends lifespan in mice, possibly by delaying aging. Whether inhibition of the mTOR pathway would delay or prevent age-associated disease such as AD remained to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings We used rapamycin administration and behavioral tools in a mouse model of AD as well as standard biochemical and immunohistochemical measures in brain tissue to provide answers for this question. Here we show that long-term inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin prevented AD-like cognitive deficits and lowered levels of Aβ42, a major toxic species in AD[7], in the PDAPP transgenic mouse model. These data indicate that inhibition of the mTOR pathway can reduce Aβ42 levels in vivo and block or delay AD in mice. As expected from the inhibition of mTOR, autophagy was increased in neurons of rapamycin-treated transgenic, but not in non-transgenic, PDAPP mice, suggesting that the reduction in Aβ and the improvement in cognitive function are due in part to increased autophagy, possibly as a response to high levels of Aβ. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, an intervention that extends lifespan in mice, can slow or block AD progression in a transgenic mouse model of the disease. Rapamycin, already used in clinical settings, may be a potentially effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:20376313

  10. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin abolishes cognitive deficits and reduces amyloid-beta levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Spilman, Patricia; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Hart, Matthew J; Debnath, Jayanta; Gorostiza, Olivia; Bredesen, Dale; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Galvan, Veronica

    2010-04-01

    Reduced TOR signaling has been shown to significantly increase lifespan in a variety of organisms [1], [2], [3], [4]. It was recently demonstrated that long-term treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway[5], or ablation of the mTOR target p70S6K[6] extends lifespan in mice, possibly by delaying aging. Whether inhibition of the mTOR pathway would delay or prevent age-associated disease such as AD remained to be determined. We used rapamycin administration and behavioral tools in a mouse model of AD as well as standard biochemical and immunohistochemical measures in brain tissue to provide answers for this question. Here we show that long-term inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin prevented AD-like cognitive deficits and lowered levels of Abeta(42), a major toxic species in AD[7], in the PDAPP transgenic mouse model. These data indicate that inhibition of the mTOR pathway can reduce Abeta(42) levels in vivo and block or delay AD in mice. As expected from the inhibition of mTOR, autophagy was increased in neurons of rapamycin-treated transgenic, but not in non-transgenic, PDAPP mice, suggesting that the reduction in Abeta and the improvement in cognitive function are due in part to increased autophagy, possibly as a response to high levels of Abeta. Our data suggest that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, an intervention that extends lifespan in mice, can slow or block AD progression in a transgenic mouse model of the disease. Rapamycin, already used in clinical settings, may be a potentially effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury Stimulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation via Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Seekaew, Pich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neural stem cells in the adult brain possess the ability to remain quiescent until needed in tissue homeostasis or repair. It was previously shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) stimulated neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the adult hippocampus, indicating an innate repair mechanism, but it is unknown how TBI promotes NSC proliferation. In the present study, we observed dramatic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the hippocampus of mice with TBI from controlled cortical impact (CCI). The peak of mTORC1 activation in the hippocampal subgranular zone, where NSCs reside, is 24–48 h after trauma, correlating with the peak of TBI-enhanced NSC proliferation. By use of a Nestin-GFP transgenic mouse, in which GFP is ectopically expressed in the NSCs, we found that TBI activated mTORC1 in NSCs. With 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine labeling, we observed that TBI increased mTORC1 activation in proliferating NSCs. Furthermore, administration of rapamycin abolished TBI-promoted NSC proliferation. Taken together, these data indicate that mTORC1 activation is required for NSC proliferation postinjury, and thus might serve as a therapeutic target for interventions to augment neurogenesis for brain repair after TBI. PMID:27822507

  12. Down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling is involved in rapamycin suppression of TLR2-induced inflammatory response in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruili; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Shijiang; Qi, Hengtian; Wang, Mingyong; Duan, Juhong; Ma, Shujun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Li, Guancheng; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys) 4 (Pam3CSK4) interacted with TLR2 induces inflammatory responses through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway. Rapamycin can suppress TLR-induced inflammatory responses; however, the detailed molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, the mechanism by which rapamycin suppresses TLR2-induced inflammatory responses was investigated. It was found that Pam3CSK4-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 cells pre-treated with various concentrations of rapamycin. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B (PI3K/AKT) signaling did not suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating that the immunosuppression mediated by rapamycin in THP1 cells is independent of the PI3K/AKT pathway. RT-PCR showed that Erk and NF-κB signal pathways are related to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of Erk or NF-κB signaling significantly down-regulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, western blot showed that pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with rapamycin down-regulates MAPKs and NF-κB signaling induced by Pam3CSK4 stimulation, suggesting that rapamycin suppresses Pam3CSK4-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via inhibition of TLR2 signaling. It was concluded that rapamycin suppresses TLR2-induced inflammatory responses by down-regulation of Erk and NF-κB signaling.

  13. The immunosuppressive agents rapamycin, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus increase lipolysis, inhibit lipid storage and alter expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria J; Palming, Jenny; Rizell, Magnus; Aureliano, Manuel; Carvalho, Eugénia; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W

    2013-01-30

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), tacrolimus and rapamycin are immunosuppressive agents (IAs) associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, although their molecular effects on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue are unknown. We explored IAs effects on lipolysis, lipid storage and expression of genes involved on lipid metabolism in isolated human adipocytes and/or adipose tissue obtained via subcutaneous and omental fat biopsies. CsA, tacrolimus and rapamycin increased isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis and inhibited lipid storage by 20-35% and enhanced isoproterenol-stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase Ser552 phosphorylation. Rapamycin also increased basal lipolysis (~20%) and impaired insulin's antilipolytic effect. Rapamycin, down-regulated the gene expression of perilipin, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and lipin 1, while tacrolimus down-regulated CD36 and aP2 gene expression. All three IAs increased IL-6 gene expression and secretion, but not expression and secretion of TNF-α or adiponectin. These findings suggest that CsA, tacrolimus and rapamycin enhance lipolysis, inhibit lipid storage and expression of lipogenic genes in adipose tissue, which may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance associated with immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dual inhibition of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin as a new therapeutic option for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Francesca; Falà, Federica; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Ricci, Francesca; Astolfi, Annalisa; Pession, Andrea; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; McCubrey, James A; Martelli, Alberto M

    2009-04-15

    Recent investigations have documented that constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it strongly influences growth and survival. These findings lend compelling weight for the application of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in T-ALL. However, our knowledge of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in T-ALL is limited and it is not clear whether it could be an effective target for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI-103, a small synthetic molecule of the pyridofuropyrimidine class, on both T-ALL cell lines and patient samples, which displayed constitutive activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. PI-103 inhibited the growth of T-ALL cells, including 170-kDa P-glycoprotein overexpressing cells. PI-103 cytotoxicity was independent of p53 gene status. PI-103 was more potent than inhibitors that are selective only for PI3K (Wortmannin, LY294002) or for mTOR (rapamycin). PI-103 induced G(0)-G(1) phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which was characterized by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. PI-103 caused Akt dephosphorylation, accompanied by dephosphorylation of the Akt downstream target, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. Also, mTOR downstream targets were dephosphorylated in response to PI-103, including p70S6 kinase, ribosomal S6 protein, and 4E-BP1. PI-103 strongly synergized with vincristine. These findings indicate that multitargeted therapy toward PI3K and mTOR alone or with existing drugs may serve as an efficient treatment toward T-ALL cells, which require up-regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling for their survival and growth.

  15. Imbalanced mechanistic target of rapamycin C1 and C2 activity in the cerebellum of Angelman syndrome mice impairs motor function.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiandong; Liu, Yan; Moreno, Stephanie; Baudry, Michel; Bi, Xiaoning

    2015-03-18

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of maternally expressed ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A), an E3 ligase that targets specific proteins for proteasomal degradation. Although motor function impairment occurs in all patients with AS, very little research has been done to understand and treat it. The present study focuses on Ube3A deficiency-induced alterations in signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the cerebellum of the AS mouse model and on potential therapeutic applications of rapamycin. Levels of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a negative regulator of mTOR, were increased in AS mice compared with wild-type mice; however, TSC2 inhibitory phosphorylation was also increased. Correspondingly, levels of phosphorylated/active mTOR were increased. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrates S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6 was elevated, whereas that of the mTORC2 substrates AKT and N-myc downstream regulated 1 was decreased, suggesting enhanced mTORC1 but inhibited mTORC2 signaling. Semi-chronic treatment of AS mice with rapamycin not only improved their motor performance but also normalized mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling. Furthermore, inhibitory phosphorylation of rictor, a key regulatory/structural subunit of the mTORC2 complex, was increased in AS mice and decreased after rapamycin treatment. These results indicate that Ube3A deficiency leads to overactivation of the mTORC1-S6K1 pathway, which in turn inhibits rictor, resulting in decreased mTORC2 signaling in Purkinje neurons of AS mice. Finally, rapamycin treatment also improved dendritic spine morphology in AS mice, through inhibiting mTORC1 and possibly enhancing mTORC2-mediated regulation of synaptic cytoskeletal elements. Collectively, our results indicate that the imbalance between mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity may contribute to synaptic pathology and motor impairment in AS.

  16. Imbalanced Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin C1 and C2 Activity in the Cerebellum of Angelman Syndrome Mice Impairs Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiandong; Liu, Yan; Moreno, Stephanie; Baudry, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of maternally expressed ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A), an E3 ligase that targets specific proteins for proteasomal degradation. Although motor function impairment occurs in all patients with AS, very little research has been done to understand and treat it. The present study focuses on Ube3A deficiency-induced alterations in signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the cerebellum of the AS mouse model and on potential therapeutic applications of rapamycin. Levels of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a negative regulator of mTOR, were increased in AS mice compared with wild-type mice; however, TSC2 inhibitory phosphorylation was also increased. Correspondingly, levels of phosphorylated/active mTOR were increased. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrates S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6 was elevated, whereas that of the mTORC2 substrates AKT and N-myc downstream regulated 1 was decreased, suggesting enhanced mTORC1 but inhibited mTORC2 signaling. Semi-chronic treatment of AS mice with rapamycin not only improved their motor performance but also normalized mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling. Furthermore, inhibitory phosphorylation of rictor, a key regulatory/structural subunit of the mTORC2 complex, was increased in AS mice and decreased after rapamycin treatment. These results indicate that Ube3A deficiency leads to overactivation of the mTORC1–S6K1 pathway, which in turn inhibits rictor, resulting in decreased mTORC2 signaling in Purkinje neurons of AS mice. Finally, rapamycin treatment also improved dendritic spine morphology in AS mice, through inhibiting mTORC1 and possibly enhancing mTORC2-mediated regulation of synaptic cytoskeletal elements. Collectively, our results indicate that the imbalance between mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity may contribute to synaptic pathology and motor impairment in AS. PMID:25788687

  17. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Shailly; Shrivastav, Anuraag; Changela, Sheena; Khandelwal, Ramji L.

    2008-04-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-{alpha} (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

  18. Methylglyoxal Activates the Target of Rapamycin Complex 2-Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is a typical 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis. We show here that methylglyoxal activates the Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in a target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent manner in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that TORC2 phosphorylates Pkc1 at Thr1125 and Ser1143. Methylglyoxal enhanced the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser1143, which transmitted the signal to the downstream Mpk1 MAP kinase cascade. We found that the phosphorylation status of Pkc1T1125 affected the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser1143, in addition to its protein levels. Methylglyoxal activated mammalian TORC2 signaling, which, in turn, phosphorylated Akt at Ser473. Our results suggest that methylglyoxal is a conserved initiator of TORC2 signaling among eukaryotes. PMID:25624345

  19. Methylglyoxal activates the target of rapamycin complex 2-protein kinase C signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    Methylglyoxal is a typical 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis. We show here that methylglyoxal activates the Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in a target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent manner in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that TORC2 phosphorylates Pkc1 at Thr(1125) and Ser(1143). Methylglyoxal enhanced the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser(1143), which transmitted the signal to the downstream Mpk1 MAP kinase cascade. We found that the phosphorylation status of Pkc1(T1125) affected the phosphorylation of Pkc1 at Ser(1143), in addition to its protein levels. Methylglyoxal activated mammalian TORC2 signaling, which, in turn, phosphorylated Akt at Ser(473). Our results suggest that methylglyoxal is a conserved initiator of TORC2 signaling among eukaryotes.

  20. Topical rapamycin (sirolimus) for facial angiofibromas.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a fungal fermentation product that inhibits the proper functioning of a serine/threonine protein kinase in mammalian cells eponymously named mammalian target of rapamycin, or mTOR. Rapamycin is a novel class of anticancer and immunosuppressant drugs targeting the proteins at molecular level. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is routinely incorporated in drug-eluting stents used for cardiac angioplasty. In recent years, rapamycin was found to be efficacious in managing the symptom complex of tuberous sclerosis, i.e. renal angiomyolipoma, giant cell astrocytoma and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Various investigators have also proved that topically applied rapamycin causes regression of facial angiofibromas, giving better cosmetic results.

  1. Temsirolimus in advanced leiomyosarcomas: patterns of response and correlation with the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Kind, Michèle; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Jones, Natalie; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Bui, Binh

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical data have indicated that alteration of PTEN and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway play a crucial role in the oncogenesis of leiomyosarcoma. The objective of this exploratory study was to assess the clinical role of mTOR inhibition in patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma refractory to standard chemotherapy. Patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma were treated with temsirolimus and consented to retrospective collection of data from their medical records and analysis of archival tumor specimens. Tumor response was determined according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumor (RECIST) and Choi criteria. Tumors were assessed for immunohistochemical evidence of PTEN loss of expression and mTOR activation. Six patients participated in the study. According to the RECIST, three patients had stable disease and three patients had progressive disease. The three patients with RECIST stable disease had partial response according to the Choi criteria. Partial response according to the Choi criteria was associated with clinical improvement and biological signs of temsirolimus antitumor activity. The immunohistochemical status of PTEN and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein was not predictive of the outcome. This exploratory study indicates antitumor activity of temsirolimus in leiomyosarcoma, possibly through a mechanism involving aberration of the PTEN gene. Further investigations of the phosphoinositide 3-kinases/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway are needed to explore the role of mTOR inhibitors, either alone or in combination, in patients with advanced sarcoma.

  2. Inhibition of 4EBP phosphorylation mediates the cytotoxic effect of mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase inhibitors in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chengfeng; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xianhuo; Meng, Bin; Zhang, Huilai; Wang, Ping; Vose, Julie M; Chan, Wing C; McKeithan, Timothy W; Fu, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 is a central integrator of nutrient and growth factor inputs that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The second generation of mTOR kinase inhibitors (TORKi), directly targeting the mTOR catalytic site, are more effective than rapamycin and its analogs in cancer treatment, particularly in inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effect of TORKi remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that TORKi-induced apoptosis is predominantly dependent on the loss of mTOR complex 1-mediated 4EBP activation. Knocking out RICTOR, a key component of mTOR complex 2, or inhibiting p70S6K has little effect on TORKi-induced apoptosis. Conversely, increasing the eIF4E:4EBP ratio by either overexpressing eIF4E or knocking out 4EBP1/2 protects lymphoma cells from TORKi-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, downregulation of MCL1 expression plays an important role in TORKi-induced apoptosis, whereas BCL-2 overexpression confers resistance to TORKi treatment. We further show that the therapeutic effect of TORKi in aggressive B-cell lymphomas can be predicted by BH3 profiling, and improved by combining it with pro-apoptotic drugs, especially BCL-2 inhibitors, both in vitro and in vivo Taken together, the study herein provides mechanistic insight into TORKi cytotoxicity and identified a potential way to optimize its efficacy in the clinical treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Anticancer peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) inhibitors regulate the autophagy flux and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuji; Li, Pingxin; Wang, Shu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Xiangyun Amy; Wu, Jianhui; Fisher, Megan; Oshaben, Kira; Zhao, Na; Gu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Chen, Gong; Wang, Yanming

    2012-07-27

    Tumor suppressor genes are frequently silenced in cancer cells by enzymes catalyzing epigenetic histone modifications. The peptidylarginine deiminase family member PAD4 (also called PADI4) is markedly overexpressed in a majority of human cancers, suggesting that PAD4 is a putative target for cancer treatment. Here, we have generated novel PAD inhibitors with low micromolar IC(50) in PAD activity and cancer cell growth inhibition. The lead compound YW3-56 alters the expression of genes controlling the cell cycle and cell death, including SESN2 that encodes an upstream inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. Guided by the gene expression profile analyses with YW3-56, we found that PAD4 functions as a corepressor of p53 to regulate SESN2 expression by histone citrullination in cancer cells. Consistent with the mTORC1 inhibition by SESN2, the phosphorylation of its substrates including p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and 4E-BP1 was decreased. Furthermore, macroautophagy is perturbed after YW3-56 treatment in cancer cells. In a mouse xenograft model, YW3-56 demonstrates cancer growth inhibition activity with little if any detectable adverse effect to vital organs, whereas a combination of PAD4 and histone deacetylase inhibitors further decreases tumor growth. Taken together, our work found that PAD4 regulates the mTORC1 signaling pathway and that PAD inhibitors are potential anticancer reagents that activate tumor suppressor gene expression alone or in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  4. The Enigma of Rapamycin Dosage.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Frias, Maria A; Chatterjee, Amrita; Yellen, Paige; Foster, David A

    2016-03-01

    The mTOR pathway is a critical regulator of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and survival. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been observed in most cancers and, thus, the mTOR pathway has been extensively studied for therapeutic intervention. Rapamycin is a natural product that inhibits mTOR with high specificity. However, its efficacy varies by dose in several contexts. First, different doses of rapamycin are needed to suppress mTOR in different cell lines; second, different doses of rapamycin are needed to suppress the phosphorylation of different mTOR substrates; and third, there is a differential sensitivity of the two mTOR complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 to rapamycin. Intriguingly, the enigmatic properties of rapamycin dosage can be explained in large part by the competition between rapamycin and phosphatidic acid (PA) for mTOR. Rapamycin and PA have opposite effects on mTOR whereby rapamycin destabilizes and PA stabilizes both mTOR complexes. In this review, we discuss the properties of rapamycin dosage in the context of anticancer therapeutics.

  5. CX-5461 induces autophagy and inhibits tumor growth via mammalian target of rapamycin-related signaling pathways in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leiming; Li, Yan; Zhao, Jiansong; Fan, Shuli; Wang, Liguo; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, but molecular mechanisms of the disease have not been well understood, and treatment of metastatic OS remains a challenge. Rapid ribosomal RNA synthesis in cancer is transcribed by RNA polymerase I, which results in unbridled cell growth. The recent discovery of CX-5461, a selective RNA polymerase I inhibitor, exerted its inhibitory effect of ribosomal RNA synthesis and antiproliferative potency. Here, we demonstrate that CX-5461 induces G2 arrest in the cell cycle and expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II isoform in OS cell lines. Autophagic vacuoles could be observed in electron microscopy and 3-methyladenine prevented cell death mediated by CX-5461. Moreover, it significantly augmented phosphorylated AMP-Activated Protein Kinases α (p-AMPK α). (Thr172) expression in U2-OS cells and decreased p-Akt (Ser473) expression in MNNG cells, respectively, which repressed their downstream effector, mammalian target of rapamycin. On the other hand, CX-5461 increased p53 accumulation and messenger RNA level of its target genes, p21, MDM2, and Sestrin1/2 in U2-OS cells. Knockdown of p53 expression markedly impaired cell death as well as the expression of light chain 3-II and p21 induced by CX-5461. It also significantly enhanced doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo together with additive expression of p53, p21, and light chain 3-II in U2-OS cells. Our data indicate that CX-5461 might induce autophagy via mammalian target of rapamycin-associated signaling pathways dependent on p53 status and exert p53-dependent synergistic antitumor effect combined with doxorubicin in OS. These results suggest that CX-5461 might be promising in clinical therapy for OS, especially cases harboring wild-type p53. PMID:27729807

  6. CX-5461 induces autophagy and inhibits tumor growth via mammalian target of rapamycin-related signaling pathways in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Leiming; Li, Yan; Zhao, Jiansong; Fan, Shuli; Wang, Liguo; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, but molecular mechanisms of the disease have not been well understood, and treatment of metastatic OS remains a challenge. Rapid ribosomal RNA synthesis in cancer is transcribed by RNA polymerase I, which results in unbridled cell growth. The recent discovery of CX-5461, a selective RNA polymerase I inhibitor, exerted its inhibitory effect of ribosomal RNA synthesis and antiproliferative potency. Here, we demonstrate that CX-5461 induces G2 arrest in the cell cycle and expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II isoform in OS cell lines. Autophagic vacuoles could be observed in electron microscopy and 3-methyladenine prevented cell death mediated by CX-5461. Moreover, it significantly augmented phosphorylated AMP-Activated Protein Kinases α (p-AMPK α). (Thr(172)) expression in U2-OS cells and decreased p-Akt (Ser(473)) expression in MNNG cells, respectively, which repressed their downstream effector, mammalian target of rapamycin. On the other hand, CX-5461 increased p53 accumulation and messenger RNA level of its target genes, p21, MDM2, and Sestrin1/2 in U2-OS cells. Knockdown of p53 expression markedly impaired cell death as well as the expression of light chain 3-II and p21 induced by CX-5461. It also significantly enhanced doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo together with additive expression of p53, p21, and light chain 3-II in U2-OS cells. Our data indicate that CX-5461 might induce autophagy via mammalian target of rapamycin-associated signaling pathways dependent on p53 status and exert p53-dependent synergistic antitumor effect combined with doxorubicin in OS. These results suggest that CX-5461 might be promising in clinical therapy for OS, especially cases harboring wild-type p53.

  7. The novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235, inhibits growth and proliferation in multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Philipp Mandl-Weber, Sonja; Oduncu, Fuat; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2009-02-01

    NVP-BEZ235 is a new inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) whose efficacy in advanced solid tumours is currently being evaluated in a phase I/II clinical trial. Here we show that NVP-BEZ235 inhibits growth in common myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma cells at nanomolar concentrations in a time and dose dependent fashion. Further experiments revealed induction of apoptosis in three of four cell lines. Inhibition of cell growth was mainly due to inhibition of myeloma cell proliferation, as shown by the BrdU assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which was due to downregulation of cyclin D1, pRb and cdc25a. NVP-BEZ235 inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), P70S6k and 4E-BP-1. Furthermore we show that the stimulatory effect of CD40-ligand (CD40L), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and conditioned medium of HS-5 stromal cells on myeloma cell growth is completely abrogated by NVP-BEZ235. In addition, synergism studies revealed synergistic and additive activity of NVP-BEZ235 together with melphalan, doxorubicin and bortezomib. Taken together, inhibition of PI3 kinase/mTOR by NVP-BEZ235 is highly effective and NVP-BEZ235 represents a potential new candidate for targeted therapy in multiple myeloma.

  8. Stage 2 combination testing of rapamycin with cytotoxic agents by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Peter J; Morton, Christopher L; Gorlick, Richard; Lock, Richard B; Carol, Hernan; Reynolds, C Patrick; Kang, Min H; Maris, John M; Keir, Stephen T; Kolb, E Anders; Wu, Jianrong; Wozniak, Amy W; Billups, Catherine A; Rubinstein, Larry; Smith, Malcolm A

    2010-01-01

    Rapamycin demonstrated broad-spectrum tumor growth inhibition activity against the in vivo panels of childhood tumors used in the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP). Here we have evaluated rapamycin combined with agents used frequently in the treatment of childhood malignancies. Rapamycin was tested in vitro against 23 cell lines alone or in combination with melphalan, cisplatin, vincristine, or dexamethasone (leukemic models only). In vivo, the impact of combining rapamycin with a cytotoxic agent was evaluated using two measures: 1) the therapeutic enhancement measure, and 2) a linear regression model for time-to-event to formally evaluate for sub- and supraadditivity for the combination compared to the agents used alone. Combining rapamycin with cytotoxic agents in vitro gave predominantly subadditive or additive effects, except for dexamethasone in leukemia models for which supra-additive activity was observed. In vivo testing demonstrated that therapeutic enhancement was common for rapamycin in combination with cyclophosphamide and occurred for 4 of 11 evaluable xenografts for the rapamycin and vincristine combination. The combinations of rapamycin with either cyclophosphamide or vincristine were significantly more effective than the respective standard agents used alone at their maximum tolerated doses (MTD) for most evaluable xenografts. The combination of rapamycin and cisplatin produced excessive toxicity requiring cisplatin dose reductions, and therapeutic enhancement was not observed for this combination. Addition of rapamycin to either cyclophosphamide or vincristine at their respective MTDs appears promising, as these combinations are relatively well tolerated and as many of the pediatric preclinical models evaluated demonstrated therapeutic enhancement for these combinations.

  9. Target of rapamycin (TOR) controls vitellogenesis via activation of the S6 kinase in the fat body of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Liao, Min; Battur, Banzragch; Rahman, Md Morshedur; Kuboki, Thasaneeya; Galay, Remil Linggatong; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2012-10-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis, vitellogenesis, is an essential process for the development and reproduction of ticks. Our previous finding led to the hypothesis that target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is important for vitellogenesis in the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. The TOR pathway controls cellular activity according to nutrient availability in eukaryotes. TOR, a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase family, is a central player in this pathway. Here, we present preliminary evidence that H. longicornis TOR (HlTOR) controls vitellogenesis via activation of S6 kinase (S6K) in the fat body. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of HlTOR was undertaken to elucidate the involvement of HlTOR in the vitellogenesis of the tick. HlTOR-RNAi caused inhibition of S6K phosphorylation in the fat body. HlTOR-RNAi also altered not only the expression levels of GATA mRNA and protein but also the intracellular localisation of GATA in the fat body. The expression levels of Vg mRNA and protein in the fat body of HlTOR-RNAi ticks were significantly lower than those in control ticks. In the pre-ovipositional stage, the ovaries of control ticks had brown oocytes developing, but those of HlTOR-RNAi ticks were white and immature. The haemolymph colour indicated that the amount of Vg was lower in HlTOR-RNAi ticks than in the controls. Furthermore, rapamycin inhibited S6K phosphorylation and reduced the expression levels of Vg mRNA and protein in the fat bodies. Vg proteins were not detected in rapamycin-treated fat bodies in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone. These results suggest that HlTOR activity is critical for vitellogenesis stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GTPase ROP2 binds and promotes activation of target of rapamycin, TOR, in response to auxin.

    PubMed

    Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Makarian, Joelle; Srour, Ola; Geldreich, Angèle; Yang, Zhenbiao; Chicher, Johana; Hammann, Philippe; Ryabova, Lyubov A

    2017-04-03

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) promotes reinitiation at upstream ORFs (uORFs) in genes that play important roles in stem cell regulation and organogenesis in plants. Here, we report that the small GTPase ROP2, if activated by the phytohormone auxin, promotes activation of TOR, and thus translation reinitiation of uORF-containing mRNAs. Plants with high levels of active ROP2, including those expressing constitutively active ROP2 (CA-ROP2), contain high levels of active TOR ROP2 physically interacts with and, when GTP-bound, activates TOR in vitro TOR activation in response to auxin is abolished in ROP-deficient rop2 rop6 ROP4 RNAi plants. GFP-TOR can associate with endosome-like structures in ROP2-overexpressing plants, indicating that endosomes mediate ROP2 effects on TOR activation. CA-ROP2 is efficient in loading uORF-containing mRNAs onto polysomes and stimulates translation in protoplasts, and both processes are sensitive to TOR inhibitor AZD-8055. TOR inactivation abolishes ROP2 regulation of translation reinitiation, but not its effects on cytoskeleton or intracellular trafficking. These findings imply a mode of translation control whereby, as an upstream effector of TOR, ROP2 coordinates TOR function in translation reinitiation pathways in response to auxin. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Device-based local delivery of siRNA against mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a murine subcutaneous implant model to inhibit fibrous encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hironobu; Wang, Yuwei; Grainger, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Fibrous encapsulation of surgically implant devices is associated with elevated proliferation and activation of fibroblasts in tissues surrounding these implants, frequently causing foreign body complications. Here we test the hypothesis that inhibition of the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in fibroblasts can mitigate the soft tissue implant foreign body response by suppressing fibrotic responses around implants. In this study, mTOR was knocked down using small interfering RNA conjugated with branched cationic polyethylenimine (bPEI) in fibroblastic lineage cells in serum-based cell culture as shown by both gene and protein analysis. This mTOR knockdown led to an inhibition in fibroblast proliferation by 70% and simultaneous down-regulation in the expression of type I collagen in fibroblasts in vitro. These siRNA/bPEI complexes were released from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coatings surrounding model polymer implants in a subcutaneous rodent model in vivo. No significant reduction in fibrous capsule thickness and mTOR expression in the foreign body capsules was observed. Observed siRNA inefficacy in this in vivo implant model was attributed to siRNA dosing limitations in the gel delivery system, and lack of targeting ability of the siRNA complex specifically to fibroblasts. While in vitro data supported mTOR knock-down in fibroblast cultures, in vivo siRNA delivery must be further improved to produce clinically relevant effects on fibrotic encapsulation around implants. PMID:20727922

  12. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling in the Insular Cortex Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Minjee; Han, Jeongsoo; Kim, Un Jeng; Cha, Myeounghoon; Um, Sun Woo; Bai, Sun Joon; Hong, Seong-Karp; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Injury of peripheral nerves can trigger neuropathic pain, producing allodynia and hyperalgesia via peripheral and central sensitization. Recent studies have focused on the role of the insular cortex (IC) in neuropathic pain. Because the IC is thought to store pain-related memories, translational regulation in this structure may reveal novel targets for controlling chronic pain. Signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is known to control mRNA translation and influence synaptic plasticity, has been studied at the spinal level in neuropathic pain, but its role in the IC under these conditions remains elusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the role of mTOR signaling in neuropathic pain and to assess the potential therapeutic effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, in the IC of rats with neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia was assessed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after neuropathic surgery and following microinjections of rapamycin into the IC on postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 7. Optical recording was conducted to observe the neural responses of the IC to peripheral stimulation. Rapamycin reduced mechanical allodynia and downregulated the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), decreased neural excitability in the IC, thereby inhibiting neuropathic pain-induced synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling in the IC may be a critical molecular mechanism modulating neuropathic pain.

  13. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling in the Insular Cortex Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Minjee; Han, Jeongsoo; Kim, Un Jeng; Cha, Myeounghoon; Um, Sun Woo; Bai, Sun Joon; Hong, Seong-Karp; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Injury of peripheral nerves can trigger neuropathic pain, producing allodynia and hyperalgesia via peripheral and central sensitization. Recent studies have focused on the role of the insular cortex (IC) in neuropathic pain. Because the IC is thought to store pain-related memories, translational regulation in this structure may reveal novel targets for controlling chronic pain. Signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is known to control mRNA translation and influence synaptic plasticity, has been studied at the spinal level in neuropathic pain, but its role in the IC under these conditions remains elusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the role of mTOR signaling in neuropathic pain and to assess the potential therapeutic effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, in the IC of rats with neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia was assessed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after neuropathic surgery and following microinjections of rapamycin into the IC on postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 7. Optical recording was conducted to observe the neural responses of the IC to peripheral stimulation. Rapamycin reduced mechanical allodynia and downregulated the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), decreased neural excitability in the IC, thereby inhibiting neuropathic pain-induced synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling in the IC may be a critical molecular mechanism modulating neuropathic pain. PMID:28377693

  14. Ex vivo rapamycin generates donor Th2 cells that potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects via an IL-4-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jason E; Jung, Unsu; Miera, Angel; Borenstein, Todd; Mariotti, Jacopo; Eckhaus, Michael; Bierer, Barbara E; Fowler, Daniel H

    2005-11-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) inhibits graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and polarizes T cells toward Th2 cytokine secretion after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Therefore, we reasoned that ex vivo rapamycin might enhance the generation of donor Th2 cells capable of preventing GVHD after fully MHC-disparate murine BMT. Using anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 costimulation, CD4+ Th2 cell expansion was preserved partially in high-dose rapamycin (10 microM; Th2.rapa cells). Th2.rapa cells secreted IL-4 yet had reduced IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 secretion relative to control Th2 cells. BMT cohorts receiving wild-type (WT) Th2.rapa cells, but not Th2.rapa cells generated from IL-4-deficient (knockout) donors, had marked Th2 skewing post-BMT and greatly reduced donor anti-host T cell alloreactivity. Histologic studies demonstrated that Th2.rapa cell recipients had near complete abrogation of skin, liver, and gut GVHD. Overall survival in recipients of WT Th2.rapa cells, but not IL-4 knockout Th2.rapa cells, was constrained due to marked attenuation of an allogeneic graft-vs-tumor (GVT) effect against host-type breast cancer cells. Delay in Th2.rapa cell administration until day 4, 7, or 14 post-BMT enhanced GVT effects, moderated GVHD, and improved overall survival. Therefore, ex vivo rapamycin generates enhanced donor Th2 cells for attempts to balance GVHD and GVT effects.

  15. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activation Increases Axonal Growth Capacity of Injured Peripheral Nerves*

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Namiko; Borson, Steven H.; Gambello, Michael J.; Wang, Fan; Cavalli, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Unlike neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), injured neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) can regenerate their axons and reinnervate their targets. However, functional recovery in the PNS often remains suboptimal, especially in cases of severe damage. The lack of regenerative ability of CNS neurons has been linked to down-regulation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. We report here that PNS dorsal root ganglial neurons (DRGs) activate mTOR following damage and that this activity enhances axonal growth capacity. Furthermore, genetic up-regulation of mTOR activity by deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) in DRGs is sufficient to enhance axonal growth capacity in vitro and in vivo. We further show that mTOR activity is linked to the expression of GAP-43, a crucial component of axonal outgrowth. However, although TSC2 deletion in DRGs facilitates axonal regrowth, it leads to defects in target innervation. Thus, whereas manipulation of mTOR activity could provide new strategies to stimulate nerve regeneration in the PNS, fine control of mTOR activity is required for proper target innervation. PMID:20615870

  16. mTOR (Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin) Inhibition Decreases Mechanosignaling, Collagen Accumulation, and Stiffening of the Thoracic Aorta in Elastin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Li, Guangxin; Li, Qingle; Ali, Rahmat; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Wei; Qyang, Yibing; Greif, Daniel M; Geirsson, Arnar; Humphrey, Jay D; Tellides, George

    2017-09-01

    Elastin deficiency because of heterozygous loss of an ELN allele in Williams syndrome causes obstructive aortopathy characterized by medial thickening and fibrosis and consequent aortic stiffening. Previous work in Eln-null mice with a severe arterial phenotype showed that inhibition of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), a key regulator of cell growth, lessened the aortic obstruction but did not prevent early postnatal death. We investigated the effects of mTOR inhibition in Eln-null mice partially rescued by human ELN that manifest a less severe arterial phenotype and survive long term. Thoracic aortas of neonatal and juvenile mice with graded elastin deficiency exhibited increased signaling through both mTOR complex 1 and 2. Despite lower predicted wall stress, there was increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, suggestive of greater integrin activation, and increased transforming growth factor-β-signaling mediators, associated with increased collagen expression. Pharmacological blockade of mTOR by rapalogs did not improve luminal stenosis but reduced mechanosignaling (in delayed fashion after mTOR complex 1 inhibition), medial collagen accumulation, and stiffening of the aorta. Rapalog administration also retarded somatic growth, however, and precipitated neonatal deaths. Complementary, less-toxic strategies to inhibit mTOR via altered growth factor and nutrient responses were not effective. In addition to previously demonstrated therapeutic benefits of rapalogs decreasing smooth muscle cell proliferation in the absence of elastin, we find that rapalogs also prevent aortic fibrosis and stiffening attributable to partial elastin deficiency. Our findings suggest that mTOR-sensitive perturbation of smooth muscle cell mechanosensing contributes to elastin aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Mammalian target of rapamycin and Rictor control neutrophil chemotaxis by regulating Rac/Cdc42 activity and the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Li, Dong; Cook, Sara L.; Yoon, Mee-Sup; Kapoor, Ashish; Rao, Christopher V.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Chen, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis allows neutrophils to seek out sites of infection and inflammation. The asymmetric accumulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) at the leading edge provides the driving force for protrusion and is essential for the development and maintenance of neutrophil polarity. The mechanism that governs actin cytoskeleton dynamics and assembly in neutrophils has been extensively explored and is still not fully understood. By using neutrophil-like HL-60 cells, we describe a pivotal role for Rictor, a component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), in regulating assembly of the actin cytoskeleton during neutrophil chemotaxis. Depletion of mTOR and Rictor, but not Raptor, impairs actin polymerization, leading-edge establishment, and directional migration in neutrophils stimulated with chemoattractants. Of interest, depletion of mSin1, an integral component of mTORC2, causes no detectable defects in neutrophil polarity and chemotaxis. In addition, experiments with chemical inhibition and kinase-dead mutants indicate that mTOR kinase activity and AKT phosphorylation are dispensable for chemotaxis. Instead, our results suggest that the small Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42 serve as downstream effectors of Rictor to regulate actin assembly and organization in neutrophils. Together our findings reveal an mTORC2- and mTOR kinase–independent function and mechanism of Rictor in the regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis. PMID:24006489

  18. Combination of Rapamycin and Resveratrol for Treatment of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S; Schwartz, Naomi S; Berman, Adi Y; Wiener, Sara L; Holz, Marina K

    2017-02-01

    Loss of TSC1 function, a crucial negative regulator of mTOR signaling, is a common alteration in bladder cancer. Mutations in other members of the PI3K pathway, leading to mTOR activation, are also found in bladder cancer. This provides rationale for targeting mTOR for treatment of bladder cancer characterized by TSC1 mutations and/or mTOR activation. In this study, we asked whether combination treatment with rapamycin and resveratrol could be effective in concurrently inhibiting mTOR and PI3K signaling and inducing cell death in bladder cancer cells. In combination with rapamycin, resveratrol was able to block rapamycin-induced Akt activation, while maintaining mTOR pathway inhibition. In addition, combination treatment with rapamycin and resveratrol induced cell death specifically in TSC1(-/-) MEF cells, and not in wild-type MEFs. Similarly, resveratrol alone or in combination with rapamycin induced cell death in human bladder cancer cell lines. These data indicate that administration of resveratrol together with rapamycin may be a promising therapeutic option for treatment of bladder cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 436-446, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Expression of budding yeast FKBP12 confers rapamycin susceptibility to the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Ishiwata, Aiko; Watanabe, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kan

    2013-09-20

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) is serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved among eukaryotes and can be inactivated by the antibiotic rapamycin through the formation of a ternary complex composed of rapamycin and two proteins, TOR and FKBP12. Differing from fungi and animals, plant FKBP12 proteins are unable to form the ternary complex, and thus plant TORs are insensitive to rapamycin. This has led to a poor understanding of TOR functions in plants. As a first step toward the understanding of TOR function in a rapamycin-insensitive unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we constructed a rapamycin-susceptible strain in which the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKBP12 protein (ScFKBP12) was expressed. Treatment with rapamycin resulted in growth inhibition and decreased polysome formation in this strain. Binding of ScFKBP12 with C. merolae TOR in the presence of rapamycin was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro by pull-down experiments. Moreover, in vitro kinase assay showed that inhibition of C. merolae TOR kinase activity was dependent on ScFKBP12 and rapamycin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activation is required for the stimulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Jared M; Fry, Christopher S; Drummond, Micah J; Gundermann, David M; Walker, Dillon K; Glynn, Erin L; Timmerman, Kyle L; Dhanani, Shaheen; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein synthesis during instances of amino acid surplus in humans is based solely on correlational data. Therefore, the goal of this study was to use a mechanistic approach specifically designed to determine whether increased mTORC1 activation is requisite for the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis following L-essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion in humans. Examination of muscle protein synthesis and signaling were performed on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained from 8 young (25 ± 2 y) individuals who were studied prior to and following ingestion of 10 g of EAA during 2 separate trials in a randomized, counterbalanced design. The trials were identical except during 1 trial, participants were administered a single oral dose of a potent mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) prior to EAA ingestion. In response to EAA ingestion, an ~60% increase in muscle protein synthesis was observed during the control trial, concomitant with increased phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser(2448)), ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (Thr(389)), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (Thr(37/46)). In contrast, prior administration of rapamycin completely blocked the increase in muscle protein synthesis and blocked or attenuated activation of mTORC1-signaling proteins. The inhibition of muscle protein synthesis and signaling was not due to differences in either extracellular or intracellular amino acid availability, because these variables were similar between trials. These data support a fundamental role for mTORC1 activation as a key regulator of human muscle protein synthesis in response to increased EAA availability. This information will be useful in the development of evidence-based nutritional therapies targeting mTORC1 to counteract muscle wasting associated with numerous clinical conditions.

  1. Autophagy inhibition enhances colorectal cancer apoptosis induced by dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor NVP-BEZ235

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIAOYU; NIU, BINGXUAN; WANG, LIBO; CHEN, MEILING; KANG, XIAOCHUN; WANG, LUONAN; JI, YINGHUA; ZHONG, JIATENG

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway performs a central role in tumorigenesis and is constitutively activated in many malignancies. As a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor currently undergoing evaluation in a phase I/II clinical trial, NVP-BEZ235 indicates a significant antitumor efficacy in diverse solid tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Autophagy is a catabolic process that maintains cellular homeostasis and reduces diverse stresses through lysosomal recycling of the unnecessary and damaged cell components. This process is also observed to antagonize the antitumor efficacy of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor agents such as NVP-BEZ235, via apoptosis inhibition. In the present study, we investigated anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing ability of NVP-BEZ235 in SW480 cells and the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in SW480 cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 in combination with an autophagy inhibitor. The results revealed that, NVP-BEZ235 effectively inhibit the growth of SW480 cells by targeting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway and induced apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or chloroquine inhibitors in combination with NVP-BEZ235 in SW480 cells enhanced the apoptotic rate as componets to NVP-BEZ235 alone. In conclusion, the findings provide a rationale for chemotherapy targeting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway presenting a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in combination with an autophagy inhibitor in CRC treatment and treatment of other tumors. PMID:27347108

  2. Fucoidan inhibits the migration and proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathways.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-09-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of fucoidan as an anti‑cancer agent remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the anti‑cancer effect of fucoidan on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells. The cell growth of HT29 cells was significantly decreased following treatment with fucoidan (200 µg/ml). In addition, fucoidan inhibited the migration of HT‑29 cells by decreasing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 in a dose‑dependent manner (0‑200 µg/ml). The underlying mechanism of these inhibitory effects included the downregulation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by treatment with fucoidan. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the expression of cleaved caspase‑3 and decreased cancer sphere formation. The present study suggested that fucoidan exerts an anti‑cancer effect on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells by downregulating the PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential therapeutic reagent against the growth of human colon cancer cells.

  3. Rapamycin Prevents cyclophosphamide-induced Over-activation of Primordial Follicle pool through PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linyan; Xie, Yanqiu; Li, Song; Liang, Yihua; Qiu, Qi; Lin, Haiyan; Zhang, Qingxue

    2017-08-16

    Primordial follicular depletion has thought to be a common adverse effect of chemotherapy especially for female of reproductive age. The study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of rapamycin on the primordial follicles and its potential mechanism for patients receiving chemotherapy. 8-week old BALB/c female mice were randomly assigned into four groups (control; rapamycin; cyclophosphamide; and rapamycin combined with cyclophosphamide). Hematoxylin staining, immunohistochemical, TUNEL, western blotting and ELISA were employed to assess inter-group differences using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Cyclophosphamide depleted the follicular reserve and induced the phosphorylation of the key proteins of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with rapamycin significantly reduced primordial follicle loss at all cyclophosphamide dose groups and prevent the follicle growth wave caused by cyclophosphamide treatment (P < 0.05). TUNEL staining showed that no apoptosis occured in the primordial follicles in all groups and fewer apoptosis in large growing follicles were observed in ovaries from rapamycin + cyclophosphamide group compared to that received cyclophosphamide alone. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was significantly reduced in cyclophosphamide alone group, in contrast to the normal level in rapamycin + cyclophosphamide group. Compared to p-Akt/Akt and p-mtor/mtor, p-rps6/rps6 was significantly decreased in rapamycin + cyclophosphamide group (P < 0.05), indicating that rapamycin attenuated the increased level of phosphorylation of rpS6 after cyclophosphamide treatment. Rapamycin can prevent the primordial follicle activation induced by cyclophosphamide through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and thus plays a role in preserving the follicle pool. These results suggest that rapamycin may be an effective protection for ovarian function during chemotherapy, which means a new nonsurgical application for protection of

  4. Programmed Death-1 Inhibition of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Signaling Impairs Sarcoidosis CD4(+) T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Rotsinger, Joseph E; Young, Anjuli; Shaginurova, Guzel; Shelton, Debresha; Hawkins, Charlene; Drake, Wonder P

    2017-01-01

    Patients with progressive sarcoidosis exhibit increased expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on their CD4(+) T cells. Up-regulation of this marker of T cell exhaustion is associated with a reduction in the proliferative response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, a defect that is reversed by PD-1 pathway blockade. Genome-wide association studies and microarray analyses have correlated signaling downstream from the TCR with sarcoidosis disease severity, but the mechanism is not yet known. Reduced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT expression inhibits proliferation by inhibiting cell cycle progression. To test the hypothesis that PD-1 expression attenuates TCR-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT activity in progressive systemic sarcoidosis, we analyzed PI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression at baseline and after PD-1 pathway blockade in CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with sarcoidosis and healthy control subjects. We confirmed an increased percentage of PD-1(+) CD4(+) T cells and reduced proliferative capacity in patients with sarcoidosis compared with healthy control subjects (P < 0.001). There was a negative correlation with PD-1 expression and proliferative capacity (r = -0.70, P < 0.001). Expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression, including PI3K and AKT, were significantly decreased. Gene and protein expression levels reverted to healthy control levels after PD-1 pathway blockade. Reduction in sarcoidosis CD4(+) T cell proliferative capacity is secondary to altered expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression, including the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, via PD-1 up-regulation. This supports the concept that PD-1 up-regulation drives the immunologic deficits associated with sarcoidosis severity by inducing signaling aberrancies in key mediators of cell cycle progression.

  5. Rapamycin drives selection against a pathogenic heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying; Zheng, Kangni; Clark, Joanne; Swerdlow, Russell H; Pulst, Stefan M; Sutton, James P; Shinobu, Leslie A; Simon, David K

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause a variety of mitochondrial disorders for which effective treatments are lacking. Emerging data indicate that selective mitochondrial degradation through autophagy (mitophagy) plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity can activate mitophagy. To test the hypothesis that enhancing mitophagy would drive selection against dysfunctional mitochondria harboring higher levels of mutations, thereby decreasing mutation levels over time, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mutation levels in a human cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line expressing a heteroplasmic mtDNA G11778A mutation, the most common cause of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Inhibition of mTORC1/S6 kinase signaling by rapamycin induced colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosomes, and resulted in a striking progressive decrease in levels of the G11778A mutation and partial restoration of ATP levels. Rapamycin-induced upregulation of mitophagy was confirmed by electron microscopic evidence of increased autophagic vacuoles containing mitochondria-like organelles. The decreased mutational burden was not due to rapamycin-induced cell death or mtDNA depletion, as there was no significant difference in cytotoxicity/apoptosis or mtDNA copy number between rapamycin and vehicle-treated cells. These data demonstrate the potential for pharmacological inhibition of mTOR kinase activity to activate mitophagy as a strategy to drive selection against a heteroplasmic mtDNA G11778A mutation and raise the exciting possibility that rapamycin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders associated with heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations, although further studies are needed to determine if a similar strategy will be effective for other mutations and other cell types.

  6. Low Dose Rapamycin Exacerbates Autoimmune Experimental Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zili; Wu, Xiumei; Duan, Jie; Hinrichs, David; Wegmann, Keith; Zhang, Gary L.; Hall, Mark; Rosenbaum, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapamycin, a potent immune modulator, is used to treat transplant rejection and some autoimmune diseases. Uveitis is a potentially severe inflammatory eye disease, and 2 clinical trials of treating uveitis with rapamycin are under way. Unexpectedly, recent research has demonstrated that low dose rapamycin enhances the memory T cell population and function. However, it is unclear how low dose rapamycin influences the immune response in the setting of uveitis. Design and Methods B10.RIII mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Ocular inflammation of control and rapamycin-treated mice was compared based on histological change. ELISPOT and T cell proliferation assays were performed to assess splenocyte response to ocular antigen. In addition, we examined the effect of rapamycin on activation-induced cell death (AICD) using the MitoCapture assay and Annexin V staining. Results Administration of low dose rapamycin exacerbated EAU, whereas treating mice with high dose rapamycin attenuated ocular inflammation. The progression of EAU by low dose rapamycin coincided with the increased frequency of antigen-reactive lymphocytes. Lastly, fewer rapamycin-treated T cells underwent AICD, which might contribute to exaggerated ocular inflammation and the uveitogenic immune response. Conclusion These data reveal a paradoxical role for rapamycin in uveitis in a dose-dependent manner. This study has a potentially important clinical implication as rapamycin might cause unwanted consequences dependent on dosing and pharmacokinetics. Thus, more research is needed to further define the mechanism by which low dose rapamycin augments the immune response. PMID:22574188

  7. Tomato FK506 Binding Protein 12KD (FKBP12) Mediates the Interaction between Rapamycin and Target of Rapamycin (TOR).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangjie; Dong, Pan; Liu, Mei; Xie, Gengxin; Wang, Kai; Zhuo, Fengping; Feng, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling is an important regulator in multiple organisms including yeast, plants, and animals. However, the TOR signaling in plants is much less understood as compared to that in yeast and animals. TOR kinase can be efficiently suppressed by rapamycin in the presence of functional FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) in yeast and animals. In most examined higher plants rapamycin fails to inhibit TOR kinase due to the non-functional FKBP12. Here we find that tomato plants showed obvious growth inhibition when treated with rapamycin and the inhibitory phenotype is similar to suppression of TOR causing by active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) such as KU63794, AZD8055, and Torin1. The chemical genetic assays using TOR inhibitors and heterologous expressing SlFKBP12 in Arabidopsis indicated that the TOR signaling is functional in tomato. The protein gel shifting and TOR inhibitors combination assays showed that SlFKBP12 can mediate the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. Furthermore, comparative expression profile analysis between treatments with rapamycin and KU63794 identified highly overlapped Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) which are involved in many anabolic and catabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, cell wall restructuring, and senescence in tomato. These observations suggest that SlFFBP12 is functional in tomato. The results provided basic information of TOR signaling in tomato, and also some new insights into how TOR controls plant growth and development through reprogramming the transcription profiles.

  8. Tomato FK506 Binding Protein 12KD (FKBP12) Mediates the Interaction between Rapamycin and Target of Rapamycin (TOR)

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fangjie; Dong, Pan; Liu, Mei; Xie, Gengxin; Wang, Kai; Zhuo, Fengping; Feng, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling is an important regulator in multiple organisms including yeast, plants, and animals. However, the TOR signaling in plants is much less understood as compared to that in yeast and animals. TOR kinase can be efficiently suppressed by rapamycin in the presence of functional FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) in yeast and animals. In most examined higher plants rapamycin fails to inhibit TOR kinase due to the non-functional FKBP12. Here we find that tomato plants showed obvious growth inhibition when treated with rapamycin and the inhibitory phenotype is similar to suppression of TOR causing by active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) such as KU63794, AZD8055, and Torin1. The chemical genetic assays using TOR inhibitors and heterologous expressing SlFKBP12 in Arabidopsis indicated that the TOR signaling is functional in tomato. The protein gel shifting and TOR inhibitors combination assays showed that SlFKBP12 can mediate the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. Furthermore, comparative expression profile analysis between treatments with rapamycin and KU63794 identified highly overlapped Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) which are involved in many anabolic and catabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, cell wall restructuring, and senescence in tomato. These observations suggest that SlFFBP12 is functional in tomato. The results provided basic information of TOR signaling in tomato, and also some new insights into how TOR controls plant growth and development through reprogramming the transcription profiles. PMID:27917191

  9. Cardiac energy dependence on glucose increases metabolites related to glutathione and activates metabolic genes controlled by mechanistic target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Schisler, Jonathan C; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Pascual, Florencia; Cooper, Daniel E; Ellis, Jessica M; Paul, David S; Willis, Monte S; Patterson, Cam; Jia, Wei; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-02-24

    Long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) catalyze long-chain fatty acids (FA) conversion to acyl-CoAs. Temporal ACSL1 inactivation in mouse hearts (Acsl1(H-/-)) impaired FA oxidation and dramatically increased glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and mTOR activation, resulting in cardiac hypertrophy. We used unbiased metabolomics and gene expression analyses to elucidate the cardiac cellular response to increased glucose use in a genetic model of inactivated FA oxidation. Metabolomics analysis identified 60 metabolites altered in Acsl1(H-/-) hearts, including 6 related to glucose metabolism and 11 to cysteine and glutathione pathways. Concurrently, global cardiac transcriptional analysis revealed differential expression of 568 genes in Acsl1(H-/-) hearts, a subset of which we hypothesized were targets of mTOR; subsequently, we measured the transcriptional response of several genes after chronic mTOR inhibition via rapamycin treatment during the period in which cardiac hypertrophy develops. Hearts from Acsl1(H-/-) mice increased expression of several Hif1α-responsive glycolytic genes regulated by mTOR; additionally, expression of Scl7a5, Gsta1/2, Gdf15, and amino acid-responsive genes, Fgf21, Asns, Trib3, Mthfd2, were strikingly increased by mTOR activation. The switch from FA to glucose use causes mTOR-dependent alterations in cardiac metabolism. We identified cardiac mTOR-regulated genes not previously identified in other cellular models, suggesting heart-specific mTOR signaling. Increased glucose use also changed glutathione-related pathways and compensation by mTOR. The hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and metabolic changes that occur within the heart when glucose supplants FA as a major energy source suggest that substrate switching to glucose is not entirely benign. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Cardiac Energy Dependence on Glucose Increases Metabolites Related to Glutathione and Activates Metabolic Genes Controlled by Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Schisler, Jonathan C.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Pascual, Florencia; Cooper, Daniel E.; Ellis, Jessica M.; Paul, David S.; Willis, Monte S.; Patterson, Cam; Jia, Wei; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long chain acyl‐CoA synthetases (ACSL) catalyze long‐chain fatty acids (FA) conversion to acyl‐CoAs. Temporal ACSL1 inactivation in mouse hearts (Acsl1H−/−) impaired FA oxidation and dramatically increased glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and mTOR activation, resulting in cardiac hypertrophy. We used unbiased metabolomics and gene expression analyses to elucidate the cardiac cellular response to increased glucose use in a genetic model of inactivated FA oxidation. Methods and Results Metabolomics analysis identified 60 metabolites altered in Acsl1H−/− hearts, including 6 related to glucose metabolism and 11 to cysteine and glutathione pathways. Concurrently, global cardiac transcriptional analysis revealed differential expression of 568 genes in Acsl1H−/− hearts, a subset of which we hypothesized were targets of mTOR; subsequently, we measured the transcriptional response of several genes after chronic mTOR inhibition via rapamycin treatment during the period in which cardiac hypertrophy develops. Hearts from Acsl1H−/− mice increased expression of several Hif1α‐responsive glycolytic genes regulated by mTOR; additionally, expression of Scl7a5, Gsta1/2, Gdf15, and amino acid‐responsive genes, Fgf21, Asns, Trib3, Mthfd2, were strikingly increased by mTOR activation. Conclusions The switch from FA to glucose use causes mTOR‐dependent alterations in cardiac metabolism. We identified cardiac mTOR‐regulated genes not previously identified in other cellular models, suggesting heart‐specific mTOR signaling. Increased glucose use also changed glutathione‐related pathways and compensation by mTOR. The hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and metabolic changes that occur within the heart when glucose supplants FA as a major energy source suggest that substrate switching to glucose is not entirely benign. PMID:25713290

  11. Divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network of old mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Dodds, Sherry G; Strong, Randy; Galvan, Veronica; Sharp, Z D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24 mg/kg (14 ppm) rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome.

  12. Divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network of old mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Dodds, Sherry G.; Strong, Randy; Galvan, Veronica; Sharp, Z. D.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24 mg/kg (14 ppm) rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome. PMID:25414638

  13. The mammalian target of rapamycin modulates the immunoproteasome system in the heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Fu, Jianliang; Hamilton, Ryan; Diaz, Vivian; Zhang, Yiqiang

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in cardiac development and function. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin has been shown to attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophy and improve the function of aging heart, accompanied by an inhibition of the cardiac proteasome activity. The current study aimed to determine the potential mechanism(s) by which mTOR inhibition modulates cardiac proteasome. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin was found to reduce primarily the immunoproteasome in both H9c2 cells in vitro and mouse heart in vivo, without significant effect on the constitutive proteasome and protein ubiquitination. Concurrent with the reduction of the immunoproteasome, rapamycin reduced two important inflammatory response pathways, the NF-κB and Stat3 signaling. In addition, rapamycin attenuated the induction of the immunoproteasome in H9c2 cells by inflammatory cytokines, including INFγ and TNFα, by suppressing NF-κB signaling. These data indicate that rapamycin indirectly modulated immunoproteasome through the suppression of inflammatory response pathways. Lastly, the role of the immunoproteasome during the development of cardiac hypertrophy was investigated. Administration of a specific inhibitor of the immunoproteasome ONX 0914 attenuated isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that the immunoproteasome may be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and therefore could be a therapeutic target. In conclusion, rapamycin inhibits the immunoproteasome through its effect on the inflammatory signaling pathways and the immunoproteasome could be a potential therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. TGF-β/Smad3 activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 to promote collagen production by increasing HIF-1α expression

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Tomoko; Hubchak, Susan C.; Hanna, Christian; Platanias, Leonidas C.; William Schnaper, H.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a major mediator of kidney fibrosis. In the past decade it was recognized that, besides canonical Smad signaling, many other signaling pathways participate in the process of TGF-β-induced fibrogenesis. One such pathway involves mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1. We recently reported that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is essential for TGF-β-induced collagen expression regardless of ambient oxygen tension. A modulator of HIF expression other than oxygen tension is mTORC1. We therefore sought to evaluate a possible role for mTORC1 activity in TGF-β-induced fibrogenesis. mTORC1 activity was increased in human mesangial cells treated with TGF-β in a TGF-β receptor-dependent manner. Short hairpin (sh)RNA to Smad3 decreased, while overexpression of Smad3 increased, the mTORC1 activity, suggesting that TGF-β stimulation of mTORC1 also requires Smad3. Pretreatment with rapamycin or shRNA for a regulatory molecule of mTORC1, Raptor, reduced TGF-β-induced COL1A2-luc activity and collagen I protein expression. mTORC1 inhibition also prevented the TGF-β-stimulated increase in both hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) activity and HIF-1α protein expression, while activation of mTORC1 by active Rheb increased basal but not TGF-β-induced HRE activity. shRNA to Smad3 reduced HRE activity, while overexpression of Smad3 increased HIF-1α protein expression and activity in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Lastly, overexpression of HIF-1α bypassed the inhibitory effect of mTORC1 blockade on collagen expression. These results suggest that Smad3/mTORC1 interaction to promote HIF-1 expression is a key step in normoxic kidney fibrogenesis. PMID:23761672

  15. TGF-β/Smad3 activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 to promote collagen production by increasing HIF-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Rozen-Zvi, Benaya; Hayashida, Tomoko; Hubchak, Susan C; Hanna, Christian; Platanias, Leonidas C; Schnaper, H William

    2013-08-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a major mediator of kidney fibrosis. In the past decade it was recognized that, besides canonical Smad signaling, many other signaling pathways participate in the process of TGF-β-induced fibrogenesis. One such pathway involves mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1. We recently reported that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is essential for TGF-β-induced collagen expression regardless of ambient oxygen tension. A modulator of HIF expression other than oxygen tension is mTORC1. We therefore sought to evaluate a possible role for mTORC1 activity in TGF-β-induced fibrogenesis. mTORC1 activity was increased in human mesangial cells treated with TGF-β in a TGF-β receptor-dependent manner. Short hairpin (sh)RNA to Smad3 decreased, while overexpression of Smad3 increased, the mTORC1 activity, suggesting that TGF-β stimulation of mTORC1 also requires Smad3. Pretreatment with rapamycin or shRNA for a regulatory molecule of mTORC1, Raptor, reduced TGF-β-induced COL1A2-luc activity and collagen I protein expression. mTORC1 inhibition also prevented the TGF-β-stimulated increase in both hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) activity and HIF-1α protein expression, while activation of mTORC1 by active Rheb increased basal but not TGF-β-induced HRE activity. shRNA to Smad3 reduced HRE activity, while overexpression of Smad3 increased HIF-1α protein expression and activity in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Lastly, overexpression of HIF-1α bypassed the inhibitory effect of mTORC1 blockade on collagen expression. These results suggest that Smad3/mTORC1 interaction to promote HIF-1 expression is a key step in normoxic kidney fibrogenesis.

  16. Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Neuman, Joshua C; Baar, Emma L; Syed, Faizan A; Cummings, Nicole E; Brar, Harpreet K; Pumper, Cassidy P; Kimple, Michelle E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by the FDA-approved drug rapamycin has been shown to promote lifespan and delay age-related diseases in model organisms including mice. Unfortunately, rapamycin has potentially serious side effects in humans, including glucose intolerance and immunosuppression, which may preclude the long-term prophylactic use of rapamycin as a therapy for age-related diseases. While the beneficial effects of rapamycin are largely mediated by the inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), which is acutely sensitive to rapamycin, many of the negative side effects are mediated by the inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTORC2, which is much less sensitive to rapamycin. We hypothesized that different rapamycin dosing schedules or the use of FDA-approved rapamycin analogs with different pharmacokinetics might expand the therapeutic window of rapamycin by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Here, we identified an intermittent rapamycin dosing schedule with minimal effects on glucose tolerance, and we find that this schedule has a reduced impact on pyruvate tolerance, fasting glucose and insulin levels, beta cell function, and the immune system compared to daily rapamycin treatment. Further, we find that the FDA-approved rapamycin analogs everolimus and temsirolimus efficiently inhibit mTORC1 while having a reduced impact on glucose and pyruvate tolerance. Our results suggest that many of the negative side effects of rapamycin treatment can be mitigated through intermittent dosing or the use of rapamycin analogs.

  17. Cyclosporine A and Rapamycin induce in vitro cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, and suppress lipoprotein lipase activity in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Tory, Rita; Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Hill, John S; Wasan, Kishor M

    2008-06-24

    Cyclosporine A (CsA), Rapamycin (RAPA), Tacrolimus (FK-506) and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are immunosuppressants that are widely used in solid organ transplant patients. However, some of these drugs have been reported to cause dyslipidemia in patients. Our aim was to determine the effects of these drugs on in vitro cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity within human plasma. We measured CETP activity in human normolipidemic plasma with and without drug treatment, by measuring the incorporation of labeled cholesteryl ester into lipoproteins. To further confirm the result, we also measured recombinant CETP (rCETP) activity with and without drug treatment. We measured HL and LPL activity in post-heparin normal human plasma in the presence and absence of the drugs by measuring the release of fatty acids from radiolabeled triolein. We found an increase in CETP activity in human normolipidemic plasma and rCETP treated with CsA and RAPA. By contrast, CETP activity was not altered significantly in the presence of FK-506 and MMF. LPL activity in post-heparin normal human plasma was suppressed following the co-incubation with CsA, RAPA, FK-506 or MMF whereas HL activity remained unaffected. The increase in CETP activity and suppression in LPL activity following CsA and RAPA treatment observed in the present study may be associated with elevated LDL cholesterol levels and hypertriglyceridemia seen in patients administered these drugs.

  18. Long-Term Alcohol-Induced Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin is a Key Risk Factor of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoling; Guo, Zhe; Gao, Chang; Chu, Qinying; Li, Jianhua; Ma, Hongying; Shu, Gangming

    2016-10-25

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key epileptogenic mechanism in the development of alcohol-related seizure. MATERIAL AND METHODS C57BL/6 mice were administered 10% ethanol in drinking water for 9 weeks. Video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring was then used to assess seizure frequency after alcohol and rapamycin treatment. In addition, mouse neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells were treated ethanol for 3 days and subsequently treated with AKT inhibitor LY294002 for 2-12 h. The in vitro kinase assay was performed for determining mTOR activity. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of P-AKT, P-S6K, and P-S6. RESULTS Long-term ethanol treatment markedly increased the seizure frequency of C57/BL6 mice over time. Moreover, ethanol treatment increased the expression level of P-S6 over time. Ethanol-induced seizure can be reversed by rapamycin. In addition, the in vitro kinase assay showed mTOR activity was activated by ethanol. Compared with NG108-15 cells treated without both ethanol and LY294002, ethanol increased the expression level of P-AKT, P-S6K, and P-S6, whereas LY294002 had opposite effects on expression levels of these proteins. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that long-term alcohol intake increases the risk of epilepsy via activation of mTOR signaling. Moreover, ethanol-induced mTOR activation may be dependent on the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. The key molecules involved in AKT-mTOR signaling pathway may serve as potential targets in the treatment of epilepsy.

  19. Activation of the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin in SLE: Explosion of Evidence in the Last Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Zachary; Winans, Thomas; Huang, Nick; Banki, Katalin; Perl, Andras

    2017-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator in cell growth, activation, proliferation, and survival. Activation of the mTOR pathway underlies the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While mTOR activation and its therapeutic reversal were originally discovered in T cells, recent investigations have also uncovered roles in other cell subsets including B cells, macrophages, and “non-immune” organs such as the liver and the kidney. Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) precedes the onset of SLE and associated co-morbidities, such as anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), and may act as an early marker of disease pathogenesis. Six case reports have now been published that document the development of SLE in patients with genetic activation of mTORC1. Targeting mTORC1 over-activation with N-acetylcysteine, rapamycin, and rapalogs provides an opportunity to supplant current therapies with severe side effect profiles such as prednisone or cyclophosphamide. In the present review, we will discuss the recent explosion of findings in support for a central role for mTOR activation in SLE. PMID:27812954

  20. Ras pathway activation in hepatocellular carcinoma and anti-tumoral effect of combined sorafenib and rapamycin in vivo☆

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Pippa; Toffanin, Sara; Villanueva, Augusto; Chiang, Derek Y.; Minguez, Beatriz; Cabellos, Laia; Savic, Radoslav; Hoshida, Yujin; Lim, Kiat Hon; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Yea, Steven; Peix, Judit; Deniz, Kemal; Fiel, M. Isabel; Thung, Swan; Alsinet, Clara; Tovar, Victoria; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Bruix, Jordi; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The success of sorafenib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has focused interest on the role of Ras signaling in this malignancy. We investigated the molecular alterations of the Ras pathway in HCC and the antineoplastic effects of sorafenib in combination with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, in experimental models. Methods Gene expression (qRT-PCR, oligonucleotide microarray), DNA copy number changes (SNP-array), methylation of tumor suppressor genes (methylation-specific PCR) and protein activation (immunohistochemistry) were analysed in 351 samples. Anti-tumoral effects of combined therapy targeting the Ras and mTOR pathways were evaluated in cell lines and HCC xenografts. Results Different mechanisms accounted for Ras pathway activation in HCC. H-ras was up-regulated during different steps of hepatocarcinogenesis. B-raf was overexpressed in advanced tumors and its expression was associated with genomic amplification. Partial methylation of RASSF1A and NORE1A was detected in 89% and 44% of tumors respectively, and complete methylation was found in 11 and 4% of HCCs. Activation of the pathway (pERK immunostaining) was identified in 10.3% of HCC. Blockade of Ras and mTOR pathways with sorafenib and rapamycin reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in cell lines. In vivo, the combination of both compounds enhanced tumor necrosis and ulceration when compared with sorafenib alone. Conclusions Ras activation results from several molecular alterations, such as methylation of tumor suppressors and amplification of oncogenes (B-raf). Sorafenib blocks signaling and synergizes with rapamycin in vivo, preventing tumor progression. These data provide the rationale for testing this combination in clinical studies. PMID:19665249

  1. Curcumin Attenuates Rapamycin-induced Cell Injury of Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Chen, Fangyuan; Zhou, Juan; Fang, Yuan; Li, Hongbing; Luo, Yongbai; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Although drug-eluting stents (DES) effectively improve the clinical efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention, a high risk of late stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis also exists after DES implantation. Anti-smooth muscle proliferation drugs, such as rapamycin, coating stents, not only inhibit the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells but also inhibit vascular endothelial cells and delay the reendothelialization. Therefore, the development of an ideal agent that protects vascular endothelial cells from rapamycin-eluting stents is of great importance for the next generation of DES. In this study, we demonstrated that rapamycin significantly inhibited the growth of rat aortic endothelial cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Cell apoptosis was increased and migration was decreased by rapamycin treatments in rat aortic endothelial cells in vitro. Surprisingly, treatment with curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, significantly reversed these detrimental effects of rapamycin. Moreover, curcumin increased the expression of vascular nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), which was decreased by rapamycin. Furthermore, caveolin-1, the inhibitor of eNOS, was decreased by curcumin. Knockdown of eNOS by small interfering RNA significantly abrogated the protective effects of curcumin. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin antagonizes the detrimental effect of rapamycin on aortic endothelial cells in vitro through upregulating eNOS. Therefore, curcumin is a promising combined agent for the rescue of DES-induced reendothelialization delay.

  2. Rapamycin regulates biochemical metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Paola; Porta, Giovanni; Agostini, Massimiliano; Antonov, Alexey; Garabadgiu, Alexander Vasilievich; Melino, Gerry; Willis, Anne E

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a master regulator of protein synthesis that couples nutrient sensing to cell growth, and deregulation of this pathway is associated with tumorigenesis. p53, and its less investigated family member p73, have been shown to interact closely with mTOR pathways through the transcriptional regulation of different target genes. To investigate the metabolic changes that occur upon inhibition of the mTOR pathway and the role of p73 in this response primary mouse embryonic fibroblast from control and TAp73−/− were treated with the macrocyclic lactone rapamycin. Extensive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis were used to obtain a rapamycin-dependent global metabolome profile from control or TAp73−/− cells. In total 289 metabolites involved in selective pathways were identified; 39 biochemical metabolites were found to be significantly altered, many of which are known to be associated with the cellular stress response. PMID:23839040

  3. Calcium/calmodulin kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressant macrolides rapamycin and FK506 inhibit progestin- and glucocorticosteroid receptor-mediated transcription in human breast cancer T47D cells.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan, S; Marsaud, V; Mercier-Bodard, C; Baulieu, E E; Mader, S; White, J H; Renoir, J M

    1998-07-01

    The effects of immunosuppressants and inhibitors of specific calcium/calmodulin kinase (CaMK) of types II and IV on progestin/glucocorticosteroid-induced transcription were studied in two human stably transfected breast cancer T47D cell lines. The lines contain the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene under control either of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (T47D-MMTV-CAT), or the minimal promoter containing five glucocorticosteroid/progestin hormone response elements [T47D-(GRE)5-CAT]. Progestin- and triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-induced CAT gene expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in both lines by preincubation with rapamycin (Rap) and, to a lesser extent, with FK506, but not with cyclosporin A. CaMK II and/or IV inhibitors KN62 and KN93 also inhibited progestin- and TA-stimulated transcription in both lines. None of these drugs had any effect on basal transcription. The antagonist RU486 inhibited all the effects of both progestin and TA, suggesting that progesterone receptor (PR)-, as well as glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR)- mediated transactivation are targets of immunosuppressants and CaMKs in T47D cells. Indeed, Northern analysis showed that Rap, KN62, and, to a lesser degree, FK506 inhibited progestin stimulation of Cyclin D1 mRNA levels, but not those of the non-steroid-regulated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene. Addition of Rap or KN62 after exposure of cells to progesterone agonist Org 2058 had no effect on induction of CAT activity. Taken together, these data indicate that Rap and FK506, as well as CaMK inhibitors, inhibit steroid-induced activities of exogenous, as well as of some endogenous, steroid receptor-regulated genes by a mechanism preceding hormone-induced receptor activation. Rap appeared to stabilize a 9S form of [3H]Org 2058-PR complexes isolated from T47D (GRE)5CAT cell nuclei. By contrast, the progesterone receptor (PR) was isolated from cells treated with KN62 as a 5S entity

  4. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is crucial for joint destruction in experimental arthritis and is activated in osteoclasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Daniel; Hayer, Silvia; Niederreiter, Birgit; Sieghart, Wolfgang; Fuereder, Thorsten; Zwerina, Jochen; Schett, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important for immune cell activation and bone metabolism. To date, the contribution of mTOR signaling to joint inflammation and structural bone and cartilage damage is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of inhibiting mTOR as a treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Human tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mice in which inflammatory arthritis was developing were treated with 2 different mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus or everolimus. The effects of treatment on clinical disease activity, inflammation, and localized joint and cartilage destruction were studied. In addition, the effects of mTOR inhibition on osteoclast survival and expression of key molecules of osteoclast function were analyzed in vitro. Moreover, synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was assessed for activation of the mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR by sirolimus or everolimus reduced synovial osteoclast formation and protected against local bone erosions and cartilage loss. Clinical signs of arthritis improved after mTOR inhibition, and histologic evaluation showed a decrease in synovitis. In vitro, mTOR inhibition down-regulated the expression of digestive enzymes and led to osteoclast apoptosis. Moreover, mTOR signaling was shown to be active in the synovial membrane of patients with RA, particularly in synovial osteoclasts. Signaling through mTOR is an important link between synovitis and structural damage in inflammatory arthritis. Current pharmacologic inhibitors of mTOR could be effective in protecting joints against structural damage.

  5. Structure-Activity Analysis of Niclosamide Reveals Potential Role for Cytoplasmic pH in Control of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Bruno D.; Diering, Graham H.; Bidinosti, Michael A.; Dalal, Kush; Alain, Tommy; Balgi, Aruna D.; Forestieri, Roberto; Nodwell, Matt; Rajadurai, Charles V.; Gunaratnam, Cynthia; Tee, Andrew R.; Duong, Franck; Andersen, Raymond J.; Orlowski, John; Numata, Masayuki; Sonenberg, Nahum; Roberge, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Inhibition of mTORC1 is thus regarded as a promising strategy in the treatment of tumors with elevated mTORC1 activity. We have recently identified niclosamide (a Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelminthic drug) as an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling. In the present study, we explored possible mechanisms by which niclosamide may inhibit mTORC1 signaling. We tested whether niclosamide interferes with signaling cascades upstream of mTORC1, the catalytic activity of mTOR, or mTORC1 assembly. We found that niclosamide does not impair PI3K/Akt signaling, nor does it inhibit mTORC1 kinase activity. We also found that niclosamide does not interfere with mTORC1 assembly. Previous studies in helminths suggest that niclosamide disrupts pH homeostasis of the parasite. This prompted us to investigate whether niclosamide affects the pH balance of cancer cells. Experiments in both breast cancer cells and cell-free systems demonstrated that niclosamide possesses protonophoric activity in cells and in vitro. In cells, niclosamide dissipated protons (down their concentration gradient) from lysosomes to the cytosol, effectively lowering cytoplasmic pH. Notably, analysis of five niclosamide analogs revealed that the structural features of niclosamide required for protonophoric activity are also essential for mTORC1 inhibition. Furthermore, lowering cytoplasmic pH by means other than niclosamide treatment (e.g. incubation with propionic acid or bicarbonate withdrawal) recapitulated the inhibitory effects of niclosamide on mTORC1 signaling, lending support to a possible role for cytoplasmic pH in the control of mTORC1. Our data illustrate a potential mechanism for chemical inhibition of mTORC1 signaling involving modulation of cytoplasmic pH. PMID:22474287

  6. Activation of Autophagic Flux against Xenoestrogen Bisphenol-A-induced Hippocampal Neurodegeneration via AMP kinase (AMPK)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Yadav, Anuradha; Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Tripathi, Anurag; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Ratan Singh; Shukla, Shubha; Parmar, Devendra; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The human health hazards related to persisting use of bisphenol-A (BPA) are well documented. BPA-induced neurotoxicity occurs with the generation of oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and cognitive dysfunctions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) of the effects of BPA on autophagy and association with oxidative stress and apoptosis are still elusive. We observed that BPA exposure during the early postnatal period enhanced the expression and the levels of autophagy genes/proteins. BPA treatment in the presence of bafilomycin A1 increased the levels of LC3-II and SQSTM1 and also potentiated GFP-LC3 puncta index in GFP-LC3-transfected hippocampal neural stem cell-derived neurons. BPA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis were mitigated by a pharmacological activator of autophagy (rapamycin). Pharmacological (wortmannin and bafilomycin A1) and genetic (beclin siRNA) inhibition of autophagy aggravated BPA neurotoxicity. Activation of autophagy against BPA resulted in intracellular energy sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) activation, increased phosphorylation of raptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and decreased phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser-757), and silencing of AMPK exacerbated BPA neurotoxicity. Conversely, BPA exposure down-regulated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by phosphorylation of raptor as a transient cell's compensatory mechanism to preserve cellular energy pool. Moreover, silencing of mTOR enhanced autophagy, which further alleviated BPA-induced reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis. BPA-mediated neurotoxicity also resulted in mitochondrial loss, bioenergetic deficits, and increased PARKIN mitochondrial translocation, suggesting enhanced mitophagy. These results suggest implication of autophagy against BPA-mediated neurodegeneration through involvement of AMPK and mTOR pathways. Hence, autophagy, which arbitrates cell survival and demise during stress conditions, requires further assessment to be

  7. Acute systemic rapamycin induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Doenlen, Raphael; Krügel, Ute; Bösche, Katharina; Orlowski, Kathrin; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-10-15

    Rapamycin is a drug with antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties, widely used for prevention of acute graft rejection and cancer therapy. It specifically inhibits the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase known to play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and antibody production. Clinical observations show that patients undergoing therapy with immunosuppressive drugs frequently suffer from affective disorders such as anxiety or depression. However, whether these symptoms are attributed to the action of the distinct compounds remains rather elusive. The present study investigated in rats neurobehavioral consequences of acute rapamycin treatment. Systemic administration of a single low dose rapamycin (3mg/kg) led to enhanced neuronal activity in the amygdala analyzed by intracerebral electroencephalography and FOS protein expression 90min after drug injection. Moreover, behavioral investigations revealed a rapamycin-induced increase in anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field. The behavioral alterations correlated to enhanced amygdaloid expression of KLK8 and FKBP51, proteins that have been implicated in the development of anxiety and depression. Together, these results demonstrate that acute blockade of mTOR signaling by acute rapamycin administration not only causes changes in neuronal activity, but also leads to elevated protein expression in protein kinase pathways others than mTOR, contributing to the development of anxiety-like behavior. Given the pivotal role of the amygdala in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions, our findings raise the question whether therapy with rapamycin may induce alterations in patients neuropsychological functioning.

  8. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres.

    PubMed

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-02-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic therapy, we administered rapamycin-loaded microspheres under the kidney capsule of ureter-obstructed rats and assessed the local antifibrotic effects and systemic side effects of rapamycin. After 7 days, microsphere depots were easily identifiable under the kidney capsule. Both systemic and local rapamycin treatment reduced intrarenal mTOR activity, myofibroblast accumulation, expression of fibrotic genes, and T-lymphocyte infiltration. Upon local treatment, inhibition of mTOR activity and reduction of myofibroblast accumulation were limited to the immediate vicinity of the subcapsular pocket, while reduction of T-cell infiltration was widespread. In contrast to systemically administered rapamycin, local treatment did not induce off target effects such as weight loss. Thus subcapsular delivery of rapamycin-loaded microspheres successfully inhibited local fibrotic response in UUO with less systemic effects. Therapeutic effect of released rapamycin was most prominent in close vicinity to the implanted microspheres.

  9. Diosmetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by regulating autophagy via the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Ren, Hao; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Mingyi; Zhu, Runzhi

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a type of malignant tumor, is the fifth most common cancer in men and ninth in women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effect of diosmetin (DIOS) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy rates of HepG2 cells were measured following treatment with DIOS. The effects of DIOS treatment on HepG2 cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were analyzed using MTT assays and Annexin V staining, respectively. The effect of DIOS treatment on autophagy levels was assessed using transmission electron microscopy, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC3) transfection and LysoTracker Red staining. Furthermore, bafilomycin A1 (BA1), an autophagy inhibitor, was used to assess the association between DIOS and cell autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70S6K, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt] and apoptosis-related proteins [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein, Bak, p53, Bcl-2 and caspase-3] were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that DIOS significantly inhibited proliferation (P<0.01) and induced apoptosis (P<0.001) in HepG2 cells. It was also demonstrated that DIOS triggered autophagy by regulating the mTOR pathway in HepG2 cells. Notably, following treatment of HepG2 cells with the autophagy inhibitor, BA1, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bak and p53, were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and cell viability was recovered to a certain extent. In conclusion, DIOS inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via regulation of the mTOR pathway. Thus, the results of the current study indicate that DIOS may present a potential therapeutic agent

  10. Diosmetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by regulating autophagy via the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Ren, Hao; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Mingyi; Zhu, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a type of malignant tumor, is the fifth most common cancer in men and ninth in women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effect of diosmetin (DIOS) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy rates of HepG2 cells were measured following treatment with DIOS. The effects of DIOS treatment on HepG2 cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were analyzed using MTT assays and Annexin V staining, respectively. The effect of DIOS treatment on autophagy levels was assessed using transmission electron microscopy, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC3) transfection and LysoTracker Red staining. Furthermore, bafilomycin A1 (BA1), an autophagy inhibitor, was used to assess the association between DIOS and cell autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70S6K, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt] and apoptosis-related proteins [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein, Bak, p53, Bcl-2 and caspase-3] were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that DIOS significantly inhibited proliferation (P<0.01) and induced apoptosis (P<0.001) in HepG2 cells. It was also demonstrated that DIOS triggered autophagy by regulating the mTOR pathway in HepG2 cells. Notably, following treatment of HepG2 cells with the autophagy inhibitor, BA1, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bak and p53, were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and cell viability was recovered to a certain extent. In conclusion, DIOS inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via regulation of the mTOR pathway. Thus, the results of the current study indicate that DIOS may present a potential therapeutic

  11. Rapamycin Effectively Impedes Melamine-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Yu, Mei; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated that autophagy significantly reduced melamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. In the present study, we further examine if rapamycin, used as an autophagy activator, can play a significant role in protecting neurons and alleviating the impairment of spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in melamine-treated rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, melamine-treated, and melamine-treated + rapamycin. The animal model was established by administering melamine at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally given at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The Morris water maze test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in melamine-treated rats were considerably damaged, whereas rapamycin significantly impeded the cognitive function impairment. Rapamycin efficiently alleviated the melamine-induced impairments of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation, which were damaged in melamine rats. Rapamycin further increased the expression level of autophagy markers, which were significantly enhanced in melamine rats. Moreover, rapamycin noticeably decreased the reactive oxygen species level, while the superoxide dismutase activity was remarkably increased by rapamycin in melamine rats. Malondialdehyde assay exhibited that rapamycin prominently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) level of hippocampal neurons in melamine-treated rats. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity, which was elevated by melamine. Consequently, our results suggest that regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine.

  12. Activity of the novel dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Francesca; Grimaldi, Cecilia; Ricci, Francesca; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Evangelisti, Camilla; Ognibene, Andrea; Battistelli, Michela; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; McCubrey, James A; Martelli, Alberto M

    2010-10-15

    Recent findings have highlighted that constitutively active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it upregulates cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. These observations lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in the therapy of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, an orally bioavailable imidazoquinoline derivative, which has entered clinical trials for solid tumors, on both T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. NVP-BEZ235 was cytotoxic to a panel of T-ALL cell lines as determined by MTT assays. NVP-BEZ235 treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blots showed a dose- and time-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and mTORC1 downstream targets in response to NVP-BEZ235. Remarkably, NVP-BEZ235 targeted the side population of both T-ALL cell lines and patient lymphoblasts, which might correspond to leukemia-initiating cells, and synergized with chemotherapeutic agents (cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dexamethasone) currently used for treating T-ALL patients. NVP-BEZ235 reduced chemoresistance to vincristine induced in Jurkat cells by coculturing with MS-5 stromal cells, which mimic the bone marrow microenvironment. NVP-BEZ235 was cytotoxic to T-ALL patient lymphoblasts displaying pathway activation, where the drug dephosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, at variance with rapamycin. Taken together, our findings indicate that longitudinal inhibition at two nodes of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR network with NVP-BEZ235, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, may be an efficient treatment of those T-ALLs that have aberrant upregulation of this signaling pathway for their proliferation and survival. ©2010 AACR.

  13. Combination Testing (Stage 2) of Rapamycin with Cytotoxic agents by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Peter J.; Morton, Christopher L.; Gorlick, Richard; Lock, Richard B.; Carol, Hernan; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Kang, Min H.; Maris, John M.; Keir, Stephen T.; Kolb, E. Anders; Wu, Jianrong; Wozniak, Amy W.; Billups, Catherine A.; Rubinstein, Larry; Smith, Malcolm A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Rapamycin demonstrated broad-spectrum tumor growth inhibition activity against the in vivo panels of childhood tumors used in the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP). Here we have evaluated rapamycin combined with agents used frequently in the treatment of childhood malignancies. Experimental Design Rapamycin was tested in vitro against 23 cell lines alone or in combination with melphalan, cisplatin, vincristine, or dexamethasone (leukemic models only). In vivo, the impact of combining rapamycin with a cytotoxic agent was evaluated using two measures: 1) the “therapeutic enhancement” measure, and 2) a linear regression model for time-to-event to formally evaluate for sub- and supra-additivity for the combination compared to the agents used alone. Results Combining rapamycin with cytotoxic agents in vitro gave predominantly sub-additive or additive effects, except for dexamethasone in leukemia models for which supra-additive activity was observed. In vivo testing demonstrated that therapeutic enhancement was common for rapamycin in combination with cyclophosphamide and occurred for 4 of 11 evaluable xenografts for the rapamycin and vincristine combination. The combinations of rapamycin with either cyclophosphamide or vincristine were significantly more effective than the respective standard agents used alone at their MTDs for most evaluable xenografts. The combination of rapamycin and cisplatin produced excessive toxicity requiring cisplatin dose reductions, and therapeutic enhancement was not observed for this combination. Conclusion Addition of rapamycin to either cyclophosphamide or vincristine at their respective MTDs appears promising, as these combinations are relatively well tolerated and as many of the pediatric preclinical models evaluated demonstrated therapeutic enhancement for these combinations. PMID:20053767

  14. Effects of combining rapamycin and resveratrol on apoptosis and growth of TSC2-deficient xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S; Sun, Yang; Schwartz, Naomi S; Li, Chenggang; Yu, Jane J; Holz, Marina K

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic metastatic disease affecting women of childbearing age. LAM is caused by hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a consequence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 inactivation. Clinically, LAM results in cystic lung destruction. mTORC1 inhibition using rapamycin analogs (rapalogs) is partially effective in reducing disease progression and improving lung function. However, cessation of treatment results in continued progression of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the combination of rapamycin treatment with resveratrol, an autophagy inhibitor, in the TSC2-null xenograft tumor model. We determined that this combination inhibits phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling and activates apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be an effective clinical strategy for treatment of LAM and other diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation.

  15. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks: effects of dietary leucine and age.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiling; Zheng, Aijuan; Liu, Guohua; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is necessary for cellular protein synthesis regulation. Leucine was reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in mammalian embryos and neonates, but in higher animals (chickens) the effect of dietary leucine on mTOR signaling is unknown. Thus, we investigated the effects of dietary leucine and age on mRNA expression and phosphorylation of mTOR as well as its downstream targets, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in chick pectoral muscles. One hundred eighty newly hatched male chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary leucine treatment groups (1.43, 1.73, and 2.03% leucine) for 14 d, respectively. Each treatment group consisted of 6 cages with 10 chicks each. On d 3, 7, and 14, plasma insulin and leucine were measured and target gene expression and phosphorylation was assessed. Dietary leucine influenced plasma leucine but not insulin, and plasma leucine and insulin declined with chick age. The mTOR, S6K1, and 4E-BP1 mRNA expression and phosphorylation within chick pectoral muscles were upregulated with increased dietary leucine but downregulated with increased chick age. Thus, high dietary leucine activates target of rapamycin signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and this pathway is attenuated with aging.

  16. Both mitogen activated protein kinase and the mammalian target of rapamycin modulate the development of functional renal proximal tubules in matrigel.

    PubMed

    Han, Ho Jae; Sigurdson, Wade J; Nickerson, Peter A; Taub, Mary

    2004-04-01

    Tubules may arise during branching morphogenesis through several mechanisms including wrapping, budding, cavitation and cord hollowing. In this report we present evidence that is consistent with renal proximal tubule formation through a process of cord hollowing (a process that requires the concomitant establishment of apicobasal polarity and lumen formation). Pockets of lumen filled with Lucifer Yellow were observed within developing cords of rabbit renal proximal tubule cells in matrigel. The observation of Lucifer Yellow accumulation suggests functional polarization. In the renal proximal tubule Lucifer Yellow is initially transported intracellularly by means of a basolaterally oriented p-aminohippurate transport system, followed by apical secretion into the lumen of the nephron. Consistent with such polarization in developing tubules, Triticum vulgare was observed to bind to the lumenal membranes within pockets of Lucifer Yellow-filled lumens. As this lectin binds apically in the rabbit renal proximal tubule, T. vulgare binding is indicative of the emergence of an apical domain before the formation of a contiguous lumen. Both epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor stimulated the formation of transporting tubules. The stimulatory effect of both epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor on tubulogenesis was inhibited by PD98059, a mitogen activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, rather than by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Nevertheless, Lucifer Yellow-filled lumens were observed in tubules that formed in the presence of PD98059 as well as with wortmannin, indicating that these drugs did not prevent the process of cavitation. By contrast, rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, prevented the process of cavitation without affecting the frequency of formation of developing cords. Multicellular cysts were observed to form in 8-bromocyclic AMP-treated cultures. As these cysts did not similarly

  17. Rapamycin slows IgA nephropathy progression in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Yanjiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Jiaming; Li, Rongshan

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent glomerulonephritis worldwide. Different therapeutic approaches have been tested against IgAN. The present study was designed to explore the renoprotective potential of low-dose mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin in an IgAN rat model and the possible mechanism of action. After establishing an IgAN model, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, control with rapamycin treatment, IgAN model, and IgAN model with rapamycin treatment. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was utilized to measure 24-hour urinary protein levels. Hepatic and renal function was determined with an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect the expression of α-SMA, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine p-S6 protein levels. Low-dose mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria and protected kidney function in a model of IgAN. Rapamycin directly or indirectly interfered with multiple key pathways in the progression of IgAN to end-stage renal disease: (1) reduced the deposition of IgA and inhibited cell proliferation; (2) decreased the expression of fibrosis markers α-SMA and type III collagen, and (3) downregulated the expression of the profibrotic growth factors platelet-derived growth factor and TGF-β1. The expression of p-S6 was significantly elevated in IgAN rats. The mTOR pathway was activated in IgAN rats and the early application of low-dose mTOR inhibitor rapamycin may slow the renal injury of IgAN in rats.

  18. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibition Synergizes with Reduced Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-mediated Translation of Cyclin D1 and c-MYC mRNAs to Treat Glioblastoma*

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Brent; Lee, Jihye; Landon, Kenna A.; Benavides-Serrato, Angelica; Bashir, Tariq; Jung, Michael E.; Lichtenstein, Alan; Gera, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated an intrinsic mRNA-specific protein synthesis salvage pathway operative in glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells that is resistant to mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. The activation of this internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mRNA translation initiation pathway results in continued translation of critical transcripts involved in cell cycle progression in the face of global eIF-4E-mediated translation inhibition. Recently we identified compound 11 (C11), a small molecule capable of inhibiting c-MYC IRES translation as a consequence of blocking the interaction of a requisite c-MYC IRES trans-acting factor, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, with its IRES. Here we demonstrate that C11 also blocks cyclin D1 IRES-dependent initiation and demonstrates synergistic anti-GBM properties when combined with the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor PP242. The structure-activity relationship of C11 was investigated and resulted in the identification of IRES-J007, which displayed improved IRES-dependent initiation blockade and synergistic anti-GBM effects with PP242. Mechanistic studies with C11 and IRES-J007 revealed binding of the inhibitors within the UP1 fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, and docking analysis suggested a small pocket within close proximity to RRM2 as the potential binding site. We further demonstrate that co-therapy with IRES-J007 and PP242 significantly reduces tumor growth of GBM xenografts in mice and that combined inhibitor treatments markedly reduce the mRNA translational state of cyclin D1 and c-MYC transcripts in these tumors. These data support the combined use of IRES-J007 and PP242 to achieve synergistic antitumor responses in GBM. PMID:27226604

  19. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibition Synergizes with Reduced Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-mediated Translation of Cyclin D1 and c-MYC mRNAs to Treat Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Brent; Lee, Jihye; Landon, Kenna A; Benavides-Serrato, Angelica; Bashir, Tariq; Jung, Michael E; Lichtenstein, Alan; Gera, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated an intrinsic mRNA-specific protein synthesis salvage pathway operative in glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells that is resistant to mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. The activation of this internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mRNA translation initiation pathway results in continued translation of critical transcripts involved in cell cycle progression in the face of global eIF-4E-mediated translation inhibition. Recently we identified compound 11 (C11), a small molecule capable of inhibiting c-MYC IRES translation as a consequence of blocking the interaction of a requisite c-MYC IRES trans-acting factor, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, with its IRES. Here we demonstrate that C11 also blocks cyclin D1 IRES-dependent initiation and demonstrates synergistic anti-GBM properties when combined with the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor PP242. The structure-activity relationship of C11 was investigated and resulted in the identification of IRES-J007, which displayed improved IRES-dependent initiation blockade and synergistic anti-GBM effects with PP242. Mechanistic studies with C11 and IRES-J007 revealed binding of the inhibitors within the UP1 fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, and docking analysis suggested a small pocket within close proximity to RRM2 as the potential binding site. We further demonstrate that co-therapy with IRES-J007 and PP242 significantly reduces tumor growth of GBM xenografts in mice and that combined inhibitor treatments markedly reduce the mRNA translational state of cyclin D1 and c-MYC transcripts in these tumors. These data support the combined use of IRES-J007 and PP242 to achieve synergistic antitumor responses in GBM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Topical Rapamycin Suppresses the Angiogenesis Pathways Induced by Pulsed Dye Laser: Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition of Regeneration and Revascularization of Photocoagulated Cutaneous Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbin; Jia, Wangcun; Sun, Victor; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the most effective treatment for port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. However, regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels may result in poor therapeutic outcome. We have recently shown that rapamycin (RPM), an angiogenesis inhibitor, can reduce the regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels. Herein, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular pathophysiology on the inhibition of the regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels by topical RPM in an animal model. Materials and Methods Two separate skin areas on each hamster were irradiated by PDL. After PDL exposure, topical RPM was applied daily to one of the randomly selected test sites. PDL, PDL + RPM and normal skin test sites were biopsied on day 3 after PDL exposure. The total ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein were extracted from biopsied skin samples and quantified. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot were subsequently performed to quantify the mRNA and protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6). The phosphorylation levels of S6 and AKT were also evaluated by immunoblot. Results The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, and S6 significantly increased after PDL exposure as compared to the normal hamster skin. Topical application of 1% RPM suppressed the PDL-induced increase in mRNA and protein levels of those genes on day 3 post-PDL exposure. The phosphorylation levels of S6 and AKT increased after PDL exposure but the increases were suppressed by the topical application of RPM. Conclusion The increase in expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and S6 after PDL-exposure suggests that angiogenesis pathways play very active roles in the process of skin blood vessel regeneration and revascularization. Topical application of 1% RPM can suppress the

  1. Comparison of the effects of FK-506, cyclosporin A and rapamycin on IL-2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, D J; Naya, I; Bundick, R V; Smith, G M; Schmidt, J A

    1991-01-01

    The immunosuppressive compounds FK-506, cyclosporin A (CsA) and rapamycin inhibit both the human and mouse mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) with IC50s of 2-5 x 10(-10) M for FK-506 and rapamycin and 10(-8) M for CsA. FK-506 and CsA were also potent inhibitors of A23187/PMA-stimulated IL-2 production by Jurkat and HuT-78 cells but had no effect on the response of mouse CTLL cells to IL-2. IC50 values for inhibition of IL-2 production closely matched those for inhibition of the MLR and both drugs were active only during the first 4-6 hr following stimulation. In contrast, rapamycin was a poor inhibitor of IL-2 production, although it inhibited cellular responses to IL-2. The IC50 values for these two activities indicated that neither alone accounted for rapamycin inhibition of the MLR. FK-506 and CsA affected IL-2 gene transcription in Jurkat cells by the same mechanism. Both inhibited the appearance of the transcription factor, NFAT, whereas rapamycin did not. The appearance of another transcription factor, NFK beta, was unaffected by all three drugs. The effects of FK-506 and CsA on IL-2 gene expression, therefore, are similar even though the two drugs act through distinct cytosolic receptors. Images Figure 4 PMID:1715317

  2. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation.

    PubMed

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-03-27

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands.

  3. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in triple negative feline mammary carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in humans is defined by the absence of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 overexpression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is overexpressed in TNBC and it represents a potential target for the treatment of this aggressive tumour. Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is considered to be a model for hormone-independent human breast cancer. This study investigated mTOR and p-mTOR expression in FMC in relation to triple negative (TN) phenotype. Results The expression of mTOR, p-mTOR, ERα, PR and HER2 was evaluated in 58 FMCs by immunohistochemistry and in six FMC cell lines by Western blot analysis. 53.5% of FMC analyzed were ER, PR, HER2 negative (TN-FMC) while 56.9% and 55.2% of cases expressed mTOR and p-mTOR respectively. In this study we found that m-TOR and p-mTOR were more frequently detected in TN-FMC and in HER2 negative samples. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that there is also a FMC subset defined as TN FMC, which is characterised by a statistically significant association with m-TOR and p-mTOR expression as demonstrated in human breast cancer. PMID:23587222

  4. Modulation of nonsense mediated decay by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Andrew; Coyne, Doyle; Jansson, Linnea; Rush, Miles; Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Katzman, Sol; Bailey, Joanne; Deinhardt, Katrin; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rapamycin is a naturally occurring macrolide whose target is at the core of nutrient and stress regulation in a wide range of species. Despite well-established roles as an inhibitor of cap-dependent mRNA translation, relatively little is known about its effects on other modes of RNA processing. Here, we characterize the landscape of rapamycin-induced post-transcriptional gene regulation. Transcriptome analysis of rapamycin-treated cells reveals genome-wide changes in alternative mRNA splicing and pronounced changes in NMD-sensitive isoforms. We demonstrate that despite well-documented attenuation of cap-dependent mRNA translation, rapamycin can augment NMD of certain transcripts. Rapamycin-treatment significantly reduces the levels of both endogenous and exogenous Premature Termination Codon (PTC)-containing mRNA isoforms and its effects are dose-, UPF1- and 4EBP-dependent. The PTC-containing SRSF6 transcript exhibits a shorter half-life upon rapamycin-treatment as compared to the non-PTC isoform. Rapamycin-treatment also causes depletion of PTC-containing mRNA isoforms from polyribosomes, underscoring the functional relationship between translation and NMD. Enhanced NMD activity also correlates with an enrichment of the nuclear Cap Binding Complex (CBC) in rapamycin-treated cells. Our data demonstrate that rapamycin modulates global RNA homeostasis by NMD. PMID:27899591

  5. Interferon-α enhances the susceptibility of renal cell carcinoma to rapamycin by suppressing mTOR activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shang, Donghao; Han, Tiandong; Xu, Xiuhong; Tian, Ye

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects of interferon (IFN)-α and rapamycin (RPM) on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and examine the synergistic growth suppression conferred by IFN-α and RPM. The effects of IFN-α and/or RPM on RCC cells were determined using a WST-1 assay and the synergy of IFN-α and RPM against three RCC cell lines was analyzed with isobolographic analysis. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated by RNAi, and the expression and phosphorylation of proteins in the mTOR pathway following treatment with IFN-α and/or RPM was examined by western blot analysis. The observations indicated that IFN-α significantly increased the susceptibility of RCC cells to RPM and the synergistic effect of IFN-α and RPM against RCC cells was confirmed in all three RCC cell lines. The mTOR pathway was shown to be associated with the synergistic effect of IFN-α and RPM against RCC. IFN-α and RPM alone decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70 S6 kinase, S6 and 4E binding protein 1, and IFN-α significantly enhanced the RPM-induced suppression of the mTOR pathway. However, in RCC cells with low mTOR activity, the synergy of IFN-α and RPM was eliminated. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in the synergistic effect of IFN-α and RPM against RCC cells. Thus, mTOR may serve as an effective therapeutic target in the treatment of advanced RCC.

  6. Interferon-α enhances the susceptibility of renal cell carcinoma to rapamycin by suppressing mTOR activity

    PubMed Central

    HAN, XIAO; SHANG, DONGHAO; HAN, TIANDONG; XU, XIUHONG; TIAN, YE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects of interferon (IFN)-α and rapamycin (RPM) on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and examine the synergistic growth suppression conferred by IFN-α and RPM. The effects of IFN-α and/or RPM on RCC cells were determined using a WST-1 assay and the synergy of IFN-α and RPM against three RCC cell lines was analyzed with isobolographic analysis. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated by RNAi, and the expression and phosphorylation of proteins in the mTOR pathway following treatment with IFN-α and/or RPM was examined by western blot analysis. The observations indicated that IFN-α significantly increased the susceptibility of RCC cells to RPM and the synergistic effect of IFN-α and RPM against RCC cells was confirmed in all three RCC cell lines. The mTOR pathway was shown to be associated with the synergistic effect of IFN-α and RPM against RCC. IFN-α and RPM alone decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70 S6 kinase, S6 and 4E binding protein 1, and IFN-α significantly enhanced the RPM-induced suppression of the mTOR pathway. However, in RCC cells with low mTOR activity, the synergy of IFN-α and RPM was eliminated. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in the synergistic effect of IFN-α and RPM against RCC cells. Thus, mTOR may serve as an effective therapeutic target in the treatment of advanced RCC. PMID:24944633

  7. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activation negatively regulates Polo-like kinase 2-mediated homeostatic compensation following neonatal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyu; Kosaras, Bela; Klein, Peter M.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic plasticity is characterized by compensatory changes in synaptic strength and intrinsic membrane properties in response to chronic changes in neuronal activity. Neonatal seizures are a naturally occurring source of neuronal overactivation and can lead to long-term epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Using a rodent model of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures that results in a persistent increase in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, we aimed to determine whether there was any evidence of an opposing endogenous homeostatic antiepileptic response. Given that this model results in long-term epilepsy, we also examined mechanisms whereby this homeostasis fails. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in slices removed at intervals following seizure onset revealed an initial up-regulation of AMPAR function that was followed by a transient dynamic attenuation of this enhancement by 48–72 h, although AMPAR function was still increased compared with nonseizure control baseline. This secondary down-regulation of enhanced AMPAR function was coincident with a marked transient increase in expression and function of the Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), which has previously been implicated in homeostatic down-regulation of neuronal excitability in cell/slice culture models. The effects were transient and at 1 wk AMPAR function once again became up-regulated, simultaneous with a decrease in PLK2 expression and function. This negative regulation was mediated by subacute postseizure increases in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Application of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevented post-hypoxic seizure impairment of homeostasis, suggesting that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms may be potentially modifiable therapeutic targets in epileptogenesis. PMID:23479645

  8. IFN-γ orchestrates mesenchymal stem cell plasticity through the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Tiziana; Procaccini, Claudio; Ferrara, Giovanni; Baranzini, Sergio; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Matarese, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Uccelli, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display a therapeutic plasticity because of their ability to modulate immunity, foster tissue repair, and differentiate into mesodermal cells. IFN-γ has been described to differently affect human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) and mouse mesenchymal stem cell (mMSC) immunomodulation and differentiation, depending on the inflammatory milieu. We aimed at dissecting the relevant intracellular pathways through which IFN-γ affects MSC plasticity and the consequence of their manipulation on MSC functions. Modification of relevant IFN-γ-dependent pathways in mMSCs was carried out in vitro through gene silencing or chemical inhibition of key components. Functional outcomes were assessed by means of Western blotting, real-time PCR, differentiation, and proliferation assays on MSCs. The effect on T cells was addressed by T-cell proliferation assays; the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) manipulation in MSCs was studied in vivo in a mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. To address whether similar mechanisms are involved also in hMSCs on IFN-γ stimulation, the effect of chemical inhibition on the same intracellular pathways was assessed by means of Western blotting, and the final outcome on immunomodulatory properties was evaluated based on real-time PCR and T-cell proliferation. We revealed that in mMSCs IFN-γ-induced immunoregulation is mediated by early phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3, which is significantly enhanced by an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent mTOR inhibition, thereby promoting pSTAT1 nuclear translocation. Accordingly, after intracellular mTOR inhibition, MSCs augmented their ability to inhibit T-cell proliferation and control delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo. Similarly, on mTOR blockade, hMSCs also enhanced their immunoregulatory features. A sustained exposure to IFN-γ led to inhibition of STAT3 activity, which in m

  9. Mechanism of metabolic control. Target of rapamycin signaling links nitrogen quality to the activity of the Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Komeili, A; Wedaman, K P; O'Shea, E K; Powers, T

    2000-11-13

    De novo biosynthesis of amino acids uses intermediates provided by the TCA cycle that must be replenished by anaplerotic reactions to maintain the respiratory competency of the cell. Genome-wide expression analyses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that many of the genes involved in these reactions are repressed in the presence of the preferred nitrogen sources glutamine or glutamate. Expression of these genes in media containing urea or ammonia as a sole nitrogen source requires the heterodimeric bZip transcription factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 and correlates with a redistribution of the Rtg1p/Rtg3 complex from a predominantly cytoplasmic to a predominantly nuclear location. Nuclear import of the complex requires the cytoplasmic protein Rtg2, a previously identified upstream regulator of Rtg1 and Rtg3, whereas export requires the importin-beta-family member Msn5. Remarkably, nuclear accumulation of Rtg1/Rtg3, as well as expression of their target genes, is induced by addition of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinases. We demonstrate further that Rtg3 is a phosphoprotein and that its phosphorylation state changes after rapamycin treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that target of rapamycin signaling regulates specific anaplerotic reactions by coupling nitrogen quality to the activity and subcellular localization of distinct transcription factors.

  10. p53 and rapamycin are additive

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Judith; Huang, Jing; Jones, Diane; Dodds, Sherry G.; Williams, Charnae; Hubbard, Gene; Livi, Carolina B.; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Curiel, Tyler; Sharp, Z. Dave; Hasty, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase found in a complex (mTORC1) that enables macromolecular synthesis and cell growth and is implicated in cancer etiology. The rapamycin-FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) complex allosterically inhibits mTORC1. In response to stress, p53 inhibits mTORC1 through a separate pathway involving cell signaling and amino acid sensing. Thus, these different mechanisms could be additive. Here we show that p53 improved the ability of rapamycin to: 1) extend mouse life span, 2) suppress ionizing radiation (IR)-induced senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and 3) increase the levels of amino acids and citric acid in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. This additive effect could have implications for cancer treatment since rapamycin and p53 are anti-oncogenic. PMID:26158292

  11. Erythroid induction of K562 cells treated with mithramycin is associated with inhibition of raptor gene transcription and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions.

    PubMed

    Finotti, Alessia; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Fabbri, Enrica; Borgatti, Monica; Breveglieri, Giulia; Gasparello, Jessica; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR activity, is a potent inducer of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in β-thalassemic patients. Mithramycin (MTH) was studied to see if this inducer of K562 differentiation also operates through inhibition of mTOR. We can conclude from the study that the mTOR pathway is among the major transcript classes affected by mithramycin-treatment in K562 cells and a sharp decrease of raptor protein production and p70S6 kinase is detectable in mithramycin treated K562 cells. The promoter sequence of the raptor gene contains several Sp1 binding sites which may explain its mechanism of action. We hypothesize that the G+C-selective DNA-binding drug mithramycin is able to interact with these sequences and to inhibit the binding of Sp1 to the raptor promoter due to the following results: (a) MTH strongly inhibits the interactions between Sp1 and Sp1-binding sites of the raptor promoter (studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, EMSA); (b) MTH strongly reduces the recruitment of Sp1 transcription factor to the raptor promoter in intact K562 cells (studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, ChIP); (c) Sp1 decoy oligonucleotides are able to specifically inhibit raptor mRNA accumulation in K562 cells. In conclusion, raptor gene expression is involved in mithramycin-mediated induction of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and one of its mechanism of action is the inhibition of Sp1 binding to the raptor promoter.

  12. Erythroid induction of K562 cells treated with mithramycin is associated with inhibition of raptor gene transcription and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions

    PubMed Central

    Finotti, Alessia; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Fabbri, Enrica; Borgatti, Monica; Breveglieri, Giulia; Gasparello, Jessica; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR activity, is a potent inducer of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in β-thalassemic patients. Mithramycin (MTH) was studied to see if this inducer of K562 differentiation also operates through inhibition of mTOR. We can conclude from the study that the mTOR pathway is among the major transcript classes affected by mithramycin-treatment in K562 cells and a sharp decrease of raptor protein production and p70S6 kinase is detectable in mithramycin treated K562 cells. The promoter sequence of the raptor gene contains several Sp1 binding sites which may explain its mechanism of action. We hypothesize that the G + C-selective DNA-binding drug mithramycin is able to interact with these sequences and to inhibit the binding of Sp1 to the raptor promoter due to the following results: (a) MTH strongly inhibits the interactions between Sp1 and Sp1-binding sites of the raptor promoter (studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, EMSA); (b) MTH strongly reduces the recruitment of Sp1 transcription factor to the raptor promoter in intact K562 cells (studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, ChIP); (c) Sp1 decoy oligonucleotides are able to specifically inhibit raptor mRNA accumulation in K562 cells. In conclusion, raptor gene expression is involved in mithramycin-mediated induction of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and one of its mechanism of action is the inhibition of Sp1 binding to the raptor promoter. PMID:25478892

  13. Rapamycin activates autophagy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: implications for normal aging and age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Graziotto, John J; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S; Krainc, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    While rapamycin has been in use for years in transplant patients as an antirejection drug, more recently it has shown promise in treating diseases of aging, such as neurodegenerative disorders and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that rapamycin reverses the cellular phenotype of fibroblasts from children with the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). We found that the causative aberrant protein, progerin, was cleared through autophagic mechanisms when the cells were treated with rapamycin, suggesting a new potential treatment for HGPS. Recent evidence shows that progerin is also present in aged tissues of healthy individuals, suggesting that progerin may contribute to physiological aging. While it is intriguing to speculate that rapamycin may affect normal aging in humans, as it does in lower organisms, it will be important to identify safer analogues of rapamycin for chronic treatments in humans in order to minimize toxicity. In addition to its role in HGPS and normal aging, we discuss the potential of rapamycin for the treatment of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Haploinsufficiency of Target of Rapamycin Attenuates Cardiomyopathies in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yonghe; Sun, Xiaojing; Huang, Wei; Hoage, Tiffany; Redfield, Margaret; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Lin, Xueying; Ekker, Stephen; Xu, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Although a cardioprotective function of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling inhibition has been suggested by pharmacological studies using rapamycin, genetic evidences are still lacking. Here, we explored adult zebrafish as a novel vertebrate model for dissecting signaling pathways in cardiomyopathy. Objective We generate the second adult zebrafish cardiomyopathy model induced by doxorubicin (DOX). By genetically analyzing both the DOX and our previous established anemia-induced cardiomyopathy models, we aim to decipher the functions of TOR signaling in cardiomyopathies of different etiology. Methods and Results Along the progression of both cardiomyopathy models, we detected dynamic TOR activity at different stages of pathogenesis as well as distinct effects of TOR signaling inhibition. Nevertheless, cardiac enlargement in both models can be effectively attenuated by inhibition of TOR signaling via short-term rapamycin treatment. To assess the long term effects of TOR reduction, we utilized a zebrafish target of rapamycin (ztor) mutant identified from an insertional mutagenesis screen. We show that TOR haploinsufficiency in the ztor heterozygous fish improved cardiac function, prevented pathological remodeling events, and ultimately reduced mortality in both adult fish models of cardiomyopathy. Mechanistically, these cardioprotective effects are conveyed by the anti-hypertrophy, anti-apoptosis, and proautophagy function of TOR signaling inhibition. Conclusions Our results prove adult zebrafish as a conserved novel vertebrate model for human cardiomyopathies. Moreover, we provide the first genetic evidence to demonstrate a long-term cardioprotective effect of TOR signaling inhibition on at least two cardiomyopathies of distinct etiology, despite dynamic TOR activities during their pathogenesis. PMID:21757652

  15. A rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway is essential for the full expression of persistent pain states

    PubMed Central

    Géranton, Sandrine M.; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Torsney, Carole; Tochiki, Keri K.; Stuart, Sarah A.; Leith, J. Lianne; Lumb, Bridget M.; Hunt, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Translational control through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is critical for synaptic plasticity, cell growth and axon guidance. Recently, it was also shown that mTOR signaling was essential for the maintenance of the sensitivity of subsets of adult sensory neurons. Here, we show that persistent pain states, but not acute pain behaviour, are substantially alleviated by centrally administered rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway. We demonstrate that rapamycin modulates nociception by acting on subsets of primary afferents and superficial dorsal horn neurons to reduce both primary afferent sensitivity and central plasticity. We found that the active form of mTOR is present in a subpopulation of myelinated dorsal root axons, but rarely in unmyelinated C- fibers, and heavily expressed in the dorsal horn by lamina I/III projection neurons that are known to mediate the induction and maintenance of pain states. Intrathecal injections of rapamycin inhibited the activation of downstream targets of mTOR in dorsal horn and dorsal roots and reduced the thermal sensitivity of A- fibers. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that rapamycin increased the electrical activation threshold of Aδ- fibers in dorsal roots. Taken together our results imply that central rapamycin reduces neuropathic pain by acting both on an mTOR positive subset of A- nociceptors and lamina I projection neurons and suggest a new pharmacological route for therapeutic intervention in persistent pain states. PMID:19940197

  16. Spatiotemporal Characterization of mTOR Kinase Activity Following Kainic Acid Induced Status Epilepticus and Analysis of Rat Brain Response to Chronic Rapamycin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Matylda; Blazejczyk, Magdalena; Kazmierska, Paulina; Caban, Bartosz; Skalecka, Agnieszka; Tarkowski, Bartosz; Rodo, Anna; Konopacki, Jan; Jaworski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that senses nutrient availability, trophic factors support, cellular energy level, cellular stress, and neurotransmitters and adjusts cellular metabolism accordingly. Adequate mTOR activity is needed for development as well as proper physiology of mature neurons. Consequently, changes in mTOR activity are often observed in neuropathology. Recently, several groups reported that seizures increase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity, and such increased activity in genetic models can contribute to spontaneous seizures. However, the current knowledge about the spatiotemporal pattern of mTOR activation induced by proconvulsive agents is rather rudimentary. Also consequences of insufficient mTOR activity on a status epilepticus are poorly understood. Here, we systematically investigated these two issues. We showed that mTOR signaling was activated by kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus through several brain areas, including the hippocampus and cortex as well as revealed two waves of mTOR activation: an early wave (2 h) that occurs in neurons and a late wave that predominantly occurs in astrocytes. Unexpectedly, we found that pretreatment with rapamycin, a potent mTOR inhibitor, gradually (i) sensitized animals to KA treatment and (ii) induced gross anatomical changes in the brain. PMID:23724051

  17. Rapamycin administration in humans blocks the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Micah J; Fry, Christopher S; Glynn, Erin L; Dreyer, Hans C; Dhanani, Shaheen; Timmerman, Kyle L; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2009-01-01

    Muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signalling are concurrently stimulated following muscle contraction in humans. In an effort to determine whether mTORC1 signalling is essential for regulating muscle protein synthesis in humans, we treated subjects with a potent mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) prior to performing a series of high-intensity muscle contractions. Here we show that rapamycin treatment blocks the early (1–2 h) acute contraction-induced increase (∼40%) in human muscle protein synthesis. In addition, several downstream components of the mTORC1 signalling pathway were also blunted or blocked by rapamycin. For instance, S6K1 phosphorylation (Thr421/Ser424) was increased post-exercise 6-fold in the control group while being unchanged with rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, eEF2 phosphorylation (Thr56) was reduced by ∼25% post-exercise in the control group but phosphorylation following rapamycin treatment was unaltered, indicating that translation elongation was inhibited. Rapamycin administration prior to exercise also reduced the ability of raptor to associate with mTORC1 during post-exercise recovery. Surprisingly, rapamycin treatment prior to resistance exercise completely blocked the contraction-induced increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) and blunted the increase in MNK1 (Thr197/202) phosphorylation. However, the phosphorylation of a known target of MNK1, eIF4E (Ser208), was similar in both groups (P > 0.05) which is consistent with the notion that rapamycin does not directly inhibit MAPK signalling. We conclude that mTORC1 signalling is, in part, playing a key role in regulating the contraction-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in humans, while dual activation of mTORC1 and ERK1/2 stimulation may be required for full stimulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. PMID:19188252

  18. Initial testing (stage 1) of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin by the pediatric preclinical testing program.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Peter J; Morton, Christopher L; Kolb, E Anders; Gorlick, Richard; Lock, Richard; Carol, Hernan; Reynolds, C Patrick; Maris, John M; Keir, Stephen T; Billups, Catherine A; Smith, Malcolm A

    2008-04-01

    Rapamycin is a highly specific inhibitor of mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that controls cap-dependent translation. Here we report the activity of rapamycin against the in vitro and in vivo panels of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP). Rapamycin was tested against the in vitro panel at concentrations from 0.01 to 100 nM and was tested against the in vivo tumor panels by i.p. administration daily x 5 for 6 consecutive weeks at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Rapamycin variably inhibited growth of the cell lines in the PPTP in vitro panel, with maximal inhibition values ranging from 19% to 85% (median 49%) and a median EC(50) of 0.7 nM. Ten of 23 cell lines achieved at least 50% growth inhibition. Against the in vivo panels, rapamycin induced significant differences in EFS distribution in 27 of 36 solid tumor xenografts and in 5 of 8 ALL xenografts. Using the time to event activity measure, rapamycin had intermediate or high activity against 14 of 31 evaluable solid tumor xenografts and 5 of 8 ALL xenografts. Objective responses were observed in several panels, including: rhabdoid tumor (1PR), rhabdomyosarcoma (2PR), and osteosarcoma (1 maintained CR). Two T-cell ALL xenografts had objective responses (1PR, 1 maintained CR). Rapamycin demonstrated broad antitumor activity against the PPTP's in vivo tumor panels, with particularly noteworthy activity for selected sarcoma and ALL xenografts. Future work will evaluate the molecular characteristics of responding models and the activity of combinations of rapamycin with other anticancer agents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Rapamycin generates anti-apoptotic human Th1/Tc1 cells via autophagy for induction of xenogeneic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Amarnath, Shoba; Flomerfelt, Francis A; Costanzo, Carliann M; Foley, Jason E; Mariotti, Jacopo; Konecki, Daniel M; Gangopadhyay, Anu; Eckhaus, Michael; Wong, Susan; Levine, Bruce L; June, Carl H; Fowler, Daniel H

    2010-05-01

    Murine T cells exposed to rapamycin maintain flexibility towards Th1/Tc1 differentiation, thereby indicating that rapamycin promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is conditional. The degree to which rapamycin might inhibit human Th1/Tc1 differentiation has not been evaluated. In the presence of rapamycin, T cell costimulation and polarization with IL-12 or IFN-α permitted human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell differentiation towards a Th1/Tc1 phenotype; activation of STAT1 and STAT4 pathways essential for Th1/Tc1 polarity was preserved during mTOR blockade but instead abrogated by PI3 kinase inhibition. Such rapamycin-resistant human Th1/Tc1 cells: (1) were generated through autophagy (increased LC3BII expression; phenotype reversion by autophagy inhibition via 3-MA or siRNA for Beclin1); (2) expressed anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family members (reduced Bax, Bak; increased phospho-Bad); (3) maintained mitochondrial membrane potentials; and (4) displayed reduced apoptosis. In vivo, type I polarized and rapamycin-resistant human T cells caused increased xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (x-GVHD). Murine recipients of rapamycin-resistant human Th1/Tc1 cells had: (1) persistent T cell engraftment; (2) increased T cell cytokine and cytolytic effector function; and (3) T cell infiltration of skin, gut, and liver. Rapamycin therefore does not impair human T cell capacity for type I differentiation. Rather, rapamycin yields an anti-apoptotic Th1/Tc1 effector phenotype by promoting autophagy.

  20. Suppression of the proliferation of hypoxia-Induced retinal pigment epithelial cell by rapamycin through the /mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF/ signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning-Ning; Zhao, Ning; Cai, Na

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin, a highly specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), exhibits significant antitumor/antiangiogenic activity in human cancer cells. Its effect on the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was rarely investigated. This study assessed the proliferation of hypoxia-induced RPE and the inhibitory effects of rapamycin using 3-(4,5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and examined the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RPE cells with or without rapamycin under normoxic and hypoxic conditions using real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that hypoxia increased the levels of mTOR, HIF-1α, and VEGF. The suppression of HIF-1α and VEGF by rapamycin was associated with dephosphorylation of mTOR and the downstream effector ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6K) and 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) of mTORC1. Rapamycin only inhibited the protein levels and did not change the mRNA expression of HIF-1α. No cytotoxicity to the RPE cells by rapamycin was caused under either normoxia or hypoxia. Our data suggest that rapamycin suppresses hypoxia-induced RPE cell proliferation through a mechanism related to the targeting of mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling. Rapamycin may potentially provide a safe and effective novel treatment for choroidal vascular disease.

  1. Rapamycin negatively impacts insulin signaling, glucose uptake and uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    García-Casarrubios, Ester; de Moura, Carlos; Arroba, Ana I; Pescador, Nuria; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Garcia, Laura; Herrero, Laura; Serra, Dolors; Cadenas, Susana; Reis, Flavio; Carvalho, Eugenia; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Valverde, Ángela M

    2016-12-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a metabolic disorder that affects 40% of patients on immunosuppressive agent (IA) treatment, such as rapamycin (also known as sirolimus). IAs negatively modulate insulin action in peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle, liver and white fat. However, the effects of IAs on insulin sensitivity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) have not been investigated. We have analyzed the impact of rapamycin on insulin signaling, thermogenic gene-expression and mitochondrial respiration in BAT. Treatment of brown adipocytes with rapamycin for 16h significantly decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein expression and insulin-mediated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. Consequently, both insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake were decreased. Early activation of the N-terminal Janus activated kinase (JNK) was also observed, thereby increasing IRS1 Ser 307 phosphorylation. These effects of rapamycin on insulin signaling in brown adipocytes were partly prevented by a JNK inhibitor. In vivo treatment of rats with rapamycin for three weeks abolished insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation in BAT. Rapamycin also inhibited norepinephrine (NE)-induced lipolysis, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipocytes. Importantly, basal mitochondrial respiration, proton leak and maximal respiratory capacity were significantly decreased in brown adipocytes treated with rapamycin. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time the important role of brown adipocytes as target cells of rapamycin, suggesting that insulin resistance in BAT might play a major role in NODAT development.

  2. Rapamycin increases neuronal survival, reduces inflammation and astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Goldshmit, Yona; Kanner, Sivan; Zacs, Maria; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Currie, Peter D; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently leads to a permanent functional impairment as a result of the initial injury followed by secondary injury mechanism, which is characterised by increased inflammation, glial scarring and neuronal cell death. Finding drugs that may reduce inflammatory cell invasion and activation to reduce glial scarring and increase neuronal survival is of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. In the present study, we examined the effect of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor and an inducer of autophagy, on recovery from spinal cord injury. Autophagy, a process that facilitates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins, is also important for maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and plays a major role in neurodegeneration after neurotrauma. We examined rapamycin effects on the inflammatory response, glial scar formation, neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo using spinal cord hemisection model in mice, and in vitro using primary cortical neurons and human astrocytes. We show that a single injection of rapamycin, inhibited p62/SQSTM1, a marker of autophagy, inhibited mTORC1 downstream effector p70S6K, reduced macrophage/neutrophil infiltration into the lesion site, microglia activation and secretion of TNFα. Rapamycin inhibited astrocyte proliferation and reduced the number of GFAP expressing cells at the lesion site. Finally, it increased neuronal survival and axonogenesis towards the lesion site. Our study shows that rapamycin treatment increased significantly p-Akt levels at the lesion site following SCI. Similarly, rapamycin treatment of neurons and astrocytes induced p-Akt elevation under stress conditions. Together, these findings indicate that rapamycin is a promising candidate for treatment of acute SCI condition and may be a useful therapeutic agent.

  3. Inhibition of mTORC1 leads to MAPK pathway activation through a PI3K-dependent feedback loop in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carracedo, Arkaitz; Ma, Li; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Rojo, Federico; Salmena, Leonardo; Alimonti, Andrea; Egia, Ainara; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.; Papa, Antonella; Nardella, Caterina; Cantley, Lewis C.; Baselga, Jose; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have established a causal link between aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and tumorigenesis, indicating that mTOR inhibition may have therapeutic potential. In this study, we show that rapamycin and its analogs activate the MAPK pathway in human cancer, in what represents a novel mTORC1-MAPK feedback loop. We found that tumor samples from patients with biopsy-accessible solid tumors of advanced disease treated with RAD001, a rapamycin derivative, showed an administration schedule–dependent increase in activation of the MAPK pathway. RAD001 treatment also led to MAPK activation in a mouse model of prostate cancer. We further show that rapamycin-induced MAPK activation occurs in both normal cells and cancer cells lines and that this feedback loop depends on an S6K-PI3K-Ras pathway. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK pathway enhanced the antitumoral effect of mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin in cancer cells in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our findings identify MAPK activation as a consequence of mTORC1 inhibition and underscore the potential of a combined therapeutic approach with mTORC1 and MAPK inhibitors, currently employed as single agents in the clinic, for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:18725988

  4. The anti-diabetic drug metformin inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling pathway in ELT-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tadakawa, Mari; Takeda, Takashi; Li, Bin; Tsuiji, Kenji; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-05

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether metformin can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cells (ELT-3 cells). In vitro studies were conducted using ELT-3 cells. Under normoxic conditions, metformin suppressed VEGF protein levels in the supernatant and cells in a dose-dependent manner. In hypoxia-mimicking conditions, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins were both highly expressed and were suppressed by the metformin treatment. Metformin did not affect HIF-1α mRNA levels, which indicated that its effects occurred at the post-translational level. Metformin inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity by phosphorylating the mTORC1 component raptor. This study revealed the anti-angiogenic activity of metformin in ELT-3 cells by suppressing the expression of VEGF via the mTORC1/HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that metformin may represent an effective alternative in the future treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Target of rapamycin (TOR)-based therapy for cardiomyopathy: evidence from zebrafish and human studies.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Sudhir; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-02-01

    Rapamycin is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the prevention of immunorejection following organ transplantation. Pharmacological studies suggest a potential new application of rapamycin in attenuating cardiomyopathy, but the potential for this application is not yet supported by genetic studies of genes in target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in rodents. Recently, supporting genetic evidence was presented in zebrafish using two adult cardiomyopathy models. By characterizing a heterozygous zebrafish target of rapamycin (ztor) mutant, the therapeutic effect of long-term TOR signaling inhibition was demonstrated. Dose- and stage-dependent functions of TOR signaling provide an explanation for the seemingly contradictory results obtained in genetic studies of TOR components in rodents. The results from the zebrafish studies, together with the supporting preliminary clinical studies, suggested that TOR signaling inhibition should be further pursued as a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiomyopathy. Future directions for developing TOR-based therapy include assessing the long-term benefits of rapamycin as a candidate drug for heart failure patients, defining the dynamic activity of TOR, exploring the impacts of TOR signaling manipulation in different models of cardiomyopathies, and elucidating the downstream signaling branches that confer the therapeutic effects of TOR signaling inhibition.

  6. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult–to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  7. Rapamycin protects against neuronal death and improves neurological function with modulation of microglia after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Liu, F; Yang, T; Jin, T; Zhang, H; Luo, X; Wang, M

    2016-09-30

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a devastating brain disorder with high mortality and poor prognosis and effective therapeutic intervention for the disease remains a challenge at present. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin on ICH-induced brain damage and the possible involvement of activated microglia. ICH was induced in rats by injection of type IV collagenase into striatum. Different dose of rapamycin was systemically administrated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at 1 h after ICH induction. Western blot analysis showed that ICH led to a long-lasting increase of phosphorylated mTOR and this hyperactivation of mTOR was reduced by systemic administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the sensorimotor deficits induced by ICH, and attenuated ICH-induced brain edema formation as well as lesion volume. Nissl and Fluoro-Jade C staining demonstrated that administration with rapamycin remarkably decreased neuronal death surrounding the hematoma at 7 d after ICH insult. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that rapamycin inhibited ICH-induced excessive expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in ipsilateral hemisphere. Furthermore, activation of microglia induced by ICH was significantly suppressed by rapamycin administration. These data indicated that treatment of rapamycin following ICH decreased the brain injuries and neuronal death at the peri-hematoma striatum, and increased neurological function, which associated with reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. The results provide novel insight into the neuroprotective therapeutic strategy of rapamycin for ICH insult, which possibly involving the regulation of microglial activation.

  8. Olanzapine Activates Hepatic Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: New Mechanistic Insight into Metabolic Dysregulation with Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Robin H.; Jokinen, Jenny D.; Massey, Veronica L.; Falkner, K. Cameron; Shi, Xue; Yin, Xinmin; Zhang, Xiang; Beier, Juliane I.

    2013-01-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an effective treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders, causes weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Most studies to date have focused on the potential effects of OLZ on the central nervous system’s mediation of weight; however, peripheral changes in liver or other key metabolic organs may also play a role in the systemic effects of OLZ. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of OLZ on hepatic metabolism in a mouse model of OLZ exposure. Female C57Bl/6J mice were administered OLZ (8 mg/kg per day) or vehicle subcutaneously by osmotic minipumps for 28 days. Liver and plasma were taken at sacrifice for biochemical analyses and for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis. OLZ increased body weight, fat pad mass, and liver-to-body weight ratio without commensurate increase in food consumption, indicating that OLZ altered energy expenditure. Expression and biochemical analyses indicated that OLZ induced anaerobic glycolysis and caused a pseudo-fasted state, which depleted hepatic glycogen reserves. OLZ caused similar effects in cultured HepG2 cells, as determined by Seahorse analysis. Metabolomic analysis indicated that OLZ increased hepatic concentrations of amino acids that can alter metabolism via the mTOR pathway; indeed, hepatic mTOR signaling was robustly increased by OLZ. Interestingly, OLZ concomitantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism caused by OLZ in liver may be mediated, at least in part, via simultaneous activation of both catabolic (AMPK) and anabolic (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways, which yields new insight into the metabolic side effects of this drug. PMID:23926289

  9. Cycle training increased GLUT4 and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin in fast twitch muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Charles A; Howell, Mary E A; Baker, Jonathan D; Dykes, Rhesa J; Duffourc, Michelle M; Ramsey, Michael W; Stone, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed 6 wk of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling. In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections. GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha and phospho-5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training but also increased in Type I fibers (34%). Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers, and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis.

  10. Differential Role of Rapamycin in Epidermis-Induced IL-15-IGF-1 Secretion via Activation of Akt/mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Yashu; Li, Haisheng; Liu, Meixi; Huang, Zhenggen; Yan, Rongshuai; He, Weifeng; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun

    2017-07-26

    Backgroud/Aims: The effects of rapamycin (RPM) on wound healing have been previously studied. However, reciprocal contradictory data have been reported, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to uncover differential role of RPM in regulation of wound healing and explore the possible mechanism. C57BL/6J mice and epidermal cells were treated with different doses of RPM. The wound re-epithelialization was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The expression of IL-15 and IGF-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Epidermal cell survival was determined by CCK-8 assays. Moreover, the mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathway were examined by western blot analysis. This study showed that differential doses of RPM could lead to separate consequences in epidermis. Histological analyses showed that low-dose RPM promoted wound healing, and enhanced the expression of IL-15 and IGF-1. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the effect of low-dose RPM in epidermis were not through mTORC1 pathway. Instead, activation of the Akt/mTORC2 pathway was involved in low-dose RPM-induced IL-15 and IGF-1 production in epidermis, while high-dose RPM inhibited the expression of IL-15 and IGF-1 and the activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathway. This study for the first time demonstrated that RPM-mediated wound healing was dose-dependent. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates mTORC2 Sensitivity to Rapamycin in Adaptive Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Angelika; Schmidt, Maria; Gürgen, Dennis; Postpieszala, Daniel; Catar, Rusan; Hegner, Björn; Davidson, Merci M.; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Dragun, Duska

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive cardiac remodeling is characterized by enhanced signaling of mTORC2 downstream kinase Akt. In females, 17ß-estradiol (E2), as well as Akt contribute essentially to sex-related premenopausal cardioprotection. Pharmacologic mTOR targeting with rapamycin is increasingly used for various clinical indications, yet burdened with clinical heterogeneity in therapy responses. The drug inhibits mTORC1 and less-so mTORC2. In male rodents, rapamycin decreases maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy whereas it leads to detrimental dilative cardiomyopathy in females. We hypothesized that mTOR inhibition could interfere with 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated sexual dimorphism and adaptive cell growth and tested responses in murine female hearts and cultured female cardiomyocytes. Under physiological in vivo conditions, rapamycin compromised mTORC2 function only in female, but not in male murine hearts. In cultured female cardiomyocytes, rapamycin impaired simultaneously IGF-1 induced activation of both mTOR signaling branches, mTORC1 and mTORC2 only in presence of E2. Use of specific estrogen receptor (ER)α- and ERβ-agonists indicated involvement of both estrogen receptors (ER) in rapamycin effects on mTORC1 and mTORC2. Classical feedback mechanisms common in tumour cells with upregulation of PI3K signaling were not involved. E2 effect on Akt-pS473 downregulation by rapamycin was independent of ERK as shown by sequential mTOR and MEK-inhibition. Furthermore, regulatory mTORC2 complex defining component rictor phosphorylation at Ser1235, known to interfere with Akt-substrate binding to mTORC2, was not altered. Functionally, rapamycin significantly reduced trophic effect of E2 on cell size. In addition, cardiomyocytes with reduced Akt-pS473 under rapamycin treatment displayed decreased SERCA2A mRNA and protein expression suggesting negative functional consequences on cardiomyocyte contractility. Rictor silencing confirmed regulation of SERCA2A expression by mTORC2 in E2-cultured

  12. 17ß-Estradiol regulates mTORC2 sensitivity to rapamycin in adaptive cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Angelika; Schmidt, Maria; Gürgen, Dennis; Postpieszala, Daniel; Catar, Rusan; Hegner, Björn; Davidson, Merci M; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Dragun, Duska

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive cardiac remodeling is characterized by enhanced signaling of mTORC2 downstream kinase Akt. In females, 17ß-estradiol (E2), as well as Akt contribute essentially to sex-related premenopausal cardioprotection. Pharmacologic mTOR targeting with rapamycin is increasingly used for various clinical indications, yet burdened with clinical heterogeneity in therapy responses. The drug inhibits mTORC1 and less-so mTORC2. In male rodents, rapamycin decreases maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy whereas it leads to detrimental dilative cardiomyopathy in females. We hypothesized that mTOR inhibition could interfere with 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated sexual dimorphism and adaptive cell growth and tested responses in murine female hearts and cultured female cardiomyocytes. Under physiological in vivo conditions, rapamycin compromised mTORC2 function only in female, but not in male murine hearts. In cultured female cardiomyocytes, rapamycin impaired simultaneously IGF-1 induced activation of both mTOR signaling branches, mTORC1 and mTORC2 only in presence of E2. Use of specific estrogen receptor (ER)α- and ERβ-agonists indicated involvement of both estrogen receptors (ER) in rapamycin effects on mTORC1 and mTORC2. Classical feedback mechanisms common in tumour cells with upregulation of PI3K signaling were not involved. E2 effect on Akt-pS473 downregulation by rapamycin was independent of ERK as shown by sequential mTOR and MEK-inhibition. Furthermore, regulatory mTORC2 complex defining component rictor phosphorylation at Ser1235, known to interfere with Akt-substrate binding to mTORC2, was not altered. Functionally, rapamycin significantly reduced trophic effect of E2 on cell size. In addition, cardiomyocytes with reduced Akt-pS473 under rapamycin treatment displayed decreased SERCA2A mRNA and protein expression suggesting negative functional consequences on cardiomyocyte contractility. Rictor silencing confirmed regulation of SERCA2A expression by mTORC2 in E2-cultured

  13. Rapamycin restores p14, p15 and p57 expression and inhibits the mTOR/p70S6K pathway in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Huibo; Kong, Xiaolin; Cui, Gang; Ren, Cuicui; Fan, Shengjin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Yingjie; Cao, Rongyi; Li, Yinghua; Zhou, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin and its underlying mechanisms on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. We found that the p14, p15, and p57 genes were not expressed in ALL cell lines (Molt-4 and Nalm-6) and adult ALL patients, whereas mTOR, 4E-BP1, and p70S6K were highly expressed. In Molt-4 and Nalm-6 cells exposed to rapamycin, cell viability decreased and the cell cycle was arrested at the G1/S phase. Rapamycin restored p14, p15, and p57 gene expression through demethylation of the promoters of these genes. As expected, rapamycin also increased p14 and p15 protein expression in both Molt-4 and Nalm-6 cells, as well as p57 protein expression in Nalm-6 cells. Rapamycin additionally decreased mTOR and p70S6K mRNA levels, as well as p70S6K and p-p70S6K protein levels. However, depletion of mTOR by siRNA did not alter the expression and promoter methylation states of p14, p15, and p57. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of rapamycin may be due mainly to increased p14, p15, and p57 expression via promoter demethylation and decreased mTOR and p70S6K expression in ALL cell lines. These results suggest a potential role for rapamycin in the treatment of adult ALL.

  14. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  15. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae. PMID:26855321

  16. Enhanced cellular uptake and in vivo pharmacokinetics of rapamycin-loaded cubic phase nanoparticles for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Parhi, Priyambada; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2011-10-01

    To date cancer is considered as one of the most devastating diseases due to its high rate of mortality. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is activated in cancers and inhibition of this pathway has great potential in anti-cancer therapy. Rapamycin, one of the most potent anti-cancer drugs, blocks Akt/mTOR function and has anti-proliferative activity in several cancers. To circumvent problems associated with rapamycin due to its poor water solubility, poor oral bioavailability, low accessibility to cancer tissues and systemic toxicity, rapamycin-loaded cubic nanoparticles (NP) were formulated with vitamin E d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as an emulsifier for oral delivery. Cubic NP were characterised and these particles demonstrated better cytotoxicity and apoptosis compared with native rapamycin under in vitro conditions due to their enhanced cellular uptake. The molecular impact of particulate systems on the Akt/mTOR pathway were elucidated by immunoblotting. Down-regulation of different anti-apoptotic genes of this pathway indicates activation of apoptotic signals leading to MIA PaCa cell death. An in vivo study demonstrated enhanced bioavailability of rapamycin in cubic NP in comparison with native rapamycin in a mouse model with no toxicity and good biocompatibility of void cubic NP at a higher dose of oral administration. Thus, rapamycin-loaded cubic NP can be used as an effective drug delivery system to produce better rapamycin therapeutics for the treatment of cancers. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ciliary transport regulates PDGF-AA/αα signaling via elevated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and diminished PP2A activity.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Nicole L; Caspary, Tamara

    2015-01-15

    Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/αα, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/αα signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/αα signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFRα levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFRα levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFRα levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/αα signaling. © 2015 Umberger and Caspary. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Destabilization of TNF-α mRNA by Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Woo; Jeon, Ye Ji; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ahn, So Ra; Ha, Shin Won; Bang, So Young; Park, Eun Kyung; Yi, Sang Ah; Lee, Min Gyu; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of mast cells through the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) induces degranulation, lipid mediator release, and cytokine secretion leading to allergic reactions. Although various signaling pathways have been characterized to be involved in the FcεRI-mediated responses, little is known about the precious mechanism for the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in mast cells. Here, we report that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), reduces the expression of TNF-α in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. IgE or specific antigen stimulation of RBL-2H3 cells increases the expression of TNF-α and activates various signaling molecules including S6K1, Akt and p38 MAPK. Rapamycin specifically inhibits antigen-induced TNF-α mRNA level, while other kinase inhibitors have no effect on TNF-α mRNA level. These data indicate that mTOR signaling pathway is the main regulation mechanism for antigen-induced TNF-α expression. TNF-α mRNA stability analysis using reporter construct containing TNF-α adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) shows that rapamycin destabilizes TNF-α mRNA via regulating the AU-rich element of TNF-α mRNA. The antigen-induced activation of S6K1 is inhibited by specific kinase inhibitors including mTOR, PI3K, PKC and Ca2+chelator inhibitor, while TNF-α mRNA level is reduced only by rapamycin treatment. These data suggest that the effects of rapamycin on the expression of TNF-α mRNA are not mediated by S6K1 but regulated by mTOR. Taken together, our results reveal that mTOR signaling pathway is a novel regulation mechanism for antigen-induced TNF-α expression in RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:24116273

  20. SR4 Uncouples Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, Modulates AMP-dependent Kinase (AMPK)-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling, and Inhibits Proliferation of HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James L.; Singhal, Jyotsana; Tompkins, Joshua D.; Rogers, George W.; Warden, Charles; Horne, David; Riggs, Arthur D.; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation produces most of the energy in aerobic cells by coupling respiration to the production of ATP. Mitochondrial uncouplers, which reduce the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, create a futile cycle of nutrient oxidation without generating ATP. Regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and associated cellular bioenergetics has been recently identified as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that SR4 is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that causes dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial respiration and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were reversed by the recoupling agent 6-ketocholestanol but not cyclosporin A and were nonexistent in mitochondrial DNA-depleted HepG2 cells. In isolated mouse liver mitochondria, SR4 similarly increased oxygen consumption independent of adenine nucleotide translocase and uncoupling proteins, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted swelling of valinomycin-treated mitochondria in potassium acetate medium. Mitochondrial uncoupling in HepG2 cells by SR4 results in the reduction of cellular ATP production, increased ROS production, activation of the energy-sensing enzyme AMPK, and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Global analysis of SR4-associated differential gene expression confirms these observations, including significant induction of apoptotic genes and down-regulation of cell cycle, mitochondrial, and oxidative phosphorylation pathway transcripts at 24 h post-treatment. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the previously reported indirect activation of AMPK and in vitro anticancer properties of SR4 as well as its beneficial effects in both animal xenograft and obese mice models could be a direct consequence of its mitochondrial uncoupling activity. PMID:26534958

  1. [Rapamycin effect on senescence and autophagy processes in human cell lines].

    PubMed

    Fernández Larrosa, Pablo N; Ruiz Grecco, Marina; Alvarado, Cecilia V; Micenmacher, Sabrina; Aguirre, Cristina; Martínez Noel, Giselle; Costas, Mónica A; Rubio, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy and senescence are both processes that firstly avoid tumor development through the inhibition of proliferation of damaged cells. However, autophagy does not imply cell death, because it is also a mechanism of cell survival under stress conditions. Concerning senescence, although these cells do not proliferate, they produce growth factors that contribute to the proliferative response of other cells. Rapamycin is an immunosupressor used in transplanted patients that inhibits the mTOR transduction signal pathway. This pathway is involved in the control of the energetic and nutritional state of the cell allowing protein synthesis and inhibiting autophagy when it is active. In this paper, the action of rapamycin over these processes was investigated and we found that a low concentration of this drug induces the senescence of a normal cell line, while a higher concentration induces autophagy of a transformed cell line. We have also determined that the oncogen RAC3 inhibits autophagy and that its expression is diminished by rapamycin. Therefore, our results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which this drug is effective, given the relevance of rapamycin for potential tumor therapy.

  2. Inhibition of Hageman factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Nossel, H. L.; Rubin, H.; Drillings, M.; Hsieh, R.

    1968-01-01

    A method for studying inhibitors of the contact stages of blood coagulation is described. A number of positively charged substances were shown to inhibit the contact stages. The inhibitory substances include spermine, cytochrome c, ribonuclease, and lysozyme. The inhibitory effect of these substances was neutralized by the addition of an activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent, factor XI, (PTA) fraction. Other positively charged substances including protamine, hexadimethrine, polylysine, polyornithine, methylene blue, and ortho-toluidine blue also inhibited the contact stages of coagulation, but the inhibitory effect on coagulation was not neutralized by the activated PTA fraction. Negatively charged substances such as heparin and insulin did not inhibit the contact stages of coagulation. Cytochrome c inhibited Celite adsorption of a partially purified Hageman factor fraction, and cytochrome, ribonuclease, spermine, and lysozome inhibited the adsorption of Hageman factor from PTA-deficient plasma. Very much smaller quantities of Celite completely adsorbed Hageman factor from the fraction rather than from whole plasma, which suggested the possibility that plasma contains an inhibitor or inhibitors of Hageman factor adsorption. Furthermore cytochrome c, spermine, ribonuclease, and lysozyme inhibited the coagulant activity of the following activators of the Hageman and PTA factors: Celite, kaolin, sodium stearate, ellagic acid, and skin. It is suggested that negatively charged sites on these activators are critical for adsorption and activation and that inhibition results from neutralization of the negatively charged sites by the adsorbed inhibtor. Tests with polylysine polymers indicate that inhibitory activity is directly related to molecular size over the molecular weight range of 4000 to 100,000. PMID:5645860

  3. S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Espeillac, Catherine; Mitchell, Claudia; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Chauvin, Céline; Koka, Vonda; Gillet, Cynthia; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Desdouets, Chantal; Pende, Mario

    2011-07-01

    Rapamycin is an antibiotic inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation by acting on target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. Mammalian TOR (mTOR) is thought to work through 2 independent complexes to regulate cell size and cell replication, and these 2 complexes show differential sensitivity to rapamycin. Here we combine functional genetics and pharmacological treatments to analyze rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrates that are involved in cell proliferation and tissue regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. After hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased S6 kinase phosphorylation, while treatment with rapamycin derivatives impaired regeneration and blocked S6 kinase activation. In addition, genetic deletion of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) caused a delay in S phase entry in hepatocytes after hepatectomy. The proliferative defect of S6K1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, as it was also observed in primary cultures and hepatic overexpression of S6K1-rescued proliferation. We found that S6K1 controlled steady-state levels of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in liver, and cyclin D1 expression was required to promote hepatocyte cell cycle. Notably, in vivo overexpression of cyclin D1 was sufficient to restore the proliferative capacity of S6K-null livers. The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation.

  4. Cannabinoid receptor agonists modulate oligodendrocyte differentiation by activating PI3K/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, O; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A; Le, MQU; Sanchez-Caro, C; Molina-Holgado, F; Molina-Holgado, E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The endogenous cannabinoid system participates in oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation in vitro. To determine the effect of synthetic cannabinoids on oligodendrocyte differentiation, we exposed differentiating cultures of oligodendrocytes with cannabinoid CB1, CB2 and CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and antagonists. The response of the PI3K/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathways were studied as effectors of cannabinoid activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Purified oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) obtained from primary mixed glial cell cultures were treated for 48 h with CB1, CB2 and CB1/CB2 receptor agonists (ACEA, JWH133 and HU210, respectively) in the presence or absence of the antagonists AM281 (CB1 receptor) and AM630 (CB2 receptor). Moreover, inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mTOR pathways (LY294002 and rapamycin, respectively) were used to study the involvement of these pathways on cannabinoid-induced OPC maturation. KEY RESULTS ACEA, JWH133 and HU-210 enhanced OPC differentiation as assessed by the expression of stage specific antigens and myelin basic protein (MBP). Moreover, this effect was blocked by the CB receptor antagonists. ACEA, JWH133 and HU210 induced a time-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, whereas the inhibitors of PI3K/Akt (LY294002) or of mTOR (rapamycin) reversed the effects of HU-210 on oligodendrocyte differentiation and kinase activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Activation of cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors with selective agonists accelerated oligodendrocyte differentiation through the mTOR and Akt signalling pathways. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21480865

  5. Attenuation of the activated mammalian target of rapamycin pathway might be associated with renal function reserve by a low-protein diet in the rat remnant kidney model.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Sakae; Yanagida, Momoko; Uchikawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ikegaya, Naoki; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2013-09-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a regulator of cellular protein synthesis and cell growth, plays an important role in the progression of renal hypertrophy and renal dysfunction in experimental chronic kidney disease models. Because the mTOR activity is regulated by nutrients including amino acids, we tested the hypothesis that the renoprotective effect of a low-protein diet (LPD) might be associated with the attenuation of the renal mTOR pathway. In this study, 5/6 nephrectomized rats were fed an LPD or a normal protein diet (NPD), and a number of rats that were fed an NPD received rapamycin (1.0 mg kg⁻¹ d⁻¹), a specific inhibitor of mTOR. After 6 weeks, renal tissue was collected to evaluate the activity of the mTOR pathway and histologic changes. The phosphorylation of p70S6k, a kinase in the downstream of mTOR, was significantly higher in the NPD-fed rats that showed progressive renal dysfunction than in the sham-operated rats (NPD). The LPD attenuated the excessive phosphorylation of p70S6k concomitant with reduced proteinuria and improved renal histologic changes in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The effects of the LPD were similar to the effects of rapamycin. The expression of phosphorylated p70S6k was significantly correlated with proteinuria (r² = 0.63, P < .001), the glomerular area (r² = 0.60, P < .001), and the number of phosphorylated Smad2-positive cells in the glomerulus (r² = 0.26, P < .05) of these rats. These results suggest that the preventive effect of an LPD on the progression of renal failure is associated with attenuation of the activated mTOR/p70S6k pathway in the rat remnant kidney model. © 2013.

  6. Impact of rapamycin on status epilepticus induced hippocampal pathology and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Michael S.; Hosford, Bethany E.; Santos, Victor R.; Singh, Shatrunjai P.; Rolle, Isaiah; LaSarge, Candi L.; Liska, John P.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Danzer, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence implicates the dentate gyrus in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Dentate granule cells limit the amount of excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit striking neuroplastic changes that may impair this function during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, aberrant integration of newly-generated granule cells underlies the majority of dentate restructuring. Recently, attention has focused on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a potential mediator of epileptogenic change. Systemic administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has promising therapeutic potential, as it has been shown to reduce seizure frequency and seizure severity in rodent models. Here, we tested whether mTOR signaling facilitates abnormal development of granule cells during epileptogenesis. We also examined dentate inflammation and mossy cell death in the dentate hilus. To determine if mTOR activation is necessary for abnormal granule cell development, transgenic mice that harbored fluorescently-labeled adult-born granule cells were treated with rapamycin following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Systemic rapamycin effectively blocked phosphorylation of S6 protein (a readout of mTOR activity) and reduced granule cell mossy fiber axon sprouting. However, the accumulation of ectopic granule cells and granule cells with aberrant basal dendrites was not significantly reduced. Mossy cell death and reactive astrocytosis were also unaffected. These data suggest that anti-epileptogenic effects of mTOR inhibition may be mediated by mechanisms other than inhibition of these common dentate pathologies. Consistent with this conclusion, rapamycin prevented pathological weight gain in epileptic mice, suggesting that rapamycin might act on central circuits or even peripheral tissues controlling weight gain in epilepsy. PMID:26995324

  7. Impact of rapamycin on status epilepticus induced hippocampal pathology and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hester, Michael S; Hosford, Bethany E; Santos, Victor R; Singh, Shatrunjai P; Rolle, Isaiah J; LaSarge, Candi L; Liska, John P; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Danzer, Steve C

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence implicates the dentate gyrus in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Dentate granule cells limit the amount of excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit striking neuroplastic changes that may impair this function during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, aberrant integration of newly-generated granule cells underlies the majority of dentate restructuring. Recently, attention has focused on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a potential mediator of epileptogenic change. Systemic administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has promising therapeutic potential, as it has been shown to reduce seizure frequency and seizure severity in rodent models. Here, we tested whether mTOR signaling facilitates abnormal development of granule cells during epileptogenesis. We also examined dentate inflammation and mossy cell death in the dentate hilus. To determine if mTOR activation is necessary for abnormal granule cell development, transgenic mice that harbored fluorescently-labeled adult-born granule cells were treated with rapamycin following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Systemic rapamycin effectively blocked phosphorylation of S6 protein (a readout of mTOR activity) and reduced granule cell mossy fiber axon sprouting. However, the accumulation of ectopic granule cells and granule cells with aberrant basal dendrites was not significantly reduced. Mossy cell death and reactive astrocytosis were also unaffected. These data suggest that anti-epileptogenic effects of mTOR inhibition may be mediated by mechanisms other than inhibition of these common dentate pathologies. Consistent with this conclusion, rapamycin prevented pathological weight gain in epileptic mice, suggesting that rapamycin might act on central circuits or even peripheral tissues controlling weight gain in epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapamycin induces the fusion-type independent downregulation of the EWS/FLI-1 proteins and inhibits Ewing's sarcoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Tirado, Oscar M; Notario, Vicente

    2003-12-18

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the prototype of a family of tumors (ESFT) of neuroectodermal origin formed by small, round cells with limited neural differentiation, which arise most frequently within bones in children or adolescents. The proliferation of ESFT cells is highly dependent on the establishment of, and signaling through several growth factor-mediated autocrine loops. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of translation and cell proliferation, involved in the cellular response to various nutritional, stress and mitogenic effectors. As mTOR has recently been associated with certain human cancers, we investigated the possibility that mTOR played a role in the regulation of ES cell proliferation. Results showed that ES cell lines carrying EWS/FLI-1 alleles of different types expressed different levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR protein. We demonstrate that rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, efficiently blocked the proliferation of all cell lines by promoting cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. This was paralleled by the downregulation of the levels of the EWS/FLI-1 proteins, regardless of their fusion type, and the concomitant restoration of the expression of the TGF-beta type 2 receptor (TGFbeta RII), which is known to be repressed by several EWS-ETS fusion proteins. The expression of a rapamycin-resistant mTOR construct prevented both the proliferation blockade and the EWS/FLI-1 downregulation. These data demonstrate that mTOR signaling plays a central role in ES cell pathobiology and strongly suggest that the use of rapamycin as a cytostatic agent may be an efficient tool for the treatment of ES patients.

  9. Effects of rapamycin on cerebral oxygen supply and consumption during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chi, O Z; Barsoum, S; Vega-Cotto, N M; Jacinto, E; Liu, X; Mellender, S J; Weiss, H R

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1h and reperfusion for 2h with and without rapamycin (20mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C(14)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5±0.8% control vs. 21.5±0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia-reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. EFFECTS OF RAPAMYCIN ON CEREBRAL OXYGEN SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION DURING REPERFUSION AFTER CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    PubMed Central

    CHI, O. Z.; BARSOUM, S.; VEGA-COTTO, N. M.; JACINTO, E.; LIU, X.; MELLENDER, S. J.; WEISS, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h with and without rapamycin (20 mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C14-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5 ± 0.8% control vs. 21.5 ± 0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia–reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion. PMID:26742793

  11. Rapamycin: An InhibiTOR of Aging Emerges From the Soil of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a macrolide immunosuppressant that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase and extends lifespan in model organisms including mice. Although rapamycin is an FDA-approved drug for select indications, a diverse set of negative side effects may preclude its wide-scale deployment as an antiaging therapy. mTOR forms two different protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2; the former is acutely sensitive to rapamycin whereas the latter is only chronically sensitive to rapamycin in vivo. Over the past decade, it has become clear that although genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 extends lifespan and delays aging, inhibition of mTORC2 has negative effects on mammalian health and longevity and is responsible for many of the negative side effects of rapamycin. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular and physiological effects of rapamycin treatment, and we discuss how the use of alternative rapamycin treatment regimens or rapamycin analogs has the potential to mitigate the deleterious side effects of rapamycin treatment by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Although the side effects of rapamycin are still of significant concern, rapid progress is being made in realizing the revolutionary potential of rapamycin-based therapies for the treatment of diseases of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Convergence of the target of rapamycin and the Snf1 protein kinase pathways in the regulation of the subcellular localization of Msn2, a transcriptional activator of STRE (Stress Response Element)-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Mayordomo, Isabel; Estruch, Francisco; Sanz, Pascual

    2002-09-20

    The subcellular localization of Msn2, a transcriptional activator of STRE (stress response element)-regulated genes, is modulated by carbon source availability. In cells growing in glucose, Msn2 is located mainly in the cytosol, whereas in carbon source-starved cells, Msn2 is located largely inside the nucleus. However, in cells lacking Reg1 (the regulatory subunit of the Reg1/Glc7 protein phosphatase complex), the regulation of subcellular distribution is absent, Msn2 being constitutively present in the cytosol. The localization defect in these mutants is specific for carbon starvation stress, and it is because of the presence of an abnormally active Snf1 protein kinase that inhibits the nuclear localization of Msn2 upon carbon starvation. Active Snf1 kinase is also able to avoid the effects of rapamycin, a drug that by inhibiting the TOR kinase pathway leads to a nuclear localization of Msn2 in wild type cells. Therefore, active Snf1 and the TOR kinase pathway may affect similar cytosolic steps in the regulation of the subcellular localization of Msn2.

  13. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-mammalian target of Rapamycin signaling pathway in the hippocampus is essential for the acquisition of morphine-induced place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, X Q; Cui, Y; Xin, W J; Jing, J; Liu, X G

    2010-11-24

    Hippocampus is a critical structure for the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is a usual learning paradigm for assessing drug reward. However, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), are critical molecules implicated in learning and memory. Here, we tested the role of PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway in morphine-induced CPP in the hippocampus. Our results showed that the acquisition of morphine CPP increased phosphorylation of Akt in the hippocampal CA3, but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the CA1. Moreover, the phosphorylated Akt exclusively expressed in the CA3 neurons. Likewise, levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p70S6K were significantly enhanced in the CA3 following morphine CPP. The alterations of these phosphorylated proteins are positively correlated with the acquisition of morphine CPP. More importantly, microinjection of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) into the CA3 prevented the acquisition of CPP and inhibited the activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, pre-infusion of β-FNA (β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride), a selective irreversible μ opioid receptor antagonist, into CA3 significantly prevented the acquisition of CPP and impaired Akt phosphorylation. All these results strongly implied that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activated by μ opioid receptor in hippocampal CA3 plays an important role in acquisition of morphine-induced CPP.

  14. Loss of the repressor REST in uterine fibroids promotes aberrant G protein-coupled receptor 10 expression and activates mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Binny V.; Koohestani, Faezeh; McWilliams, Michelle; Colvin, Arlene; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Kinsey, William H.; Nowak, Romana A.; Nothnick, Warren B.; Chennathukuzhi, Vargheese M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract, occurring in up to 77% of reproductive-aged women, yet molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A role for atypically activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids has been suggested in several studies. We identified that G protein-coupled receptor 10 [GPR10, a putative signaling protein upstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–protein kinase B/AKT–mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT–mTOR) pathway] is aberrantly expressed in uterine fibroids. The activation of GPR10 by its cognate ligand, prolactin releasing peptide, promotes PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathways and cell proliferation specifically in cultured primary leiomyoma cells. Additionally, we report that RE1 suppressing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF), a known tumor suppressor, transcriptionally represses GPR10 in the normal myometrium, and that the loss of REST in fibroids permits GPR10 expression. Importantly, mice overexpressing human GPR10 in the myometrium develop myometrial hyperplasia with excessive extracellular matrix deposition, a hallmark of uterine fibroids. We demonstrate previously unrecognized roles for GPR10 and its upstream regulator REST in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. Importantly, we report a unique genetically modified mouse model for a gene that is misexpressed in uterine fibroids. PMID:23284171

  15. Nitrogen Source Activates TOR (Target of Rapamycin) Complex 1 via Glutamine and Independently of Gtr/Rag Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Stracka, Daniele; Jozefczuk, Szymon; Rudroff, Florian; Sauer, Uwe; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary conserved TOR complex 1 (TORC1) activates cell growth in response to nutrients. In yeast, TORC1 responds to the nitrogen source via a poorly understood mechanism. Leucine, and perhaps other amino acids, activates TORC1 via the small GTPases Gtr1 and Gtr2, orthologs of the mammalian Rag GTPases. Here we investigate the activation of TORC1 by the nitrogen source and how this might be related to TORC1 activation by Gtr/Rag. The quality of the nitrogen source, as defined by its ability to promote growth and glutamine accumulation, directly correlates with its ability to activate TORC1 as measured by Sch9 phosphorylation. Preferred nitrogen sources stimulate rapid, sustained Sch9 phosphorylation and glutamine accumulation. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis reduces TORC1 activity and growth. Poor nitrogen sources stimulate rapid but transient Sch9 phosphorylation. A Gtr1 deficiency prevents the transient stimulation of TORC1 but does not affect the sustained TORC1 activity in response to good nitrogen sources. These findings suggest that the nitrogen source must be converted to glutamine, the preferred nitrogen source in yeast, to sustain TORC1 activity. Furthermore, sustained TORC1 activity is independent of Gtr/Rag. Thus, the nitrogen source and Gtr/Rag activate TORC1 via different mechanisms. PMID:25063813

  16. Calcineurin phosphatase activity in T lymphocytes is inhibited by FK 506 and cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    Fruman, D A; Klee, C B; Bierer, B E; Burakoff, S J

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive agents cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK 506 bind to distinct families of intracellular proteins (immunophilins) termed cyclophilins and FK 506-binding proteins (FKBPs). Recently, it has been shown that, in vitro, the complexes of CsA-cyclophilin and FK 506-FKBP-12 bind to and inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase. We have investigated the effects of drug treatment on phosphatase activity in T lymphocytes. Calcineurin is expressed in T cells, and its activity can be measured in cell lysates. Both CsA and FK 506 specifically inhibit cellular calcineurin at drug concentrations that inhibit interleukin 2 production in activated T cells. Rapamycin, which binds to FKBPs but exhibits different biological activities than FK 506, has no effect on calcineurin activity. Furthermore, excess concentrations of rapamycin prevent the effects of FK 506, apparently by displacing FK 506 from FKBPs. These results show that calcineurin is a target of drug-immunophilin complexes in vivo and establish a physiological role for calcineurin in T-cell activation. Images PMID:1373887

  17. The effect of rapamycin on biodiesel-producing protist Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Mukaida, Shiho; Ogawa, Takumi; Ohishi, Kazuko; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Daisaku; Arita, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Rapamycin induces autophagy with lipid remodeling in yeast and mammalian cells. To investigate the lipid biosynthesis of Euglena gracilis, rapamycin was supplemented in comparison with two model algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In Euglena, rapamycin induced the reduction of chlorophylls and the accumulation of neutral lipids without deterring its cell proliferation. Its lipidomic profile revealed that the fatty acid composition did not alter by supplementing rapamycin. In Chlamydomonas, however, rapamycin induced serious growth inhibition as reported elsewhere. With a lower concentration of rapamycin, the alga accumulated neutral lipids without reducing chlorophylls. In Cyanidioschyzon, rapamycin did not increase neutral lipids but reduced its chlorophyll content. We also tested fatty acid elongase inhibitors such as pyroxasulfone or flufenacet in Euglena with no significant change in its neutral lipid contents. In summary, controlled supplementation of rapamycin can increase the yield of neutral lipids while the scheme is not always applicable for other algal species.

  18. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activation In Focal Cortical Dysplasia and Related Focal Cortical Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and other localized malformations of cortical development represent common causes of intractable pediatric epilepsy. Insights into the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of focal cortical malformations may reveal information about associated mechanisms of epileptogenesis and suggest new therapies for seizures caused by these developmental lesions. In animal models and human studies of FCD and the related disease of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in mediating cellular and molecular changes leading to the formation of the cortical malformations and the expression of epilepsy. The use of mTOR inhibitors may represent a rational therapeutic strategy for treating or even preventing epilepsy due to FCD and TSC. PMID:22015915

  19. Geranylgeranylacetone inhibits melanin synthesis via ERK activation in Mel-Ab cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Soon; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2013-08-14

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has shown cytoprotective activity through induction of a 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70). Although HSP70 is reported to regulate melanogenesis, the effects of GGA on melanin synthesis in melanocytes have not been previously studied. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of GGA on melanogenesis and the related signaling pathways. Melanin content and tyrosinase activities were measured in Mel-Ab cells. GGA-induced signal transduction pathways were investigated by western blot analysis. Our results showed that GGA significantly decreased melanin content in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, GGA reduced tyrosinase activity dose-dependently, but it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Western blot analysis indicated that GGA downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase protein expression, whereas it increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, a specific ERK pathway inhibitor, PD98059, blocked GGA-induced melanin reduction and then prevented downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase by GGA. However, a specific mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, only slightly restored inhibition of melanin production by GGA, indicating that mTOR signaling is not a key mechanism regulating the inhibition of melanin production. These findings suggest that activation of ERK by GGA reduces melanin synthesis in Mel-Ab cells through downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The combination of rapamycin and resveratrol blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Berger, Sara Malka; Kramer, Melissa Y; Schwartz, Naomi S; Holz, Marina K

    2015-03-01

    Hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a frequent event in breast cancer and current efforts are aimed at targeting the mTORC1 signaling pathway in combination with other targeted therapies. However, patients often develop drug resistance in part due to activation of the oncogenic Akt signaling and upregulation of autophagy, which protects cancer cells from apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the effects of combination therapy of rapamycin (an allosteric mTORC1 inhibitor) together with resveratrol (a phytoestrogen that inhibits autophagy). Our results show that combination of these drugs maintains inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, while preventing upregulation of Akt activation and autophagy, causing apoptosis. Additionally, this combination was effective in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer cells, underscoring its versatility.

  1. 4E-BP2 hardwires lymphocytes for rapamycin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Robert T

    2016-05-31

    The mTORC1 [mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1] inhibitor rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of T and B lymphocyte growth and proliferation. In this issue of Science Signaling, So et al found that the isoform of 4E-BP (4E-BP2) in lymphocytes that regulates messenger RNA translation is more sensitive to the effects of rapamycin than is the 4E-BP isoform found in nonlymphoid cells. Furthermore, inhibition of 4E-BP2 blocks both the growth and proliferation of lymphocytes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. The Neuroprotective Effect of Rapamycin as a Modulator of the mTOR-NF-κB Axis during Retinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Tomohiro; Ozawa, Yoko; Kamoshita, Mamoru; Osada, Hideto; Toda, Eriko; Kurihara, Toshihide; Nagai, Norihiro; Umezawa, Kazuo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The determination of the molecular mechanism underlying retinal pathogenesis and visual dysfunction during innate inflammation, and the treatment effect of rapamycin thereon. Methods The endotoxin-induced uveitis and retinitis mouse model was established by injecting lipopolysaccharide. The mice were subsequently treated with rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. The rhodopsin mRNA and protein expression level in the retina and the photoreceptor outer segment (OS) length in immunohistochemical stainings were measured, and visual function was recorded by electroretinography. Inflammatory cytokines, their related molecules, mTOR, and LC3 levels were measured by real-time PCR and/or immunoblotting. Leukocyte adhesion during inflammation was analyzed using concanavalin A lectin. Results The post-transcriptional reduction in the visual pigment of rod photoreceptor cells, rhodopsin, OS shortening, and rod photoreceptor cell dysfunction during inflammation were suppressed by rapamycin. Activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and induction of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the activation of the downstream signaling protein, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which reduces rhodopsin in the retina during inflammation, were attenuated by rapamycin. Increased leukocyte adhesion was also attenuated by rapamycin. Interestingly, although mTOR activation was observed after NF-κB activation, mTOR inhibition suppressed NF-κB activation at the early phase, indicating that the basal level of activated mTOR was sufficient to activate NF-κB in the retina. In addition, the inhibition of NF-κB suppressed mTOR activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop of mTOR and NF-κB during inflammation. The ratio of LC3II to LC3I, which reflects autophagy induction, was not changed by inflammation but was increased by

  3. FOXO3a reactivation mediates the synergistic cytotoxic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Liang; Wang Huiming; Zhou Lin; Yu Da

    2011-02-15

    FOXO3a, a well-known transcriptional regulator, controls a wide spectrum of biological processes. The Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway inactivates FOXO3a via phosphorylation-induced nuclear exclusion and degradation. A loss or gain of FOXO3a activity has been correlated with efficiency of chemotherapies in various cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the FOXO3a activity modulating and antitumor effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in OSCC cells. Cisplatin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent way in OSCC Tca8113 cells. Rapamycin alone had no effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Rapamycin downregulated the expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2) and increased the FOXO3a protein stability but induced the upregulation of feedback Akt activation-mediated FOXO3a phosphorylation. Cisplatin decreased the phosphorylation of FOXO3a via Akt inhibition. Rapamycin combined with cisplatin as its feedback Akt activation inhibitor revealed the most dramatic FOXO3a nuclear localization and reactivation with the prevention of its feedback loop and exposed significant synergistic effects of decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro and decreased tumor size in vivo. Furthermore, the downstream effects of FOXO3a reactivation were found to be accumulation of p27 and Bim. In conclusion, rapamycin/cisplatin combination therapy boosts synergistic antitumor effects through the significant FOXO3a reactivation in OSCC cells. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which rapamycin/cisplatin combination therapy proves to be a potent molecular-targeted strategy for OSCC.

  4. Rapamycin increases the yield and effector function of human γδ T cells stimulated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haishan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical strategies to exploit Vγ2Vδ2 T cell responses for immunotherapy are confronted with short-term increases in cell levels or activity and the development of anergy that reduces the response to therapy with succeeding treatments. We are exploring strategies to increase the yield and durability of elicited Vγ2Vδ2 T cell responses. One approach focuses on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is important for regulating T cell metabolism and function. In Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, mTOR phosphorylates the S6K1 and eIF4EBP1 signaling intermediates after antigen stimulation. Rapamycin inhibited these phosphorylation events without impacting Akt or Erk activation, even though specific inhibition of Akt or Erk in turn reduced the activation of mTOR. The effects of rapamycin on the T cell receptor signaling pathway lead to increased proliferation of treated and antigen-exposed Vγ2Vδ2 cells. Rapamycin altered the phenotype of antigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 cells by inducing a population shift from CD62L + CD69−to CD62L-CD69+, higher expression of CD25 or Bcl-2, lower levels of CCR5 and increased resistance to Fas-mediated cellular apoptosis. These changes were consistent with rapamycin promoting cell activation while decreasing the susceptibility to cell death that might occur by CCR5 or Fas signaling. Rapamycin treatment during antigen-stimulation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells may be a strategy for overcoming current obstacles in tumor immunotherapy. PMID:21107834

  5. Rapamycin treatment attenuates age-associated periodontitis in mice.

    PubMed

    An, Jonathan Y; Quarles, Ellen K; Mekvanich, Surapat; Kang, Alex; Liu, Anthony; Santos, Danielle; Miller, Richard A; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Cox, Timothy C; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-09-09

    Interventions that target biological mechanisms of aging have great potential to enhance quality of life by delaying morbidity and mortality. The FDA-approved drug rapamycin is a compelling candidate for such an intervention. In a previous study, it was reported that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy and remodel the gut microbiome in aged mice. Transient treatment with rapamycin or a rapamycin derivative has also been shown to delay immune stem cell senescence and rejuvenate immune function in aged mice and elderly people. Periodontal disease is an important age-related disease involving altered immune function, pathological changes to the oral microbiome, and systemic inflammation. Periodontal disease is defined clinically by loss of alveolar bone and by connective tissue degeneration. Here, we describe significant alveolar bone loss during aging in two different mouse strain backgrounds and report that rapamycin treatment is sufficient to reverse age-associated periodontal disease in mice. Partial restoration of youthful levels of alveolar bone is observed in 22-month-old rapamycin-treated mice as rapidly as 8 weeks after initiation of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first intervention shown to substantially prevent or reverse age-associated alveolar bone loss. These findings suggest the possibility that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin or other pharmacological agents may be useful to treat a clinically relevant condition for which there is currently no effective treatment.

  6. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1 replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the evidence presented in this review suggests that RAPA may be a useful drug that should be evaluated for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:21175433

  7. Mammalian-target of rapamycin inhibition with temsirolimus in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients is associated with considerable toxicity: results of the temsirolimus pilot trial by the German MDS Study Group (D-MDS).

    PubMed

    Wermke, Martin; Schuster, Claudia; Nolte, Florian; Al-Ali, Haifa-Kathrin; Kiewe, Philipp; Schönefeldt, Claudia; Jakob, Christiane; von Bonin, Malte; Hentschel, Leopold; Klut, Ina-Maria; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Baretton, Gustavo; Germing, Ulrich; Herbst, Regina; Haase, Detelef; Hofmann, Wolf K; Platzbecker, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    The mammalian-target of rapamycin (also termed mechanistic target of rapamycin, mTOR) pathway integrates various pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic stimuli and is involved in regulatory T-cell (TREG) development. As these processes contribute to the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we hypothesized that mTOR modulation with temsirolimus (TEM) might show activity in MDS. This prospective multicentre trial enrolled lower and higher risk MDS patients, provided that they were transfusion-dependent/neutropenic or relapsed/refractory to 5-azacitidine, respectively. All patients received TEM at a weekly dose of 25 mg. Of the 9 lower- and 11 higher-risk patients included, only 4 (20%) reached the response assessment after 4 months of treatment and showed stable disease without haematological improvement. The remaining patients discontinued TEM prematurely due to adverse events. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached in the lower-risk group and 296 days in the higher-risk group. We observed a significant decline of bone marrow (BM) vascularisation (P = 0·006) but were unable to demonstrate a significant impact of TEM on the balance between TREG and pro-inflammatory T-helper-cell subsets within the peripheral blood or BM. We conclude that mTOR-modulation with TEM at a dose of 25 mg per week is accompanied by considerable toxicity and has no beneficial effects in elderly MDS patients.

  8. Myxoma virus virotherapy for glioma in immunocompetent animal models: optimizing administration routes and synergy with rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Lun, XueQing; Alain, Tommy; Zemp, Franz J; Zhou, Hongyuan; Rahman, Masmudur M; Hamilton, Mark G; McFadden, Grant; Bell, John; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2010-01-15

    Oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) is being developed as a novel virotherapeutic against human brain cancer and has promising activity against human brain tumor models in immunocompromised hosts. Because an intact immune system could reduce its efficacy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncolytic potential of MYXV in immunocompetent racine glioma models. Here, we report that MYXV infects and kills all racine cell glioma lines and that its effects are enhanced by rapamycin. Intratumoral administration of MYXV with rapamycin improved viral replication in the tumor and significantly prolonged host survival. Similarly, coadministration via a method of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) enhanced viral replication and efficacy in vivo. Mechanisms by which rapamycin improved MYXV oncolysis included an inhibition of type I IFN production in vitro and a reduction of intratumoral infiltration of CD68(+) microglia/macrophages and CD163(+) macrophages in vivo. Our findings define a method to improve MYXV efficacy against gliomas by rapamycin coadministration, which acts to promote immune responses engaged by viral delivery.

  9. Role of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in compensatory renal hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Kang; Chen, Jianchun; Neilson, Eric G; Harris, Raymond C

    2005-05-01

    Loss of functioning nephrons stimulates the growth of residual kidney tissue to augment work capacity and maintain normal renal function. This growth largely occurs by hypertrophy rather than from hyperplasia of the remaining nephrons. The signaling mechanisms that increase RNA and protein synthesis during compensatory renal hypertrophy are unknown. This study found that the remaining kidney hypertrophied 42% by 16 d after unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) in DBA/2 mice. Immunoblotting analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), the two downstream effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The highly specific mTOR inhibitor rapamycin blocked UNX-increased phosphorylation of both rpS6 and 4E-BP1. UNX increased the content of not only 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits but also 80S monosomes and polysomes in the remaining kidney. Administration of rapamycin decreased UNX-induced polysome formation and shifted the polysome profile in the direction of monosomes and ribosomal subunits. Pretreatment of the mice with rapamycin inhibited UNX-induced hypertrophy. These studies demonstrate that activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in the remaining kidney after UNX plays an essential role in modulating RNA and protein synthesis during development of compensatory renal hypertrophy.

  10. Downregulation of p70S6K Enhances Cell Sensitivity to Rapamycin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhaoming; Peng, Kezheng; Wang, Ning; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that mTOR/p70S6K pathway was abnormally activated in many cancers and rapamycin and its analogs can restrain tumor growth through inhibiting this pathway, but some tumors including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) appear to be insensitive to rapamycin in recent studies. In the present study, we explored the measures to improve the sensitivity of ESCC cells to rapamycin and identified the clinical significance of the expression of phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K). The results showed that, after downregulating the expression of p70S6K and p-p70S6K by p70S6K siRNA, the inhibitory effects of rapamycin on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth were significantly enhanced in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, p-p70S6K had strong positive expression in ESCC tissues and its expression was closely related to lymph node metastasis and the TNM staging. These results indicated that p-p70S6K may participate in the invasion and metastasis in the development of ESCC and downregulation of the expression of p-p70S6K could improve the sensitivity of cells to rapamycin in ESCC. PMID:27595116

  11. FK506 treatment inhibits caspase-3 activation and promotes oligodendroglial survival following traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, Stephanie; Knapp, Pamela; Springer, Joe

    2002-09-01

    The focus of this study is to examine the ability of FK506, an immunosuppressant that inhibits calcineurin activation, to limit caspase-3 activation in oligodendroglia following spinal cord injury (SCI). To better establish a role for calcineurin and caspase-3 activation in oligodendroglia following SCI, rats received a contusion injury to the spinal cord followed by treatment with FK506 or rapamycin (another immunosuppressant with no detectable inhibitory action on calcineurin activation). Animals were then sacrificed at 8 days postinjury and spinal cord tissue was processed using immunofluorescence histochemistry to examine cellular caspase-3 activation in ventral and dorsal white matter. In all treatment groups, numerous oligodendroglia were found to express the activated form of caspase-3 in regions proximal and distal to the injury epicenter. However, our findings suggest that treatment with FK506, but not rapamycin reduces the number of oligodendroglia expressing activated caspase-3 and increases the number of surviving oligodendroglia in dorsal white matter. These results provide initial evidence that agents that reduce the actions of calcineurin and subsequent caspase-3 activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of traumatic SCI.

  12. Delayed reendothelialization with rapamycin is rescued by the addition of nicorandil in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying Qian; Tian, Feng; Chen, Jin Song; Chen, Yun Dai; Zhou, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent that is added to drug eluting stents. It prevents restenosis, but it also impairs reendothelialization. Nicorandil is a hybrid agent with adenosine triphosphated (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener and nitrate properties. It prevents oxidative stress and cell apoptosis induced by rapamycin in endothelial cells in vitro. However, whether nicorandil promotes reendothelialization after angioplasty delayed by rapamycin remains to be determined. Balloon injury model was established in SD rats. Nicorandil increased reendothelialization impaired by rapamycin, and it decreased xanthine oxidase (XO)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by rapamycin. In addition, eNOS expression inhibited by rapamycin was increased by nicorandil in vivo. In vitro, rapamycin-impeded cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) migration, proliferation and rapamycin-induced ROS production were reversed by nicorandil. Knockdown of XO partially inhibited rapamycin-induced ROS production and cell apoptosis in CMECs, and it promoted CMECs migration and proliferation suppressed by rapamycin. Knockdown of Akt partially prevents eNOS upregulation promoted by nicorandil. The beneficial effect of nicorandil is exhibited by inhibiting XO and up-regulating Akt pathway. Nicorandil combined with rapamycin in effect rescue the deficiencies of rapamycin alone in arterial healing after angioplasty. PMID:27713157

  13. Differential Regulation of Cardiac Function and Intracardiac Cytokines by Rapamycin in Healthy and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Christian; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Mahmood, Abuzar; Gavini, Madhavi P.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is comorbid with cardiovascular disease and impaired immunity. Rapamycin improves cardiac functions and extends lifespan by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, in diabetic murine models, Rapamycin elevates hyperglycemia and reduces longevity. Since Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant, we examined whether Rapamycin (750 μg/kg/day) modulates intracardiac cytokines, which affect the cardiac immune response, and cardiac function in male lean (ZL) and diabetic obese Zucker (ZO) rats. Rapamycin suppressed levels of fasting triglycerides, insulin, and uric acid in ZO but increased glucose. Although Rapamycin improved multiple diastolic parameters (E/E′, E′/A′, E/Vp) initially, these improvements were reversed or absent in ZO at the end of treatment, despite suppression of cardiac fibrosis and phosphoSer473Akt. Intracardiac cytokine protein profiling and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis indicated suppression of intracardiac immune defense in ZO, in response to Rapamycin treatment in both ZO and ZL. Rapamycin increased fibrosis in ZL without increasing phosphoSer473Akt and differentially modulated anti-fibrotic IL-10, IFNγ, and GM-CSF in ZL and ZO. Therefore, fundamental difference in intracardiac host defense between diabetic ZO and healthy ZL, combined with differential regulation of intracardiac cytokines by Rapamycin in ZO and ZL hearts, underlies differential cardiac outcomes of Rapamycin treatment in health and diabetes. PMID:28408970

  14. Two crystal structures of the FK506-binding domain of Plasmodium falciparum FKBP35 in complex with rapamycin at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Bianchin, Alessandra; Allemand, Frederic; Bell, Angus; Chubb, Anthony J; Guichou, Jean François

    2015-06-01

    Antimalarial chemotherapy continues to be challenging in view of the emergence of drug resistance, especially artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. It is critical that novel antimalarial drugs are identified that inhibit new targets with unexplored mechanisms of action. It has been demonstrated that the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin, which is currently in clinical use to prevent organ-transplant rejection, has antimalarial effects. The Plasmodium falciparum target protein is PfFKBP35, a unique immunophilin FK506-binding protein (FKBP). This protein family binds rapamycin, FK506 and other immunosuppressive and non-immunosuppressive macrolactones. Here, two crystallographic structures of rapamycin in complex with the FK506-binding domain of PfFKBP35 at high resolution, in both its oxidized and reduced forms, are reported. In comparison with the human FKBP12-rapamycin complex reported previously, the structures reveal differences in the β4-β6 segment that lines the rapamycin binding site. Structural differences between the Plasmodium protein and human hFKBP12 include the replacement of Cys106 and Ser109 by His87 and Ile90, respectively. The proximity of Cys106 to the bound rapamycin molecule (4-5 Å) suggests possible routes for the rational design of analogues of rapamycin with specific antiparasitic activity. Comparison of the structures with the PfFKBD-FK506 complex shows that both drugs interact with the same binding-site residues. These two new structures highlight the structural differences and the specific interactions that must be kept in consideration for the rational design of rapamycin analogues with antimalarial activity that specifically bind to PfFKBP35 without immunosuppressive effects.

  15. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  16. Stromal Liver Kinase B1 [STK11] Signaling Loss Induces Oviductal Adenomas and Endometrial Cancer by Activating Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, LiHua; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Crum, Christopher P.; Teixeira, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations of the Liver Kinase b1 (LKB1/STK11) tumor suppressor gene have been linked to Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), an autosomal-dominant, cancer-prone disorder in which patients develop neoplasms in several organs, including the oviduct, ovary, and cervix. We have conditionally deleted Lkb1 in Müllerian duct mesenchyme-derived cells of the female reproductive tract and observed expansion of the stromal compartment and hyperplasia and/or neoplasia of adjacent epithelial cells throughout the reproductive tract with paratubal cysts and adenomyomas in oviducts and, eventually, endometrial cancer. Examination of the proliferation marker phospho-histone H3 and mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway members revealed increased proliferation and mTORC1 activation in stromal cells of both the oviduct and uterus. Treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 activity, decreased tumor burden in adult Lkb1 mutant mice. Deletion of the genes for Tuberous Sclerosis 1 (Tsc1) or Tsc2, regulators of mTORC1 that are downstream of LKB1 signaling, in the oviductal and uterine stroma phenocopies some of the defects observed in Lkb1 mutant mice, confirming that dysregulated mTORC1 activation in the Lkb1-deleted stroma contributes to the phenotype. Loss of PTEN, an upstream regulator of mTORC1 signaling, along with Lkb1 deletion significantly increased tumor burden in uteri and induced tumorigenesis in the cervix and vagina. These studies show that LKB1/TSC1/TSC2/mTORC1 signaling in mesenchymal cells is important for the maintenance of epithelial integrity and suppression of carcinogenesis in adjacent epithelial cells. Because similar changes in the stromal population are also observed in human oviductal/ovarian adenoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma patients, we predict that dysregulated mTORC1 activity by upstream mechanisms similar to those described in these model systems contributes to the pathogenesis of these human diseases. PMID:22916036

  17. mTOR inhibition decreases SOX2-SOX9 mediated glioma stem cell activity and temozolomide resistance

    PubMed Central

    Garros-Regulez, Laura; Aldaz, Paula; Arrizabalaga, Olatz; Moncho-Amor, Veronica; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Manterola, Lorea; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Barrena, Cristina; Villanua, Jorge; Ruiz, Irune; Pollard, Steven; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: SOX2 and SOX9 are commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma, and regulate the activity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Their specific and overlapping roles in GSCs and glioma treatment remain unclear. Methods: SOX2 and SOX9 levels were examined in human biopsies. Gain and loss of function determined the impact of altering SOX2 and SOX9 on cell proliferation, senescence, stem cell activity, tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. Results: SOX2 and SOX9 expression correlates positively in glioma cells and glioblastoma biopsies. High levels of SOX2 bypass cellular senescence and promote resistance to temozolomide. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SOX2 acts upstream of SOX9. mTOR genetic and pharmacologic (rapamycin) inhibition decreased SOX2 and SOX9 expression, and reversed chemoresistance. Conclusions: Our findings reveal SOX2-SOX9 as an oncogenic axis that regulates stem cell properties and chemoresistance. We identify that rapamycin abrogate SOX protein expression and provide evidence that a combination of rapamycin and temozolomide inhibits tumor growth in cells with high SOX2/SOX9. PMID:26878385

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C protects prostate cancer cells from oxidative stress by the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 and AKT-1.

    PubMed

    Muders, Michael H; Zhang, Heyu; Wang, Enfeng; Tindall, Donald J; Datta, Kaustubh

    2009-08-01

    Recurrence and subsequent metastatic transformation of cancer develops from a subset of malignant cells, which show the ability to resist stress and to adopt to a changing microenvironment. These tumor cells have distinctly different growth factor pathways and antiapoptotic responses compared with the vast majority of cancer cells. Long-term therapeutic success can only be achieved by identifying and targeting factors and signaling cascades that help these cells survive during stress. Both microarray and immunohistochemical analysis on human prostate cancer tissue samples have shown an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in metastatic prostate cancer. We have discovered that VEGF-C acts directly on prostate cancer cells to protect them against oxidative stress. VEGF-C increased the survival of prostate cancer cells during hydrogen peroxide stress by the activation of AKT-1/protein kinase Balpha. This activation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 and was not observed in the absence of oxidative stress. Finally, the transmembrane nontyrosine kinase receptor neuropilin-2 was found to be essential for the VEGF-C-mediated AKT-1 activation. Indeed, our findings suggest a novel and distinct function of VEGF-C in protecting cancer cells from stress-induced cell death, thereby facilitating cancer recurrence and metastasis. This is distinctly different from the known function of VEGF-C in inducing lymphangiogenesis.

  19. Targeting glutamine metabolism and the focal adhesion kinase additively inhibits the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway in spheroid cancer stem-like properties of ovarian clear cell carcinoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masakazu; Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Fujimoto, Asaha; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Nakamura, Hiroe; Nishida, Haruka; Inoue, Tomoko; Taguchi, Ayumi; Ogishima, Juri; Eguchi, Satoko; Yamashita, Aki; Tomio, Kensuke; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, which is linked to its resistance to chemotherapy. Strategies to overcome chemoresistance have been keenly investigated. Culturing cancer cells in suspension, which results in formation of spheroids, is a more accurate reflection of clinical cancer behavior in vitro than conventional adherent cultures. By performing RNA-seq analysis, we found that the focal adhesion pathway was essential in spheroids. The phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was increased in spheroids compared to adherent cells, and inhibition of FAK in spheroids resulted in inhibition of the downstream mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in ovarian clear cell carcinomas. This result also suggested that only using a FAK inhibitor might have limitations because the phosphorylation level of FAK could not be reduced to the level in adherent cells, and it appeared that some combination therapies might be necessary. We previously reported that glutamine and glutamate concentrations were higher in spheroids than adherent cells, and we investigated a synergistic effect targeting glutamine metabolism with FAK inhibition on the mTOR pathway. The combination of AOA, a pan-transaminase inhibitor, and PF 573228, a FAK inhibitor, additively inhibited the mTOR pathway in spheroids from ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Our in vitro study proposed a rationale for the positive and negative effects of using FAK inhibitors in ovarian clear cell carcinomas and suggested that targeting glutamine metabolism could overcome the limitation of FAK inhibitors by additively inhibiting the mTOR pathway.

  20. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin contributes to pain nociception induced in rats by BmK I, a sodium channel-specific modulator.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Hua, Li-Ming; Jiao, Yun-Lu; Ye, Pin; Fu, Jin; Cheng, Zhi-Jun; Ding, Gang; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is essential for maintenance of the sensitivity of certain adult sensory neurons. Here, we investigated whether the mTOR cascade is involved in scorpion envenomation-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats. The results showed that intraplantar injection of a neurotoxin from Buthus martensii Karsch, BmK I (10 μg), induced the activation of mTOR, as well as its downstream molecules p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70 S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), in lumbar 5-6 dorsal root ganglia neurons on both sides in rats. The activation peaked at 2 h and recovered 1 day after injection. Compared with the control group, the ratios of p-mTOR/p-p70 S6K/p-4EBP1 in three types of neurons changed significantly. The cell typology of p-mTOR/p-p70 S6K/p-4E-BP1 immuno-reactive neurons also changed. Intrathecal administration of deforolimus, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, attenuated BmK I-induced pain responses (spontaneous flinching, paroxysmal pain-like behavior, and mechanical hypersensitivity). Together, these results imply that the mTOR signaling pathway is mobilized by and contributes to experimental scorpion sting-induced pain.

  1. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Rapamycin Benzothiazole Hybrids as mTOR Targeted Anti-cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijun; Huang, Jie; Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Hui; Li, Kualiang; Yang, Dan; Chen, Xiaqin; Ying, Jiayin; Pan, Fusheng; Lv, Youbing; Cheng, Yuanrong

    2016-01-01

    The immunosuppressant drug rapamycin, was firstly identified as a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) allosteric inhibitor, and its derivatives have been successfully developed as anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, finding rapamycin derivatives with better anti-cancer activity has been proved to be an effective way to discover new targeted anti-cancer drugs. In this paper, structure modification was performed at the C-43 position of rapamycin using bioisosterism and a hybrid approach: a series of novel rapamycin-benzothiazole hybrids 4a-e, 5a-c, and 9a, b have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against Caski, CNE-2, SGC-7901, PC-3, SK-NEP-1 and A-375 human cancer cell lines. Some of these compounds (4a-e, 9a, b) displayed good to excellent potency against the Caski and SK-NEP-1 cell line as compared with rapamycin. Compound 9b as the most active compound showed IC50 values of 8.3 (Caski) and 9.6 μM (SK-NEP-1), respectively. In addition, research on the mechanism showed that 9b was able to cause G1 phase arrest and induce apoptosis in the Caski cell line. Most importantly, it significantly decreased the phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein, p70S6K1 and 4EBP1, which indicated that 9b inhibited the cancer cell growth by blocking the mTOR pathway and may have the potential to become a new mTOR inhibitor.

  2. Autophagy activation: a novel mechanism of atorvastatin to protect mesenchymal stem cells from hypoxia and serum deprivation via AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yue-Jin; Wang, Hong; Dong, Qiu-Ting; Wang, Tian-Jie; Qian, Hai-Yan; Xu, Hui

    2012-05-20

    Autophagy is a complex "self-eating" process and could be utilized for cell survival under stresses. Statins, which could reduce apoptosis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during both ischemia and hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD), have been proved to induce autophagy in some cell lines. We have previously shown that atorvastatin (ATV) could regulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a positive modulator of autophagy, in MSCs. Thus, we hypothesized that autophagy activation through AMPK and its downstream molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may be a novel mechanism of ATV to protect MSCs from apoptosis during H/SD. Here, we demonstrated that H/SD induced autophagy in MSCs significantly as identified by increasing acidic vesicular organelle-positive cells, type II of light chain 3 (LC3-II) expression, and autophagosome formation. The levels of H/SD-induced apoptosis were increased by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) while decreased by rapamycin, an autophagic inducer. ATV further enhanced the autophagic activity observed in MSCs exposed to H/SD. Treatment with 3-MA attenuated ATV-induced autophagy and abrogated the protective effects of ATV on MSC apoptosis, while rapamycin failed to cause additional effects on either autophagy or apoptosis compared with ATV alone. The phosphorylation of AMPK was upregulated whereas the phosphorylation of mTOR was downregulated in ATV-treated MSCs, which were both attenuated by AMPK inhibitor compound C. Further, treatment with compound C reduced the ATV-induced autophagy in MSCs under H/SD. These data suggest that autophagy plays a protective role in H/SD-induced apoptosis of MSCs, and ATV could effectively activate autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway to enhance MSC survival during H/SD.

  3. The role of diacylglycerol kinase ζ and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W; Goodman, Craig A; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-17

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass.

  4. The Role of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ and Phosphatidic Acid in the Mechanical Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy*

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C.; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W.; Goodman, Craig A.; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass. PMID:24302719

  5. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life. PMID:23934728

  6. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-08-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life.

  7. Resveratrol potentiates rapamycin to prevent hyperinsulinemia and obesity in male mice on high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, O V; Paszkiewicz, G; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2013-01-01

    High doses of rapamycin, an antiaging agent, can prevent obesity in mice on high fat diet (HFD). Obesity is usually associated with hyperinsulinemia. Here, we showed that rapamycin given orally, at doses that did not affect weight gain in male mice on HFD, tended to decrease fasting insulin levels. Addition of resveratrol, which alone did not affect insulin levels, potentiated the effect of rapamycin, so that the combination decreased obesity and prevented hyperinsulinemia. Neither rapamycin nor resveratrol, and their combination affected fasting levels of glucose (despite lowering insulin levels), implying that the combination might prevent insulin resistance. We and others previously reported that resveratrol at high doses inhibited the mTOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway in cell culture. Yet, as we confirmed here, this effect was observed only at super-pharmacological concentrations. At pharmacological concentrations, resveratrol did not exert ‘rapamycin-like effects' on cellular senescence and did not inhibit the mTOR pathway in vitro, indicating nonoverlapping therapeutic mechanisms of actions of rapamycin and resveratrol in vivo. Although, like rapamycin, resveratrol decreased insulin-induced HIF-1-dependent transcription in cell culture, resveratrol did not inhibit mTOR at the same concentrations. Given distinct mechanisms of action of rapamycin and resveratrol at clinically relevant doses, their combination warrants further investigation as a potential antiaging, antiobesity and antidiabetic modality. PMID:23348586

  8. Inhibition of mTOR activity in diabetes mellitus reduces proteinuria but not renal accumulation of hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Stridh, Sara; Palm, Fredrik; Takahashi, Tomoko; Ikegami-Kawai, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is an early sign of diabetic nephropathy. Also the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is elevated in the renal interstitium during experimental diabetes. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway participates in the signaling of hyperglycemia-induced ECM accumulation in the kidney, but this has not yet been investigated for HA. We hypothesized that interstitial HA accumulation during diabetes may involve mTOR activation. Methods. Diabetic rats (6 weeks post-streptozotocin (STZ)) were treated with rapamycin to inhibit mTOR or vehicle for 2 additional weeks. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, urine output) and regional renal HA content were thereafter analyzed. The ability of the animals to respond to desmopressin was also tested. Results. Diabetic animals displayed hyperglycemia, proteinuria, hyperfiltration, renal hypertrophy, increased diuresis with reduced urine osmolality, and reduced weight gain. Cortical and outer medullary HA was elevated in diabetic rats. Urine hyaluronidase activity was almost doubled in diabetic rats compared with controls. The ability to respond to desmopressin was absent in diabetic rats. Renal blood flow and arterial blood pressure were unaffected by the diabetic state. In diabetic rats treated with rapamycin the proteinuria was reduced by 32%, while all other parameters were unaffected. Conclusion. Regional renal accumulation of the ECM component HA is not sensitive to mTOR inhibition by rapamycin, while proteinuria is reduced in established STZ-induced diabetes. Whether the diabetes-induced renal accumulation of HA occurs through different pathways than other ECM components, or is irreversible after being established, remains to be shown. PMID:26175092

  9. Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Broadly Suppresses Cancer Metabolism and Synergistically Induces Strong Anticancer Activity in Combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin and UCN-01.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kotohiko; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N) to induce rapid cell death in combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin, or UCN-01 was examined in LNCaP cells, both in cell culture and animal experiments. Mice treated with M4N drug combinations with either Etoposide or Rapamycin showed no evidence of tumor and had a 100% survival rate 100 days after tumor implantation. By comparison all other vehicles or single drug treated mice failed to survive longer than 30 days after implantation. This synergistic improvement of anticancer effect was also confirmed in more than 20 cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, M4N was found to reduce cellular ATP content, and suppress NDUFS1 expression while inducing hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. M4N-treated cells lacked autophagy with reduced expression of BNIP3 and ATG5. To understand the mechanisms of this anticancer activity of M4N, the effect of this drug on three cancer cell lines (LNCaP, AsPC-1, and L428 cells) was further examined via transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. Metabolomic results showed that there were reductions of 26 metabolites essential for energy generation and/or production of cellular components in common with these three cell lines following 8 hours of M4N treatment. Deep RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that there were sixteen genes whose expressions were found to be modulated following 6 hours of M4N treatment similarly in these three cell lines. Six out of these 16 genes were functionally related to the 26 metabolites described above. One of these up-regulated genes encodes for CHAC1, a key enzyme affecting the stress pathways through its degradation of glutathione. In fact M4N was found to suppress glutathione content and induce reactive oxygen species production. The data overall indicate that M4N has profound specific negative impacts on a wide range of cancer metabolisms supporting the use of M4N combination for cancer treatments.

  10. Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Broadly Suppresses Cancer Metabolism and Synergistically Induces Strong Anticancer Activity in Combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin and UCN-01

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kotohiko; Huang, Ru Chih C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N) to induce rapid cell death in combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin, or UCN-01 was examined in LNCaP cells, both in cell culture and animal experiments. Mice treated with M4N drug combinations with either Etoposide or Rapamycin showed no evidence of tumor and had a 100% survival rate 100 days after tumor implantation. By comparison all other vehicles or single drug treated mice failed to survive longer than 30 days after implantation. This synergistic improvement of anticancer effect was also confirmed in more than 20 cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, M4N was found to reduce cellular ATP content, and suppress NDUFS1 expression while inducing hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. M4N-treated cells lacked autophagy with reduced expression of BNIP3 and ATG5. To understand the mechanisms of this anticancer activity of M4N, the effect of this drug on three cancer cell lines (LNCaP, AsPC-1, and L428 cells) was further examined via transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. Metabolomic results showed that there were reductions of 26 metabolites essential for energy generation and/or production of cellular components in common with these three cell lines following 8 hours of M4N treatment. Deep RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that there were sixteen genes whose expressions were found to be modulated following 6 hours of M4N treatment similarly in these three cell lines. Six out of these 16 genes were functionally related to the 26 metabolites described above. One of these up-regulated genes encodes for CHAC1, a key enzyme affecting the stress pathways through its degradation of glutathione. In fact M4N was found to suppress glutathione content and induce reactive oxygen species production. The data overall indicate that M4N has profound specific negative impacts on a wide range of cancer metabolisms supporting the use of M4N combination for cancer treatments. PMID:26886430

  11. A combination therapy for KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinomas using lipophilic bisphosphonates and rapamycin

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yifeng; Liu, Yi -Liang; Xie, Yonghua; ...

    2014-11-19

    Lung cancer is the most common human malignancy and leads to about one-third of all cancer-related deaths. Lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, in contrast to those with EGFR and EML4-ALK mutations, have not yet been successfully targeted. Here in this paper, we describe a combination therapy for treating these malignancies using two agents: a lipophilic bisphosphonate and rapamycin. This drug combination is much more effective than either agent acting alone in the KRAS G12D induced mouse lung model. Lipophilic bisphosphonates inhibit both farnesyl and geranylgeranyldiphosphate synthases, effectively blocking prenylation of the KRAS and other small G-proteins critical for tumor growthmore » and cell survival. Bisphosphonate treatment of cells initiated autophagy but was ultimately unsuccessful and led to p62 accumulation and concomitant NF-κB activation, resulting in dampened efficacy in vivo. However, we found that rapamycin, in addition to inhibiting the mTOR pathway, facilitated autophagy and prevented p62 accumulation-induced NF-κB activation and tumor cell proliferation. Lastly, these results suggest that using lipophilic bisphosphonates in combination with rapamycin may provide an effective strategy for targeting lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations.« less

  12. A combination therapy for KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinomas using lipophilic bisphosphonates and rapamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yifeng; Liu, Yi -Liang; Xie, Yonghua; Zhu, Wei; Guerra, Francisco; Shen, Shen; Yeddula, Narayana; Fischer, Wolfgang; Low, William; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yonghui; Oldfield, Eric; Verma, Inder M.

    2014-11-19

    Lung cancer is the most common human malignancy and leads to about one-third of all cancer-related deaths. Lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, in contrast to those with EGFR and EML4-ALK mutations, have not yet been successfully targeted. Here in this paper, we describe a combination therapy for treating these malignancies using two agents: a lipophilic bisphosphonate and rapamycin. This drug combination is much more effective than either agent acting alone in the KRAS G12D induced mouse lung model. Lipophilic bisphosphonates inhibit both farnesyl and geranylgeranyldiphosphate synthases, effectively blocking prenylation of the KRAS and other small G-proteins critical for tumor growth and cell survival. Bisphosphonate treatment of cells initiated autophagy but was ultimately unsuccessful and led to p62 accumulation and concomitant NF-κB activation, resulting in dampened efficacy in vivo. However, we found that rapamycin, in addition to inhibiting the mTOR pathway, facilitated autophagy and prevented p62 accumulation-induced NF-κB activation and tumor cell proliferation. Lastly, these results suggest that using lipophilic bisphosphonates in combination with rapamycin may provide an effective strategy for targeting lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations.

  13. Pharmacophore modeling, homology modeling, and in silico screening reveal mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitory activities for sotalol, glyburide, metipranolol, sulfamethizole, glipizide, and pioglitazone.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; AbuKhader, Majed M; Alqtaishat, Saja; Taha, Mutasem O

    2013-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and member of the PI3K-related kinase (PIKK) family. It plays a central role in integrating signals from metabolism, energy homeostasis, cell cycle, and stress response. Aberrant PI3K/mTOR activation is commonly observed in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, we developed common feature binding hypotheses for a set of 6 potent mTOR antagonists. The generated models were validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. To gain better insight into ligand-mTOR interactions, a homology model for the kinase domain of mTOR was built using the crystallographic structure of PI3Kγ as template. The optimal pharmacophore model was further improved based on detailed docking studies of potent training compound in the homology model. The modified binding model was employed as 3D search query to screen our in-house-built database of established drugs. Subsequent in vitro screening of captured hits showed that six of them have submicromolar to low micromolar bioactivities, namely, glyburide, metipranolol, sulfamethizole, glipizide, pioglitazone, and sotalol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Yes-associated protein 1 and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by regulating amino acid transporters in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Yong; Sohn, Bo Hwa; Johnson, Randy L; Kang, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Sang Bae; Shim, Jae-Jun; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Pradeep, Sunila; Hwang, Jun Eul; Jang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Jeong, Woojin; Park, Inn Sun; Park, Young Nyun; Sood, Anil K; Mills, Gordon B; Lee, Ju-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic activation is a common feature of many cancer cells and is frequently associated with the clinical outcomes of various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, aberrantly activated metabolic pathways in cancer cells are attractive targets for cancer therapy. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are oncogenic downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, which is frequently inactivated in many cancers. Our study revealed that YAP1/TAZ regulates amino acid metabolism by up-regulating expression of the amino acid transporters solute carrier family 38 member 1 (SLC38A1) and solute carrier family 7 member 5 (SLC7A5). Subsequently, increased uptake of amino acids by the transporters (SLC38A1 and SLC7A5) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, and stimulates cell proliferation. We also show that high expression of SLC38A1 and SLC7A5 is significantly associated with shorter survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Furthermore, inhibition of the transporters and mTORC1 significantly blocks YAP1/TAZ-mediated tumorigenesis in the liver. These findings elucidate regulatory networks connecting the Hippo pathway to mTORC1 through amino acid metabolism and the mechanism's potential clinical implications for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. YAP1 and TAZ regulate cancer metabolism and mTORC1 through regulation of amino acid transportation, and two amino acid transporters, SLC38A1 and SLC7A5, might be important therapeutic targets. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. A Hexane Fraction of Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) Induces Anticancer Activity by Suppressing AKT/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Ribosomal p70 S6 Kinase in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  16. A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  17. Rapamycin induces the anti-apoptotic protein survivin in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Samkari, Ayman; Cooper, Zachary A; Holloway, Michael P; Liu, Jiebin; Altura, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor of infancy, accounting for 15% of all cancer cell deaths in children. Expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin in these tumors correlates with poor prognostic features and resistance to therapy. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein is being explored as a potential therapeutic target in patients with this disease. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that rapamycin regulates survivin expression and function in neuroblastoma cells. To explore this hypothesis, we treated two different neuroblastoma lines (NB7, NB8) and a well-characterized control lung cancer cell line, A549, with varying doses of rapamycin (0.1-10μM) for serial time points (2-48 hours). RNA and protein expression levels were then evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed by WST-1 and Annexin V. The results showed a rapamycin-dependent increase in survivin mRNA and protein levels in the neuroblastoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, while a decrease in these levels was observed in control cells. Rapamycin inhibited cell proliferation in both A549 and neuroblastoma cells however neuroblastoma cells had less apoptosis than A549 cells (9% vs. 20%). In summary, our results indicate that rapamycin induces expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin in neuroblastoma cells which may protect these cells from programmed cell death. Induction of survivin by rapamycin could therefore be a potential mechanism of neuroblastoma tumor cell resistance and rapamycin may not be an effective therapeutic agent for these tumors.

  18. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.

  19. Rapamycin reverses the senescent phenotype and improves immuno-regulation of mesenchymal stem cells from MRL/lpr mice and systemic lupus erythematosus patients through inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guijian; Meng, Yan; Da, Zhanyun; Guo, Genkai; Xia, Yunfei; Zhu, Xinhang; Shi, Guixiu; Cheng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    We have shown that bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from SLE patients exhibit senescent behavior and are involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on the senescences and immunoregulatory ability of MSCs of MRL/lpr mice and SLE patients and the underlying mechanisms. Cell morphology, senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, F-actin staining were used to detect the senescence of cells. BM-MSCs and purified CD4+ T cells were co-cultured indirectly. Flow cytometry was used to inspect the proportion of regulatory T (Treg) /T helper type 17 (Th17). We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to interfere the expression of mTOR, and detect the effects by RT-PCR, WB and immunofluorescence. Finally, 1×106 of SLE BM-MSCs treated with RAPA were transplanted to cure the 8 MRL/lpr mice aged 16 weeks for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that RAPA alleviated the clinical symptoms of lupus nephritis and prolonged survival in MRL/lpr mice. RAPA reversed the senescent phenotype and improved immunoregulation of MSCs from MRL/lpr mice and SLE patients through inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway. Marked therapeutic effects were observed in MRL/lpr mice following transplantation of BM-MSCs from SLE patients pretreated with RAPA. PMID:27048648

  20. Chemotherapy of Skull Base Chordoma Tailored on Responsiveness of Patient-Derived Tumor Cells to Rapamycin12

    PubMed Central

    Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Runci, Daniele; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Cenci, Tonia; Martini, Maurizio; Bianchi, Federico; Maira, Giulio; Stancato, Louis; De Maria, Ruggero; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Pallini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Skull base chordomas are challenging tumors due to their deep surgical location and resistance to conventional radiotherapy. Chemotherapy plays a marginal role in the treatment of chordoma resulting from lack of preclinical models due to the difficulty in establishing tumor cell lines and valuable in vivo models. Here, we established a cell line from a recurrent clival chordoma. Cells were cultured for more than 30 passages and the expression of the chordoma cell marker brachyury was monitored using both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Sensitivity of chordoma cells to the inhibition of specific signaling pathways was assessed through testing of a commercially available small molecule kinase inhibitor library. In vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated by grafting chordoma cells onto immunocompromised mice and established tumor xenografts were treated with rapamycin. Rapamycin was administered to the donor patient and its efficacy was assessed on follow-up neuroimaging. Chordoma cells maintained brachyury expression at late passages and generated xenografts closely mimicking the histology and phenotype of the parental tumor. Rapamycin was identified as an inhibitor of chordoma cell proliferation. Molecular analyses on tumor cells showed activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and mutation of KRAS gene. Rapamycin was also effective in reducing the growth of chordoma xenografts. On the basis of these results, our patient received rapamycin therapy with about six-fold reduction of the tumor growth rate upon 10-month follow-up neuroimaging. This is the first case of chordoma in whom chemotherapy was tailored on the basis of the sensitivity of patient-derived tumor cells. PMID:23814489

  1. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin As a Therapeutic Target in Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gengyang; Ren, Hui; Qiu, Ting; Zhang, Zhida; Zhao, Wenhua; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Jinjing; Tang, Jingjing; Liang, De; Yao, Zhensong; Yang, Zhidong; Jiang, Xiaobing

    2017-08-23

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in sensing and integrating large amounts of environmental cues to regulate organismal growth, homeostasis, and many major cellular processes. Recently, mounting evidences highlight its roles in regulating bone homeostasis, which sheds light on the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The activation/inhibition of mTOR signaling is reported to positively/negatively regulate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)/osteoblasts-mediated bone formation, adipogenic differentiation, osteocytes homeostasis, and osteoclasts-mediated bone resorption, which result in the changes of bone homeostasis, thereby resulting in or protect against osteoporosis. Given the likely importance of mTOR signaling in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, here we discuss the detailed mechanisms in mTOR machinery and its association with osteoporosis therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Berberine regulates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and inhibits colon tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Saud, Shakir M; Lin, Hongsheng; Hou, Wei; Matter, Matthias S; Jia, Libin; Colburn, Nancy H; Young, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer, a leading cause of cancer death, has been linked to inflammation and obesity. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes and anti-tumor properties. In the azoxymethane initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) promoted colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, berberine treated mice showed a 60% reduction in tumor number (P = 0.009), a 48% reduction in tumors <2 mm, (P = 0.05); 94% reduction in tumors 2-4 mm, (P = 0.001), and 100% reduction in tumors >4 mm (P = 0.02) compared to vehicle treated mice. Berberine also decreased AOM/DSS induced Ki-67 and COX-2 expression. In vitro analysis showed that in addition to its anti-proliferation activity, berberine also induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. Berberine activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major regulator of metabolic pathways, and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of AMPK. Furthermore, 4E-binding protein-1 and p70 ribosomal S6 kinases, downstream targets of mTOR, were down regulated by berberine treatment. Berberine did not affect Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activity or the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Berberine inhibited Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin, induced phosphorylation of p53 and increased caspase-3 cleavage in vitro. Berberine inhibition of mTOR activity and p53 phosphorylation was found to be AMPK dependent, while inhibition NF-κB was AMPK independent. In vivo, berberine also activated AMPK, inhibited mTOR and p65 phosphorylation and activated caspase-3 cleavage. Our data suggests that berberine suppresses colon epithelial proliferation and tumorigenesis via AMPK dependent inhibition of mTOR activity and AMPK independent inhibition of NF-κB.

  3. Berberine regulates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and inhibits colon tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Saud, Shakir M.; Lin, Hongsheng; Hou, Wei; Matter, Matthias S.; Jia, Libin; Colburn, Nancy H.; Young, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, a leading cause of cancer death, has been linked to inflammation and obesity. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes and anti-tumor properties. In the azoxymethane initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) promoted colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, berberine treated mice showed a 60% reduction in tumor number (P=0.009), a 48% reduction in tumors <2 mm, (P=0.05); 94% reduction in tumors 2-4 mm, (P=0.001) and 100% reduction in tumors >4 mm (P=0.02) compared to vehicle treated mice. Berberine also decreased AOM/DSS induced Ki-67 and COX-2 expression. In vitro analysis showed that in addition to its anti-proliferation activity, berberine also induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. Berberine activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major regulator of metabolic pathways, and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of AMPK. Furthermore, 4E-binding protein-1 and p70 ribosomal S6 kinases, downstream targets of mTOR, were down regulated by berberine treatment. Berberine did not affect Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activity or the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Berberine inhibited Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin, induced phosphorylation of p53 and increased caspase-3 cleavage in vitro. Berberine inhibition of mTOR activity and p53 phosphorylation was found to be AMPK dependent, while inhibition NF-κB was AMPK independent. In vivo, berberine also activated AMPK, inhibited mTOR and p65 phosphorylation and activated caspase-3 cleavage. Our data suggests that berberine suppresses colon epithelial proliferation and tumorigenesis via AMPK dependent inhibition of mTOR activity and AMPK independent inhibition of NF-κB. PMID:24838344

  4. Autophagy and cardiovascular aging: lesson learned from rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreejayan; Ren, Jun

    2012-06-01

    The biological aging process is commonly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Several theories have been put forward for aging-associated deterioration in ventricular function, including attenuation of growth hormone (insulin-like growth factors and insulin) signaling, loss of DNA replication and repair, histone acetylation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence has depicted a rather unique role of autophagy as another important pathway in the regulation of longevity and senescence. Autophagy is a predominant cytoprotective (rather than self-destructive) process. It carries a prominent role in determination of lifespan. Reduced autophagy has been associated with aging, leading to accumulation of dysfunctional or damaged proteins and organelles. To the contrary, measures such as caloric restriction and exercise may promote autophagy to delay aging and associated comorbidities. Stimulation of autophagy using rapamycin may represent a novel strategy to prolong lifespan and combat aging-associated diseases. Rapamycin regulates autophagy through inhibition of the nutrient-sensing molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR through rapamycin and caloric restriction promotes longevity. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate some of the recent advances in an effort to better understand the interplay between rapamycin-induced autophagy and decelerating cardiovascular aging.

  5. Chronic Rapamycin Treatment Causes Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia by Upregulating Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Impairing Lipid Deposition in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Vanessa P.; Brûlé, Sophie; Festuccia, William T.; Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Bellmann, Kerstin; Deshaies, Yves; Marette, André

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) pathway is a critical signaling component in the development of obesity-linked insulin resistance and operates a nutrient-sensing negative feedback loop toward the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt pathway. Whereas acute treatment of insulin target cells with the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor rapamycin prevents nutrient-induced insulin resistance, the chronic effect of rapamycin on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in vivo remains elusive. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To assess the metabolic effects of chronic inhibition of the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway, rats were treated with rapamycin (2 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 15 days before metabolic phenotyping. RESULTS Chronic rapamycin treatment reduced adiposity and fat cell number, which was associated with a coordinated downregulation of genes involved in both lipid uptake and output. Rapamycin treatment also promoted insulin resistance, severe glucose intolerance, and increased gluconeogenesis. The latter was associated with elevated expression of hepatic gluconeogenic master genes, PEPCK and G6Pase, and increased expression of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) as well as enhanced nuclear recruitment of FoxO1, CRTC2, and CREB. These changes were observed despite normal activation of the insulin receptor substrate/PI 3-kinase/Akt axis in liver of rapamycin-treated rats, as expected from the blockade of the mTORC1/S6K1 negative feedback loop. CONCLUSIONS These findings unravel a novel mechanism by which mTORC1/S6K1 controls gluconeogenesis through modulation of several key transcriptional factors. The robust induction of the gluconeogenic program in liver of rapamycin-treated rats underlies the development of severe glucose intolerance even in the face of preserved hepatic insulin signaling to Akt and despite a modest reduction in adiposity. PMID:20299475

  6. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang decreases the protein expression of mammalian target of rapamycin but increases microtubule associated protein II light chain 3 expression to inhibit human BxPC‑3 pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Sann‑Joong‑Kuey‑Jian‑Tang (SJKJT), a Traditional Chinese Medicinal prescription, has been used for the treatment of lymphadenopathy and solid tumors, and has shown therapeutic potential in a number of human malignant tumor cell lines, such as Hep‑G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Previous mechanistic studies demonstrated that SJKJT inhibited the proliferation of BxPC‑3 pancreatic carcinoma cells through the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in vitro. SJKJT was also shown to be cytotoxic to colo 205 colon cancer cells by inducing autophagy in vitro. The present study therefore investigated molecular mechanisms of autophagy in human BxPC‑3 pancreatic cancer cells treated with SJKJT. The cytotoxic effects of SJKJT on BxPC‑3 human pancreatic carcinoma cells were evaluated using an MTT assay. Furthermore, the expression of autophagy‑associated proteins, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), beclin‑1, autophagocytosis‑associated protein (Atg)3, Atg7, Atg5‑Atg12 and microtubule‑associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3‑II), was assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that BxPC‑3 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited decreased expression levels of mTOR and increased expression of LC3‑II protein. In addition, the expression of the beclin‑1, Atg3, Atg7 and Atg5‑Atg12 proteins was increased during the first 24 h, but decreased from 48 to 72 h. The results showed that SJKJT inhibited the proliferation of human BxPC‑3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. A possible underlying molecular mechanism may be the induction of autophagy. Further investigation into the therapeutic potential of SJKJT in human pancreatic cancer is required.

  7. Activation of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 is Both Necessary and Sufficient to Stimulate Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2Bε mRNA Translation and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kubica, Neil; Crispino, Jamie L.; Gallagher, James W.; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated a requirement for activation of mTORC1 in the stimulation of eIF2Bε mRNA translation in skeletal muscle in response to resistance exercise. Although that study established the necessity of mTORC1 activation, the experimental model used did not lend itself readily to address the question of whether or not mTORC1 activation was sufficient to produce the response. Therefore, the present study was designed to address the sufficiency of mTORC1 activation, using cultures of Rat2 fibroblasts in which mTORC1 signaling was repressed by serum/leucine-depletion and stimulated by repletion of leucine and/or IGF-1. Repletion with leucine and IGF-1 caused a shift of eIF2Bε mRNA into actively translating polysomes and a stimulation of new eIF2Bε protein synthesis, but had no effect on mRNAs encoding the other four eIF2B subunits. Stimulation of eIF2Bε translation was reversed by pre-treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Exogenous overexpression of FLAG-Rheb, a proximal activator of mTORC1, also caused a re-distribution of eIF2Bε mRNA into polysomes and a stimulation of eIF2Bε protein synthesis. The stimulation of eIF2Bε mRNA translation occurred in the absence of any effect on eIF2Bε mRNA abundance. RNAi-mediated knockdown of eIF2Bε resulted in reduced cellular proliferation, a result that phenocopied the known cytostatic effect of mTORC1 repression. Overall the results demonstrate that activation of mTORC1 is both necessary and sufficient to stimulate eIF2Bε mRNA translation and that this response may represent a novel mechanism through which mTORC1 can affect mRNA translation initiation, rates of protein synthesis, and cellular growth/proliferation. PMID:18556237

  8. Rapamycin protects against dominant negative-HNF1A-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Angela M; Kilbride, Seán M; Bonner, Caroline; Prehn, Jochen H M; Byrne, Maria M

    2011-11-01

    HNF1A-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY) is caused by mutations in Hnf1a gene encoding the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1A). An increased rate of apoptosis has been associated with the decrease in beta-cell mass that is a hallmark of HNF1A-MODY and other forms of diabetes. In a cellular model of HNF1A-MODY, we have recently shown that signalling through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is decreased by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of HNF1A (DN-HNF1A). mTOR is a protein kinase which has important roles in cell metabolism and growth, but also in cell survival, where it has been shown to be both protective and detrimental. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of mTOR activity with rapamycin protected INS-1 cells against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Rapamycin also prevented DN-HNF1A-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular energy sensor which we have previously shown to mediate DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Conversely, activation of mTOR with leucine potentiated DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Gene silencing of raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR), a subunit of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), also conferred protection on INS-1 cells against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis, confirming that mTORC1 mediates the protective effect. The potential relevance of this effect with regards to the clinical use of rapamycin as an immunosuppressant in diabetics post-transplantation is discussed.

  9. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Su, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2015-08-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.

  10. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    CHUANG, WAN-LING; SU, CHIN-CHENG; LIN, PING-YI; LIN, CHI-CHEN; CHEN, YAO-LI

    2015-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer. PMID:25847489

  11. Rapamycin and Interleukin-1β Impair Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor-dependent Neuron Survival by Modulating Autophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Erica D.; Prieto, G. Aleph; Tong, Liqi; Sears-Kraxberger, Ilse; Rice, Jeffrey D.; Steward, Oswald; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has multiple important physiological functions, including regulation of protein synthesis, cell growth, autophagy, and synaptic plasticity. Activation of mTOR is necessary for the many beneficial effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), including dendritic translation and memory formation in the hippocampus. At present, however, the role of mTOR in BDNF's support of survival is not clear. We report that mTOR activation is necessary for BDNF-dependent survival of primary rat hippocampal neurons, as either mTOR inhibition by rapamycin or genetic manipulation of the downstream molecule p70S6K specifically blocked BDNF rescue. Surprisingly, however, BDNF did not promote neuron survival by up-regulating mTOR-dependent protein synthesis or through mTOR-dependent suppression of caspase-3 activation. Instead, activated mTOR was responsible for BDNF's suppression of autophagic flux. shRNA against the autophagic machinery Atg7 or Atg5 prolonged the survival of neurons co-treated with BDNF and rapamycin, suggesting that suppression of mTOR in BDNF-treated cells resulted in excessive autophagy. Finally, acting as a physiological analog of rapamycin, IL-1β impaired BDNF signaling by way of inhibiting mTOR activation as follows: the cytokine induced caspase-independent neuronal death and accelerated autophagic flux in BDNF-treated cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of BDNF neuroprotection; BDNF not only prevents apoptosis through inhibiting caspase activation but also promotes neuron survival through modulation of autophagy. This protection mechanism is vulnerable under chronic inflammation, which deregulates autophagy through impairing mTOR signaling. These results may be relevant to age-related changes observed in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24917666

  12. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) alters mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway regulation and microRNA expression in mouse meiotic spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Koli, S; Reddy, K V R

    2015-09-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a signal transduction pathway that modulates translation initiation in several animals including mammals. Rapamaycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR pathway, is often used as an immunosuppressive drug following kidney transplantation and causes gonadal dysfunction and defects in spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanism behind rapamycin-mediated testicular dysfunction is not known. We have therefore explored the contribution of rapamycin in mTOR regulation and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse spermatocytes, the intermediate stage of spermatogenesis, where meiosis takes place. In the present study, we optimized the isolation of highly pure and viable spermatocytes by flow sorting, treated them with rapamycin, and investigated the expression of mTOR and downstream effector molecules. Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis confirm that rapamycin treatment suppresses mTOR and phopsphorylated P70S6 kinase activities in spermatocytes, but not that of phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. Also, rapamycin treatment modulates the expression of several spermatocyte-specific miRNAs. To complement these finding an in vivo study was also performed. In silico prediction of target genes of these miRNAs and their functional pathway analysis revealed that, several of them are involved in crucial biological process, cellular process and catalytic activities. miRNA-transcription factor (TF) network analysis enlisted different TFs propelling the transcription machineries of these miRNAs. In silico prediction followed by quatitative real-time PCR revealed two of these TFs namely, PU.1 and CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) are down and upregulated, respectively, which may be the reason of the altered expression of miRNAs following rapamycin treatment. In conclusion, for the first time, the present study provides insight into how rapamycin regulates mTOR pathway and spermatocyte-specific miRNA expression which in turn, regulate expression of

  13. L-leucine availability regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p70 S6 kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in L6 muscle cells: evidence for the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the L-leucine-induced up-regulation of system A amino acid transport.

    PubMed Central

    Peyrollier, K; Hajduch, E; Blair, A S; Hyde, R; Hundal, H S

    2000-01-01

    Amino acid availability is known to regulate diverse cell processes including the activation of p70 S6 kinase, initiation factors involved in mRNA translation, gene expression and cellular amino acid uptake. Essential amino acids, in particular the branched-chain amino acids (e.g. leucine), have been shown to be the dominant players in mediating these effects, although the precise nature by which they regulate these processes remain poorly understood. In this study we have investigated the mechanisms involved in the leucine-induced modulation of p70 S6 kinase and addressed whether this kinase participates in the up-regulation of the System A amino acid transporter in L6 muscle cells. Incubation of muscle cells that had been amino acid-deprived for 1 h with L-leucine (2 mM) led to a rapid (>2-fold) activation of p70 S6 kinase, which was suppressed by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Consistent with this finding, addition of leucine caused a rapid ( approximately 5-fold) but transient stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activation was inhibited by wortmannin and was not dependent upon insulin receptor substrate-1 activation. Unlike stimulation by insulin, activation of neither protein kinase B nor p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase accompanied the leucine-induced stimulation of PI3K. However, the leucine-induced activation of PI3K and p70 S6 kinase did result in the concomitant inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Leucine enhanced System A transport by approximately 50%. We have shown previously that this stimulation is protein-synthesis-dependent and in the current study we show that it was blocked by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Our findings indicate that PI3K and the mammalian target of rapamycin are components of a nutrient signalling pathway that regulates the activation of p70 S6 kinase and induction of System A in L6 cells. The activation of this pathway by leucine is also responsible for the inactivation of GSK-3

  14. mTORC1 inhibitors rapamycin and metformin affect cardiovascular markers differentially in ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Ravi; Raja, Ahmad; Pulakat, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian target for rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common target for the action of immunosuppressant macrolide rapamycin and glucose-lowering metformin. Inhibition of mTORC1 can exert both beneficial and detrimental effects in different pathologies. Here, we investigated the differential effects of rapamycin (1.2 mg/kg per day delivered subcutaneously for 6 weeks) and metformin (300 mg/kg per day delivered orally for 11 weeks) treatments on male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats that mimic the cardiorenal pathology of type 2 diabetic patients and progress to insulin insufficiency. Rapamycin and metformin improved proteinuria, and rapamycin also reduced urinary gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) indicating improvement of tubular health. Metformin reduced food and water intake, and urinary sodium and potassium, whereas rapamycin increased urinary sodium. Metformin reduced plasma alkaline phosphatase, but induced transaminitis as evidenced by significant increases in plasma AST and ALT. Metformin also induced hyperinsulinemia, but did not suppress fasting plasma glucose after ZDF rats reached 17 weeks of age, and worsened lipid profile. Rapamycin also induced mild transaminitis. Additionally, both rapamycin and metformin increased plasma uric acid and creatinine, biomarkers for cardiovascular and renal disease. These observations define how rapamycin and metformin differentially modulate metabolic profiles that regulate cardiorenal pathology in conditions of severe type 2 diabetes.

  15. Stereotype Activation, Inhibition, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.; von Hippel, William

    2009-01-01

    This research explored age-related changes in drawing stereotypic inferences during the comprehension of narrative texts. Previous research suggests that declines in inhibitory function can lead older adults to rely more on stereotypes and be more prejudiced than younger adults, even in the face of a desire to be non-prejudiced. In two experiments reported here, younger and older adults read stories that allowed for stereotypic inferences. Older adults were less likely to inhibit stereotypic inferences as measured by recognition measures and lexical decision times. A third control experiment verified that the results of the lexical decision task were not due to a priori response biases for the specific target words. Overall, older adults were more likely to make and maintain stereotypic inferences than younger adults, potentially causing them to be more prejudiced than younger adults. PMID:20161549

  16. Rapamycin alleviates brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Feng, Guoying; Miao, Yanying; Liu, Guixiang; Xu, Chunsheng

    2014-06-01

    Brain edema is a major consequence of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. However, few effective therapeutic options are available for retarding the brain edema progression after cerebral ischemia. Recently, rapamycin has been shown to produce neuroprotective effects in rats after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Whether rapamycin could alleviate this brain edema injury is still unclear. In this study, the rat stroke model was induced by a 1-h left transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. The effects of rapamycin (250 μg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal; i.p.) on brain edema progression were evaluated. The results showed that rapamycin treatment significantly reduced the infarct volume, the water content of the brain tissue and the Evans blue extravasation through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rapamycin treatment could improve histological appearance of the brain tissue, increased the capillary lumen space and maintain the integrity of BBB. Rapamycin also inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression. These data imply that rapamycin could improve brain edema progression after reperfusion injury through maintaining BBB integrity and inhibiting MMP9 and AQP4 expression. The data of this study provide a new possible approach for improving brain edema after cerebral ischemia reperfusion by administration of rapamycin.

  17. Rapamycin improves sociability in the BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Burket, Jessica A.; Benson, Andrew D.; Tang, Amy H.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2017-01-01

    Overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), such as tuberous sclerosis complex, neurofibromatosis 1, and fragile X syndrome. Administration of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inhibitors (e.g. rapamycin) in syndromic mouse models of ASDs improved behavior, cognition, and neuropathology. However, since only a minority of ASDs are due to the effects of single genes (~10%), there is a need to explore inhibition of mTOR activity in mouse models that may be more relevant to the majority of nonsyndromic presentations, such as the genetically inbred BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of ASDs. BTBR mice have social impairment and exhibit increased stereotypic behavior. In prior work, d-cycloserine, a partial glycineB site agonist that targets the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, was shown to improve sociability in both Balb/c and BTBR mouse models of ASDs. Importantly, NMDA receptor activation regulates mTOR signaling activity. The current study investigated the ability of rapamycin (10 mg/kg, i.p. × four days), an mTORC1 inhibitor, to improve sociability and stereotypic behavior in BTBR mice. Using a standard paradigm to assess mouse social behavior, rapamycin improved several measures of sociability in the BTBR mouse, suggesting that mTOR overactivation represents a therapeutic target that mediates or contributes to impaired sociability in the BTBR mouse model of ASDs. Interestingly, there was no effect of rapamycin on stereotypic behaviors in this mouse model. PMID:24295733

  18. mTORC1-Activated Monocytes Increase Tregs and Inhibit the Immune Response to Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Huaijun; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shixuan; Xue, Ting; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yazhi; Wan, Qian; Shi, Zhexin; Zhan, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    The TSC1/2 heterodimer, a key upstream regulator of the mTOR, can inhibit the activation of mTOR, which plays a critical role in immune responses after bacterial infections. Monocytes are an innate immune cell type that have been shown to be involved in bacteremia. However, how the mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of monocytes is largely unknown. In our study, TSC1 KO mice and WT mice were infected with E. coli. When compared to WT mice, we found higher mortality, greater numbers of bacteria, decreased expression of coactivators in monocytes, increased numbers of Tregs, and decreased numbers of effector T cells in TSC1 KO mice. Monocytes obtained from TSC1 KO mice produced more ROS, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β and less IL-1, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibited immune functioning in TSC1 KO mice is influenced by mTORC1 activation in monocytes. The reduced expression of coactivators resulted in inhibited effector T cell proliferation. mTORC1-activated monocytes are harmful during bacterial infections. Therefore, inhibiting mTORC1 signaling through rapamycin administration could rescue the harmful aspects of an overactive immune response, and this knowledge provides a new direction for clinical therapy. PMID:27746591

  19. Impact on Autophagy and Ultraviolet B Induced Responses of Treatment with the MTOR Inhibitors Rapamycin, Everolimus, Torin 1, and pp242 in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Song; Li, Li; Li, Min; Zhang, Mengli

    2017-01-01

    The mechanistic target of Rapamycin (MTOR) protein is a crucial signaling regulator in mammalian cells that is extensively involved in cellular biology. The function of MTOR signaling in keratinocytes remains unclear. In this study, we detected the MTOR signaling and autophagy response in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and human epidermal keratinocytes treated with MTOR inhibitors. Moreover, we detected the impact of MTOR inhibitors on keratinocytes exposed to the common carcinogenic stressors ultraviolet B (UVB) and UVA radiation. As a result, keratinocytes were sensitive to the MTOR inhibitors Rapamycin, everolimus, Torin 1, and pp242, but the regulation of MTOR downstream signaling was distinct. Next, autophagy induction only was observed in HaCaT cells treated with Rapamycin. Furthermore, we found that MTOR signaling was insensitive to UVB but sensitive to UVA radiation. UVB treatment also had no impact on the inhibition of MTOR signaling by MTOR inhibitors. Finally, MTOR inhibition by Rapamycin, everolimus, or pp242 did not affect the series of biological events in keratinocytes exposed to UVB, including the downregulation of BiP and PERK, activation of Histone H2A and JNK, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. Our study demonstrated that MTOR inhibition in keratinocytes cannot always induce autophagy, and the MTOR pathway does not play a central role in the UVB triggered cellular response. PMID:28400912

  20. Single and combined effect of retinoic acid and rapamycin modulate the generation, activity and homing potential of induced human regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Candia, Enzo; Reyes, Paz; Covian, Camila; Rodriguez, Francisco; Wainstein, Nicolas; Morales, Jorge; Mosso, Claudio; Rosemblatt, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) has been successfully utilized to treat graft versus host disease and represents a promising strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and rapamycin (RAPA) on the number, phenotype, homing markers expression, DNA methylation, and function of induced human Treg cells in short-term cultures. Naive T cells were polyclonally stimulated and cultured for five days in the presence of different combinations of IL-2, TGF-β1, atRA and RAPA. The resulting cells were characterized by the expression of FOXP3, activation, surface and homing markers. Methylation of the Conserved Non-coding Sequence 2 was also evaluated. Functional comparison of the different culture conditions was performed by suppression assays in vitro. Culturing naive human T cells with IL-2/TGFβ1 resulted in the generation of 54.2% of Treg cells (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+) whereas the addition of 100 nM atRA increased the yield of Treg cells to 66% (p = 0.0088). The addition of RAPA did not increase the number of Treg cells in any of these settings. Treg cells generated in the presence of atRA had an increased expression of the β7 integrin to nearly 100% of the generated Treg cells, while RAPA treated cells showed enhanced expression of CXCR4. The differential expression of homing molecules highlights the possibility of inducing Treg cells with differential organ-specific homing properties. Neither atRA nor RAPA had an effect on the highly methylated CNS2 sites, supporting reports that their contribution to the lineage stability of Treg cells is not mediated by methylation changes in this locus. Treg cells generated in the presence of RAPA show the most potent suppression effect on the proliferation of effector cells. PMID:28746369

  1. Inhibition of metalloproteinase activity by fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia; God, Jason; Bibb, Robert; Lu, Qi; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2004-08-30

    While the metalloproteinase enzymes are essential for development and remodeling of tissues, aberrant over expression of these enzymes contributes to several pathologic conditions. In particular, metalloproteinase over expression in cancer plays a significant role in metastasis by providing a mechanism for invasion and spread. The data presented here indicate that water extracts of raspberries, blackberries and muscadine grapes inhibit the activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9. This inhibition could contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in fruit content.

  2. A novel rapamycin-polymer conjugate based on a new poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wanyi; Chen, Zhijin; Barve, Ashutosh; Peng, Zhonghua; Cheng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rapamycin has demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the clinical development of its formulations was hampered due to its poor solubility and undesirable distribution in vivo. Chemical modification of rapamycin presents an opportunity for overcoming the obstacles and improving its therapeutic index. The objective of this study is to develop a drug-polymer conjugate to increase the solubility and cellular uptake of rapamycin. Methods We developed the rapamycin-polymer conjugate using a novel, linear, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based multiblock copolymer. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the rapamycin-polymer conjugate were evaluated in various cancer cells. Results The rapamycin-polymer conjugate provides enhanced solubility in water compared with free rapamycin and shows profound activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The rapamycin-polymer conjugate also presents high drug loading capacity (wt% ~ 26%) when GlyGlyGly is used as a linker. Cellular uptake of the conjugate was confirmed by confocal microscopy examination of PC-3 cells that were cultured in the presence of FITC-labled polymer (FITC-polymer). Conclusion This study suggests that the rapamycin-polymer conjugate is a novel anti-cancer agent that may provide an attractive strategy for treatment of a wide variety of tumors. PMID:24072263

  3. Serendipity in splendid isolation: rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti

    2016-01-07

    In this issue of Blood, Bride et al report results of the first prospective multi-institutional trial of a long-term single-agent therapy for refractory cytopenias using rapamycin in 30 patients and show remarkable efficacy in children with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

  4. Adaptations to chronic rapamycin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Sherry G.; Livi, Carolina B.; Parihar, Manish; Hsu, Hang-Kai; Benavides, Adriana D.; Morris, Jay; Javors, Martin; Strong, Randy; Christy, Barbara; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton Dave

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin inhibits mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) that promotes protein production in cells by facilitating ribosome biogenesis (RiBi) and eIF4E-mediated 5'cap mRNA translation. Chronic treatment with encapsulated rapamycin (eRapa) extended health and life span for wild-type and cancer-prone mice. Yet, the long-term consequences of chronic eRapa treatment are not known at the organ level. Here, we report our observations of chronic eRapa treatment on mTORC1 signaling and RiBi in mouse colon and visceral adipose. As expected, chronic eRapa treatment decreased detection of phosphorylated mTORC1/S6K substrate, ribosomal protein (rpS6) in colon and fat. However, in colon, contrary to expectations, there was an upregulation of 18S rRNA and some ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) suggesting increased RiBi. Among RPGs, eRapa increases rpl22l1 mRNA but not its paralog rpl22. Furthermore, there was an increase in the cap-binding protein, eIF4E relative to its repressor 4E-BP1 suggesting increased translation. By comparison, in fat, there was a decrease in the level of 18S rRNA (opposite to colon), while overall mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein genes appeared to increase, including rpl22, but not rpl22l1 (opposite to colon). In fat, there was a decrease in eIF4E relative to actin (opposite to colon) but also an increase in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 ratio likely due to reductions in 4E-BP1 at our lower eRapa dose (similar to colon). Thus, in contrast to predictions of decreased protein production seen in cell-based studies, we provide evidence that colon from chronically treated mice exhibited an adaptive ‘pseudo-anabolic’ state, which is only partially present in fat, which might relate to differing tissue levels of rapamycin, cell-type-specific responses, and/or strain differences. PMID:27237224

  5. The bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitor CPI203 enhances the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin on human neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C; Laddha, S V; Tang, L; Vosburgh, E; Levine, A J; Normant, E; Sandy, P; Harris, C R; Chan, C S; Xu, E Y

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous c-MYC (MYC) has been reported to be a potential pharmacological target to trigger ubiquitous tumor regression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and lung tumors. Recently inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family proteins have shown antitumor effects through the suppression of MYC in leukemia and lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated the antitumor activity of a BET protein bromodomain inhibitor (BETi) CPI203 as a single agent and in combination with rapamycin in human PanNETs. We found that exposure of human PanNET cell lines to CPI203 led to downregulation of MYC expression, G1 cell cycle arrest and nearly complete inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, overexpression of MYC suppressed the growth inhibition caused by CPI203 and knockdown of MYC phenocopied the effects of CPI203 treatment. These findings indicate that suppression of MYC contributed to the antiproliferative effects of BETi inhibition in human PanNET cells. Importantly, CPI203 treatment enhanced the antitumor effects of rapamycin in PanNET cells grown in monolayer and in three-dimensional cell cultures, as well as in a human PanNET xenograft model in vivo. Furthermore, the combination treatment attenuated rapamycin-induced AKT activation, a major limitation of rapamycin therapy. Collectively, our data suggest that targeting MYC with a BETi may increase the therapeutic benefits of rapalogs in human PanNET patients. This provides a novel clinical strategy for PanNETs, and possibly for other tumors as well. PMID:25299775

  6. Preservation of Anticancer and Immunosuppressive Properties of Rapamycin Achieved Through Controlled Releasing Particles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan Liang; Hou, Han Wei; Tay, Hui Min; Guo, Wei Mei; Berggren, Per-Olof; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2017-03-01

    Rapamycin is commonly used in chemotherapy and posttransplantation rejection suppression, where sustained release is preferred. Conventionally, rapamycin has to be administered in excess due to its poor solubility, and this often leads to cytotoxicity and undesirable side effects. In addition, rapamycin has been shown to be hydrolytically unstable, losing its bioactivity within a few hours. The use of drug delivery systems is hypothesized to preserve the bioactivity of rapamycin, while providing controlled release of this otherwise potent drug. This paper reports on the use of microparticles (MP) as a means to tune and sustain the delivery of bioactive rapamycin for up to 30 days. Rapamycin was encapsulated (100% efficiency) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), or a mixture of both via an emulsion method. The use of different polymer types and mixture was shown to achieve a variety of release kinetics and profile. Released rapamycin was subsequently evaluated against breast cancer cell (MCF-7) and human lymphocyte cell (Jurkat). Inhibition of cell proliferation was in good agreement with in vitro release profiles, which confirmed the intact bioactivity of rapamycin. For Jurkat cells, the suppression of cell growth was proven to be effective up to 20 days, a duration significantly longer than free rapamycin. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability to tune, sustain, and preserve the bioactivity of rapamycin using MP formulations. The sustained delivery of rapamycin could lead to better therapeutic effects than bolus dosage, at the same time improving patient compliance due to its long-acting duration.

  7. The Rapamycin-Binding Domain of the Protein Kinase mTOR is a Destabilizing Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sarah R.; Wandless, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug that binds simultaneously to the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein (FKBP12, or FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB) of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. The resulting ternary complex has been used to conditionally perturb protein function, and one such method involves perturbation of a protein of interest through its mislocalization. We synthesized two rapamycin derivatives that possess large substituents at the C16 position within the FRB-binding interface, and these derivatives were screened against a library of FRB mutants using a three-hybrid assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several FRB mutants responded to one of the rapamycin derivatives, and twenty of these mutants were further characterized in mammalian cells. The mutants most responsive to the ligand were fused to yellow fluorescent protein, and fluorescence levels in the presence and absence of the ligand were measured to determine stability of the fusion proteins. Wild-type and mutant FRB domains were expressed at low levels in the absence of the rapamycin derivative, and expression levels rose up to ten-fold upon treatment with ligand. The synthetic rapamycin derivatives were further analyzed using quantitative mass spectrometry, and one of the compounds was found to contain contaminating rapamycin. Furthermore, uncontaminated analogs retain the ability to inhibit mTOR, albeit with diminished potency relative to rapamycin. The ligand-dependent stability displayed by wildtype FRB and FRB mutants as well as the inhibitory potential and purity of the rapamycin derivatives should be considered as potentially confounding experimental variables when using these systems. PMID:17350953

  8. Effects of wortmannin and rapamycin on CSF-1-mediated responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J A; Byrne, R; Whitty, G; Vadiveloo, P K; Marmy, N; Pearson, R B; Christy, E; Jaworowski, A

    1998-02-01

    There are differing views regarding the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3-kinases) and p70 S6 kinase (p70s6k) in growth factor-induced cellular responses. One approach that is widely employed to investigate these roles is to use the inhibitors, wortmannin and rapamycin, respectively. This approach is used here to study the responses in macrophages to colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). Wortmannin (> or = 30 nM) and rapamycin (> or = 3 nM) both weakly inhibited CSF-1-stimulated DNA synthesis in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), suggesting that there are PI3-kinase- and p70s6k-independent pathways required for the onset of S phase; interestingly the combination of the drugs gave dramatic suppression. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by rapamycin on the BMM was much less than that observed with the CSF-1-dependent cell line, BAC1.2F5. In BMM, wortmannin suppressed CSF-1-stimulated increase in p70s6k activity indicating that PI3-kinase activity may lie upstream. In contrast to some other growth factor/cell systems, no evidence was obtained using the inhibitors for the involvement of PI3-kinase or p70s6k in CSF-1-mediated induction of c-fos mRNA expression or Erk-1 activity; in addition, no evidence was found for an involvement in the CSF-1-mediated increase in cyclin D1 expression or STAT activation. The findings reinforce the need to study the signal transduction cascades relevant to each individual growth factor and preferably not in cell lines.

  9. Activin inhibits telomerase activity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katik, Indzi; Mackenzie-Kludas, Charley; Nicholls, Craig; Jiang, Fang-Xu; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, He; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2009-11-27

    Activin is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad tissue distributions. Recent studies demonstrate that activin-A inhibits cancer cell proliferation with unknown mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrate that recombinant activin-A induces telomerase inhibition in cancer cells. In breast and cervical cancer cells, activin-A resulted in telomerase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed at 10 ng/ml of activin-A, with a near complete inhibition at 80 ng/ml. Consistently, activin-A induced repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, with the hTERT gene to be suppressed by 60-80% within 24 h. In addition, activin-A induced a concomitant increase in Smad3 signaling and decrease of the hTERT gene promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These data suggest that activin-A triggered telomerase inhibition by down-regulating hTERT gene expression is involved in activin-A-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

  10. Inhibition of lipase activities by citrus pectin.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Takahiro; Sumiyosh, Maho; Han, Li-Kun; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsujita, Junji; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2003-10-01

    The oral administration of pectin to rats reduced and delayed the peak plasma triacylglycerol concentration. Pectin inhibited the hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol emulsified with soybean phosphatidylcholine by pancreatic, carboxylester, and lingual lipases in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the effective concentration of pectin for lingual lipase was 100 times lower than that for pancreatic lipase. Pectin did not inhibit the tributyrin- and p-nitrophenylbutyrate-hydrolyzing activities by pancreatic and carboxylester lipase. When low molecular weight pectin was assayed, pectin at a molecular weight of 90,000 (MW 90) most strongly inhibited three lipase activities. When the effect of pH on pectin inhibition was analyzed using pancreatic lipase, strong inhibition was observed at an acidic pH (below pH 7.0). In the assay system, the pancreatic lipase protein levels in the supernatant and fat layer were estimated by Western blotting with an anti-pancreatic lipase antibody. Pectin reduced the amount of pancreatic lipase protein in the fat layer in a concentration-dependent manner and concomitantly increased that in the supernatant. These results suggest that pectin may interact with emulsified substrates and inhibit the adsorption of lipase to the surface of substrate emulsion.

  11. mTOR and MEK1/2 inhibition differentially modulate tumor growth and the immune microenvironment in syngeneic models of oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Harrison; Shah, Sujay; Moore, Ellen; Caruso, Andria; Uppaluri, Ravindra; Van Waes, Carter; Allen, Clint

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mTOR and MEK1/2 inhibition on tumor growth and the tumor microenvironment in immunogenic and poorly immunogenic models of murine oral cancer. In vitro, rapamycin and PD901 inhibited signaling through expected downstream targets, but only PD901 reduced viability and altered function of MOC cells. Following transplantation of MOC cells into immune-competent mice, effects on both cancer and infiltrating immune cells were characterized following rapamycin and/or PD901 treatment for 21 days. In vivo, both rapamycin and PD901 inhibition reduced primary growth of established MOC tumors on treatment. Following withdrawal of PD901, rapid rebound of tumor growth limited survival, whereas durable tumor control was observed following rapamycin treatment in immunogenic MOC1 tumors despite more robust inhibition of oncogenic signaling by PD901. Characterization of the immune microenvironment revealed diminished infiltration and activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells and other immune cells following PD901 but not rapamycin in immunogenic tumors. Subsequent in vitro T-cell assays validated robust inhibition of T-cell expansion and activation following MEK inhibition compared to mTOR inhibition. CD8 cell depletion abrogated rapamycin-induced primary tumor growth inhibition in MOC1 mice. These data have critical implications in the design of combination targeted and immune therapies in oral cancer. PMID:26506415

  12. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles.

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F; Owens, Scott R; Joshi, Bishnu P; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-02-10

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, P<0.01. On immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant reduction in phospho-S6 but not β-catenin expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting greater inhibition of downstream mTOR signaling. We observed significantly reduced renal toxicity for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity.

  13. Rapamycin Normalizes Serum Leptin by Alleviating Obesity and Reducing Leptin Synthesis in Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, Philip J; Matheny, Michael; Strehler, Kevin Y E; Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Carter, Christy S; Morgan, Drake; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-07-01

    This investigation examines whether a low intermittent dose of rapamycin will avoid the hyperlipidemia and diabetes-like syndrome associated with rapamycin while still decreasing body weight and adiposity in aged obese rats. Furthermore, we examined if the rapamycin-mediated decrease in serum leptin was a reflection of decreased adiposity, diminished leptin synthesis, or both. To these ends, rapamycin (1mg/kg) was administered three times a week to 3 and 24-month old rats. Body weight, food intake, body composition, mTORC1 signaling, markers of metabolism, as well as serum leptin levels and leptin synthesis in adipose tissue were examined and compared to that following a central infusion of rapamycin. Our data suggest that the dosing schedule of rapamycin acts on peripheral targets to inhibit mTORC1 signaling, preferentially reducing adiposity and sparing lean mass in an aged model of obesity resulting in favorable outcomes on blood triglycerides, increasing lean/fat ratio, and normalizing elevated serum leptin with age. The initial mechanism underlying the rapamycin responses appears to have a peripheral action and not central. The peripheral rapamycin responses may communicate an excessive nutrients signal to the hypothalamus that triggers an anorexic response to reduce food consumption. This coupled with potential peripheral mechanism serves to decrease adiposity and synthesis of leptin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rapamycin attenuates the development of posttraumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongjun; Zeng, Linghui; Brody, David L; Wong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic epilepsy is a major source of disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a common cause of medically-intractable epilepsy. Previous attempts to prevent the development of posttraumatic epilepsy with treatments administered immediately following TBI have failed. Recently, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway has been implicated in mechanisms of epileptogenesis and the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, has been proposed to have antiepileptogenic effects in preventing some types of epilepsy. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that rapamycin has antiepileptogenic actions in preventing the development of posttraumatic epilepsy in an animal model of TBI. A detailed characterization of posttraumatic epilepsy in the mouse controlled cortical impact model was first performed using continuous video-EEG monitoring for 16 weeks following TBI. Controlled cortical impact injury caused immediate hyperactivation of the mTORC1 pathway lasting at least one week, which was reversed by rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin decreased neuronal degeneration and mossy fiber sprouting, although the effect on mossy fiber sprouting was reversible after stopping rapamycin and did not directly correlate with inhibition of epileptogenesis. Most posttraumatic seizures occurred greater than 10 weeks after TBI, and rapamycin treatment for one month after TBI decreased the seizure frequency and rate of developing posttraumatic epilepsy during the entire 16 week monitoring session. These results suggest that rapamycin may represent a rational treatment for preventing posttraumatic epilepsy in patients with TBI.

  15. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin alleviates bladder hyperactivity and pain in rats with cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Gou, Xin; Chen, Daihui

    2016-01-01

    Background Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. Results The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E–binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats. Blocking mTOR by intrathecal infusion of rapamycin attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PI3K signal pathway attenuated activities of mTOR, which was accompanied with decreasing bladder hyperactivity and pain. Inhibition of either mTOR or PI3K blunted the enhanced spinal substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in cyclophosphamide rats. Conclusions The data for the first time revealed specific signaling pathways leading to cyclophosphamide-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of mTOR and PI3K. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. PMID:27780878

  16. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Elizabeth M.; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; Simmers, Jessica L.; Mi, Ruifa; Park, Jae-Sung; Ying, Stephanie; Hoke, Ahmet; Lee, Se-Jin; Cohn, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization) and denervation (sciatic nerve resection) atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK) rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy. PMID:24504412

  17. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2014-01-01

    Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes. PMID:25049998

  18. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, temsirolimus and torin 1, attenuate stemness-associated properties and expression of mesenchymal markers promoted by phorbol-myristate-acetate and oncostatin-M in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Goparaju; Natesh, Kumar; Ranade, Deepak; Chugh, Ashish; Shastry, Padma

    2017-03-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway is crucial for tumor survival, proliferation, and progression, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In glioblastoma, activated mammalian target of rapamycin promotes invasive phenotype and correlates with poor patient survival. A wide range of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are currently being evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity in various tumor types but are not explored sufficiently for controlling tumor invasion and recurrence. We recently reported that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors-rapamycin, temsirolimus, torin 1, and PP242-suppressed invasion and migration promoted by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and phorbol-myristate-acetate in glioblastoma cells. As aggressive invasion and migration of tumors are associated with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, this study aimed to examine the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors on these features in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that temsirolimus and torin 1 effectively reduced the constitutive as well as phorbol-myristate-acetate/oncostatin-M-induced expression of mesenchymal markers (fibronectin, vimentin, and YKL40) and neural stem cell markers (Sox2, Oct4, nestin, and mushashi1). The inhibitors significantly abrogated the neurosphere-forming capacity induced by phorbol-myristate-acetate and oncostatin-M. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drugs dephosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription factor 3, a major regulator of mesenchymal and neural stem cell markers implicating the role of signal transducer and activator transcription factor 3 in the inhibitory action of these drugs. The findings demonstrate the potential of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as "stemness-inhibiting drugs" and a promising therapeutic approach to target glioma stem cells.

  19. Chemical inhibition of nitrification in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R T; Henriques, I D S; Love, N G

    2004-03-20

    Conventional aerobic nitrification was adversely affected by single pulse inputs of six different classes of industrially relevant chemical toxins: an electrophilic solvent (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CDNB), a heavy metal (cadmium), a hydrophobic chemical (1-octanol), an uncoupling agent (2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP), alkaline pH, and cyanide in its weak metal complexed form. The concentrations of each chemical source that caused 1 5, 25, and 50% respiratory inhibition of a nitrifying mixed liquor during a short-term assay were used to shock sequencing batch reactors containing nitrifying conventional activated sludge. The reactors were monitored for recovery over a period of 30 days or less. All shock conditions inhibited nitrification, but to different degrees. The nitrate generation rate (NGR) of the shocked reactors recovered overtime to control reactor levels and showed that it was a more sensitive indicator of nitrification inhibition than both initial respirometric tests conducted on unexposed biomass and effluent nitrogen species analyses. CDNB had the most severe impact on nitrification, followed by alkaline pH 11, cadmium, cyanide, octanol, and DNP. Based on effluent data, cadmium and octanol primarily inhibited ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) while CDNB, pH 11,and cyanide inhibited both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). DNP initially inhibited nitrification but quickly increased the NGR relative to the control and stimulated nitrification after several days in a manner reflective of oxidative uncoupling. The shocked mixed liquor showed trends toward recovery from inhibition for all chemicals tested, but in some cases this reversion was slow. These results contribute to our broader effort to identify relationships between chemical sources and the process effects they induce in activated sludge treatment systems.

  20. Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Shin, Y G; Kim, I H; Pezzuto, J M

    1999-06-01

    In searching for potent cancer chemopreventive agents from synthetic or natural products, 28 randomly selected flavonoids were screened for inhibitory effects against partially purified aromatase prepared from human placenta. Over 50% of the flavonoids significantly inhibited aromatase activity, with greatest activity being demonstrated with apigenin (IC50: 0.9 microg/mL), chrysin (IC50: 1.1 microg/mL), and hesperetin (IC50: 1.0 microg/mL).

  1. Anti-remodeling effects of rapamycin in experimental heart failure: dose response and interaction with angiotensin receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bishu, Kalkidan; Ogut, Ozgur; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Mohammed, Selma F; Ohtani, Tomohito; Xu, Xiaolei; Brozovich, Frank V; Redfield, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    While neurohumoral antagonists improve outcomes in heart failure (HF), cardiac remodeling and dysfunction progress and outcomes remain poor. Therapies superior or additive to standard HF therapy are needed. Pharmacologic mTOR inhibition by rapamycin attenuated adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in experimental heart failure (HF). However, these studies used rapamycin doses that produced blood drug levels targeted for primary immunosuppression in human transplantation and therefore the immunosuppressive effects may limit clinical translation. Further, the relative or incremental effect of rapamycin combined with standard HF therapies targeting upstream regulators of cardiac remodeling (neurohumoral antagonists) has not been defined. Our objectives were to determine if anti-remodeling effects of rapamycin were preserved at lower doses and whether rapamycin effects were similar or additive to a standard HF therapy (angiotensin receptor blocker (losartan)). Experimental murine HF was produced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). At three weeks post-TAC, male mice with established HF were treated with placebo, rapamycin at a dose producing immunosuppressive drug levels (target dose), low dose (50% target dose) rapamycin, losartan or rapamycin + losartan for six weeks. Cardiac structure and function (echocardiography, catheterization, pathology, hypertrophic and fibrotic gene expression profiles) were assessed. Downstream mTOR signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis (S6K1 and S6) and autophagy (LC3B-II) were characterized. TAC-HF mice displayed eccentric hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction and pulmonary congestion. These perturbations were attenuated to a similar degree by oral rapamycin doses achieving target (13.3±2.1 ng/dL) or low (6.7±2.5 ng/dL) blood levels. Rapamycin treatment decreased mTOR mediated regulators of protein synthesis and increased mTOR mediated regulators of autophagy. Losartan monotherapy did not attenuate remodeling, whereas

  2. Thalidomide inhibits activation of caspase-1.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Sollberger, Gabriel; Beer, Hans-Dietmar

    2009-11-01

    Thalidomide is an efficient anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic drug, but its therapeutic use is problematic due to a strong teratogenic activity. Nevertheless, thalidomide was approved for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases and certain types of cancer, and it is extensively tested for several other indications. Recently, we demonstrated that active caspase-1, whose activation is dependent on inflammasome complexes, is required for unconventional protein secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and of the proangiogenic fibroblast growth factor 2. In this study, we show that pharmacological doses of thalidomide strongly reduced the secretion of both proteins. Thalidomide-treated cells also released less of other leaderless proteins, which require caspase-1 activity for their secretion. In line with these findings, the drug inhibited activation and activity of caspase-1 in cultured cells but not in vitro. The latter finding suggests that the pharmacological activity is exerted by a metabolite of the drug. The anti-inflammatory activity of thalidomide was also mediated via caspase-1 in mice. These findings represent a novel mechanism by which thalidomide exerts its pharmacological activity and suggest that inhibition of the activity of IL-1 might represent a novel strategy to substitute thalidomide.

  3. Effects of ketamine administration on mTOR and reticulum stress signaling pathways in the brain after the infusion of rapamycin into prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ignácio, Zuleide M; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; Demo, Júlia P; da Silva, Júlia B I; Michels, Monique; Abatti, Mariane; Sonai, Beatriz; Dal Pizzol, Felipe; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies show that activation of the mTOR signaling pathway is required for the rapid antidepressant actions of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. A relationship between mTOR kinase and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, also known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) has been shown. We evaluate the effects of ketamine administration on the mTOR signaling pathway and proteins of UPR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens, after the inhibiton of mTOR signaling in the PFC. Male adult Wistar rats received pharmacological mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (0.2 nmol), or vehicle into the PFC and then a single dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). The immunocontent of mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) homologous protein (CHOP), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) - alpha were determined in the brain. The mTOR levels were reduced in the rapamycin group treated with saline and ketamine in the PFC; p4EBP1 levels were reduced in the rapamycin group treated with ketamine in the PFC and nucleus accumbens; the levels of peEF2K were increased in the PFC in the vehicle group treated with ketamine and reduced in the rapamycin group treated with ketamine. The PERK and IRE1-alpha levels were decreased in the PFC in the rapamycin group treated with ketamine. Our results suggest that mTOR signaling inhibition by rapamycin could be involved, at least in part, with the mechanism of action of ketamine; and the ketamine antidepressant on ER stress pathway could be also mediated by mTOR signaling pathway in certain brain structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol inhibits polyphosphoinositide metabolism in activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Holmsen, Holm; Fukami, Miriam H

    2005-08-15

    The effects of resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) on activation responses and the polyphosphoinositide metabolism in human blood platelets have been studied. Resveratrol partially inhibited secretory responses (liberation of dense granule nucleotides and lysosomal acid hydrolases), microparticle formation and protein phosphorylations induced by thrombin. The effects of resveratrol on phosphoinositide metabolites, phosphatidate (PtdOH), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns-4(5)-P), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2), phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4-P2) and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4,5-P3) were monitored in blood platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Resveratrol not only inhibited the marked increase in levels of PtdOH in platelets activated by thrombin (0.1 U/ml) but it decreased the steady state levels of the other polyphosphoinositide metabolites. The distribution of 32P in phosphoinositides in activated platelets was consistent with inhibition of CDP-DAG inositol transferase and a weak inhibition of PtdIns-4(5)-P kinase. These observations show that resveratrol has a profound effect on phospholipids, particularly on polyphosphoinositide metabolism, and may decrease the amount of PtdIns-4,5-P2 available for signalling in these cells.

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle phenotype via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Song, Sang Heon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Bae, Sun Sik

    2015-08-14

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs.

  6. Time-dependent effects of rapamycin on consolidation of predator stress-induced hyperarousal.

    PubMed

    Fifield, Kathleen; Hebert, Mark; Williams, Kimberly; Linehan, Victoria; Whiteman, Jesse D; Mac Callum, Phillip; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, blocks consolidation of shock-induced associative fear memories. Moreover, rapamycin's block of associative fear memories is time-dependent. It is unknown, however, if rapamycin blocks consolidation of predator stress-induced non-associative fear memories. Furthermore, the temporal pattern of mTOR activation following predator stress is unknown. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to determine if rapamycin blocks consolidation of predator stress-induced fear memories and if so, whether rapamycin's effect is time-dependent. Male rats were injected systemically with rapamycin at various time points following predator stress. Predator stress involves an acute, unprotected exposure of a rat to a cat, which causes long-lasting non-associative fear memories manifested as generalized hyperarousal and increased anxiety-like behaviour. We show that rapamycin injected immediately after predator stress blocked consolidation of stress-induced startle. However, rapamycin injected 9, 24 or 48h post predator stress potentiated stress-induced startle. Consistent with shock-induced associative fear memories, we show that mTOR signalling is essential for consolidation of predator stress-induced hyperarousal. However, unlike shock-induced fear memories, a second, persistent, late phase mTOR-dependent process following predator stress actually dampens startle. Consistent with previous findings, our data support the potential role for rapamycin in treatment of stress related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. However, our data suggest timing of rapamycin administration is critical.

  7. Thiomers: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of different thiolated polymers (thiomers) on the catalytic activity of CYP450s on one hand and to explore new inhibitors for CYP activity on the other hand. Several thiolated polymers including poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cysteine), chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA), and thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer along with brij 35, myrj 52 and the well-established CYPP450 inhibitor verapamil were screened for their CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 inhibitory activity, and their IC(50) values were determined. Both enzyme inhibition assays were performed in 96-well microtiter plates. 7-Benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin (BFC) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) were used as fluorescent substrates in order to determine CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity, respectively. All investigated compounds inhibited CYP3A4 as well as CYP2A6 activity. All tested (thiolated) polymers were found to be more potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 than of CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Apart from verapamil that is a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, brij 35 and myrj 52 were explored as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Among the tested polymers, the rank order for CYP3A4 inhibition was PAA-cysteine (100 kDa)>brij 35>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>myrj 52>PAA (100 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa). On the other hand, the rank order of CYP2A6 inhibition was brij 35>PAA-cysteine (100kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>PAA (100 kDa)>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>myrj 52. Thus, this study suggests that (thiolated) polymers display a promising potential to inhibit cytochrome P450s activity and might turn out to be potentially valuable tools for improving the oral bioavailability of actively secreted compounds by avoiding intestinal metabolism.

  8. Aminopeptidase from Brevibacterium linens: activation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Foissy, H

    1978-04-18

    Activation and inhibition of a purified aminopeptidase from Brevibacterium linens was investigated using L-alpha-leucyl-4-nitroanilide and L-leucyl-L-leucine as substrates. The enzyme was activated by cobalt, provided that the enzyme was preincubated with the metal. Strong inhibitory effects were derived from heavy metals, metal-complexing compounds, reducing agents, the modification of aromatic amino acids, and the presence of hydrophobic substances or certain amino acids in the test mixtures. Supposing that this B. linens aminopeptidase plays a part during surface-ripening of cheeses, possible consequences of specific technological conditions for its activity are discussed.

  9. Brassinosteriod Insensitive 2 (BIN2) acts as a downstream effector of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway to regulate photoautotrophic growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangjie; Zhang, Rui; Meng, Zhigang; Deng, Kexuan; Que, Yumei; Zhuo, Fengping; Feng, Li; Guo, Sundui; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    The components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway have been well characterized in heterotrophic organisms from yeast to humans. However, because of rapamycin insensitivity, embryonic lethality in tor null mutants and a lack of reliable ways of detecting TOR protein kinase in higher plants, the key players upstream and downstream of TOR remain largely unknown in plants. Using engineered rapamycin-sensitive Binding Protein 12-2 (BP12-2) plants, the present study showed that combined treatment with rapamycin and active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) results in synergistic inhibition of TOR activity and plant growth in Arabidopsis. Based on this system, we revealed that TOR signaling plays a crucial role in modulating the transition from heterotrophic to photoautotrophic growth in Arabidopsis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) was identified as a direct downstream target of TOR, and the growth of TOR-suppressed plants could be rescued by up-regulating S6K2. Systems, genetic, and biochemical analyses revealed that Brassinosteriod Insensitive 2 (BIN2) acts as a novel downstream effector of S6K2, and the phosphorylation of BIN2 depends on TOR-S6K2 signaling in Arabidopsis. By combining pharmacological with genetic and biochemical approaches, we determined that the TOR-S6K2-BIN2 signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating the photoautotrophic growth of Arabidopsis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Rapamycin-enhanced mitomycin C-induced apoptotic death is mediated through the S6K1–Bad–Bak pathway in peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, X; Dilly, A-K; Kim, S-Y; Choudry, H A; Lee, Y J

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most common secondary cancerous disease, and more effective novel regimens are needed. In this study, we identified a novel combination treatment for PC, chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C in combination with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin. We observed that the combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin inactivated p70 S6 ribosomal kinase (S6K1) and dephosphorylated Bad, leading to dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak, which resulted in Bak oligomerization, mitochondria dysfunction and cytochrome c release. PF-4708671, a S6K1-specific inhibitor, enhanced the combination treatment-induced apoptosis, whereas S6K1 E389 DeltaCT-HA (S6K1 active form) dramatically decreased the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the combination treatment significantly inhibited LS174T intraperitoneal tumor growth in vivo. This study provides a preclinical rationale for apoptosis induction linked with the mTOR pathway through a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and mTOR inhibitor, and will support this combinatorial strategy to PC patients. PMID:24901052

  11. Rapamycin-enhanced mitomycin C-induced apoptotic death is mediated through the S6K1-Bad-Bak pathway in peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Song, X; Dilly, A-K; Kim, S-Y; Choudry, H A; Lee, Y J

    2014-06-05

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most common secondary cancerous disease, and more effective novel regimens are needed. In this study, we identified a novel combination treatment for PC, chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C in combination with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin. We observed that the combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin inactivated p70 S6 ribosomal kinase (S6K1) and dephosphorylated Bad, leading to dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak, which resulted in Bak oligomerization, mitochondria dysfunction and cytochrome c release. PF-4708671, a S6K1-specific inhibitor, enhanced the combination treatment-induced apoptosis, whereas S6K1 E389 DeltaCT-HA (S6K1 active form) dramatically decreased the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the combination treatment significantly inhibited LS174T intraperitoneal tumor growth in vivo. This study provides a preclinical rationale for apoptosis induction linked with the mTOR pathway through a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and mTOR inhibitor, and will support this combinatorial strategy to PC patients.

  12. Synthesis of Rapamycin Derivatives Containing the Triazole Moiety Used as Potential mTOR-Targeted Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijun; Huang, Jie; Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Hui; Li, Kualiang; Yang, Dan; Chen, Xiaqin; Ying, Jiayin; Pan, Fusheng; Lv, Youbing; Cheng, Yuanrong

    2016-06-01

    Rapamycin, a potent antifungal antibiotic, was approved as immunosuppressant, and lately its derivatives have been developed into mTOR targeting anticancer drugs. Structure modification was performed at the C-42 position of rapamycin, and a novel series of rapamycin triazole hybrids (4a-d, 5a-e, 8a-e, and 9a-e) was facilely synthesized via Huisgen's reaction. The anticancer activity of these compounds was evaluated against the Caski, H1299, MGC-803, and H460 human cancer cell lines. Some of the derivatives (8a-e, 9a-e) appeared to have stronger activity than that of rapamycin; however, 4a-d and 5a-e failed to show potential anticancer activity. Compound 9e with a (2,4-dichlorophenylamino)methyl moiety on the triazole ring was the most active anticancer compound, which showed IC50 values of 6.05 (Caski), 7.89 (H1299), 25.88 (MGC-803), and 8.60 μM (H460). In addition, research on the mechanism showed that 9e was able to cause cell morphological changes and to induce apoptosis in the Caski cell line. Most importantly, 9e can decrease the phosphorylation of mTOR and of its downstream key proteins, S6 and P70S6K1, indicating that 9e can effectively inhibit the mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, it may have the potential to become a new mTOR inhibitor against various cancers.

  13. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2011-07-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria.

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Huijeong; Kim, Jeeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik

    2014-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that is commonly/widely used as a solvent for biological compounds. In addition, DMSO has been studied as a medication for the treatment of inflammation, cystitis, and arthritis. Based on the anti-inflammatory characteristics of DMSO, we elucidated the effects of DMSO on activation of inflammasomes, which are cytoplasmic multi-protein complexes that mediate the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β by activating caspase-1 (Casp1). In the present study, we prove that DMSO attenuated IL-1β maturation, Casp1 activity, and ASC pyroptosome formation via NLRP3 inflammasome activators. Further, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasome activity were not affected, suggesting that DMSO is a selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasomes. The anti-inflammatory effect of DMSO was further confirmed in animal, LPS-endotoxin sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease models. In addition, DMSO inhibited LPS-mediating IL-1s transcription. Taken together, DMSO shows anti-inflammatory characteristics, attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mediates inhibition of IL-1s transcription.

  15. Chronic rapamycin treatment on the nutrient utilization and metabolism of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingchao; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Wang, Xuan; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    High dietary protein inclusion is necessary in fish feeds and also represents a major cost in the aquaculture industry, which demands improved dietary conversion into body proteins in fish. In mammals, the target of rapamycin (TOR) is a key nutritionally responsive molecule governing postprandial anabolism. However, its physiological significance in teleosts has not been fully examined. In the present study, we examined the nutritional physiology of turbot after chronic rapamycin inhibition. Our results showed that a 6-week inhibition of TOR using dietary rapamycin inclusion (30 mg/kg diet) reduced growth performance and feed utilization. The rapamycin treatment inhibited TOR signaling and reduced expression of key enzymes in glycolysis, lipogenesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, while increasing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment increased intestinal goblet cell number in turbot, while the expressions of Notch and Hes1 were down regulated. It was possible that stimulated goblet cell differentiation by rapamycin was mediated through Notch-Hes1 pathway. Therefore, our results demonstrate the important role of TOR signaling in fish nutritional physiology. PMID:27305975

  16. Nanoparticles Effectively Target Rapamycin Delivery to Sites of Experimental Aortic Aneurysm in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, Takuro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yutaka; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs targeting the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm have shown efficacy in model systems but not in clinical trials, potentially owing to the lack of targeted drug delivery. Here, we designed a novel drug delivery system using nanoparticles to target the disrupted aortic aneurysm micro-structure. We generated poly(ethylene glycol)-shelled nanoparticles incorporating rapamycin that exhibited uniform diameter and long-term stability. When injected intravenously into a rat model in which abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) had been induced by infusing elastase, labeled rapamycin nanoparticles specifically accumulated in the AAA. Microscopic analysis revealed that rapamycin nanoparticles were mainly distributed in the media and adventitia where the wall structures were damaged. Co-localization of rapamycin nanoparticles with macrophages was also noted. Rapamycin nanoparticles injected during the process of AAA formation evinced significant suppression of AAA formation and mural inflammation at 7 days after elastase infusion, as compared with rapamycin treatment alone. Correspondingly, the activities of matrix metalloproteinases and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were significantly suppressed by rapamycin nanoparticle treatment. Our findings suggest that the nanoparticle-based delivery system achieves specific delivery of rapamycin to the rat AAA and might contribute to establishing a drug therapy approach targeting aortic aneurysm.

  17. Rapamycin reverses impaired social interaction in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Kasai, Shinya; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Takamatsu, Yukio; Hino, Okio; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Impairment of reciprocal social interaction is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder. Genetic disorders frequently accompany autism spectrum disorder, such as tuberous sclerosis complex caused by haploinsufficiency of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Accumulating evidence implicates a relationship between autism spectrum disorder and signal transduction that involves tuberous sclerosis complex 1, tuberous sclerosis complex 2 and mammalian target of rapamycin. Here we show behavioural abnormalities relevant to autism spectrum disorder and their recovery by the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex. In Tsc2(+/-) mice, we find enhanced transcription of multiple genes involved in mammalian target of rapamycin signalling, which is dependent on activated mammalian target of rapamycin signalling with a minimal influence of Akt. The findings indicate a crucial role of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling in deficient social behaviour in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex, supporting the notion that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors may be useful for the pharmacological treatment of autism spectrum disorder associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and other conditions that result from dysregulated mammalian target of rapamycin signalling.

  18. Nanoparticles Effectively Target Rapamycin Delivery to Sites of Experimental Aortic Aneurysm in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shirasu, Takuro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yutaka; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs targeting the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm have shown efficacy in model systems but not in clinical trials, potentially owing to the lack of targeted drug delivery. Here, we designed a novel drug delivery system using nanoparticles to target the disrupted aortic aneurysm micro-structure. We generated poly(ethylene glycol)-shelled nanoparticles incorporating rapamycin that exhibited uniform diameter and long-term stability. When injected intravenously into a rat model in which abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) had been induced by infusing elastase, labeled rapamycin nanoparticles specifically accumulated in the AAA. Microscopic analysis revealed that rapamycin nanoparticles were mainly distributed in the media and adventitia where the wall structures were damaged. Co-localization of rapamycin nanoparticles with macrophages was also noted. Rapamycin nanoparticles injected during the process of AAA formation evinced significant suppression of AAA formation and mural inflammation at 7 days after elastase infusion, as compared with rapamycin treatment alone. Correspondingly, the activities of matrix metalloproteinases and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were significantly suppressed by rapamycin nanoparticle treatment. Our findings suggest that the nanoparticle-based delivery system achieves specific delivery of rapamycin to the rat AAA and might contribute to establishing a drug therapy approach targeting aortic aneurysm. PMID:27336852

  19. Rapamycin reverses impaired social interaction in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsushi; Kasai, Shinya; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Takamatsu, Yukio; Hino, Okio; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Impairment of reciprocal social interaction is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder. Genetic disorders frequently accompany autism spectrum disorder, such as tuberous sclerosis complex caused by haploinsufficiency of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Accumulating evidence implicates a relationship between autism spectrum disorder and signal transduction that involves tuberous sclerosis complex 1, tuberous sclerosis complex 2 and mammalian target of rapamycin. Here we show behavioural abnormalities relevant to autism spectrum disorder and their recovery by the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex. In Tsc2+/− mice, we find enhanced transcription of multiple genes involved in mammalian target of rapamycin signalling, which is dependent on activated mammalian target of rapamycin signalling with a minimal influence of Akt. The findings indicate a crucial role of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling in deficient social behaviour in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex, supporting the notion that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors may be useful for the pharmacological treatment of autism spectrum disorder associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and other conditions that result from dysregulated mammalian target of rapamycin signalling. PMID:23250422

  20. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čolović, M.; Krstić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Momić, T.; Savić, J.; Vujačić, A.; Vasić, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  1. An Activation Threshold Model for Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Hayley J.; McMorland, Angus J. C.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive response inhibition (RI) is the cancellation of a prepared response when it is no longer appropriate. Selectivity of RI can be examined by cueing the cancellation of one component of a prepared multi-component response. This substantially delays execution of other components. There is debate regarding whether this response delay is due to a selective neural mechanism. Here we propose a computational activation threshold model (ATM) and test it against a classical “horse-race” model using behavioural and neurophysiological data from partial RI experiments. The models comprise both facilitatory and inhibitory processes that compete upstream of motor output regions. Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) of predicted muscular and neurophysiological data were fit in both models to equivalent experimental measures by minimizing a Pearson Chi-square statistic. The ATM best captured behavioural and neurophysiological dynamics of partial RI. The ATM demonstrated that the observed modulation of corticomotor excitability during partial RI can be explained by nonselective inhibition of the prepared response. The inhibition raised the activation threshold to a level that could not be reached by the original response. This was necessarily followed by an additional phase of facilitation representing a secondary activation process in order to reach the new inhibition threshold and initiate the executed component of the response. The ATM offers a mechanistic description of the neural events underlying RI, in which partial movement cancellation results from a nonselective inhibitory event followed by subsequent initiation of a new response. The ATM provides a framework for considering and exploring the neuroanatomical constraints that underlie RI. PMID:28085907

  2. Fluoride Does Not Inhibit Enamel Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tye, C.E.; Antone, J.V.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorosed enamel can be porous, mottled, discolored, hypomineralized, and protein-rich if the enamel matrix is not completely removed. Proteolytic processing by matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4) is critical for enamel formation, and homozygous mutation of either protease results in hypomineralized, protein-rich enamel. Herein, we demonstrate that the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin K is expressed in the enamel organ in a developmentally defined manner that suggests a role for cathepsin K in degrading re-absorbed enamel matrix proteins. We therefore asked if fluoride directly inhibits the activity of MMP20, KLK4, dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) (an in vitro activator of KLK4), or cathepsin K. Enzyme kinetics were studied with quenched fluorescent peptides with purified enzyme in the presence of 0–10 mM NaF, and data were fit to Michaelis-Menten curves. Increasing concentrations of known inhibitors showed decreases in enzyme activity. However, concentrations of up to 10 mM NaF had no effect on KLK4, MMP20, DPPI, or cathepsin K activity. Our results show that fluoride does not directly inhibit enamel proteolytic activity. PMID:21118795

  3. Antitumor effects of rapamycin in pancreatic cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Kang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Bao-Feng; Lu, Wang-Feng; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Xi-Jing; Wu, Wen-Ying

    2012-12-21

    Rapamycin (Rapa), an inhibitor of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is an immunosuppressive agent that has anti-proliferative effects on some tumors. This study aims to investigate the effects of Rapa suppressing proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma PC-2 cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism involved in antitumor activities. MTT assays showed that the inhibition of proliferation of PC-2 cells in vitro was in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By using transmission electron microscopy, apoptosis bodies and formation of abundant autophagic vacuoles were observed in PC-2 cells after Rapa treatment. Flow cytometry assays also showed Rapa had a positive effect on apoptosis. MDC staining showed that the fluorescent density was higher and the number of MDC-labeled particles in PC-2 cells was greater in the Rapa treatment group than in the control group. RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of p53, Bax and Beclin 1 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Beclin 1 was involved in Rapa induced autophagy and Rapa induced apoptosis as well as p53 up-regulation in PC-2 cells. The results demonstrated that Rapa could effectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and autophagy in PC-2 cells.

  4. Kaempferol inhibits thrombosis and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate whether kaempferol affects pro-coagulant proteinase activity, fibrin clot formation, blood clot and thrombin (or collagen/epinephrine)-stimulated platelet activation, thrombosis, and coagulation in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice and SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. Kaempferol significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of thrombin and FXa by 68 ± 1.6% and 52 ± 2.4%, respectively. Kaempferol also inhibited fibrin polymer formation in turbidity. Microscopic analysis was performed using a fluorescent conjugate. Kaempferol completely attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PKB (AKT) in thrombin-stimulated platelets and delayed aggregation time (clotting) by 34.6% in an assay of collagen/epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation. Moreover, kaempferol protected against thrombosis development in 3 animal models, including collagen/epinephrine- and thrombin-induced acute thromboembolism models and an FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus model. The ex vivo anticoagulant effect of kaempferol was further confirmed in ICR mice. This study demonstrated that kaempferol may be clinically useful due to its ability to reduce or prevent thrombotic challenge.

  5. CC-223 blocks mTORC1/C2 activation and inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zichen; Wang, Jiqin; Liu, Mei; Chen, Deshan; Qiu, Chao; Sun, Keyu

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related human mortalities. Over-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is important for HCC tumorigenesis and progression. The current study assessed the potential anti-HCC activity by a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, CC-223. We demonstrate that CC-223, at nM concentrations, induced profound cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, KYN-2 and Huh-7) and primary human HCC cells. Meanwhile, CC-223 activated caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in the above HCC cells. CC-223 concurrently blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation, and its cytotoxicity against HCC cells was much more potent than the traditional mTORC1 inhibitors (RAD001 and rapamycin). Further studies demonstrated that CC-223 disrupted mitochondrial function, and induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. On the other hand, ROS scavengers and mPTP blockers (cyclosporin A or sanglifehrin A) largely attenuated CC-223-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of CC-223 dramatically inhibited growth of HepG2 xenografts in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice. mTORC1/2 activation was also blocked in xenografts with CC-223 administration. Together, CC-223 simultaneously blocks mTORC1/2 and efficiently inhibits human HCC cells.

  6. CC-223 blocks mTORC1/C2 activation and inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zichen; Wang, Jiqin; Liu, Mei; Chen, Deshan; Qiu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related human mortalities. Over-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is important for HCC tumorigenesis and progression. The current study assessed the potential anti-HCC activity by a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, CC-223. We demonstrate that CC-223, at nM concentrations, induced profound cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, KYN-2 and Huh-7) and primary human HCC cells. Meanwhile, CC-223 activated caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in the above HCC cells. CC-223 concurrently blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation, and its cytotoxicity against HCC cells was much more potent than the traditional mTORC1 inhibitors (RAD001 and rapamycin). Further studies demonstrated that CC-223 disrupted mitochondrial function, and induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. On the other hand, ROS scavengers and mPTP blockers (cyclosporin A or sanglifehrin A) largely attenuated CC-223-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of CC-223 dramatically inhibited growth of HepG2 xenografts in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice. mTORC1/2 activation was also blocked in xenografts with CC-223 administration. Together, CC-223 simultaneously blocks mTORC1/2 and efficiently inhibits human HCC cells. PMID:28334043

  7. Allosteric inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Alan; Kessl, Jacques J.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase is an important therapeutic target in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), which target the enzyme active site, have witnessed clinical success over the past 5 years, but the generation of drug resistance poses challenges to INSTI-based therapies moving forward. Integrase is a dynamic protein, and its ordered multimerization is critical to enzyme activity. The integrase tetramer, bound to viral DNA, interacts with host LEDGF/p75 protein to tether integration to active genes. Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) that compete with LEDGF/p75 for binding to integrase disrupt integrase assembly with viral DNA and allosterically inhibit enzyme function. ALLINIs display steep dose response curves and synergize with INSTIs ex vivo, highlighting this novel inhibitor class for clinical development. PMID:23647983

  8. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p < 0.001 was verified. The proteinate sources of OTMs were consistently and significantly less inhibitory than the majority of the other sources, p < 0.05. This was verified for Escherichia coli and Peniophora lycii phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  9. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-08-10

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that a component of reconstituted powdered milk has a high binding affinity to ricin. We discovered that milk can competitively bind to and reduce the amount of toxin available to asialofetuin type II, which is used as a model to study the binding of ricin to galactose cell-surface receptors. Milk also removes ricin bound to the microtiter plate. In parallel experiments, we demonstrated by activity assay and by immuno-PCR that milk can bind competitively to 1 ng/ml ricin, reducing the amount of toxin uptake by the cells, and thus inhibit the biological activity of ricin. The inhibitory effect of milk on ricin activity in Vero cells was at the same level as by anti-ricin antibodies. We also found that (a) milk did not inhibit ricin at concentrations of 10 or 100 ng/ml; (b) autoclaving 10 and 100 ng/ml ricin in DMEM at 121 °C for 30 min completely abolished activity; and (c) milk did not affect the activity of another ribosome inactivating protein, Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike ricin, which is internalized into the cells via a galactose-binding site, Stx2 is internalized through the cell surface receptor glycolipid globotriasylceramides Gb3 and Gb4. These observations suggest that ricin toxicity may possibly be reduced at room temperature by a widely consumed natural liquid food.

  10. SOX9-regulated cell plasticity in colorectal metastasis is attenuated by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Lopez, Lidia; Aldaz, Paula; Arevalo, Sara; Aldaregia, Juncal; Egaña, Larraitz; Bujanda, Luis; Cheung, Martin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes a hierarchical organization of tumors, in which stem-like cells sustain tumors and drive metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of CSCs and metastatic traits are not well understood. SOX9 is a transcription factor linked to stem cell maintenance and commonly overexpressed in solid cancers including colorectal cancer. In this study, we show that SOX9 levels are higher in metastatic (SW620) than in primary colorectal cancer cells (SW480) derived from the same patient. This elevated expression correlated with enhanced self-renewal activity. By gain and loss-of-function studies in SW480 and SW620 cells respectively, we reveal that SOX9 levels modulate tumorsphere formation and self-renewal ability in vitro and tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, SOX9 regulates migration and invasion and triggers the transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. These activities are partially dependent on SOX9 post-transcriptional modifications. Importantly, treatment with rapamycin inhibits self-renewal and tumor growth in a SOX9-dependent manner. These results identify a functional role for SOX9 in regulating colorectal cancer cell plasticity and metastasis, and provide a strong rationale for a rapamycin-based therapeutic strategy. PMID:27571710

  11. Reciprocal Regulation of Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 and Potassium Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Primo, Cecilia; Ferri-Blázquez, Alba; Loewith, Robbie; Yenush, Lynne

    2017-01-13

    The proper maintenance of potassium homeostasis is crucial for cell viability. Among the major determinants of potassium uptake in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the Trk1 high affinity potassium transporter and the functionally redundant Hal4 (Sat4) and Hal5 protein kinases. These kinases are required for the plasma membrane accumulation of not only Trk1 but also several nutrient permeases. Here, we show that overexpression of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) effector NPR1 improves hal4 hal5 growth defects by stabilizing nutrient permeases at the plasma membrane. We subsequently found that internal potassium levels and TORC1 activity are linked. Specifically, growth under limiting potassium alters the activities of Npr1 and another TORC1 effector kinase, Sch9; hal4 hal5 and trk1 trk2 mutants display hypersensitivity to rapamycin, and reciprocally, TORC1 inhibition reduces potassium accumulation. Our results demonstrate that in addition to carbon and nitrogen, TORC1 also responds to and regulates potassium fluxes.

  12. Rapamycin-sensitive induction of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F in regenerating mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Melissa M; Nelsen, Christopher J; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Morley, Simon J; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2004-09-01

    Following acute injuries that diminish functional liver mass, the remaining hepatocytes substantially increase overall protein synthesis to meet increased metabolic demands and to allow for compensatory liver growth. Previous studies have not clearly defined the mechanisms that promote protein synthesis in the regenerating liver. In the current study, we examined the regulation of key proteins involved in translation initiation following 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice. PH promoted the assembly of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F complexes consisting of eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF4A1, and poly-A binding protein. eIF4F complex formation after PH occurred without detectable changes in eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation or its binding eIF4E. The amount of serine 1108-phosphorylated eIF4G (but not Ser209-phosphorylated eIF4E) was induced following PH. These effects were antagonized by treatment with rapamycin, indicating that target of rapamycin (TOR) activity is required for eIF4F assembly in the regenerating liver. Rapamycin inhibited the induction of cyclin D1, a known eIF4F-sensitive gene, at the level of protein expression but not messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. In conclusion, increased translation initiation mediated by the mRNA cap-binding complex eIF4F contributes to the induction of protein synthesis during compensatory liver growth. Further study of factors that regulate translation initiation may provide insight into mechanisms that govern metabolic homeostasis and regeneration in response to liver injury.

  13. N-acetyl-L-cysteine protects against cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sujuan; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Jinfei; Ye, Yangjing; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Yijiao; Guo, Min; Ji, Haiyan; Xu, Chong; Gu, Chenjian; Gao, Wei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) in mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). Methods NAC (150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to mice exposed to Cd (10-50 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks. The changes of cell damage and death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, as well as Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in brain neurons were assessed. To verify the role of mTOR activation in Cd-induced neurotoxicity, mice also received a subacute regimen of intraperitoneally administered Cd (1 mg/kg) with/without rapamycin (7.5 mg/kg) for 11 days. Results Chronic exposure of mice to Cd induced brain damage or neuronal cell death, due to ROS induction. Co-administration of NAC significantly reduced Cd levels in the plasma and brain of the animals. NAC prevented Cd-induced ROS and significantly attenuated Cd-induced brain damage or neuronal cell death. The protective effect of NAC was mediated, at least partially, by elevating the activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of glutathione in the brain. Furthermore, Cd-induced activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in the brain was also inhibited by NAC. Rapamycin in vitro and in vivo protected against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions NAC protects against Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis in mouse brain partially by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. The findings highlight that NAC may be exploited for prevention and treatment of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24299490

  14. Isoflurane Promotes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Malignancy by Activating the Akt-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhua; Shao, Xueqian

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortalities worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the majority of all lung cancer cases. Surgery remains one of the front-line treatment options for NSCLC, but events within the perioperative period were found to affect cancer prognosis, such as anesthesia procedures. Isoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, enhances the malignant potential of renal, prostate, and ovarian cancer cells, but its effects on NSCLC development have not been previously reported. Material/Methods CCK-8 and MTT cell proliferation assays were used to analyze NSCLC cell proliferation. Metastatic ability was examined by wound healing and transwell assays. We used Western blot analysis to study the mechanism of effect of Isoflurane in NSCLC development. Results We demonstrated that isoflurane promotes proliferation, migration and invasiveness of NSCLC cells, as well as upregulation of the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling abolished the ability of isoflurane to promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells, indicating that isoflurane promotes NSCLC cell malignancy by activating the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusions Isoflurane promotes NSCLC proliferation, migration and invasion by activating the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27897153

  15. Antitumor Synergism and Enhanced Survival with a Tumor Vasculature-Targeted Enzyme Prodrug System, Rapamycin, and Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Krais, John J; Virani, Needa; McKernan, Patrick H; Nguyen, Quang; Fung, Kar-Ming; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Kurkjian, Carla; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-09-01

    Mutant cystathionine gamma-lyase was targeted to phosphatidylserine exposed on tumor vasculature through fusion with Annexin A1 or Annexin A5. Cystathionine gamma-lyase E58N, R118L, and E338N mutations impart nonnative methionine gamma-lyase activity, resulting in tumor-localized generation of highly toxic methylselenol upon systemic administration of nontoxic selenomethionine. The described therapeutic system circumvents systemic toxicity issues using a novel drug delivery/generation approach and avoids the administration of nonnative proteins and/or DNA required with other enzyme prodrug systems. The enzyme fusion exhibits strong and stable in vitro binding with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range for both human and mouse breast cancer cells and in a cell model of tumor vascular endothelium. Daily administration of the therapy suppressed growth of highly aggressive triple-negative murine 4T1 mammary tumors in immunocompetent BALB/cJ mice and MDA-MB-231 tumors in SCID mice. Treatment did not result in the occurrence of negative side effects or the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies. On the basis of the vasculature-targeted nature of the therapy, combinations with rapamycin and cyclophosphamide were evaluated. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reduces the prosurvival signaling of cells in a hypoxic environment potentially exacerbated by a vasculature-targeted therapy. IHC revealed, unsurprisingly, a significant hypoxic response (increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit, HIF1A) in the enzyme prodrug-treated tumors and a dramatic reduction of HIF1A upon rapamycin treatment. Cyclophosphamide, an immunomodulator at low doses, was combined with the enzyme prodrug therapy and rapamycin; this combination synergistically reduced tumor volumes, inhibited metastatic progression, and enhanced survival. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1855-65. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Weiss, Thomas S.; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-03-06

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  17. Caveolin-1 and accelerated host aging in the breast tumor microenvironment: chemoprevention with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and anti-aging drug.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Isabelle; Camacho, Jeanette; Titchen, Kanani; Gonzales, Donna M; Quann, Kevin; Bryant, Kelly G; Molchansky, Alexander; Milliman, Janet N; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Sotgia, Federica; Jasmin, Jean-François; Schwarting, Roland; Pestell, Richard G; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    Increasing chronological age is the most significant risk factor for human cancer development. To examine the effects of host aging on mammary tumor growth, we used caveolin (Cav)-1 knockout mice as a bona fide model of accelerated host aging. Mammary tumor cells were orthotopically implanted into these distinct microenvironments (Cav-1(+/+) versus Cav-1(-/-) age-matched young female mice). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1-deficient tumor microenvironment have an increased stromal content, with vimentin-positive myofibroblasts (a marker associated with oxidative stress) that are also positive for S6-kinase activation (a marker associated with aging). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1-deficient tumor microenvironment were more than fivefold larger than tumors grown in a wild-type microenvironment. Thus, a Cav-1-deficient tumor microenvironment provides a fertile soil for breast cancer tumor growth. Interestingly, the mammary tumor-promoting effects of a Cav-1-deficient microenvironment were estrogen and progesterone independent. In this context, chemoprevention was achieved by using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor and anti-aging drug, rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin treatment of mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1-deficient microenvironment significantly inhibited their tumor growth, decreased their stromal content, and reduced the levels of both vimentin and phospho-S6 in Cav-1-deficient cancer-associated fibroblasts. Since stromal loss of Cav-1 is a marker of a lethal tumor microenvironment in breast tumors, these high-risk patients might benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin or other rapamycin-related compounds (rapalogues).

  18. Correction of glycogen storage disease type III with rapamycin in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haiqing; Brooks, Elizabeth D; Thurberg, Beth L; Fyfe, John C; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, we reported that progression of liver fibrosis and skeletal myopathy caused by extensive accumulation of cytoplasmic glycogen at advanced age is the major feature of a canine model of glycogen storage disease (GSD) IIIa. Here, we aim to investigate whether rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, is an effective therapy for GSD III. Our data show that rapamycin significantly reduced glycogen content in primary muscle cells from human patients with GSD IIIa by suppressing the expression of glycogen synthase and glucose transporter 1. To test the treatment efficacy in vivo, rapamycin was daily administered to GSD IIIa dogs starting from age 2 (early-treatment group) or 8 months (late-treatment group), and liver and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at age 12 and 16 months. In both treatment groups, muscle glycogen accumulation was not affected at age 12 months but significantly inhibited at 16 months. Liver glycogen content was reduced in the early-treatment group but not in the late-treatment group at age 12 months. Both treatments effectively reduced liver fibrosis at age 16 months, consistent with markedly inhibited transition of hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblasts, the central event in the process of liver fibrosis. Our results suggest a potential useful therapy for GSD III. Rapamycin inhibited glycogen accumulation in GSD IIIa patient muscle cells. Rapamycin reduced muscle glycogen content in GSD IIIa dogs at advanced age. Rapamycin effectively prevented progression of liver fibrosis in GSD IIIa dogs. Our results suggest rapamycin as potential useful therapy for patients with GSD III.

  19. Demethoxycurcumin inhibits energy metabolic and oncogenic signaling pathways through AMPK activation in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Chen, Yung-Chan; Lin, Ying-Chao; Lin, Jia-Ni; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yang-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2013-07-03

    Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), curcumin (Cur), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are major forms of curcuminoids found in the rhizomes of turmeric. This study examined the effects of three curcuminoid analogues on breast cancer cells. The results revealed that DMC demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Compared with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, DMC demonstrated the most efficient cytotoxic effects on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. However, nonmalignant MCF-10A cells were unaffected by DMC treatment. The study showed that DMC activated AMPK in TNBC cells. Once activated, AMPK inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) signaling and mRNA translation via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decreased the activity and/or expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). DMC also targeted multiple AMPK downstream pathways. Among these, the dephosphorylation of Akt is noteworthy because it circumvents the feedback activation of Akt that results from mTOR inhibition. Moreover, DMC suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production, thereby blocking subsequent Stat3 activation. In addition, DMC also sustained epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by suppressing the phosphatases, PP2a and SHP-2. These results suggest that DMC is a potent AMPK activator that acts through a broad spectrum of anti-TNBC activities.

  20. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  1. Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Filipe, Osvaldo; Hoffman, Gena; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Canlas, Patrick; Van Bockhaven, Jonas; De Waele, Evelien; Demeestere, Kristof; Ronald, Pamela; Hofte, Monica

    2017-09-14

    Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice. Transcriptome analysis of rice cells treated with the TOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin revealed that TOR not only dictates transcriptional reprogramming of extensive gene sets involved in central and secondary metabolism, cell cycle and transcription, but also suppresses many defense-related genes. TOR overexpression lines displayed increased susceptibility to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas plants with reduced TOR signaling displayed enhanced resistance. Finally, we found that TOR antagonizes the action of the classic defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results indicate that TOR acts as a molecular switch for the activation of cell proliferation and plant growth at the expense of cellular immunity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Inhibition of activated protein C by platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Jane, S M; Mitchell, C A; Hau, L; Salem, H H

    1989-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC), an anticoagulant that acts by inactivating Factors Va and VIIIa, is dependent on a suitable surface for its action. In this study we examined the ability of human platelets to provide this surface and support APC-mediated anticoagulant effects. The activity of APC was examined in three systems: the Factor Xa recalcification time of Al(OH)3 adsorbed plasma, studies of thrombin generation in recalcified plasma, and assessment of the rate of inactivation of purified Factor Va. In comparison with phospholipid, intact platelets required significantly greater concentrations of APC to achieve a similar degree of anticoagulation. When washed platelet membranes were substituted for intact platelets, adequate support of APC was observed and the anticoagulant effect was similar to that obtained with phospholipid. Platelet releasate obtained by stimulation of platelets with thrombin and epinephrine contained an inhibitor that interfered with the ability of phospholipid and washed platelet membranes to catalyze the anticoagulant effects of APC. A noncompetitive inhibition was suggested by Dixon plot analysis of the interaction between platelet releasate and APC. The activity of the platelet APC inhibitor was immediate and was not enhanced by heparin, distinguishing it from the circulating protein C inhibitor. The presence of this inhibitor in the platelet and its release with platelet stimulation emphasizes the procoagulant role of this cell. PMID:2910909

  3. The influence of rapamycin on the early cardioprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning on cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang; Maimaitili, YiLiyaer; Yu, Jin; Guo, Hai; Ma, Hai-Ping; Chen, Chun-ling

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin on the cardioprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) and on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway. Material and methods Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from rat pups and underwent rapamycin and/or HPC, followed by hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) injury. Cell viability and cell injury were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and qRT-PCR was used to measure HIF-1α and mTOR mRNA expression. A Langendorff heart perfusion model was conducted to observe the effect of rapamycin. Results Rapamycin treatment nearly abolished the cardioprotective effect of HPC in cardiomyocytes, reduced cell viability (p = 0.007) and increased cell damage (p = 0.032). HIF-1α and mTOR mRNA expression increased in cardiomyocytes undergoing I/R injury within 2 h after HPC. After rapamycin treatment, mTOR mRNA expression and HPC-induced HIF-1α mRNA expression were both reduced (p < 0.001). A Langendorff heart perfusion model in rat hearts showed that rapamycin greatly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of HPC in terms of heart rate, LVDP, and dp/dtmax (all, p < 0.029). Conclusions Rapamycin, through inhibition of mTOR, reduces the elevated HIF-1α expression at an early stage of HPC, and attenuates the early cardioprotective effect of HPC. PMID:28721162

  4. Leucine Stimulates Insulin Secretion via Down-regulation of Surface Expression of Adrenergic α2A Receptor through the mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Dolinger, Michael; Ritaccio, Gabrielle; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph; Conti, David; Zhu, Xinjun; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid leucine is a potent secretagogue, capable of inducing insulin secretion. It also plays an important role in the regulation of mTOR activity, therefore, providing impetus to investigate if a leucine-sensing mechanism in the mTOR pathway is involved in insulin secretion. We found that leucine-induced insulin secretion was inhibited by both the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin as well as the adrenergic α2 receptor agonist clonidine. We also demonstrated that leucine down-regulated the surface expression of adrenergic α2A receptor via activation of the mTOR pathway. The leucine stimulatory effect on insulin secretion was attenuated in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats that overexpress adrenergic α2A receptors, confirming the role of leucine in insulin secretion. Thus, our data demonstrate that leucine regulates insulin secretion by modulating adrenergic α2 receptors through the mTOR pathway. The role of the mTOR pathway in metabolic homeostasis led us to a second important finding in this study; retrospective analysis of clinical data showed that co-administration of rapamycin and clonidine was associated with an increased incidence of new-onset diabetes in renal transplantation patients over those receiving rapamycin alone. We believe that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin along with activation of adrenergic α2 receptors by clonidine represents a double-hit to pancreatic islets that synergistically disturbs glucose homeostasis. This new insight may have important implications for the clinical management of renal transplant patients. PMID:22645144

  5. Inhibition of mTOR down-regulates scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) expression, reduces endothelial cell migration and impairs nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Krieger, Sigurd; Winter, Katharina; Rosner, Margit; Mikula, Mario; Weichhart, Thomas; Bittman, Robert; Hengstschläger, Markus; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibiting drug rapamycin (Sirolimus) has severe side effects in patients including hyperlipidemia, an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recently, it was shown that rapamycin decreases hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R) expression, which likely contributes to hypercholesterolemia. Scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) is the major HDL receptor and consequently regulating HDL-cholesterol levels and the athero-protective effects of HDL. By using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we show that SR-BI is down-regulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This reduction of SR-BI protein as well as mRNA levels by about 50% did not alter HDL particle uptake or HDL-derived lipid transfer. However, rapamycin reduced HDL-induced activation of eNOS and stimulation of endothelial cell migration. The effects on cell migration could be counteracted by SR-BI overexpression, indicating that decreased SR-BI expression is in part responsible for the rapamycin-induced effects. We demonstrate that inhibition of mTOR leads to endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased SR-BI expression, which may contribute to atherogenesis during rapamycin treatment.

  6. Stathmin Potentiates Vinflunine and Inhibits Paclitaxel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Malesinski, Soazig; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Kruczynski, Anna; Peyrot, Vincent; Devred, François

    2015-01-01

    Cell biology and crystallographic studies have suggested a functional link between stathmin and microtubule targeting agents (MTAs). In a previous study we showed that stathmin increases vinblastine (VLB) binding to tubulin, and that conversely VLB increases stathmin binding to tubulin. This constituted the first biochemical evidence of the direct relationship between stathmin and an antimitotic drug, and revealed a new mechanism of action for VLB. The question remained if the observed interaction was specific for this drug or represented a general phenomenon for all MTAs. In the present study we investigated the binding of recombinant stathmin to purified tubulin in the presence of paclitaxel or another Vinca alkaloid, vinflunine, using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). These experiments revealed that stathmin binding to tubulin is increased in the presence of vinflunine, whereas no signal is observed in the presence of paclitaxel. Further investigation using turbidity and co-sedimentation showed that stathmin inhibited paclitaxel microtubule-stabilizing activity. Taken together with the previous study using vinblastine, our results suggest that stathmin can be seen as a modulator of MTA activity and binding to tubulin, providing molecular explanation for multiple previous cellular and in vivo studies showing that stathmin expression level affects MTAs efficiency. PMID:26030092

  7. Caspase activation inhibits proteasome function during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Ming; Butterworth, Michael; MacFarlane, Marion; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M

    2004-04-09

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system regulates protein turnover by degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. To date, all studies on the relationship of apoptosis and the proteasome have emphasized the key role of the proteasome in the regulation of apoptosis, by virtue of its ability to degrade regulatory molecules involved in apoptosis. We now demonstrate how induction of apoptosis may regulate the activity of the proteasome. During apoptosis, caspase activation results in the cleavage of three specific subunits of the 19S regulatory complex of the proteasome: S6' (Rpt5) and S5a (Rpn10), whose role is to recognize polyubiquitinated substrates of the proteasome, and S1 (Rpn2), which with S5a and S2 (Rpn1) holds together the lid and base of the 19S regulatory complex. This caspase-mediated cleavage inhibits the proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-dependent and -independent cellular substrates, including proapoptotic molecules such as Smac, so facilitating the execution of the apoptotic program by providing a feed-forward amplification loop.

  8. Nuclear PIM1 confers resistance to rapamycin-impaired endothelial proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Walpen, Thomas; Kalus, Ina; Schwaller, Juerg; Peier, Martin A.; Battegay, Edouard J.; Humar, Rok

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pim1{sup -/-} endothelial cell proliferation displays increased sensitivity to rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mTOR inhibition by rapamycin enhances PIM1 cytosolic and nuclear protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Truncation of Pim1 beyond serine 276 results in nuclear localization of the kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear PIM1 increases endothelial proliferation independent of rapamycin. -- Abstract: The PIM serine/threonine kinases and the mTOR/AKT pathway integrate growth factor signaling and promote cell proliferation and survival. They both share phosphorylation targets and have overlapping functions, which can partially substitute for each other. In cancer cells PIM kinases have been reported to produce resistance to mTOR inhibition by rapamycin. Tumor growth depends highly on blood vessel infiltration into the malignant tissue and therefore on endothelial cell proliferation. We therefore investigated how the PIM1 kinase modulates growth inhibitory effects of rapamycin in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC). We found that proliferation of MAEC lacking Pim1 was significantly more sensitive to rapamycin inhibition, compared to wildtype cells. Inhibition of mTOR and AKT in normal MAEC resulted in significantly elevated PIM1 protein levels in the cytosol and in the nucleus. We observed that truncation of the C-terminal part of Pim1 beyond Ser 276 resulted in almost exclusive nuclear localization of the protein. Re-expression of this Pim1 deletion mutant significantly increased the proliferation of Pim1{sup -/-} cells when compared to expression of the wildtype Pim1 cDNA. Finally, overexpression of the nuclear localization mutant and the wildtype Pim1 resulted in complete resistance to growth inhibition by rapamycin. Thus, mTOR inhibition-induced nuclear accumulation of PIM1 or expression of a nuclear C-terminal PIM1 truncation mutant is sufficient to increase endothelial cell proliferation

  9. The mTOR Inhibitor Rapamycin Mitigates Perforant Pathway Neurodegeneration and Synapse Loss in a Mouse Model of Early-Stage Alzheimer-Type Tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Siman, Robert; Cocca, Ryan; Dong, Yina

    2015-01-01

    The perforant pathway projection from layer II of the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal dentate gyrus is especially important for long-term memory formation, and is preferentially vulnerable to developing a degenerative tauopathy early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that may spread over time trans-synaptically. Despite the importance of the perforant pathway to the clinical onset and progression of AD, a therapeutic has not been identified yet that protects it from tau-mediated toxicity. Here, we used an adeno-associated viral vector-based mouse model of early-stage AD-type tauopathy to investigate effects of the mTOR inhibitor and autophagy stimulator rapamycin on the tau-driven loss of perforant pathway neurons and synapses. Focal expression of human tau carrying a P301L mutation but not eGFP as a control in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex triggered rapid degeneration of these neurons, loss of lateral perforant pathway synapses in the dentate gyrus outer molecular layer, and activation of neuroinflammatory microglia and astroglia in the two locations. Chronic systemic rapamycin treatment partially inhibited phosphorylation of a mechanistic target of rapamycin substrate in brain and stimulated LC3 cleavage, a marker of autophagic flux. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, rapamycin protected against the tau-induced neuronal loss, synaptotoxicity, reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis, and activation of innate neuroimmunity. It did not alter human tau mRNA or total protein levels. Finally, rapamycin inhibited trans-synaptic transfer of human tau expression to the dentate granule neuron targets for the perforant pathway, likely by preventing the synaptic spread of the AAV vector in response to pathway degeneration. These results identify systemic rapamycin as a treatment that protects the entorhinal cortex and perforant pathway projection from tau-mediated neurodegeneration, axonal and synapse loss, and neuroinflammatory reactive gliosis. The

  10. Rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Liu, Xinyan; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most frequent type of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of cell cycle regulation in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy has been studied. The present study was designed to explore whether rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, rats were randomly divided into four groups. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was used to measure the 24-h urinary protein levels. Renal function was determined using an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. Rat mesangial cells were cultured and divided into the six groups. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation and the cell cycle phase. Western blotting was performed to determine cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p27(Kip1), p70S6K/p-p70S6K, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/p- extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression. A low dose of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria, protected kidney function, and reduced IgA deposition in a model of IgA nephropathy. Rapamycin inhibited mesangial cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Rapamycin did not affect the expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. However, rapamycin upregulated p27(Kip1) at least in part via AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/mTOR. In conclusion, rapamycin can affect cell cycle regulation to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation, thereby reduce IgA deposition, and slow the progression of IgAN.

  11. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a role in Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT)-induced protein synthesis and proliferation in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Oubrahim, Hammou; Wong, Allison; Wilson, Brenda A; Chock, P Boon

    2013-01-25

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a potent mitogen known to activate several signaling pathways via deamidation of a conserved glutamine residue in the α subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. However, the detailed mechanism behind mitogenic properties of PMT is unknown. Herein, we show that PMT induces protein synthesis, cell migration, and proliferation in serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells. Concomitantly PMT induces phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1) and its substrate, ribosomal S6 protein (rpS6), in quiescent 3T3 cells. The extent of the phosphorylation is time and PMT concentration dependent, and is inhibited by rapamycin and Torin1, the two specific inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Interestingly, PMT-mediated mTOR signaling activation was observed in MEF WT but not in Gα(q/11) knock-out cells. These observations are consistent with the data indicating that PMT-induced mTORC1 activation proceeds via the deamidation of Gα(q/11), which leads to the activation of PLCβ to generate diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate, two known activators of the PKC pathway. Exogenously added diacylglycerol or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, known activators of PKC, leads to rpS6 phosphorylation in a rapamycin-dependent manner. Furthermore, PMT-induced rpS6 phosphorylation is inhibited by PKC inhibitor, Gö6976. Although PMT induces epidermal growth factor receptor activation, it exerts no effect on PMT-induced rpS6 phosphorylation. Together, our findings reveal for the first time that PMT activates mTORC1 through the Gα(q/11)/PLCβ/PKC pathway. The fact that PMT-induced protein synthesis and cell migration is partially inhibited by rapamycin indicates that these processes are in part mediated by the mTORC1 pathway.

  12. Small‑molecule COH-SR4 inhibits adipocyte differentiation via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Figarola, James L; Rahbar, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. It is one of the principal causative factors involved in the development of metabolic syndrome and cancer. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation has often been a target of anti-obesity strategies since obesity is caused not only by hypertrophy but also by adipocyte hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of COH-SR4, a novel compound with anticancer properties, on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment with COH-SR4 significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect mainly occurred at the early phase of differentiation through inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase transition. In differentiating adipocytes, COH-SR4 significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of key adipogenesis-related transcription factors and lipogenic proteins. COH-SR4 exhibited no cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 cells, but indirectly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK activation by COH-SR4 also resulted in the phosphorylation of raptor and tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2), two proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Additionally, COH-SR4 decreased the phosphorylation of p70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4EB‑P1), two downstream effectors of mTOR that regulate protein synthesis. Interestingly, knockdown of AMPKα1/α2 prevented the ability of COH-SR4 to inhibit cell cycle arrest and overall adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that COH-SR4 inhibits 3T3-L1 adipogenesis via AMPK activation. COH-SR4 may be a promising compound for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  13. Improved blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin.

    PubMed

    Pan, C J; Tang, J J; Shao, Z Y; Wang, J; Huang, N

    2007-09-01

    This paper dealt with improving the blood compatibility of the rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin. The rapamycin- and rapamycin/curcumin-loaded PLGA (poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)) coatings were fabricated onto the surface of the stainless steel stents using an ultrasonic atomization spray method. The structure of the coating films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the drug-eluting stents indicated that the surface of all drug-eluting stents was very smooth and uniform, and there were not webbings and "bridges" between struts. There were not any cracks and delaminations on stent surface after expanded by the angioplasty balloon. The in vitro platelet adhesion and activation were investigated by static platelet adhesion test and GMP140 (P-selection), respectively. The clotting time was examined by activated partially prothromplastin time (APTT) test. The fibrinogen adsorption on the drug-loaded PLGA films was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All obtained data showed that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-loaded PLGA coating can significantly decrease platelet adhesion and activation, prolong APTT clotting time as well as decrease the fibrinogen adsorption. All results indicated that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-eluting coating obviously improve the blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stents. It was suggested that it may be possible to develop a drug-eluting stent which had the characteristics of not only good anti-proliferation but also improved anticoagulation.

  14. Metabolic consequences of long-term rapamycin exposure on common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Ross, Corinna; Salmon, Adam; Strong, Randy; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Javors, Marty; Richardson, Arlan; Tardif, Suzette

    2015-11-01

    Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan in rodent models, but the effects on metabolic health and function have been widely debated in both clinical and translational trials. Prior to rapamycin being used as a treatment to extend both lifespan and healthspan in the human population, it is vital to assess the side effects of the treatment on metabolic pathways in animal model systems, including a closely related non-human primate model. In this study, we found that long-term treatment of marmoset monkeys with orally-administered encapsulated rapamycin resulted in no overall effects on body weight and only a small decrease in fat mass over the first few months of treatment. Rapamycin treated subjects showed no overall changes in daily activity counts, blood lipids, or significant changes in glucose metabolism including oral glucose tolerance. Adipose tissue displayed no differences in gene expression of metabolic markers following treatment, while liver tissue exhibited suppressed G6Pase activity with increased PCK and GPI activity. Overall, the marmosets revealed only minor metabolic consequences of chronic treatment with rapamycin and this adds to the growing body of literature that suggests that chronic and/or intermittent rapamycin treatment results in improved health span and metabolic functioning. The marmosets offer an interesting alternative animal model for future intervention testing and translational modeling.

  15. The Role of Target of Rapamycin Signaling Networks in Plant Growth and Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase, a master regulator that is evolutionarily conserved among yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), plants, animals, and humans, integrates nutrient and energy signaling to promote cell proliferation and growth. Recent breakthroughs made possible by integrating chemical, genetic, and genomic analyses have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular functions and dynamic regulation of the TOR kinase in photosynthetic plants. TOR signaling plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis, meristem activation, root and leaf growth, flowering, senescence, and life span determination. The molecular mechanisms underlying TOR-mediated ribosomal biogenesis, translation promotion, readjustment of metabolism, and autophagy inhibition are now being uncovered. Moreover, monitoring photosynthesis-derived Glc and bioenergetics relays has revealed that TOR orchestrates unprecedented transcriptional networks that wire central metabolism and biosynthesis for energy and biomass production. In addition, these networks integrate localized stem/progenitor cell proliferation through interorgan nutrient coordination to control developmental transitions and growth. PMID:24385567

  16. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae.

  17. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats I: Magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Willem M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has received increasing attention as a potential antiepileptogenic target. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin after status epilepticus reduces the development of epilepsy in a rat model. To study whether rapamycin mediates this effect via restoration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) was used to determine BBB permeability throughout epileptogenesis. Imaging was repeatedly performed until 6 weeks after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rapamycin (6 mg/kg for 6 weeks starting 4 h after SE) and vehicle-treated rats, using gadobutrol as contrast agent. Seizures were detected using video monitoring in the week following the last imaging session. Gadobutrol leakage was widespread and extensive in both rapamycin and vehicle-treated epileptic rats during the acute phase, with the piriform cortex and amygdala as the most affected regions. Gadobutrol leakage was higher in rapamycin-treated rats 4 and 8 days after status epilepticus compared to vehicle-treated rats. However, during the chronic epileptic phase, gadobutrol leakage was lower in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats along with a decreased seizure frequency. This was confirmed by local fluorescein staining in the brains of the same rats. Total brain volume was reduced by this rapamycin treatment regimen. The initial slow recovery of BBB function in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats indicates that rapamycin does not reduce seizure activity by a gradual recovery of BBB integrity. The reduced BBB leakage during the chronic phase, however, could contribute to the decreased seizure frequency in post-status epilepticus rats treated with rapamycin. Furthermore, the data show that CE-MRI (using step-down infusion with gadobutrol) can be used as biomarker for monitoring the effect of drug therapy in rats. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. NFκB up-regulation of glucose transporter 3 is essential for hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin-induced aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xiaojun; Hu, Zhongdong; Ji, Shuang; Jin, Fuquan; Jiang, Keguo; Li, Chunjia; Zhao, Pan; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Xianguo; Di, Lijun; Zhou, Haisheng; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) exerts a crucial role in aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely obscure. Results from Tsc1- or Tsc2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human cancer cell lines consistently indicate that the expression of glucose transporter 3 (Glut3) is dramatically up-regulated by mTOR. The rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but not the rapamycin-insensitive mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), was involved in the regulation of Glut3 expression. Moreover, mTORC1 enhances Glut3 expression through the activation of the IKK/NFκB pathway. Depletion of Glut3 led to the suppression of aerobic glycolysis, the inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, and the attenuation of the tumorigenic potential of the cells with aberrantly hyper-activated mTORC1 signaling in nude mice. We conclude that Glut3 is a downstream target of mTORC1, and it is critical for oncogenic mTORC1-mediated aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. Hence Glut3 may be a potential target for therapy against cancers caused by the aberrantly activated mTORC1 signaling.

  19. Rapamycin regulates connective tissue growth factor expression of lung epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefeng; Wan, Xuan; Geng, Jing; Li, Fei; Yang, Ting; Dai, Huaping

    2013-09-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains largely unknown. It is believed that IPF is mainly driven by activated alveolar epithelial cells that have a compromised migration capacity, and that also produce substances (such as connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) that contribute to fibroblast activation and matrix protein accumulation. Because the mechanisms regulating these processes are unclear, the aim of this study was to determine the role of rapamycin in regulating epithelial cell migration and CTGF expression. Transformed epithelial cell line A549 and normal human pulmonary alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in regular medium or medium containing rapamycin. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine CTGF mRNA expression. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for detecting CTGF protein. Wound healing and migration assays were used to determine the cell migration potential. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor (TβRI) inhibitor, SB431542 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 were used to determine rapamycin's mechanism of action. It was found that treatment of A549 and normal human alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells with rapamycin significantly promoted basal or TGF-β1 induced CTGF expression. LY294002, not SB431542 attenuated the promotional effect of rapamycin on CTGF expression. Cell mobility was not affected by rapamycin in wound healing and migration assays. These data suggest rapamycin has a profibrotic effect in vitro and underscore the potential of combined therapeutic approach with PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for the treatment of animal or human lung fibrosis.

  20. Rapamycin down-regulates LDL-receptor expression independently of SREBP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Laura J.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2008-09-05

    As a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) up-regulates expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (e.g., 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase) and uptake (the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor). Previously, we showed that Akt, a critical kinase in cell growth and proliferation, contributes to SREBP-2 activation. However, the specific Akt target involved is unknown. A potential candidate is the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. Rapamycin can cause hyperlipidaemia clinically, and we hypothesised that this may be mediated via an effect of mTOR on SREBP-2. Herein, we found that SREBP-2 activation and HMG-CoA Reductase gene expression were unaffected by rapamycin treatment. However, LDL-receptor gene expression was decreased by rapamycin, suggesting that this may contribute to the hyperlipidaemia observed in rapamycin-treated patients. Rapamycin did not affect mRNA stability, so the decrease in LDL-receptor gene expression is likely to be occurring at the transcriptional level, although independently of SREBP-2.

  1. Behavioural and EEG effects of chronic rapamycin treatment in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Cursi, Marco; Magri, Laura; Castoldi, Valerio; Comi, Giancarlo; Minicucci, Fabio; Galli, Rossella; Leocani, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by mutation in either Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes that leads to the hyper activation of the mTOR pathway, a key s