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Sample records for activation loop tyrosine

  1. Acidic substitution of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA supports nerve growth factor-independent cell survival and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gryz, E A; Meakin, S O

    2000-01-20

    TrkA is the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) for nerve growth factor (NGF) and stimulates NGF-dependent cell survival and differentiation in primary neurons. TrkA expression in neuronal tumors also supports NGF-dependent differentiation of neuroblastomas and apoptosis of medulloblastomas. Phosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines in RTK's are essential to activation as well as allosteric changes that facilitate substrate interaction and phosphorylation. Acidic amino acid substitution of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA, Tyr683Tyr684, was performed to mimic the negative charges normally induced by ligand activation and receptor phosphorylation. A total of eight independent mutants containing single or double substitutions were generated for comparison. Herein, we demonstrate that acidic substitution of the activation loop tyrosines is sufficient to induce allosteric changes required for constitutive TrkA kinase activity as well as phosphorylation of TrkA signaling proteins such as Shc, PLCgamma-1, FRS-2 and erk1/2. The strongest constitutively active TrkA mutants, GluAsp and AspGlu, support NGF-independent neuritogenesis and cell survival to levels approximately 65 and 80-100%, respectively, of NGF-activated wild type TrkA. Thus, constitutively active TrkA may provide a useful strategy in future therapeutic approaches to limit the development and progression of neuronal tumors.

  2. Small Molecule Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase γ (RPTPγ) Ligands That Inhibit Phosphatase Activity via Perturbation of the Tryptophan-Proline-Aspartate (WPD) Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, Steven; Beno, Brett R; Zhai, Weixu; Kostich, Walter A; McDonnell, Patricia A; Kish, Kevin; Goldfarb, Valentina; Gao, Mian; Kiefer, Susan E; Yanchunas, Joseph; Huang, Yanling; Shi, Shuhao; Zhu, Shirong; Dzierba, Carolyn; Bronson, Joanne; Macor, John E; Appiah, Kingsley K; Westphal, Ryan S; O’Connell, Jonathan; Gerritz, Samuel W

    2012-11-09

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) catalyze the dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues, a process that involves a conserved tryptophan-proline-aspartate (WPD) loop in catalysis. In previously determined structures of PTPs, the WPD-loop has been observed in either an 'open' conformation or a 'closed' conformation. In the current work, X-ray structures of the catalytic domain of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase γ (RPTPγ) revealed a ligand-induced 'superopen' conformation not previously reported for PTPs. In the superopen conformation, the ligand acts as an apparent competitive inhibitor and binds in a small hydrophobic pocket adjacent to, but distinct from, the active site. In the open and closed WPD-loop conformations of RPTPγ, the side chain of Trp1026 partially occupies this pocket. In the superopen conformation, Trp1026 is displaced allowing a 3,4-dichlorobenzyl substituent to occupy this site. The bound ligand prevents closure of the WPD-loop over the active site and disrupts the catalytic cycle of the enzyme.

  3. Conservative Tryptophan Mutants of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase YopH Exhibit Impaired WPD-Loop Function and Crystallize with Divanadate Esters in Their Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Gwendolyn; Gallup, Nathan M.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Johnson, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves movement of a protein loop called the WPD loop that brings a conserved aspartic acid into the active site to function as a general acid. Mutation of the tryptophan in the WPD loop of the PTP YopH to any other residue with a planar, aromatic side chain (phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) disables general acid catalysis. Crystal structures reveal these conservative mutations leave this critical loop in a catalytically unproductive, quasi-open position. Although the loop positions in crystal structures are similar for all three conservative mutants, the reasons inhibiting normal loop closure differ for each mutant. In the W354F and W354Y mutants, steric clashes result from six-membered rings occupying the position of the five-membered ring of the native indole side chain. The histidine mutant dysfunction results from new hydrogen bonds stabilizing the unproductive position. The results demonstrate how even modest modifications can disrupt catalytically important protein dynamics. Crystallization of all the catalytically compromised mutants in the presence of vanadate gave rise to vanadate dimers at the active site. In W354Y and W354H, a divanadate ester with glycerol is observed. Such species have precedence in solution and are known from the small molecule crystal database. Such species have not been observed in the active site of a phosphatase, as a functional phosphatase would rapidly catalyze their decomposition. The compromised functionality of the mutants allows the trapping of species that undoubtedly form in solution and are capable of binding at the active sites of PTPs, and, presumably, other phosphatases. In addition to monomeric vanadate, such higher-order vanadium-based molecules are likely involved in the interaction of vanadate with PTPs in solution. PMID:26445170

  4. Acidic substitution of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA supports nerve growth factor-dependent, but not nerve growth factor-independent, differentiation and cell cycle arrest in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Gryz, Ela A; Meakin, Susan O

    2003-11-27

    TrkA is the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) for nerve growth factor (NGF) and stimulates NGF-dependent cell survival and differentiation in primary neurons and also differentiation of neuroblastomas and apoptosis of medulloblastomas. We have previously shown that aspartic acid and glutamic acid substitution (AspGlu and GluAsp) of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA (Tyr(683) and Tyr(684)) supports NGF-independent neuritogenesis and cell survival in PC12 cell-derived nnr5 cells. In this study, the AspGlu and GluAsp mutant Trks have been analysed for their ability to support NGF-independent and NGF-dependent neuritogenesis, proliferation and cell signalling in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SY5Y. We find that the AspGlu and GluAsp mutant Trks support NGF-dependent, but not NGF-independent, autophosphorylation, neuritogenic responses and/or inhibit cell cycle progression. The NGF-dependent neuritogenic responses are lower for the mutant Trks (approximately 30-60% for AspGlu and 50-60% for GluAsp), relative to wild-type TrkA. While both the AspGlu and GluAsp mutant Trks support NGF-dependent transient phosphorylation of Shc, PLCgamma-1, AKT, FRS2, SH2B as well as prolonged MAP kinase activation, the GluAsp mutant induces stronger NGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 and SH2B, as well as a stronger reduction in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Collectively, these data suggest that neither absolute levels of receptor autophosphorylation, high levels of TrkA expression nor the activation of a specific signalling pathway is dominant and absolutely essential for neuritogenesis and cell cycle arrest of SY5Y cells.

  5. Receptor for bombesin with associated tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, D M; Gaudino, G; Naldini, L; Comoglio, P M

    1986-01-01

    The neuropeptide bombesin is known for its potent mitogenic activity on murine 3T3 fibroblasts and other cells. Recently it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of small cell lung carcinoma, in which it acts through an autocrine loop of growth stimulation. Phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) antibodies have been successfully used to recognize the autophosphorylated receptors for known growth factors. In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, phosphotyrosine antibodies identified a 115,000-Mr cell surface protein (p115) that became phosphorylated on tyrosine as a specific response to bombesin stimulation of quiescent cells. The extent of phosphorylation was dose dependent and correlated with the mitogenic effect induced by bombesin, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p115 was detectable minutes after the addition of bombesin, and its time course paralleled that described for the binding of bombesin to its receptor. Immunocomplexes of phosphorylated p115 and phosphotyrosine antibodies bound 125I-labeled [Tyr4]bombesin in a specific and saturable manner and displayed an associated tyrosine kinase activity enhanced by bombesin. Furthermore, the 125I-labeled bombesin analog gastrin-releasing peptide, bound to intact live cells, was coprecipitated with p115. These data strongly suggest that p115 participates in the structure and function of the surface receptor for bombesin, a new member of the family of growth factor receptors with associated tyrosine kinase activity. Images PMID:2432404

  6. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J.; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  7. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  8. Protein kinase Calpha activation by RET: evidence for a negative feedback mechanism controlling RET tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Francesco; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Carlomagno, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Miele, Claudia; Fiory, Francesca; Santopietro, Stefania; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Beguinot, Francesco; Santoro, Massimo; Formisano, Pietro

    2003-05-15

    We have studied the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in signaling of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor. By using a chimeric receptor (E/R) in which RET kinase can be tightly controlled by the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), we have found that RET triggering induces a strong increase of PKCalpha, PKCdelta and PKCzeta activity and that PKCalpha, not PKCdelta and PKCzeta, forms a ligand-dependent protein complex with E/R. We have identified tyrosine 1062 in the RET carboxyl-terminal tail as the docking site for PKCalpha. Block of PKC activity by bisindolylmaleimide or chronic phorbol esters treatment decreased EGF-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of E/R, while it caused a similarly sized increase of EGF-induced E/R tyrosine kinase activity and mitogenic signaling. Conversely, acute phorbol esters treatment, which promotes PKC activity, increased the levels of E/R serine/threonine phosphorylation and significantly decreased its phosphotyrosine content. A threefold reduction of tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the constitutively active RET/MEN2A oncoprotein was observed upon coexpression with PKCalpha. We conclude that RET binds to and activates PKCalpha. PKCalpha, in turn, causes RET phosphorylation and downregulates RET tyrosine kinase and downstream signaling, thus functioning as a negative feedback loop to modulate RET activity.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Movement of the Wpd Flexible Loop of Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B in Complex with Halide Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Aline; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Podjarny, Alberto D.; Ventura, Oscar N.

    2012-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a post-translational modification mechanism, crucial for the regulation of nearly all aspects of cell life. This dynamic, reversible process is regulated by the balanced opposing activity of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. In particular, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the regulation of the insulin-receptor activity, leptin-stimulated signal transduction pathways and other clinically relevant metabolic routes, and it has been found overexpressed or overregulated in human breasts, colon and ovary cancers. The WPD loop of the enzyme presents an inherent flexibility, and it plays a fundamental role in the enzymatic catalysis, turning it into a potential target in the design of new efficient PTP1B inhibitors. In order to determine the interactions that control the spatial conformation adopted by the WPD loop, complexes between the enzyme and halide ions (Br- and I- in particular) were crystallized and their crystallographic structure determined, and the collective movements of the aforementioned complexes were studied through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both studies yielded concordant results, indicating the existence of a relationship between the identity of the ion present in the complex and the strength of the interactions it establishes with the surrounding protein residues.

  10. Intricate regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kumer, S C; Vrana, K E

    1996-08-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Therefore, the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme number and intrinsic enzyme activity represents the central means for controlling the synthesis of these important biogenic amines. An intricate scheme has evolved whereby tyrosine hydroxylase activity is modulated by nearly every documented form of regulation. Beginning with the genomic DNA, evidence exists for the transcriptional regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels, alternative RNA processing, and the regulation of RNA stability. There is also experimental support for the role of both translational control and enzyme stability in establishing steady-state levels of active tyrosine hydroxylase protein. Finally, mechanisms have been proposed for feedback inhibition of the enzyme by catecholamine products, allosteric modulation of enzyme activity, and phosphorylation-dependent activation of the enzyme by various different kinase systems. Given the growing literature suggesting that different tissues regulate tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and activity in different ways, regulatory mechanisms provide not only redundancy but also diversity in the control of catecholamine biosynthesis.

  11. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  12. Activation of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ALK by zinc.

    PubMed

    Bennasroune, Aline; Mazot, Pierre; Boutterin, Marie-Claude; Vigny, Marc

    2010-08-06

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase essentially and transiently expressed during development of the central and peripheral nervous system. The nature of the cognate ligand of this receptor in Vertebrates is still a matter of debate. During synaptic transmission the release of ionic zinc found in vesicles of certain glutamatergic and gabaergic terminals may act as a neuromodulator by binding to pre- or post-synaptic receptors. Recently, zinc has been shown to activate the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, independently of neurotrophins. This activation occurs via increasing the Src family kinase activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the ALK activity could be modulated by extracellular zinc. We first showed that zinc alone rapidly activates ALK. This activation is dependent of ALK tyrosine kinase activity and dimerization of the receptor but is independent of Src family kinase activity. In contrast, addition of sodium pyrithione, a zinc ionophore, led to a further activation of ALK. This stronger activation is dependent of Src family kinase but independent of ALK activity and dimerization. In conclusion, zinc could constitute an endogenous ligand of ALK in vertebrates.

  13. Asymmetrical phosphorylation and function of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines in B cell antigen receptor signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Pao, L I; Famiglietti, S J; Cambier, J C

    1998-04-01

    CD79a and CD79b function as transducers of B cell antigen receptor signals via a cytoplasmic sequence, termed the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs contain two conserved tyrosines that may become phosphorylated upon receptor aggregation and bind distinct effectors by virtue of the distinct preference of phosphotyrosyl-containing sequences for SH2 domains. To explore the function of CD79a and CD79b ITAM tyrosines, we created membrane molecules composed of MHC class II I-Ak extracellular and transmembrane domains, and CD79a or CD79b cytoplasmic domains in which one or both of the ITAM tyrosines were mutated to phenylalanine. Functional analysis revealed that both ITAM tyrosines are required for ligand-induced Syk phosphorylation. However CD79a-ITAM and CD79b-ITAM tyrosine phosphorylations were asymmetrical, with >80% of phosphorylation occurring on the N-terminal tyrosine (Y-E-G-L). Thus, these findings suggest that following receptor ligation, only a minor proportion of phosphorylated ITAMs are doubly phosphorylated and thus can engage Syk. Only the N-terminal ITAM tyrosine of CD79a was required for ligand-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor and a subset of downstream substrates, including p62, p110, and Shc, and for Ca2+ mobilization. However, responses mediated through CD79b exhibited a greater dependence on the presence of both tyrosines. Neither tyrosine in CD79a or CD79b appeared absolutely essential for Src family kinase phosphorylation. These results indicate that phosphorylations of the tyrosines in CD79a and CD79b occur with very different stoichiometry, and the respective tyrosyl residues have distinct functions.

  14. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; Lopez-Garriga, Juan

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus

  15. Motogenic and morphogenic activity of epithelial receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases play essential roles in morphogenesis and differentiation of epithelia. Here we examined various tyrosine kinase receptors, which are preferentially expressed in epithelia (c-met, c- ros, c-neu, and the keratin growth factor [KGF] receptor), for their capacity to induce cell motility and branching morphogenesis of epithelial cells. We exchanged the ligand-binding domain of these receptors by the ectodomain of trkA and could thus control signaling by the new ligand, NGF. We demonstrate here that the tyrosine kinases of c- met, c-ros, c-neu, the KGF receptor, and trkA, but not the insulin receptor, induced scattering and increased motility of kidney epithelial cells in tissue culture. Mutational analysis suggests that SHC binding is essential for scattering and increased cell motility induced by trkA. The induction of motility in epithelial cells is thus an important feature of various receptor tyrosine kinases, which in vivo play a role in embryogenesis and metastasis. In contrast, only the c-met receptor promoted branching morphogenesis of kidney epithelial cells in three-dimensional matrices, which resemble the formation of tubular epithelia in development. Interestingly, the ability of c-met to induce morphogenesis could be transferred to trkA, when in a novel receptor hybrid COOH-terminal sequences of c-met (including Y14 to Y16) were fused to the trkA kinase domain. These data demonstrate that tubulogenesis of epithelia is a restricted activity of tyrosine kinases, as yet only demonstrated for the c-met receptor. We predict the existence of specific substrates that mediate this morphogenesis signal. PMID:8655582

  16. Differential dephosphorylation of the FcRgamma immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines with dissimilar potential for activating Syk.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Ryo; Backlund, Peter S; Yamashita, Yumi; Yergey, Alfred L; Rivera, Juan

    2008-10-17

    The cell surface-expressed gamma chain of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) can be phosphorylated on two tyrosine residues of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), leading to recruitment and activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a kinase that is essential for mast cell signaling and allergic responses. However, it is not known whether preferential phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of the two individual FcRgamma tyrosines (the N-terminal Tyr47 and C-terminal Tyr58) could regulate Syk activation. Herein we report that phosphorylation of only Tyr58 was able to elicit Syk phosphorylation and a weak rise in intracellular calcium, suggesting that Tyr58 phosphorylation may be distinctively important for Syk activation. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that both Tyr47 and Tyr58 could be similarly phosphorylated. However, mass spectrometric analysis of the phosphorylated FcepsilonRgamma from bone marrow-derived mast cells showed that phosphorylation at Tyr47 was at least 2-fold greater than at Tyr58. This suggested that, once phosphorylated, Tyr58 is preferentially dephosphorylated. In vitro studies demonstrated more efficient dephosphorylation of Tyr58 (by the receptor-associated phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2) than of Tyr47. Analysis of Syk binding to wild type and mutant phosphorylated FcepsilonRI revealed that mutation at Tyr58 almost completely ablated Syk binding, whereas mutation at Tyr47 moderately reduced Syk binding. The findings argue for a novel regulatory mechanism, where dephosphorylation of phospho-Tyr58 is likely to promote the down-regulation of Syk activation and suppression of mast cell responses.

  17. An Allosteric Cross-Talk Between the Activation Loop and the ATP Binding Site Regulates the Activation of Src Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Pucheta-Martínez, Encarna; Saladino, Giorgio; Morando, Maria Agnese; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Lelli, Moreno; Sutto, Ludovico; D’Amelio, Nicola; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the activation loop is a fundamental step in the activation of most protein kinases. In the case of the Src tyrosine kinase, a prototypical kinase due to its role in cancer and its historic importance, phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 in the activation loop is known to rigidify the structure and contribute to the switch from the inactive to a fully active form. However, whether or not phosphorylation is able per-se to induce a fully active conformation, that efficiently binds ATP and phosphorylates the substrate, is less clear. Here we employ a combination of solution NMR and enhanced-sampling molecular dynamics simulations to fully map the effects of phosphorylation and ATP/ADP cofactor loading on the conformational landscape of Src tyrosine kinase. We find that both phosphorylation and cofactor binding are needed to induce a fully active conformation. What is more, we find a complex interplay between the A-loop and the hinge motion where the phosphorylation of the activation-loop has a significant allosteric effect on the dynamics of the C-lobe. PMID:27063862

  18. An Allosteric Cross-Talk Between the Activation Loop and the ATP Binding Site Regulates the Activation of Src Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucheta-Martínez, Encarna; Saladino, Giorgio; Morando, Maria Agnese; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Lelli, Moreno; Sutto, Ludovico; D’Amelio, Nicola; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorylation of the activation loop is a fundamental step in the activation of most protein kinases. In the case of the Src tyrosine kinase, a prototypical kinase due to its role in cancer and its historic importance, phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 in the activation loop is known to rigidify the structure and contribute to the switch from the inactive to a fully active form. However, whether or not phosphorylation is able per-se to induce a fully active conformation, that efficiently binds ATP and phosphorylates the substrate, is less clear. Here we employ a combination of solution NMR and enhanced-sampling molecular dynamics simulations to fully map the effects of phosphorylation and ATP/ADP cofactor loading on the conformational landscape of Src tyrosine kinase. We find that both phosphorylation and cofactor binding are needed to induce a fully active conformation. What is more, we find a complex interplay between the A-loop and the hinge motion where the phosphorylation of the activation-loop has a significant allosteric effect on the dynamics of the C-lobe.

  19. Mitotic chromosome compaction via active loop extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloborodko, Anton; Imakaev, Maxim; Marko, John; Mirny, Leonid; MIT-Northwestern Team

    During cell division, two copies of each chromosome are segregated from each other and compacted more than hundred-fold into the canonical X-shaped structures. According to earlier microscopic observations and the recent Hi-C study, chromosomes are compacted into arrays of consecutive loops of ~100 kilobases. Mechanisms that lead to formation of such loop arrays are largely unknown. Here we propose that, during cell division, chromosomes can be compacted by enzymes that extrude loops on chromatin fibers. First, we use computer simulations and analytical modeling to show that a system of loop-extruding enzymes on a chromatin fiber self-organizes into an array of consecutive dynamic loops. Second, we model the process of loop extrusion in 3D and show that, coupled with the topo II strand-passing activity, it leads to robust compaction and segregation of sister chromatids. This mechanism of chromosomal condensation and segregation does not require additional proteins or specific DNA markup and is robust against variations in the number and properties of such loop extruding enzymes. Work at NU was supported by the NSF through Grants DMR-1206868 and MCB-1022117, and by the NIH through Grants GM105847 and CA193419. Work at MIT was supported by the NIH through Grants GM114190 R01HG003143.

  20. Tryptophan prenyltransferases showing higher catalytic activities for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of o- and m-tyrosines than tyrosine prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Aili; Xie, Xiulan; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-07-21

    Tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2, 5-DMATS, 6-DMATSSv and 7-DMATS catalyse regiospecific C-prenylations on the indole ring, while tyrosine prenyltransferases SirD and TyrPT catalyse the O-prenylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group. In this study, we report the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of L-o-tyrosine by these enzymes. Surprisingly, no conversion was detected with SirD and three tryptophan prenyltransferases showed significantly higher activity than another tyrosine prenyltransferase TyrPT. C5-prenylated L-o-tyrosine was identified as a unique product of these enzymes. Using L-m-tyrosine as the prenylation substrate, product formation was only observed with the tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2 and 7-DMATS. C4- and C6-prenylated derivatives were identified in the reaction mixture of FgaPT2. These results provided additional evidence for the similarities and differences between these two subgroups within the DMATS superfamily in their catalytic behaviours.

  1. The roles of the conserved tyrosine in the β2-α2 loop of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danzhi; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Prions cause neurodegenerative diseases for which no cure exists. Despite decades of research activities the function of the prion protein (PrP) in mammalians is not known. Moreover, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of the self-assembly of the PrP from its monomeric state (cellular PrP, PrP(C)) to the multimeric state. The latter state includes the toxic species (scrapie PrP, PrP(Sc)) knowledge of which would facilitate the development of drugs against prion diseases. Here we analyze the role of a tyrosine residue (Y169) which is strictly conserved in mammalian PrPs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of many mammalian PrP(C) proteins have provided evidence of a conformational equilibrium between a 3(10)-helical turn and a type I β turn conformation in the β2-α2 loop (residues 165-175). In vitro cell-free experiments of the seeded conversion of PrP(C) indicate that non-aromatic residues at position 169 reduce the formation of proteinase K-resistant PrP. Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of monomeric PrP and several single-point mutants show that Y169 stabilizes the 3(10)-helical turn conformation more than single-point mutants at position 169 or residues in contact with it. In the 3(10)-helical turn conformation the hydrophobic and aggregation-prone segment 169-YSNQNNF-175 is buried and thus not-available for self-assembly. From the combined analysis of simulation and experimental results it emerges that Y169 is an aggregation gatekeeper with a twofold role. Mutations related to 3 human prion diseases are interpreted on the basis of the gatekeeper role in the monomeric state. Another potential role of the Y169 side chain is the stabilization of the ordered aggregates, i.e., reduction of frangibility of filamentous protofibrils and fibrils, which is likely to reduce the generation of toxic species.

  2. Unlocking Doors without Keys: Activation of Src by Truncated C-terminal Intracellular Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Lacking Tyrosine Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    One of the best examples of the renaissance of Src as an open door to cancer has been the demonstration that just five min of Src activation is sufficient for transformation and also for induction and maintenance of cancer stem cells [1]. Many tyrosine kinase receptors, through the binding of their ligands, become the keys that unlock the structure of Src and activate its oncogenic transduction pathways. Furthermore, intracellular isoforms of these receptors, devoid of any tyrosine kinase activity, still retain the ability to unlock Src. This has been shown with a truncated isoform of KIT (tr-KIT) and a truncated isoform of VEGFR-1 (i21-VEGFR-1), which are intracellular and require no ligand binding, but are nonetheless able to activate Src and induce cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of the i21-VEGFR-1 is upregulated by the Notch signaling pathway and repressed by miR-200c and retinoic acid in breast cancer cells. Both Notch inhibitors and retinoic acid have been proposed as potential therapies for invasive breast cancer. PMID:24709904

  3. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tyrosine 141 regulate stability and degradation of INrf2: a novel mechanism in Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhinav K; Mahajan, Shilpi; Jaiswal, Anil K

    2008-06-20

    INrf2-Nrf2 proteins are sensors of chemical/radiation stress. Nrf2, in response to stresses, is released from INrf2. Nrf2 is translocated into the nucleus where it binds to the antioxidant response element and coordinately activates the expression of a battery of genes that protect cells against oxidative and electrophilic stress. An autoregulatory loop between INrf2 and Nrf2 regulates their cellular abundance. Nrf2 activates INrf2 gene expression, and INrf2 serves as an adapter for degradation of Nrf2. In this report, we demonstrate that mutation of tyrosine 141 in bric-a-bric, tramtrack, broad complex domain to alanine rendered INrf2 unstable and nonfunctional. INrf2Y141A mutant degraded rapidly as compared with wild type INrf2, although it could dimerize and bind Nrf2. De novo synthesized INrf2 protein was phosphorylated at tyrosine 141. Tyrosine 141-phosphorylated INrf2 was highly stable. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide, which is an oxidizing agent, led to dephosphorylation of INrf2Y141, resulting in rapid degradation of INrf2. This resulted in stabilization of Nrf2 and activation of ARE-mediated gene expression. These results demonstrate that stress-induced dephosphorylation of tyrosine 141 is a novel mechanism in Nrf2 activation and cellular protection.

  4. Investigating Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Mutation of the HER2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase through Computational Modeling and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Telesco, Shannon E; Shih, Andrew; Liu, Yingting; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the EGFR/ErbB family and is overexpressed in 20-30% of human breast cancers. Since there is a growing effort to develop pharmacological inhibitors of the HER2 kinase for the treatment of breast cancer, it is clinically valuable to rationalize how specific mutations impact the molecular mechanism of receptor activation. Although several crystal structures of the ErbB kinases have been solved, the precise mechanism of HER2 activation remains unknown, and it has been suggested that HER2 is unique in its requirement for phosphorylation of Y877, a key tyrosine residue located in the activation loop (A-loop). In our studies, discussed here, we have investigated the mechanisms that are important in HER2 kinase domain regulation and compared them with the other ErbB family members, namely EGFR and ErbB4, to determine the molecular basis for HER2's unique mode of activation. We apply computational simulation techniques at the atomic level and at the electronic structure (quantum mechanical) level to elucidate details of the mechanisms governing the kinase domains of these ErbB members. Through analysis of our simulation results, we have discovered potential regulatory mechanisms common to EGFR, HER2, and ErbB4, including a tight coupling between the A-loop and catalytic loop that may contribute to alignment of residues required for catalysis in the active kinase. We further postulate an autoinhibitory mechanism whereby the inactive kinase is stabilized through sequestration of catalytic residues. In HER2, we also predict a role for phosphorylated Y877 in bridging a network of hydrogen bonds that fasten the A-loop in its active conformation, suggesting that HER2 may be unique among the ErbB members in requiring A-loop tyrosine phosphorylation for functionality. In EGFR, HER2, and ErbB4, we discuss the possible effects of activating mutations. Delineation of the activation

  5. Active region coronal loops - Structural and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Strong, Keith T.; Harrison, Richard A.; Gary, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray images of a pair of active region loops are studied which show significant, short time-scale variability in the line fluxes of O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI and in the 3.5-11.5 keV soft X-ray bands. Vector magnetograms and high-resolution UV images were used to model the three-dimensional characteristics of the loops. X-ray light curves were generated spanning four consecutive orbits for both loops individually, and light curves of the loop tops and brightest points were also generated. The largest variations involve flux changes of up to several hundred percent on time scales of 10 minutes. No significant H-alpha flare activity is reported, and loop temperatures remain in the four to six million K range. The decay phases of the light curves indicate radiative cooling, inhibition of conduction, and some type of 'continued heating' due to ongoing, underlying activity at the microflare level.

  6. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity by hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an important signaling event triggered by the activation of various cell surface receptors. Major targets of H(2)O(2) include protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Oxidation of the active site Cys by H(2)O(2) abrogates PTP catalytic activity, thereby potentially furnishing a mechanism to ensure optimal tyrosine phosphorylation in response to a variety of physiological stimuli. Unfortunately, H(2)O(2) is poorly reactive in chemical terms and the second order rate constants for the H(2)O(2)-mediated PTP inactivation are ~10M(-1)s(-1), which is too slow to be compatible with the transient signaling events occurring at the physiological concentrations of H(2)O(2). We find that hydroxyl radical is produced from H(2)O(2) solutions in the absence of metal chelating agent by the Fenton reaction. We show that the hydroxyl radical is capable of inactivating the PTPs and the inactivation is active site directed, through oxidation of the catalytic Cys to sulfenic acid, which can be reduced by low molecular weight thiols. We also show that hydroxyl radical is a kinetically more efficient oxidant than H(2)O(2) for inactivating the PTPs. The second-order rate constants for the hydroxyl radical-mediated PTP inactivation are at least 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those mediated by H(2)O(2) under the same conditions. Thus, hydroxyl radical generated in vivo may serve as a more physiologically relevant oxidizing agent for PTP inactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases.

  7. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  8. Effects of FGFR2 kinase activation loop dynamics on catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Karp, Jerome M; Sparks, Samuel; Cowburn, David

    2017-02-01

    The structural mechanisms by which receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate catalytic activity are diverse and often based on subtle changes in conformational dynamics. The regulatory mechanism of one such RTK, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) kinase, is still unknown, as the numerous crystal structures of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the kinase domains show no apparent structural change that could explain how phosphorylation could enable catalytic activity. In this study, we use several enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) methods to elucidate the structural changes to the kinase's activation loop that occur upon phosphorylation. We show that phosphorylation favors inward motion of Arg664, while simultaneously favoring outward motion of Leu665 and Pro666. The latter structural change enables the substrate to bind leading to its resultant phosphorylation. Inward motion of Arg664 allows it to interact with the γ-phosphate of ATP as well as the substrate tyrosine. We show that this stabilizes the tyrosine and primes it for the catalytic phosphotransfer, and it may lower the activation barrier of the phosphotransfer reaction. Our work demonstrates the value of including dynamic information gleaned from computer simulation in deciphering RTK regulatory function.

  9. Effects of FGFR2 kinase activation loop dynamics on catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The structural mechanisms by which receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate catalytic activity are diverse and often based on subtle changes in conformational dynamics. The regulatory mechanism of one such RTK, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) kinase, is still unknown, as the numerous crystal structures of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the kinase domains show no apparent structural change that could explain how phosphorylation could enable catalytic activity. In this study, we use several enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) methods to elucidate the structural changes to the kinase’s activation loop that occur upon phosphorylation. We show that phosphorylation favors inward motion of Arg664, while simultaneously favoring outward motion of Leu665 and Pro666. The latter structural change enables the substrate to bind leading to its resultant phosphorylation. Inward motion of Arg664 allows it to interact with the γ-phosphate of ATP as well as the substrate tyrosine. We show that this stabilizes the tyrosine and primes it for the catalytic phosphotransfer, and it may lower the activation barrier of the phosphotransfer reaction. Our work demonstrates the value of including dynamic information gleaned from computer simulation in deciphering RTK regulatory function. PMID:28151998

  10. Exploiting receptor tyrosine kinase co-activation for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Aik-Choon; Vyse, Simon; Huang, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    Studies over the past decade have shown that Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) co-activation is prevalent in many cancer types. Compelling data demonstrates that cancers are likely to have evolved RTK co-activation as a generic means for driving tumour growth and providing a buffering system to limit the lethal effects of microenvironmental insults including therapy. In this review, we summarise the general principles of RTK co-activation gleaned from key studies over the last decade. We discuss direct and indirect approaches to exploit RTK co-activation for cancer therapy and describe recent developments in computational approaches to predict kinase co-dependencies by integrating drug screening data and kinase inhibitor selectivity profiles. We offer a perspective on the outstanding questions in the field focusing on the implications of RTK co-activation on tumour heterogeneity and cancer evolution and conclude by surveying emerging computational and experimental approaches that will provide further insights into the biology of RTK co-activation and deliver new developments in effective cancer therapies. PMID:27452454

  11. Small-Molecule Inhibition and Activation-Loop Trans-Phosphorylation of the IGF1 Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,J.; Li, W.; Craddock, B.; Foreman, K.; Mulvihill, M.; Ji, Q.; Miller, W.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has a critical role in mitogenic signalling during embryogenesis and an antiapoptotic role in the survival and progression of many human tumours. Here, we present the crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of IGF1R (IGF1RK), in its unphosphorylated state, in complex with a novel compound, cis-3-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-l-yl)-cyclobutyl]-1-(2-phenyl-quinolin-7-yl)-imidazo[1, 5-a]pyrazin-8-ylamine (PQIP), which we show is a potent inhibitor of both the unphosphorylated (basal) and phosphorylated (activated) states of the kinase. PQIP interacts with residues in the ATP-binding pocket and in the activation loop, which confers specificity for IGF1RK and the highly related insulin receptor (IR) kinase. In this crystal structure, the IGF1RK active site is occupied by Tyr1135 from the activation loop of an symmetry (two-fold)-related molecule. This dimeric arrangement affords, for the first time, a visualization of the initial trans-phosphorylation event in the activation loop of an RTK, and provides a molecular rationale for a naturally occurring mutation in the activation loop of the IR that causes type II diabetes mellitus.

  12. A semisynthetic Eph receptor tyrosine kinase provides insight into ligand-induced kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nikhil; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Himanen, Juha P.; Muir, Tom W.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a methodology for generating milligram amounts of functional Eph tyrosine kinase receptor using the protein engineering approach of expressed protein ligation. Stimulation with ligand induces efficient autophosphorylation of the semisynthetic Eph construct. The in vitro phosphorylation of key Eph tyrosine residues upon ligand-induced activation was monitored via time-resolved, quantitative phosphoproteomics, suggesting a precise and unique order of phosphorylation of the Eph tyrosines in the kinase activation process. To our knowledge, this work represents the first reported semisynthesis of a receptor tyrosine kinase and provides a potentially general method for producing single-pass membrane proteins for structural and biochemical characterization. PMID:21439481

  13. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  14. Solubilized placental membrane protein inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, H.V. Jr.; Slater, E.E.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (TK) activity may be important in modulating insulin action. Utilizing an assay which measures IR phosphorylation of angiotensin II (AII), the authors investigated whether fractions of TX-100 solubilized human placental membranes inhibited IR dependent AII phosphorylation. Autophosphorylated IR was incubated with membrane fractions before the addition of AII, and kinase inhibition measured by the loss of TSP incorporated in AII. An inhibitory activity was detected which was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The inhibitor was purified 200-fold by sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite. This inhibitory activity was found to correlate with an 80 KD protein which was electroeluted from preparative slab gels and rabbit antiserum raised. Incubation of membrane fractions with antiserum before the IRTK assay immunoprecipitated the inhibitor. Protein immunoblots of crude or purified fractions revealed only the 80 KD protein. Since IR autophosphorylation is crucial to IRTK activity, the authors investigated the state of IR autophosphorylation after treatment with inhibitor; no change was detected by phosphoamino acid analysis.

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase CK2 by Src-related tyrosine kinases correlates with increased catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Donella-Deana, Arianna; Cesaro, Luca; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Brunati, Anna Maria; Marin, Oriano; Vilk, Greg; Doherty-Kirby, Amanda; Lajoie, Gilles; Litchfield, David W; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2003-01-01

    Casein kinase-2 (CK2) is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits, whose regulation is still not well understood. In the present study, we show that the catalytic subunits of human CK2, but not the regulatory beta-subunits, are readily phosphorylated by the Src family protein tyrosine kinases Lyn and c-Fgr to a stoichiometry approaching 2 mol phosphotyrosine/mol CK2alpha with a concomitant 3-fold increase in catalytic activity. We also show that endogenous CK2alpha becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in pervanadate-treated Jurkat cells. Both tyrosine phosphorylation and stimulation of activity are suppressed by the specific Src inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d ]pyrimidine. By comparison, mutations giving rise to inactive forms of CK2alpha do not abrogate and, in some cases, stimulate Lyn and c-Fgr-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of CK2. Several radiolabelled phosphopeptides could be resolved by HPLC, following tryptic digestion of CK2alpha that had been phosphoradiolabelled by incubation with [(32)P]ATP and c-Fgr. The most prominent phosphopeptide co-migrates with a synthetic peptide encompassing the 248-268 sequence, phosphorylated previously by c-Fgr at Tyr(255) in vitro. The identification of Tyr(255) as a phosphorylated residue was also supported by MS sequencing of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated 248-268 tryptic fragments from CK2alpha and by on-target phosphatase treatment. A CK2alpha mutant in which Tyr(255) was replaced by phenylalanine proved less susceptible to phosphorylation and refractory to stimulation by c-Fgr. PMID:12628006

  16. The structure of a dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A-PKC412 complex reveals disulfide-bridge formation with the anomalous catalytic loop HRD(HCD) cysteine.

    PubMed

    Alexeeva, Marina; Åberg, Espen; Engh, Richard A; Rothweiler, Ulli

    2015-05-01

    Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a protein kinase associated with neuronal development and brain physiology. The DYRK kinases are very unusual with respect to the sequence of the catalytic loop, in which the otherwise highly conserved arginine of the HRD motif is replaced by a cysteine. This replacement, along with the proximity of a potential disulfide-bridge partner from the activation segment, implies a potential for redox control of DYRK family activities. Here, the crystal structure of DYRK1A bound to PKC412 is reported, showing the formation of the disulfide bridge and associated conformational changes of the activation loop. The DYRK kinases represent emerging drug targets for several neurological diseases as well as cancer. The observation of distinct activation states may impact strategies for drug targeting. In addition, the characterization of PKC412 binding offers new insights for DYRK inhibitor discovery.

  17. Function of redox-active tyrosine in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2006-06-01

    Water oxidation at photosystem II Mn-cluster is mediated by the redox-active tyrosine Y(Z). We calculated the redox potential (E(m)) of Y(Z) and its symmetrical counterpart Y(D), by solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The calculated E(m)(Y( )/Y(-)) were +926 mV/+694 mV for Y(Z)/Y(D) with the Mn-cluster in S2 state. Together with the asymmetric position of the Mn-cluster relative to Y(Z/D), differences in H-bond network between Y(Z) (Y(Z)/D1-His(190)/D1-Asn(298)) and Y(D) (Y(D)/D2-His(189)/D2-Arg(294)/CP47-Glu(364)) are crucial for E(m)(Y(Z/D)). When D1-His(190) is protonated, corresponding to a thermally activated state, the calculated E(m)(Y(Z)) was +1216 mV, which is as high as the E(m) for P(D1/D2). We observed deprotonation at CP43-Arg(357) upon S-state transition, which may suggest its involvement in the proton exit pathway. E(m)(Y(D)) was affected by formation of P(D2)(+) (but not P(D1)(+)) and sensitive to the protonation state of D2-Arg(180). This points to an electrostatic link between Y(D) and P(D2).

  18. Human DJ-1-specific Transcriptional Activation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutation in the DJ-1 gene causes a subset of familial Parkinson disease. The mechanism underlying DJ-1-related selective vulnerability in the dopaminergic pathway is, however, not known. DJ-1 has multiple functions, including transcriptional regulation, and one of transcriptional target genes for DJ-1 is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, the product of which is a key enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. It has been reported that DJ-1 is a neuroprotective transcriptional co-activator that sequesters a transcriptional co-repressor polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) from the TH gene promoter. In this study, we found that knockdown of human DJ-1 by small interference RNA in human dopaminergic cell lines attenuated TH gene expression and 4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine production but that knockdown or knock-out of mouse DJ-1 in mouse cell lines or in mice did not affect such expression and TH activity. In reporter assays using the human TH gene promoter linked to the luciferase gene, stimulation of TH promoter activity was observed in human cells, but not mouse cells, that had been transfected with DJ-1. Although human DJ-1 and mouse DJ-1 were associated either with human or with mouse PSF, TH promoter activity inhibited by PSF was restored by human DJ-1 but not by mouse DJ-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the complex of PSF with DJ-1 bound to the human but not the mouse TH gene promoter. These results suggest a novel species-specific transcriptional regulation of the TH promoter by DJ-1 and one of the mechanisms for no reduction of TH in DJ-1-knock-out mice. PMID:20938049

  19. Human DJ-1-specific transcriptional activation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M

    2010-12-17

    Loss-of-function mutation in the DJ-1 gene causes a subset of familial Parkinson disease. The mechanism underlying DJ-1-related selective vulnerability in the dopaminergic pathway is, however, not known. DJ-1 has multiple functions, including transcriptional regulation, and one of transcriptional target genes for DJ-1 is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, the product of which is a key enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. It has been reported that DJ-1 is a neuroprotective transcriptional co-activator that sequesters a transcriptional co-repressor polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) from the TH gene promoter. In this study, we found that knockdown of human DJ-1 by small interference RNA in human dopaminergic cell lines attenuated TH gene expression and 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine production but that knockdown or knock-out of mouse DJ-1 in mouse cell lines or in mice did not affect such expression and TH activity. In reporter assays using the human TH gene promoter linked to the luciferase gene, stimulation of TH promoter activity was observed in human cells, but not mouse cells, that had been transfected with DJ-1. Although human DJ-1 and mouse DJ-1 were associated either with human or with mouse PSF, TH promoter activity inhibited by PSF was restored by human DJ-1 but not by mouse DJ-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the complex of PSF with DJ-1 bound to the human but not the mouse TH gene promoter. These results suggest a novel species-specific transcriptional regulation of the TH promoter by DJ-1 and one of the mechanisms for no reduction of TH in DJ-1-knock-out mice.

  20. The evolution of active region loop plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krall, K. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The adjustment of coronal active-region loops to changes in their heating rate is investigated numerically. The one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved subject to boundary conditions in which heat flux-induced mass exchange between coronal and chromospheric components is allowed. The calculated evolution of physical parameters suggests that (1) mass supplied during chromospheric evaporation is much more effective in moderating coronal temperature excursions than when downward heat flux is dissipated by a static chromosphere, and (2) the method by which the chromosphere responds to changing coronal conditions can significantly influence coronal readjustment time scales. Observations are cited which illustrate the range of possible fluctuations in the heating rates.

  1. The tyrosine kinase Stitcher activates Grainy head and epidermal wound healing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenqiu; Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Xylourgidis, Nikos; Sabri, Nafiseh; Tiklová, Katarína; Nautiyal, Naumi; Gallio, Marco; Samakovlis, Christos

    2009-07-01

    Epidermal injury initiates a cascade of inflammation, epithelial remodelling and integument repair at wound sites. The regeneration of the extracellular barrier and damaged tissue repair rely on the precise orchestration of epithelial responses triggered by the injury. Grainy head (Grh) transcription factors induce gene expression to crosslink the extracellular barrier in wounded flies and mice. However, the activation mechanisms and functions of Grh factors in re-epithelialization remain unknown. Here we identify stitcher (stit), a new Grh target in Drosophila melanogaster. stit encodes a Ret-family receptor tyrosine kinase required for efficient epidermal wound healing. Live imaging analysis reveals that Stit promotes actin cable assembly during wound re-epithelialization. Stit activation also induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation along with the Grh-dependent expression of stit and barrier repair genes at the wound sites. The transcriptional stimulation of stit on injury triggers a positive feedback loop increasing the magnitude of epithelial responses. Thus, Stit activation upon wounding coordinates cytoskeletal rearrangements and the level of Grh-mediated transcriptional wound responses.

  2. Activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor by gintonin inhibits Kv1.2 channel activity: involvement of tyrosine kinase and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Rhee, Jeehae; Chung, Chihye; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2013-08-26

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. The primary action of gintonin is to elicit a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i via activation of LPA receptor subtypes. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels play important roles in synaptic transmission in nervous systems. The previous reports have shown that Kv channels can be regulated by Gαq/11 protein-coupled receptor ligands. In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of RNA encoding the human Kv1.2 α subunit. Gintonin treatment inhibited Kv1.2 channel activity in reversible and concentration-dependent manners. The inhibitory effect of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity was blocked by active phospholipase C inhibitor, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. The co-expression of active receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α (RPTPα) with Kv1.2 channel greatly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity, but attenuation was not observed with catalytically inactive RPTPα. Furthermore, neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor site-directed mutation of a tyrosine residue (Y132 to Y132F), which is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase of the N-terminal of the Kv1.2 channel α subunit, significantly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity. These results indicate that the gintonin-mediated Kv1.2 channel regulation involves the dual coordination of both tyrosine kinase and RPTPα coupled to this receptor. Finally, gintonin-mediated regulation of Kv1.2 channel activity might explain one of the modulations of gintonin-mediated neuronal activities in nervous systems.

  3. Src Tyrosine Kinase Alters Gating of Hyperpolarization-Activated HCN4 Pacemaker Channel through Tyr531

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Huang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Han-Gang

    2009-01-01

    We recently discovered that the constitutively active Src tyrosine kinase can enhance the HCN4 channel activity by binding to the channel protein. To investigate the mechanism of modulation by Src of HCN channels, we studied the effects of a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase, PP2, on HCN4 and its mutant channels ex pressed in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp technique. We found that PP2 can inhibit HCN4 currents by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation, decreasing the whole-cell channel conductance, and slowing activation and deactivation kinetics. Screening putative tyrosine residues subject to phosphorylation yielded two candidates: Tyr531 and Tyr554. Substituting HCN4-Tyr531 with phenylalanine largely abolished the effects of PP2 on HCN4 channels. Replacing HCN4-Tyr554 by phenylalanine did not abolish the effects of PP2 on voltage-dependent activation, but did eliminate PP2-induced slowing of channel kinetics. The inhibitory effects of HCN channels associated with reduced Src tyrosine activity is confirmed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that PP2 can decrease the heart rate in a mouse model. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinase enhances HCN4 currents by shifting their activation to more positive potentials and increasing the whole-cell channel conductance as well as speeding the channel kinetics. The tyrosine residue that mediates most of Src actions on HCN4 channels is Tyr531. PMID:17977941

  4. Partial purification and characterization of an enzyme from pea nuclei with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y L; Roux, S J

    1995-01-01

    A pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclear enzyme with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity has been partially purified and characterized. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 90 kD as judged by molecular sieve column chromatography and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Like animal protein tyrosine phosphatases it can be inhibited by low concentrations of molybdate and vanadate. It is also inhibited by heparin and spermine but not by either the acid phosphatase inhibitors citrate and tartrate or the protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. The enzyme does not require Ca2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+ for its activity but is stimulated by ethylenediaminetetraacetate and by ethyleneglycolbis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. It dephosphorylates phosphotyrosine residues on the four different 32P-tyrosine-labeled peptides tested but not the phosphoserine/threonine residues on casein and histone. Like some animal protein tyrosine phosphatases, it has a variable pH optimum depending on the substrate used: the optimum is 5.5 when the substrate is [32P]tyrosine-labeled lysozyme, but it is 7.0 when the substrate is [32P]tyrosine-labeled poly(glutamic acid, tyrosine). It has a Km of 4 microM when the lysozyme protein is used as a substrate. PMID:11536662

  5. Highly conserved tyrosine stabilizes the active state of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Joseph A; South, Kieron; Ahuja, Shivani; Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Opefi, Chikwado A; Eilers, Markus; Vogel, Reiner; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2010-11-16

    Light-induced isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the visual pigment rhodopsin triggers displacement of the second extracellular loop (EL2) and motion of transmembrane helices H5, H6, and H7 leading to the active intermediate metarhodopsin II (Meta II). We describe solid-state NMR measurements of rhodopsin and Meta II that target the molecular contacts in the region of the ionic lock involving these three helices. We show that a contact between Arg135(3.50) and Met257(6.40) forms in Meta II, consistent with the outward rotation of H6 and breaking of the dark-state Glu134(3.49)-Arg135(3.50)-Glu247(6.30) ionic lock. We also show that Tyr223(5.58) and Tyr306(7.53) form molecular contacts with Met257(6.40). Together these results reveal that the crystal structure of opsin in the region of the ionic lock reflects the active state of the receptor. We further demonstrate that Tyr223(5.58) and Ala132(3.47) in Meta II stabilize helix H5 in an active orientation. Mutation of Tyr223(5.58) to phenylalanine or mutation of Ala132(3.47) to leucine decreases the lifetime of the Meta II intermediate. Furthermore, the Y223F mutation is coupled to structural changes in EL2. In contrast, mutation of Tyr306(7.53) to phenylalanine shows only a moderate influence on the Meta II lifetime and is not coupled to EL2.

  6. Tyrosine-Specific Chemical Modification with in Situ Hemin-Activated Luminol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-20

    Tyrosine-specific chemical modification was achieved using in situ hemin-activated luminol derivatives. Tyrosine residues in peptide and protein were modified effectively with N-methylated luminol derivatives under oxidative conditions in the presence of hemin and H2O2. Both single and double modifications of the tyrosine residue occurred in the reaction of angiotensin II with N-methylated luminol derivative 9. Tyrosine-specific chemical modification of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed that the surface-exposed tyrosine residues were selectively modified with 9. We succeeded in the functionalization of several proteins using azide-conjugated compound 18 using alkyne-conjugated probes by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) or dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-mediated copper-free click chemistry. This tyrosine-specific modification was orthogonal to conventional lysine modification by N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, and dual functionalization by fluorescence modification of tyrosine residues and PEG modification of lysine residues was achieved without affecting the modification efficiency.

  7. HIPK2 catalytic activity and subcellular localization are regulated by activation-loop Y354 autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Siepi, Francesca; Gatti, Veronica; Camerini, Serena; Crescenzi, Marco; Soddu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    HIPK2 (homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2) binds to and phosphorylates, at Ser and Thr residues, a large number of targets involved in cell division and cell fate decision in response to different physiological or stress stimuli. Inactivation of HIPK2 has been observed in human and mouse cancers supporting its role as a tumor suppressor. Despite the biological relevance of this kinase, very little is known on how HIPK2 becomes catalytically active. Based on sequence homologies, HIPK2 has been taxonomically classified as a subfamily member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) and the activation-loop Y354 of HIPK2 has been found phosphorylated in different cells; however, the relevance of this Y phosphorylation is presently unknown. Here, we show that HIPK2, which is extensively phosphorylated at S/T sites throughout its functional domains, becomes catalytically active by autophosphorylation at the activation-loop Y354. In particular, we found that, in analogy to DYRKs, HIPK2-Y354 phosphorylation is an autocatalytic event and its prevention, through Y354 substitution with non-phosphorylatable amino acids or by using the kinase inhibitor purvalanol A, induces a strong reduction of the HIPK2 S/T-kinase activity on different substrates. Interestingly, at variance from DYRKs, inhibition of HIPK2-Y354 phosphorylation induces a strong out-of-target Y-kinase activity in cis and a strong cytoplasmic relocalization of the kinase. Together, these results demonstrate that the catalytic activity, substrate specificity, and subcellular localization of HIPK2 are regulated by autophosphorylation of its activation-loop Y354. PMID:23485397

  8. Closed-loop active optical system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    A control system, based on a real-time lateral shear interferometer has been developed for use in control during thermal tests and static error compensation experiments. The minicomputer which controls the interferometer and provides its service functions also controls the active system, thereby giving flexibility to the algorithm. The minicomputer system contains 288 K bytes of memory and 15 M bytes of disk storage. The interferometer system employed is composed of the measuring head and its support electronics, a video display on which wavefront contour maps are generated, and a DECwriter operator console. The versatility provided by the use of a general purpose interferometer system allows for interactive control of the closed-loop process. Various arithmetic capabilities such as the addition of wavefronts, division by a constant, and fitting of wavefront data with Zernike polynomials, allow for measurements to be averaged and for removal of alignment errors before correction is performed.

  9. Identification and Targeting of Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Justin Drake CONTRACTING...PROJECT NUMBER Justin Drake and Owen Witte 5e. TASK NUMBER Email: jdrake@mednet.ucla.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...of tyrosine kinase networks during prostate cancer progression Justin M. Drakea, Nicholas A. Grahamb,c, Tanya Stoyanovaa, Amir Sedghia, Andrew S

  10. Central neural regulation by adrenergic nerves of the daily rhythm in hepatic tyrosine transaminase activity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Ira B.; Reis, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    1. In adrenalectomized fasted rats transection of the spinal cord at C7-C8 or placement of bilateral electrolytic lesions in the lateral hypothalamus when performed in the morning interrupted the daily rhythm of hepatic tyrosine transaminase by elevating low (AM) enzyme activities to high (PM) levels; lesions placed in PM did not affect the late afternoon rise in enzyme activity. 2. Bilateral thalamic lesions had no affect on enzyme activity. 3. The activity of hepatic catechol-O-methyl transferase was unaffected by hypothalamic lesions. 4. The lesion-evoked rise of tyrosine transaminase activity was abolished by exogenously administered norepinephrine. 5. Cycloheximide blocked the rise of tyrosine transaminase activity caused by hypothalamic lesions. 6. The results suggest that rhythmic activity of sympathetic nerves governed by lateral hypothalamus contribute to regulation of the daily rhythm in tyrosine transaminase by regulating the release of norepinephrine peripherally; norepinephrine may block the daily rise of enzyme by interfering with protein synthesis, possibly of new enzyme, by competing with pyridoxal co-factor. 7. It is proposed that alternating activity of sympathetic-adrenergic and vagal-cholinergic nerves to liver, controlled by the C.N.S., contribute to rhythmic activity of hepatic tyrosine transaminase. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4400586

  11. Loss of Tyrosine Phosphatase Dependent Inhibition Promotes Activation of Tyrosine Kinase c-Src in Detached Pancreatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Sarah F.; Isley, Beth A.; Baker, Cheryl H.; Gallick, Gary E.; Summy, Justin M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite an intense focus on novel therapeutic strategies, pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains one of the deadliest human malignancies. The frequent and rapid mortality associated with pancreatic cancer may be attributed to several factors, including late diagnosis, rapid tumor invasion into surrounding tissues, and formation of distant metastases. Both local invasion and metastasis require disruption of tumor cell contacts with the extracellular matrix. Detachment of normal cells from the extracellular matrix leads to a form of programmed cell death termed anoikis. Pancreatic cancer cells avert anoikis by activation of signaling pathways that allow for adhesion-independent survival. In the present studies, cellular signaling pathways activated in detached pancreatic cancer cells were examined. We demonstrate a rapid and robust activation of Src kinase in detached pancreatic cancer cells, relative to adherent. Src autophosphorylation rapidly returned to baseline levels upon reattachment to tissue culture plastic, in the presence or absence of specific extracellular matrix proteins. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors increased steady-state Src autophosphorylation in adherent cells and abrogated the detachment-induced increase in Src autophosphorylation. Src was found to co-immunoprecipitate with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) in pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting that SHP-2 may participate in regulation of Src autophosphorylation in adherent cells. Src family kinase (SFK) dependent increases in Akt and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation were observed in detached cells, indicating the potential for Src-dependent activation of survival and stress pathways in pancreatic cancer cells that have detached from the extracellular matrix. PMID:20945416

  12. PTEN controls immunoreceptor (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif) signaling and the activation of Rac.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Suk; Peng, Xiaodong; De, Pradip K; Geahlen, Robert L; Durden, Donald L

    2002-01-15

    Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis is a model for the study of immunoreceptor (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif [ITAM]) signaling and involves the activation of protein tyrosine kinases, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and downstream effectors including phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase. Relatively little is known of the role of lipid phosphatases in the control of ITAM signaling and inflammation. A heterologous COS7 cell system was used to examine the roles played by PI-3 kinase and the dual-specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), in the signal transduction pathway leading to Fcgamma receptor IIA-mediated phagocytosis and the activation of Rac. The expression of wildtype PTEN completely abrogated the phagocytosis of immunoglobulin-G-sensitized sheep red blood cells, as compared with the catalytically inactive mutant of PTEN, which had no effect. This is the first direct evidence that PTEN, an inositol 3' phosphatase, regulates Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis, an ITAM-based signaling event. The data suggest that PTEN exerts control over phagocytosis potentially by controlling the downstream conversion of guanosine diphosphate-Rac to guanosine triphosphate-Rac following ITAM stimulation.

  13. Tyrosine phosphatase activity in mitochondria: presence of Shp-2 phosphatase in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Stringaro, A; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Arancia, G; Clari, G; Toninello, A

    2004-09-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation by unidentified enzymes has been observed in mitochondria, with recent evidence indicating that non-receptorial tyrosine kinases belonging to the Src family, which represent key players in several transduction pathways, are constitutively present in mitochondria. The extent of protein phosphorylation reflects a coordination balance between the activities of specific kinases and phophatases. The present study demonstrates that purified rat brain mitochondria possess endogenous tyrosine phosphatase activity. Mitochondrial phosphatases were found to be capable of dephosphorylating different exogenous substrates, including paranitrophenylphosphate, (32)P-poly(Glu-Tyr)(4:1) and (32)P-angiotensin. These activities are strongly inhibited by peroxovanadate, a well-known inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, but not by inhibitors of alkali or Ser/Thr phosphatases, and mainly take place in the intermembrane space and outer mitochondrial membrane. Using a combination of approaches, we identified the tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 in mitochondria. Shp-2 plays a crucial role in a number of intracellular signalling cascades and is probably involved in several human diseases. It thus represents the first tyrosine phosphatase shown to be present in mitochondria.

  14. JAK tyrosine kinases promote hierarchical activation of Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Alessio; Bolomini-Vittori, Matteo; Toffali, Lara; Rossi, Barbara; Constantin, Gabriela; Laudanna, Carlo

    2013-12-23

    Lymphocyte recruitment is regulated by signaling modules based on the activity of Rho and Rap small guanosine triphosphatases that control integrin activation by chemokines. We show that Janus kinase (JAK) protein tyrosine kinases control chemokine-induced LFA-1- and VLA-4-mediated adhesion as well as human T lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid organs. JAK2 and JAK3 isoforms, but not JAK1, mediate CXCL12-induced LFA-1 triggering to a high affinity state. Signal transduction analysis showed that chemokine-induced activation of the Rho module of LFA-1 affinity triggering is dependent on JAK activity, with VAV1 mediating Rho activation by JAKs in a Gαi-independent manner. Furthermore, activation of Rap1A by chemokines is also dependent on JAK2 and JAK3 activity. Importantly, activation of Rap1A by JAKs is mediated by RhoA and PLD1, thus establishing Rap1A as a downstream effector of the Rho module. Thus, JAK tyrosine kinases control integrin activation and dependent lymphocyte trafficking by bridging chemokine receptors to the concurrent and hierarchical activation of the Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation.

  15. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  16. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  17. Autophagy induced by AXL receptor tyrosine kinase alleviates acute liver injury via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Jihye; Bae, Joonbeom; Choi, Chang-Yong; Choi, Sang-Pil; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Young Sik; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Park, Chung-Gyu; Lee, Myung-Shik; Chun, Taehoon

    2016-12-01

    Severe hepatic inflammation is a common cause of acute or chronic liver disease. Macrophages are one of the key mediators which regulate the progress of hepatic inflammation. Increasing evidence shows that the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) family of RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), which is expressed in macrophages, alleviates inflammatory responses through a negative feedback loop. However, the functional contribution of each TAM family member to the progression of hepatic inflammation remains elusive. In this study, we explore the role of individual TAM family proteins during autophagy induction and evaluate their contribution to hepatic inflammation. Among the TAM family of RTKs, AXL (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase) only induces autophagy in macrophages after interaction with its ligand, GAS6 (growth arrest specific 6). Based on our results, autophosphorylation of 2 tyrosine residues (Tyr815 and Tyr860) in the cytoplasmic domain of AXL in mice is required for autophagy induction and AXL-mediated autophagy induction is dependent on MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)14 activity. Furthermore, induction of AXL-mediated autophagy prevents CASP1 (caspase 1)-dependent IL1B (interleukin 1, β) and IL18 (interleukin 18) maturation by inhibiting NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome activation. In agreement with these observations, axl(-/-) mice show more severe symptoms than do wild-type (Axl(+/+)) mice following acute hepatic injury induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hence, GAS6-AXL signaling-mediated autophagy induction in murine macrophages ameliorates hepatic inflammatory responses by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  18. Src tyrosine kinase alters gating of hyperpolarization-activated HCN4 pacemaker channel through Tyr531.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S Jamal; Huang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Han-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We recently discovered that the constitutively active Src tyrosine kinase can enhance hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) 4 channel activity by binding to the channel protein. To investigate the mechanism of modulation by Src of HCN channels, we studied the effects of a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2), on HCN4 and its mutant channels expressed in HEK 293 cells by using a whole cell patch-clamp technique. We found that PP2 can inhibit HCN4 currents by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation, decreasing the whole cell channel conductance, and slowing activation and deactivation kinetics. Screening putative tyrosine residues subject to phosphorylation yielded two candidates: Tyr(531) and Tyr(554). Substituting HCN4-Tyr(531) with phenylalanine largely abolished the effects of PP2 on HCN4 channels. Replacing HCN4-Tyr(554) with phenylalanine did not abolish the effects of PP2 on voltage-dependent activation but did eliminate PP2-induced slowing of channel kinetics. The inhibitory effects of HCN channels associated with reduced Src tyrosine activity is confirmed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that PP2 can decrease the heart rate in a mouse model. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinase enhances HCN4 currents by shifting their activation to more positive potentials and increasing the whole cell channel conductance as well as speeding the channel kinetics. The tyrosine residue that mediates most of Src's actions on HCN4 channels is Tyr(531).

  19. Enhancement of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity by propylthiouracil-induced hyperplasia in the rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Polychronakos, C; Piscina, R; Fantus, I G

    1989-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) is a well established model of rapid cell proliferation in vivo. Recent evidence indicates that tyrosine kinase activity is associated with growth factor receptors and oncogene protein products and may have an important regulatory action in the control of cell growth. Thus, we examined tyrosine kinase activity in rat thyroid membrane and cytosol preparations at rest and during PTU-induced hyperplasia. Although kinase activity was present in a crude microsomal membrane preparation, no change was observed during thyroid growth. In contrast, tyrosine kinase activity assayed with the artificial substrate poly(Glu,Na:Tyr) 4:1 was present in normal rat thyroid cytosol and increased 2- to 6-fold during the rapid phase of hyperplasia in the first 5-10 days of PTU treatment. It declined to control values by day 15, when the size and DNA content of the thyroid reached a plateau. Preincubation of the cytosolic preparations with several peptides known to bind to and activate growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases failed to enhance the activity, suggesting, along with the cytosolic localization, that the activity was distinct from these receptors. By gel filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tyrosine kinase activity was associated with a 55 kDa protein. Partial purification over a poly(Glu,Na:Tyr)4:1-Sepharose column, yielded a protein that appeared capable of autophosphorylation. It is suggested that this tyrosine kinase plays a role in mediating the growth-promoting effects of this model of thyroid cell hyperplasia.

  20. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 associates with the phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of Fc gamma RIIa to modulate signaling events in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Latha P; Fang, Huiqing; Marsh, Clay B; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2003-09-12

    Fc gamma RIIa is a low affinity IgG receptor uniquely expressed in human cells that promotes phagocytosis of immune complexes and induces inflammatory cytokine gene transcription. Recent studies have revealed that phagocytosis initiated by Fc gamma RIIa is tightly controlled by the inositol phosphatase SHIP-1, and the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Whereas the molecular nature of SHIP-1 involvement with Fc gamma RIIa has been well studied, it is not clear how SHP-1 is activated by Fc gamma RIIa to mediate its regulatory effect. Here we report that Fc gamma RIIa clustering induces SHP-1 phosphatase activity in THP-1 cells. Using synthetic phosphopeptides, and stable transfectants expressing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) tyrosine mutants of Fc gamma RIIa, we demonstrate that SHP-1 associates with the phosphorylated amino-terminal ITAM tyrosine of Fc gamma RIIa, whereas the tyrosine kinase Syk associates with the carboxyl-terminal ITAM tyrosine. Association of SHP-1 with Fc gamma RIIa ITAM appears to suppress total cellular tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Fc gamma RIIa clustering results in the association of SHP-1 with key signaling molecules such as Syk, p85 subunit of PtdIns 3-kinase, and p62dok, suggesting that these molecules may be substrates of SHP-1 in this system. Finally, overexpression of wild-type SHP-1 but not catalytically deficient SHP-1 led to a down-regulation of NF kappa B-dependent gene transcription in THP-1 cells activated by clustering Fc gamma RIIa.

  1. Activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) at fertilization in Rhinella arenarum eggs.

    PubMed

    Mouguelar, Valeria S; Coux, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have provided evidence for the involvement of a cytosolic tyrosine-phosphorylatable 70 kDa oocyte protein in Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) fertilization. The aim of the present work was to characterize its phosphorylation, determine the identity of this protein and establish its biological role during the fertilization process. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the 70 kDa protein was not observed in eggs activated with the calcium ionophore A23187. Pretreatment of oocytes with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein effectively blocked the fertilization-dependent phosphorylation of the 70 kDa protein. In order to identify this protein, we examined the presence in amphibian oocytes of non-receptor 70 kDa tyrosine kinase members of the Syk/Zap70 and Tec families by RT-PCR using degenerate primers. We found that R. arenarum oocytes contain the transcripts coding for Syk and Tec kinases. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of Syk protein in unfertilized oocytes and eggs. Studies using phospho-Syk specific antibodies showed that fertilization rapidly (less than 10 minutes) induces phosphorylation on Syk tyrosine residues (352 and 525/526) that are necessary for the activation of the enzyme. Finally, specific inhibition of Syk with the R406 compound provoked a diminished fertilization score, thereby confirming a functional role of the Syk protein during R. arenarum fertilization. To our knowledge this is the first time that Syk is described as a player in the signaling cascade activated after fertilization.

  2. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  3. Zinc ions modulate protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Elisa; Massarotti, Alberto; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key enzymes in cellular regulation. The 107 human PTPs are regulated by redox signalling, phosphorylation, dimerisation, and proteolysis. Recent findings of very strong inhibition of some PTPs by zinc ions at concentrations relevant in a cellular environment suggest yet another mechanism of regulation. One of the most extensively investigated PTPs is PTP1B (PTPN1). It regulates the insulin and leptin signalling pathway and is implicated in cancer and obesity/diabetes. The development of novel assay conditions to investigate zinc inhibition of PTP1B provides estimates of about 5.6 nM affinity for inhibitory zinc(II) ions. Analysis of three PTP1B 3D structures (PDB id: 2CM2, 3I80 and 1A5Y) identified putative zinc binding sites and supports the kinetic studies in suggesting an inhibitory zinc only in the closed and cysteinyl-phosphate intermediate forms of the enzyme. These observations gain significance with regard to recent findings of regulatory roles of zinc ions released from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  4. Insect cell-expressed p180erbB3 possesses an impaired tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Guy, P M; Platko, J V; Cantley, L C; Cerione, R A; Carraway, K L

    1994-01-01

    Protein kinases share a number of highly conserved or invariant amino acid residues in their catalytic domains, suggesting that these residues are necessary for kinase activity. In p180erbB3, a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor subfamily, three of these residues are altered, suggesting that this protein might have an impaired protein tyrosine kinase activity. To test this hypothesis, we have expressed human EGF receptor and bovine p180erbB3 in insect cells via baculovirus infection and have compared their autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activities. We have found that, while the EGF receptor readily undergoes EGF-stimulated autophosphorylation and catalyzes the incorporation of phosphate into the model substrates (E4Y1)n (random 4:1 copolymer of glutamic acid and tyrosine) and GST-p85 (glutathione S-transferase fusion protein with the 85-kDa subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), p180erbB3 autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation are at least 2 orders of magnitude less efficient. However, p180erbB3 is capable of binding the ATP analog 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine, indicating that the lack of observed kinase activity is probably not due to nonfunctional or denatured receptors expressed by the insect cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that p180erbB3 possesses an impaired intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Images PMID:8058768

  5. Activation of the Lck tyrosine protein kinase by hydrogen peroxide requires the phosphorylation of Tyr-394.

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, J S; Sefton, B M

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of cells to H2O2 mimics many of the effects of treatment of cells with extracellular ligands. Among these is the stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation. In this study, we show that exposure of cells to H2O2 increases the catalytic activity of the lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck (Lck) and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Lck at Tyr-394, the autophosphorylation site. Using mutant forms of Lck, we found that Tyr-394 is required for H2O2-induced activation of Lck, suggesting that phosphorylation of this site may activate Lck. In addition, H2O2 treatment induced phosphorylation at Tyr-394 in a catalytically inactive mutant of Lck in cells that do not express endogenous Lck. This demonstrates that a kinase other than Lck itself is capable of phosphorylating Lck at the so-called autophosphorylation site and raises the possibility that this as yet unidentified tyrosine protein kinase functions as an activator of Lck. Such an activating enzyme could play an important role in signal transduction in T cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7538674

  6. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling and vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Boulaftali, Yacine; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    2014-03-28

    Platelets are well-known for their critical role in hemostasis, that is, the prevention of blood loss at sites of mechanical vessel injury. Inappropriate platelet activation and adhesion, however, can lead to thrombotic complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To fulfill its role in hemostasis, the platelet is equipped with various G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to soluble agonists such as thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane A2. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, platelets express 3 glycoproteins that belong to the family of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors: Fc receptor γ chain, which is noncovalently associated with the glycoprotein VI collagen receptor, C-type lectin 2, the receptor for podoplanin, and Fc receptor γII A, a low-affinity receptor for immune complexes. Although both genetic and chemical approaches have documented a critical role for platelet G protein-coupled receptors in hemostasis, the contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors to this process is less defined. Studies performed during the past decade, however, have identified new roles for platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in vascular integrity in utero and at sites of inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on how platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling controls vascular integrity, both in the presence and absence of mechanical injury.

  7. Threonine-124 and phenylalanine-448 in Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase are necessary for activity with L-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Demidkina, Tatyana V; Barbolina, Maria V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Sundararaju, Bakthavatsalam; Gollnick, Paul D; Phillips, Robert S

    2002-05-01

    Thr-124 and Phe-448 are located in the active site of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) near the phenol ring of a bound substrate analogue, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid [Sundararaju, Antson, Phillips, Demidkina, Barbolina, Gollnick, Dodson and Wilson (1997) Biochemistry 36, 6502-6510]. Thr-124 is replaced by Asp and Phe-448 is replaced by His in the crystal structure of a structurally similar enzyme, Proteus vulgaris tryptophan indole-lyase, which has 50% identical residues. Hence, Thr-124 and Phe-448 in TPL were mutated to Ala or Asp, and His, respectively, in order to probe the role of these residues in the reaction specificity for L-Tyr. These mutant enzymes have little or no beta-elimination activity with L-Tyr or 3-fluoro-L-Tyr as a substrate, but retain significant elimination activity with S-(o-nitrophenyl)-L-cysteine, S-alkyl-L-cysteines and beta-chloroalanine. Furthermore, the binding of L-Tyr and other non-substrate amino acids is not significantly affected by the mutations. The mutant TPLs form intermediates in rapid-scanning stopped-flow experiments with L-Phe, L-Tyr and L-Trp, similar to those seen with wild-type TPL. These results demonstrate that Thr-124 and Phe-448 are necessary for the reaction specificity of TPL for L-Tyr, and probably play a role in the elimination stage of the reaction mechanism. Thr-124 is within hydrogen-bonding distance of the phenolic group of the bound substrate, and may help to orientate the ring for beta-elimination to occur. Phe-448 may be important to allow the formation of the closed conformation during the reaction.

  8. Hierarchical Disabled-1 Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Src family Kinase Activation and Neurite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Zhihua; Monckton, Elizabeth; Glubrecht, Darryl; Godbout, Roseline

    2013-01-01

    There are two developmentally regulated alternatively spliced forms of Disabled-1 (Dab1) in the chick retina: an early form (Dab1-E) expressed in retinal precursor cells and a late form (Dab1-L) expressed in neuronal cells. The main difference between these two isoforms is the absence of two Src family kinase (SFK) recognition sites in Dab1-E. Both forms retain two Abl/Crk/Nck recognition sites implicated in the recruitment of SH2 domain-containing signaling proteins. One of the Dab1-L-specific SFK recognition sites, at tyrosine(Y)-198, has been shown to be phosphorylated in Reelin-stimulated neurons. Here, we use Reelin-expressing primary retinal cultures to investigate the role of the four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on overall tyrosine phosphorylation, Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation. We show that Y198 is essential but not sufficient for maximal Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation, with Y232 and Y220 playing particularly important roles in SFK activation and neuritogenesis, and Y185 having modifying effects secondary to Y232 and Y220. Our data support a role for all four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites in mediating the spectrum of activities associated with Reelin-Dab1 signaling in neurons. PMID:17350651

  9. Substrate recognition by the Lyn protein-tyrosine kinase. NMR structure of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling region of the B cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Gaul, B S; Harrison, M L; Geahlen, R L; Burton, R A; Post, C B

    2000-05-26

    The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) plays a central role in transmembrane signal transduction in hematopoietic cells by mediating responses leading to proliferation and differentiation. An initial signaling event following activation of the B cell antigen receptor is phosphorylation of the CD79a (Ig-alpha) ITAM by Lyn, a Src family protein-tyrosine kinase. To elucidate the structural basis for recognition between the ITAM substrate and activated Lyn kinase, the structure of an ITAM-derived peptide bound to Lyn was determined using exchange-transferred nuclear Overhauser NMR spectroscopy. The bound substrate structure has an irregular helix-like character. Docking based on the NMR data into the active site of the closely related Lck kinase strongly favors ITAM binding in an orientation similar to binding of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase rather than that of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. The model of the complex provides a rationale for conserved ITAM residues, substrate specificity, and suggests that substrate binds only the active conformation of the Src family tyrosine kinase, unlike the ATP cofactor, which can bind the inactive form.

  10. Signal transduction activated by the cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates: cleavage of BID protein, tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K; Thornalley, P J

    2001-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate and allyl isothiocyanate induce apoptosis of human leukaemia HL60 cells in vitro. Apoptosis was associated with cleavage of p22 BID protein to p15, p13 and p11 fragments and activation of JNK and tyrosine phosphorylation (18 kDa and 45 kDa proteins). All these effects and apoptosis were prevented by exogenous glutathione (15 mM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was unchanged. The general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk prevented apoptosis but not JNK activation – excluding a role for caspases in JNK activation, whereas curcumin prevented JNK activation but only delayed apoptosis. This suggests that in isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis, the caspase pathway has an essential role, the JNK pathway a supporting role, and inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases is not involved. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11237388

  11. Tyrosine kinase activation in breast carcinoma with correlation to HER-2/neu gene amplification and receptor overexpression.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, R; Naeem, R; Marconi, S; Luszcz, J; Garb, J; Gasparini, R; Otis, C N

    2001-12-01

    The HER-2/neu oncogene encodes a transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. A pilot study was performed to investigate downstream effects of HER-2/neu (or related growth factor receptor) activation by identifying phosphorylated tyrosine. Fifty-four breast carcinomas were evaluated for HER-2/neu overexpression by the HercepTest (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) and the monoclonal CB11 antibody (Ventana, Tucson, AZ). Phosphotyrosine (an indication of tyrosine kinase activity) was detected by an antiphosphotyrosine mouse monoclonal antibody (Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY). The gene amplification status was evaluated in 50 of the 54 cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Ventana gene probe. The HER-2/neu oncogene amplification was detected in 28% (14 of 50) of cases. Of the 14 cases showing oncogene amplification, tyrosine kinase activity was detected in 9 (64.2%) cases. There was moderate agreement between HER-2/neu gene amplification and tyrosine kinase activity (kappa = 0.43). Immunohistochemical staining of 3+ (with both HercepTest and CB11) showed better agreement with HER-2/neu oncogene amplification and increased tyrosine kinase activity than 2+ immunohistochemical staining. Overall, oncogene amplification and overexpression correlated with increased tyrosine kinase activity, supporting the mechanism of tyrosine kinase activation by HER-2/neu amplification and overexpression. However, 7 cases showing increased tyrosine kinase activity did not show gene amplification or 3+ receptor expression (by either HercepTest or CB11), raising the possibility of other growth factor receptors operating via the tyrosine kinase pathway. There was no apparent correlation between tyrosine kinase activity and hormone receptor status (estrogen or progesterone). Increased tyrosine kinase activity is more commonly associated with higher-grade tumors and thus may correlate with aggressive biologic behavior in breast carcinoma. The results of

  12. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 isolated from wine and L. brevis ATCC 367.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Arribas, V; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    1999-11-01

    Tyramine, a frequent amine in wines, is produced from tyrosine by the tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) activity of bacteria. The tyramine-producing strain Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 isolated from wine and the reference strain L. brevis ATCC 367 were studied. At the optimum pH, 5.0, K(m) values of IOEB 9809 and ATCC 367 crude extracts for L-tyrosine were 0.58 mM and 0.67 mM, and V(max) was higher for the wine strain (115 U) than the ATCC 367 (66 U). TDC exhibited a preference for L-tyrosine over L-DOPA as substrate. Enzyme activity was pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent and it was stabilized by the substrate and coenzyme. In contrast, glycerol and beta-mercaptoethanol strongly inhibited TDC. Tyramine competitively inhibited TDC for both strains. Citric acid, lactic acid and ethanol had an inhibitory effect on cells and crude extracts, but none could inhibit TDC at the usual concentrations in wines.

  13. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  14. MAP kinase activator from insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle is a protein threonine/tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Nakielny, S; Cohen, P; Wu, J; Sturgill, T

    1992-01-01

    A 'MAP kinase activator' was purified several thousand-fold from insulin-stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle, which resembled the 'activator' from nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells in that it could be inactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase 2A, but not by protein tyrosine phosphatases and its apparent molecular mass was 45-50 kDa. In the presence of MgATP, 'MAP kinase activator' converted the normal 'wild-type' 42 kDa MAP kinase from an inactive dephosphorylated form to the fully active diphosphorylated species. Phosphorylation occurred on the same threonine and tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factors or phorbol esters. A mutant MAP kinase produced by changing a lysine at the active centre to arginine was phosphorylated in an identical manner by the 'MAP kinase activator', but no activity was generated. The results demonstrate that 'MAP kinase activator' is a protein kinase (MAP kinase kinase) and not a protein that stimulates the autophosphorylation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase kinase is the first established example of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate an exogenous protein on threonine as well as tyrosine residues. Images PMID:1318193

  15. Characterization of a Mn sup 2+ -dependent membrane serine kinase that is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, T.J. )

    1991-03-11

    It is hypothesized that the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase may directly phosphorylate and activate one or more serine kinases. The identities of such serine kinases as well as their modes of activation are unclear. The authors have described a serine kinase from rat liver membranes that copurifies with the IR on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-sepharose. The kinase is activated after phosphorylation of the WGA-sepharose-purified fraction by casein kinase-1, casein kinase-2, or casein kinase-3. A tyrosine kinase, possibly IR tyrosine kinase, also participates in the activation process since a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor such as vanadate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, or phosphotyrosine is required in reaction mixtures for activation to be observed. By contrast, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine do not support activation. The activated kinase can use IR {beta}-subunit, myelin basic protein (MBP), and histones as substrates. IR {beta}-subunit phosphorylation was stimulated by MBP, histones, and polylysine, and inhibited by heparin and poly(glu, tyr). The kinase prefers Mn{sup 2+} over Mg{sup 2+} as a metal cofactor.

  16. Endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase activity is essential for myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Holopainen, Tanja; Räsänen, Markus; Anisimov, Andrey; Tuomainen, Tomi; Zheng, Wei; Tvorogov, Denis; Hulmi, Juha J.; Andersson, Leif C.; Cenni, Bruno; Tavi, Pasi; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertension, heart failure, and valvular disease, and it is a strong predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deletion of bone marrow kinase in chromosome X (Bmx), an arterial nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy in mice. This finding raised the possibility of therapeutic use of Bmx tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which we have addressed here by analyzing cardiac hypertrophy in gene-targeted mice deficient in Bmx tyrosine kinase activity. We found that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy is significantly reduced in mice deficient in Bmx and in mice with inactivated Bmx tyrosine kinase compared with WT mice. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling showed that Bmx inactivation suppresses myocardial expression of genes related to Ang II-induced inflammatory and extracellular matrix responses whereas expression of RNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins after Ang II administration was maintained in Bmx-inactivated hearts. Very little or no Bmx mRNA was expressed in human cardiomyocytes whereas human cardiac endothelial cells expressed abundant amounts. Ang II stimulation of endothelial cells increased Bmx phosphorylation, and Bmx gene silencing inhibited downstream STAT3 signaling, which has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by Ang II treatment was decreased in the Bmx-deficient hearts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the cross-talk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes by Bmx inactivation suppresses Ang II-induced signals for cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that the endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase could provide a target to attenuate the development of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26430242

  17. A transforming mutation enhances the activity of the c-Kit soluble tyrosine kinase domain.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, L P; Chow, R Y; Berger, S A

    1999-01-01

    An activating mutation (DY814) located in the catalytic domain of the c-Kit receptor has been found in mastocytomas from human, mouse and rat. We evaluated the enzymic properties of purified wild-type (WT) and DY814 tyrosine kinase domains expressed in Pichia pastoris. A linker encoding the Flag epitope was fused to c-Kit cDNA species, enabling affinity purification of the proteins with anti-Flag antibodies. Yeast lysates expressing DY814 contained multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, whereas WT lysates had no detectable tyrosine phosphorylation. Purification of the WT and mutant kinases in the presence of vanadate demonstrated that both enzymes undergo autophosphorylation. Kinetic analyses of WT and DY814 kinases indicated that at 20 nM enzyme concentration the mutation increases the specific activity 10-fold and decreases the apparent Km for ATP 9-fold. WT activity displayed a hyperbolic dependence on enzyme concentration, consistent with a requirement for dimerization or aggregation for activity. This activity was also enhanced by anti-Flag antibodies. In contrast, the dependence of DY814 activity on enzyme concentration was primarily linear and only marginally enhanced by anti-Flag antibodies. Gel-filtration analysis showed that the WT kinase migrated as a monomer, whereas the DY814 mutant migrated as a dimer. These results indicate that this point mutation promotes dimerization of the c-Kit kinase, potentially contributing to its transforming potential in mast cells. PMID:9931308

  18. Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaofeng; Ayrapetov, Marina K; Sun, Gongqin

    2005-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine kinases are important enzymes for cell signalling and key targets for anticancer drug discovery. The catalytic mechanisms of protein tyrosine kinase-catalysed phosphorylation are not fully understood. Protein tyrosine kinase Csk requires two Mg2+ cations for activity: one (M1) binds to ATP, and the other (M2) acts as an essential activator. Results Experiments in this communication characterize the interaction between M2 and Csk. Csk activity is sensitive to pH in the range of 6 to 7. Kinetic characterization indicates that the sensitivity is not due to altered substrate binding, but caused by the sensitivity of M2 binding to pH. Several residues in the active site with potential of binding M2 are mutated and the effect on metal activation studied. An active mutant of Asn319 is generated, and this mutation does not alter the metal binding characteristics. Mutations of Glu236 or Asp332 abolish the kinase activity, precluding a positive or negative conclusion on their role in M2 coordination. Finally, the ability of divalent metal cations to activate Csk correlates to a combination of ionic radius and the coordination number. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that M2 binding to Csk is sensitive to pH, which is mainly responsible for Csk activity change in the acidic arm of the pH response curve. They also demonstrate critical differences in the metal activator coordination sphere in protein tyrosine kinase Csk and a protein Ser/Thr kinase, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. They shed light on the physical interactions between a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator. PMID:16305747

  19. Distinct Pathways Regulate Syk Protein Activation Downstream of Immune Tyrosine Activation Motif (ITAM) and hemITAM Receptors in Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Dangelmaier, Carol; Eble, Johannes A.; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kahn, Mark; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase pathways are known to play an important role in the activation of platelets. In particular, the GPVI and CLEC-2 receptors are known to activate Syk upon tyrosine phosphorylation of an immune tyrosine activation motif (ITAM) and hemITAM, respectively. However, unlike GPVI, the CLEC-2 receptor contains only one tyrosine motif in the intracellular domain. The mechanisms by which this receptor activates Syk are not completely understood. In this study, we identified a novel signaling mechanism in CLEC-2-mediated Syk activation. CLEC-2-mediated, but not GPVI-mediated, platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, which demonstrates that PI3K regulates Syk downstream of CLEC-2. Ibrutinib, a Tec family kinase inhibitor, also completely abolished CLEC-2-mediated aggregation and Syk phosphorylation in human and murine platelets. Furthermore, embryos lacking both Btk and Tec exhibited cutaneous edema associated with blood-filled vessels in a typical lymphatic pattern similar to CLEC-2 or Syk-deficient embryos. Thus, our data show, for the first time, that PI3K and Tec family kinases play a crucial role in the regulation of platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation downstream of the CLEC-2 receptor. PMID:25767114

  20. Lyn tyrosine kinase regulates androgen receptor expression and activity in castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardan, A; Nip, K M; Thaper, D; Toren, P; Vahid, S; Beraldi, E; Fazli, L; Lamoureux, F; Gust, K M; Cox, M E; Bishop, J L; Zoubeidi, A

    2014-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression is a complex process by which prostate cells acquire the ability to survive and proliferate in the absence or under very low levels of androgens. Most CRPC tumors continue to express the androgen receptor (AR) as well as androgen-responsive genes owing to reactivation of AR. Protein tyrosine kinases have been implicated in supporting AR activation under castrate conditions. Here we report that Lyn tyrosine kinase expression is upregulated in CRPC human specimens compared with hormone naive or normal tissue. Lyn overexpression enhanced AR transcriptional activity both in vitro and in vivo and accelerated CRPC. Reciprocally, specific targeting of Lyn resulted in a decrease of AR transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo and prolonged time to castration. Mechanistically, we found that targeting Lyn kinase induces AR dissociation from the molecular chaperone Hsp90, leading to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This work indicates a novel mechanism of regulation of AR stability and transcriptional activity by Lyn and justifies further investigation of the Lyn tyrosine kinase as a therapeutic target for the treatment of CRPC. PMID:25133482

  1. Phorbol ester-induced serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor decreases its tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, S; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1988-03-05

    The effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the function of the insulin receptor was examined in intact hepatoma cells (Fao) and in solubilized extracts purified by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. Incubation of ortho[32P]phosphate-labeled Fao cells with TPA increased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor 2-fold after 30 min. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from the beta-subunit of the receptor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and determination of their phosphoamino acid composition suggested that TPA predominantly stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in a single tryptic peptide. Incubation of the Fao cells with insulin (100 nM) for 1 min stimulated 4-fold the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. Prior treatment of the cells with TPA inhibited the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by 50%. The receptors extracted with Triton X-100 from TPA-treated Fao cells and purified on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin retained the alteration in kinase activity and exhibited a 50% decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation and phosphotransferase activity toward exogenous substrates. This was due primarily to a decrease in the Vmax for these reactions. TPA treatment also decreased the Km of the insulin receptor for ATP. Incubation of the insulin receptor purified from TPA-treated cells with alkaline phosphatase decreased the phosphate content of the beta-subunit to the control level and reversed the inhibition, suggesting that the serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was responsible for the decreased tyrosine kinase activity. Our results support the notion that the insulin receptor is a substrate for protein kinase C in the Fao cell and that the increase in serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the receptor produced by TPA treatment inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. These data suggest that protein kinase C may regulate the function

  2. Posttranslational protein knockdown coupled to receptor tyrosine kinase activation with phosphoPROTACs

    PubMed Central

    Hines, John; Gough, Jonathan D.; Corson, Timothy W.; Crews, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational knockdown of a specific protein is an attractive approach for examining its function within a system. Here we introduce phospho-dependent proteolysis targeting chimeras (phosphoPROTACs), a method to couple the conditional degradation of targeted proteins to the activation state of particular kinase-signaling pathways. We generated two phosphoPROTACs that couple the tyrosine phosphorylation sequences of either the nerve growth factor receptor, TrkA (tropomyosin receptor kinase A), or the neuregulin receptor, ErbB3 (erythroblastosis oncogene B3), with a peptide ligand for the E3 ubiquitin ligase von Hippel Lindau protein. These phosphoPROTACs recruit either the neurotrophic signaling effector fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2α or the survival-promoting phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, respectively, to be ubiquitinated and degraded upon activation of specific receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphorylation of the phosphoPROTACs. We demonstrate the ability of these phosphoPROTACs to suppress the short- and long-term effects of their respective activating receptor tyrosine kinase pathways both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we show that activation of phosphoPROTACs is entirely dependent on their kinase-mediated phosphorylation, as phenylalanine-containing null variants are inactive. Furthermore, stimulation of unrelated growth factor receptors does not induce target protein knockdown. Although comparable in efficiency to RNAi, this approach has the added advantage of providing a degree of temporal and dosing control as well as cell-type selectivity unavailable using nucleic acid-based strategies. By varying the autophosphorylation sequence of a phosphoPROTAC, it is conceivable that other receptor tyrosine kinase/effector pairings could be similarly exploited to achieve other biological effects. PMID:23674677

  3. Posttranslational protein knockdown coupled to receptor tyrosine kinase activation with phosphoPROTACs.

    PubMed

    Hines, John; Gough, Jonathan D; Corson, Timothy W; Crews, Craig M

    2013-05-28

    Posttranslational knockdown of a specific protein is an attractive approach for examining its function within a system. Here we introduce phospho-dependent proteolysis targeting chimeras (phosphoPROTACs), a method to couple the conditional degradation of targeted proteins to the activation state of particular kinase-signaling pathways. We generated two phosphoPROTACs that couple the tyrosine phosphorylation sequences of either the nerve growth factor receptor, TrkA (tropomyosin receptor kinase A), or the neuregulin receptor, ErbB3 (erythroblastosis oncogene B3), with a peptide ligand for the E3 ubiquitin ligase von Hippel Lindau protein. These phosphoPROTACs recruit either the neurotrophic signaling effector fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2α or the survival-promoting phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, respectively, to be ubiquitinated and degraded upon activation of specific receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphorylation of the phosphoPROTACs. We demonstrate the ability of these phosphoPROTACs to suppress the short- and long-term effects of their respective activating receptor tyrosine kinase pathways both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we show that activation of phosphoPROTACs is entirely dependent on their kinase-mediated phosphorylation, as phenylalanine-containing null variants are inactive. Furthermore, stimulation of unrelated growth factor receptors does not induce target protein knockdown. Although comparable in efficiency to RNAi, this approach has the added advantage of providing a degree of temporal and dosing control as well as cell-type selectivity unavailable using nucleic acid-based strategies. By varying the autophosphorylation sequence of a phosphoPROTAC, it is conceivable that other receptor tyrosine kinase/effector pairings could be similarly exploited to achieve other biological effects.

  4. Identification of therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer through active tyrosine kinase profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Alberto; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of a set of pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases in ovarian cancer patient samples was analyzed to define potential therapeutic targets. Frequent activation of HER family receptor tyrosine kinases, especially HER2, was observed. Studies in ovarian cancer cell lines confirmed the activation of HER2. Moreover, knockdown of HER2 caused a strong inhibition of their proliferation. Analyses of the action of agents that target HER2 indicated that the antibody drug conjugate trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) caused a substantial antitumoral effect in vivo and in vitro, and potentiated the action of drugs used in the therapy of ovarian cancer. T-DM1 provoked cell cycle arrest in mitosis, and caused the appearance of aberrant mitotic spindles in cells treated with the drug. Biochemical experiments confirmed accumulation of the mitotic markers phospho-Histone H3 and phospho-BUBR1 in cells treated with the drug. Prolonged treatment of ovarian cancer cells with T-DM1 provoked the appearance of multinucleated cells which later led to cell death. Together, these data indicate that HER2 represents an important oncogene in ovarian cancer, and suggest that targeting this tyrosine kinase with T-DM1 may be therapeutically effective, especially in ovarian tumors with high content of HER2. PMID:26336133

  5. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity regulates osteoclast formation and function: inhibition by alendronate.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, A; Rutledge, S J; Endo, N; Opas, E E; Tanaka, H; Wesolowski, G; Leu, C T; Huang, Z; Ramachandaran, C; Rodan, S B; Rodan, G A

    1996-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN), an aminobisphosphonate used in the treatment of osteoporosis, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption. Its molecular target is still unknown. This study examines the effects of ALN on the activity of osteoclast protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP; protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48), called PTPepsilon. Using osteoclast-like cells generated by coculturing mouse bone marrow cells with mouse calvaria osteoblasts, we found by molecular cloning and RNA blot hybridization that PTPepsilon is highly expressed in osteoclastic cells. A purified fusion protein of PTPepsilon expressed in bacteria was inhibited by ALN with an IC50 of 2 microM. Other PTP inhibitors--orthovanadate and phenylarsine oxide (PAO)-inhibited PTPepsilon with IC50 values of 0.3 microM and 18 microM, respectively. ALN and another bisphosphonate, etidronate, also inhibited the activities of other bacterially expressed PTPs such as PTPsigma and CD45 (also called leukocyte common antigen). The PTP inhibitors ALN, orthovanadate, and PAO suppressed in vitro formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from osteoclast precursors and in vitro bone resorption by isolated rat osteoclasts (pit formation) with estimated IC50 values of 10 microM, 3 microM, and 0.05 microM, respectively. These findings suggest that tyrosine phosphatase activity plays an important role in osteoclast formation and function and is a putative molecular target of bisphosphonate action. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8610169

  6. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Active-region Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fludra, A.; Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding coronal heating remains a central problem in solar physics. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how energy is transferred to and deposited in the corona. We summarize past observational studies that attempted to identify the heating mechanism and point out the difficulties in reproducing the observations of the solar corona from the heating models. The aim of this paper is to study whether the observed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission in individual coronal loops in solar active regions can provide constraints on the volumetric heating function, and to develop a diagnostic for the heating function for a subset of loops that are found close to static thermal equilibrium. We reconstruct the coronal magnetic field from Solar Dynamics Observatory/HMI data using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field model. We model selected loops using a one-dimensional stationary model, with a heating rate dependent locally on the magnetic field strength along the loop, and we calculate the emission from these loops in various EUV wavelengths for different heating rates. We present a method to measure a power index β defining the dependence of the volumetric heating rate EH on the magnetic field, {E}H\\propto {B}β , and controlling also the shape of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints. The diagnostic is based on the dependence of the electron density on the index β. This method is free from the assumptions of the loop filling factor but requires spectroscopic measurements of the density-sensitive lines. The range of applicability for loops of different length and heating distributions is discussed, and the steps to solving the coronal heating problem are outlined.

  7. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  8. Activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase by divalent metal ions: comparison of holoreceptor and isolated kinase domain properties.

    PubMed

    Koland, J G; Cerione, R A

    1990-05-22

    The activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase activity is thought to represent a key initial step in EGF-mediated mitogenesis. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity were examined through comparisons of the holoreceptor, purified from human placenta, and a soluble 42 kDa tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), generated by the limited trypsin proteolysis of the holoreceptor. The results of these studies highlight the importance of divalent metal ions (Me2+), i.e., Mn2+ and Mg2+, as activators of the tyrosine kinase activity. Manganese is an extremely effective activator of the holoreceptor tyrosine kinase, and under some conditions (low ionic strength) it completely alleviates the need for EGF to stimulate activity. In contrast, Mg2+ only weakly stimulates the holoreceptor tyrosine kinase activity in the absence of EGF, but promotes essentially full activity in the presence of the growth factor. Like the holoreceptor, the soluble TKD is highly active in the presence of Mn2+. However, the isolated TKD is completely inactive in the presence of Mg2+, and, in fact, Mg2+ inhibits the Mn2(+)-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity. The differences in the effects of Mn2+ and Mg2+ on the isolated TKD were further demonstrated by monitoring the effects of Me2+ on the modification of a reactive cysteine residue(s) on the TKD. While Mn2+ potentiates the inhibition by cysteine-directed reagents of the tyrosine kinase activity, Mg2+ has no effect on either the rate or the extent of the inhibition. Both the regulation by Mn2+ of the kinase activity of the TKD and the potentiation by Mn2+ of the cysteine reactivity of the TKD occur over a millimolar concentration range, which implicates a direct binding interaction by the metal ion. Overall, these results demonstrate that there are two key activator sites on the EGF receptor, i.e., the EGF binding site on the extracellular domain and a Me2+ binding site on the

  9. Different structural alterations upregulate in vitro tyrosine kinase activity and transforming potency of the erbB-2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, O; King, C R; Pierce, J H; Di Fiore, P P; Aaronson, S A

    1988-01-01

    Compared with normal erbB-2 gp185, mutant erbB-2 proteins generated by mutations either in the transmembrane domain or by NH2-terminal deletion are able to transform NIH 3T3 cells at a 10- to 100-fold greater efficiency. Mutant proteins of both classes show increased tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting that an abnormal level of receptor-associated tyrosine kinase activity is a major determinant of erbB-2 oncogenic potential. Images PMID:2907606

  10. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  11. Multi-Wavelength Study of Active Region Loop Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2006-11-01

    Observations have revealed the existence of weak transient disturbances in extended coronal loop systems. These propagating disturbances (PDs) originate from small scale brightenings at the footpoints of the loops and propagate upward along the loops. In all cases observed, the projected propagation speed is close to, but below the expected sound speed in the loops. This suggests that the PDs could be interpreted as slow mode MHD waves. Interpreting the oscillation in terms of different wave modes and/or plasma motions always depend on the line of sight as we observe in the limb or on the center of the disk. The JOP 165 campaign will address some of these questions. MDI and TRACE photospheric and UV imaging of TRACE and SPIRIT have been acquired simultaneously with high temporal and spatial coverage along with the spectroscopic data from CDS. EIT was operated in the shutter-less mode to achieve high Cadence. Some of the off- limb active region dynamics and oscillations observed during this JOP campaign will be focused in this presentation. Plasma condensations and temporal variations in active region loops will be also addressed.

  12. Time-resolved luminescence detection of spleen tyrosine kinase activity through terbium sensitization.

    PubMed

    Lipchik, Andrew M; Parker, Laurie L

    2013-03-05

    Disruption of regulatory protein phosphorylation can lead to disease and is particularly prevalent in cancers. Inhibitors that target deregulated kinases are therefore a major focus of chemotherapeutic development. Achieving sensitivity and specificity in high-throughput compatible kinase assays is key to successful inhibitor development. Here, we describe the application of time-resolved luminescence detection to the direct sensing of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activity and inhibition using a novel peptide substrate. Chelation and luminescence sensitization of Tb(3+) allowed the direct detection of peptide phosphorylation without any antibodies or other labeling reagents. Characterizing the Tb(3+) coordination properties of the phosphorylated vs unphosphorylated form of the peptide revealed that an inner-sphere water was displaced upon phosphorylation, which likely was responsible for both enhancing the luminescence intensity and also extending the lifetime, which enabled gating of the luminescence signal to improve the dynamic range. Furthermore, a shift in the optimal absorbance maximum for excitation was observed, from 275 nm (for the unphosphorylated tyrosine peptide) to 266 nm (for the phosphorylated tyrosine peptide). Accordingly, time-resolved measurements with excitation at 266 nm via a monochromator enabled a 16-fold improvement in base signal-to-noise for distinguishing phosphopeptide from unphosphorylated peptide. This led to a high degree of sensitivity and quantitative reproducibility, demonstrating the amenability of this method to both research laboratory and high-throughput applications.

  13. Lysophosphatidylcholine potentiates vascular contractile responses in rat aorta via activation of tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hiroshi; Kamata, Katsuo

    2002-02-01

    We previously reported that while lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) does not itself produce contraction, it significantly potentiates the contractile responses induced by high-K(+), UK14,304 (a selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist) and phorbol ester in the endothelium-denuded rat aorta. To further investigate this phenomenon, we examined the effects of genistein and tyrphostin B42 (both tyrosine kinase inhibitors) on the LPC-induced potentiation of the contractile responses to high-K(+) and UK14,304 in the endothelium-denuded rat aorta. Although genistein (3 x 10(-6) M, 10(-5) M) did not affect the high-K(+)-induced contractile response, it selectively inhibited the potentiating effect of LPC on the contraction and it strongly inhibited the LPC-induced augmentation of the associated increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Genistein also attenuated the LPC-induced augmentation effects on both the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and contractile response induced by the UK14,304. In contrast, daidzein (10(-5) M) did not inhibit the potentiating effect of LPC. Tyrphostin B42 (3 x 10(-5) M) attenuated the potentiating effect of LPC on high K(+)-induced contractions. Western blot analysis showed that LPC increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins, including 42 and 44 kDa proteins and 53 - 64 kDa proteins. These protein phosphorylations were inhibited by genistein. Sodium orthovanadate (10(-4) M), a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, also markedly enhanced the high-K(+)-induced contractile responses. This enhancing effect was attenuated by genistein. These results suggest that the LPC-induced augmentation of contractile responses in the rat aorta is due to activation of tyrosine kinase, which in turn regulates Ca(2+) influx.

  14. Viral immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mediated signaling in cell transformation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Lewis L

    2006-08-01

    Viruses frequently co-opt host cell pathways to enhance their propagation or to enable latent infection. Certain receptors expressed by hematopoietic cells have immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic domains that initiate cellular activation, proliferation and differentiation. Some viruses have evolved, or acquired from their host, genes that encode ITAM-bearing proteins. These ITAM-bearing viral proteins have been implicated in cellular transformation in virus-infected hematopoietic cells, typically B cells, but also in non-hematopoietic tissues--including endothelial and epithelial cells.

  15. Human-in-the-loop active electrosense.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sandra; Peshkin, Michael; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2016-12-20

    Active electrosense is a non-visual, short range sensing system used by weakly electric fish, enabling such fish to locate and identify objects in total darkness. Here we report initial findings from the use of active electrosense for object localization during underwater teleoperation with a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display (HMD). The advantage of electrolocating with a VR system is that it naturally allows for aspects of the task that are difficult for a person to perform to be allocated to the computer. However, interpreting weak and incomplete patterns in the incoming data is something that people are typically far better at than computers. To achieve human-computer synergy, we integrated an active electrosense underwater robot with the Oculus Rift HMD. The virtual environment contains a visualization of the electric images of the objects surrounding the robot as well as various virtual fixtures that guide users to regions of higher information value. Initial user testing shows that these fixtures significantly reduce the time taken to localize an object, but may not increase the accuracy of the position estimate. Our results highlight the advantages of translating the unintuitive physics of electrolocation to an intuitive visual representation for accomplishing tasks in environments where imaging systems fail, such as in dark or turbid water.

  16. Phosphorylation of human Jak3 at tyrosines 904 and 939 positively regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hanyin; Ross, Jeremy A; Frost, Jeffrey A; Kirken, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (Jak3) is essential for signaling by interleukin-2 (IL-2) family cytokines and proper immune function. Dysfunctional regulation of Jak3 may result in certain disease states. However, the molecular mechanisms governing Jak3 activation are not fully understood. In this study, we used a functional-proteomics approach to identify two novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites within Jak3, Y904 and Y939, which are conserved among Jak family proteins. By using phosphospecific antibodies, both residues were observed to be rapidly induced by stimulation of cells with IL-2 or other gammac cytokines. Mechanistic studies indicated that Y904 and Y939 regulate Jak3 activities. A phenylalanine substitution at either site greatly reduced Jak3 kinase activity in vitro and its ability to phosphorylate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) in vivo, suggesting that phosphorylation of these previously unrecognized residues positively regulates Jak3 activity. Y904 and Y939 were required for optimal ATP usage by Jak3, while phosphorylation of Y939 preferentially promoted Stat5 activity in intact cells. Together, these findings demonstrate positive functional roles for two novel Jak3 phosphoregulatory sites which may be similarly important for other Jak family members. Identification of these sites also provides new therapeutic opportunities to modulate Jak3 function.

  17. Slow Magnetosonic Waves and Fast Flows in Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (approx 100-300 km/s) quasiperiodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow.We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  18. Molecular docking studies of banana flower flavonoids as insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activators as a cure for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ganugapati, Jayasree; Baldwa, Aashish; Lalani, Sarfaraz

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused due to insulin deficiency. Banana flower is a rich source of flavonoids that exhibit anti diabetic activity. Insulin receptor is a tetramer that belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases. It contains two alpha subunits that form the extracellular domain and two beta subunits that constitute the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Insulin binds to the extracellular region of the receptor and causes conformational changes that lead to the activation of the tyrosine kinase. This leads to autophosphorylation, a step that is crucial in insulin signaling pathway. Hence, compounds that augment insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity would be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The 3D structure of IR tyrosine kinase was obtained from PDB database. The list of flavonoids found in banana flower was obtained from USDA database. The structures of the flavonoids were obtained from NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the flavonoids was performed using Autodock 4.0 and Autodock Vina. The results indicate that few of the flavonoids may be potential activators of IR tyrosine kinase.

  19. Activating mutations for the Met tyrosine kinase receptor in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Michael; Schmidt, Laura; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Webb, Craig P.; Weirich, Gregor; Kishida, Takeshi; Zbar, Berton; Vande Woude, George F.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the Met tyrosine kinase receptor have been identified in both hereditary and sporadic forms of papillary renal carcinoma. We have introduced the corresponding mutations into the met cDNA and examined the effect of each mutation in biochemical and biological assays. We find that the Met mutants exhibit increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced kinase activity toward an exogenous substrate when compared with wild-type Met. Moreover, NIH 3T3 cells expressing mutant Met molecules form foci in vitro and are tumorigenic in nude mice. Enzymatic and biological differences were evident among the various mutants examined, and the somatic mutations were generally more active than those of germ-line origin. A strong correlation between the enzymatic and biological activity of the mutants was observed, indicating that tumorigenesis by Met is quantitatively related to its level of activation. These results demonstrate that the Met mutants originally identified in human papillary renal carcinoma are oncogenic and thus are likely to play a determinant role in this disease, and these results raise the possibility that activating Met mutations also may contribute to other human malignancies. PMID:9326629

  20. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-11-28

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  1. Autoinhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and activation by soluble inositol hexakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Vogan, Erik M; Nocka, Laura M; Rosen, Connor E; Zorn, Julie A; Harrison, Stephen C; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a Tec-family tyrosine kinase, is essential for B-cell function. We present crystallographic and biochemical analyses of Btk, which together reveal molecular details of its autoinhibition and activation. Autoinhibited Btk adopts a compact conformation like that of inactive c-Src and c-Abl. A lipid-binding PH-TH module, unique to Tec kinases, acts in conjunction with the SH2 and SH3 domains to stabilize the inactive conformation. In addition to the expected activation of Btk by membranes containing phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3), we found that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), a soluble signaling molecule found in both animal and plant cells, also activates Btk. This activation is a consequence of a transient PH-TH dimerization induced by IP6, which promotes transphosphorylation of the kinase domains. Sequence comparisons with other Tec-family kinases suggest that activation by IP6 is unique to Btk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06074.001 PMID:25699547

  2. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit α-glucosidase activity and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Yousof; Jannat, Susoma; Jung, Hyun Ah; Jeong, Hyong Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-05-25

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of six natural coumarins, 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (1), 4'-methoxy Pd-C-I (2), decursinol (3), decursidin (4), umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid (5), and 2'-isopropyl psoralene (6) isolated from Angelica decursiva and evaluated their inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase, and ONOO(-)-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. Coumarins 1-6 showed potent PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with ranges of IC50 values of 5.39-58.90 μM and 65.29-172.10 μM, respectively. In the kinetic study for PTP1B enzyme inhibition, compounds 1, 5, and 6 were competitive, whereas 2 and 4 showed mixed type, and 3 displayed noncompetitive type inhibition. For α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good mixed-type, while 2, 5, and 6 showed noncompetitive and 4 displayed competitive type inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins also effectively suppressed ONOO(-)-mediated tyrosine nitration in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate PTP1B inhibition, we generated a 3D structure of PTP1B using Autodock 4.2 and simulated the binding of compounds 1-6. Docking simulations showed that different residues of PTP1B interacted with different functional groups of compounds 1-6 through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, the binding energies of compounds 1-6 were negative, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may stabilize the open form of the enzyme and potentiate tight binding of the active site of PTP1B, thereby resulting in more effective PTP1B inhibition. These results demonstrate that the whole plant of A. decursiva and its coumarins are useful as potential functional food ingredients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  3. The tyrosine phosphatase CD148 is an essential positive regulator of platelet activation and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Senis, Yotis A; Tomlinson, Michael G; Ellison, Stuart; Mazharian, Alexandra; Lim, Jenson; Zhao, Yan; Kornerup, Kristin N; Auger, Jocelyn M; Thomas, Steve G; Dhanjal, Tarvinder; Kalia, Neena; Zhu, Jing W; Weiss, Arthur; Watson, Steve P

    2009-05-14

    Platelets play a fundamental role in hemostasis and thrombosis. They are also involved in pathologic conditions resulting from blocked blood vessels, including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation at sites of vascular injury are regulated by a diverse repertoire of tyrosine kinase-linked and G protein-coupled receptors. Src family kinases (SFKs) play a central role in initiating and propagating signaling from several platelet surface receptors; however, the underlying mechanism of how SFK activity is regulated in platelets remains unclear. CD148 is the only receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase identified in platelets to date. In the present study, we show that mutant mice lacking CD148 exhibited a bleeding tendency and defective arterial thrombosis. Basal SFK activity was found to be markedly reduced in CD148-deficient platelets, resulting in a global hyporesponsiveness to agonists that signal through SFKs, including collagen and fibrinogen. G protein-coupled receptor responses to thrombin and other agonists were also marginally reduced. These results highlight CD148 as a global regulator of platelet activation and a novel antithrombotic drug target.

  4. The tyrosine phosphatase CD148 is an essential positive regulator of platelet activation and thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Michael G.; Ellison, Stuart; Mazharian, Alexandra; Lim, Jenson; Zhao, Yan; Kornerup, Kristin N.; Auger, Jocelyn M.; Thomas, Steve G.; Dhanjal, Tarvinder; Kalia, Neena; Zhu, Jing W.; Weiss, Arthur; Watson, Steve P.

    2009-01-01

    Platelets play a fundamental role in hemostasis and thrombosis. They are also involved in pathologic conditions resulting from blocked blood vessels, including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation at sites of vascular injury are regulated by a diverse repertoire of tyrosine kinase–linked and G protein–coupled receptors. Src family kinases (SFKs) play a central role in initiating and propagating signaling from several platelet surface receptors; however, the underlying mechanism of how SFK activity is regulated in platelets remains unclear. CD148 is the only receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase identified in platelets to date. In the present study, we show that mutant mice lacking CD148 exhibited a bleeding tendency and defective arterial thrombosis. Basal SFK activity was found to be markedly reduced in CD148-deficient platelets, resulting in a global hyporesponsiveness to agonists that signal through SFKs, including collagen and fibrinogen. G protein–coupled receptor responses to thrombin and other agonists were also marginally reduced. These results highlight CD148 as a global regulator of platelet activation and a novel antithrombotic drug target. PMID:19246339

  5. Microglial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation and inhibition motif signaling in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Linnartz, Bettina; Wang, Yiner; Neumann, Harald

    2010-06-22

    Elimination of extracellular aggregates and apoptotic neural membranes without inflammation is crucial for brain tissue homeostasis. In the mammalian central nervous system, essential molecules in this process are the Fc receptors and the DAP12-associated receptors which both trigger the microglial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif- (ITAM-) Syk-signaling cascade. Microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), signal regulatory protein-beta1, and complement receptor-3 (CD11b/CD18) signal via the adaptor protein DAP12 and activate phagocytic activity of microglia. Microglial ITAM-signaling receptors are counter-regulated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif- (ITIM-) signaling molecules such as sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectins (Siglecs). Siglecs can suppress the proinflammatory and phagocytic activity of microglia via ITIM signaling. Moreover, microglial neurotoxicity is alleviated via interaction of Siglec-11 with sialic acids on the neuronal glycocalyx. Thus, ITAM- and ITIM-signaling receptors modulate microglial phagocytosis and cytokine expression during neuroinflammatory processes. Their dysfunction could lead to impaired phagocytic clearance and neurodegeneration triggered by chronic inflammation.

  6. Structural and dynamic insights into the energetics of activation loop rearrangement in FGFR1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Tobias; Vajpai, Navratna; Phillips, Jonathan J.; Davies, Gareth; Holdgate, Geoffrey A.; Phillips, Chris; Tucker, Julie A.; Norman, Richard A.; Scott, Andrew D.; Higazi, Daniel R.; Lowe, David; Thompson, Gary S.; Breeze, Alexander L.

    2015-07-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases differ widely in their propensity to undergo rearrangements of the N-terminal Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif of the activation loop, with some, including FGFR1 kinase, appearing refractory to this so-called `DFG flip'. Recent inhibitor-bound structures have unexpectedly revealed FGFR1 for the first time in a `DFG-out' state. Here we use conformationally selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogation of the structural and dynamic features that appear to govern the DFG flip in FGFR1. Our detailed structural and biophysical insights identify contributions from altered dynamics in distal elements, including the αH helix, towards the outstanding stability of the DFG-out complex with the inhibitor ponatinib. We conclude that the αC-β4 loop and `molecular brake' regions together impose a high energy barrier for this conformational rearrangement, and that this may have significance for maintaining autoinhibition in the non-phosphorylated basal state of FGFR1.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation by diesel particles is mediated by tyrosine phosphatase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tamara L.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kim, Yumee; Samet, James M.

    2008-12-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of ambient PM and may contribute to PM-induced pulmonary inflammation. Proinflammatory signaling is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways whose activation is opposed by the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) which thereby function to maintain signaling quiescence. PTPases contain an invariant catalytic cysteine that is susceptible to electrophilic attack. DEP contain electrophilic oxy-organic compounds that may contribute to the oxidant effects of PM. Therefore, we hypothesized that exposure to DEP impairs PTPase activity allowing for unopposed basal kinase activity. Here we report that exposure to 30 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} DEP for 4 h induces differential activation of signaling in primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells (HAEC), a primary target cell in PM inhalation. In-gel kinase activity assay of HAEC exposed to DEPs of low (L-DEP), intermediate (I-DEP) or high (H-DEP) organic content showed differential activation of intracellular kinases. Exposure to these DEP also induced varying levels of phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in a manner that requires EGFR kinase activity but does not involve receptor dimerization. We demonstrate that treatment with DEP results in an impairment of total and EGFR-directed PTPase activity in HAEC with a potency that is independent of the organic content of these particles. These data show that DEP-induced EGFR phosphorylation in HAEC is the result of a loss of PTPase activities which normally function to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity.

  8. Activation of retinal tyrosine hydroxylase: tolerance induced by chronic treatment with haloperidol does not modify response to light

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Neff, N.H.

    1982-05-01

    A single dose of haloperidol administered to rats in the dark increases the activity of retinal tyrosine hydroxylase. The ability of haloperidol to activate the enzyme is diminished 24 hr after terminating 22 to 30 days of treatment with haloperidol. The retinal enzyme is also tolerant to activation by treatment with chlorpromazine. In contrast, exposure of the animals to light activates the enzyme to the same extent in chronic haloperidol-treated and control animals. Thus, chronic haloperidol treatment does not modify the ability of the retinal enzyme system to respond to the physiological stimulus, light. Apparently, activation of retinol tyrosine hydroxylase by haloperidol and light occurs by independent mechanisms.

  9. Physical Properties of Cooling Plasma in Quiescent Active Region Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Miralles, M. P.; Curdt, W.; Hara, H.

    2009-04-01

    In the present work, we use SOHO/SUMER, SOHO/UVCS, SOHO/EIT, SOHO/LASCO, STEREO/EUVI, and Hinode/EIS coordinated observations of an active region (AR 10989) at the west limb taken on 2008 April 8 to study the cooling of coronal loops. The cooling plasma is identified using the intensities of SUMER spectral lines emitted at temperatures in the 4.15 <= log T <= 5.45 range. EIS and SUMER spectral observations are used to measure the physical properties of the loops. We found that before cooling took place these loops were filled with coronal hole-like plasma, with temperatures in the 5.6 <= log T <= 5.9 range. SUMER spectra also allowed us to determine the plasma temperature, density, emission measure, element abundances, and dynamic status during the cooling process. The ability of EUVI to observe the emitting region from a different direction allowed us to measure the volume of the emitting region and estimate its emission measure. Comparison with values measured from line intensities provided us with an estimate of the filling factor. UVCS observations of the coronal emission above the active region showed no streamer structure associated with AR 10989 at position angles between 242°and 253fdg EIT, LASCO, and EUVI-A narrowband images and UVCS spectral observations were used to discriminate between different scenarios and monitor the behavior of the active region in time. The present study provides the first detailed measurements of the physical properties of cooling loops, a very important benchmark for theoretical models of loop cooling and condensation.

  10. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E; Zompetta, C; Pelicci, G; Salcini, A E; Falini, B; Pelicci, P G; Torrisi, M R

    1996-01-01

    The intracellular localization of Shc proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in normal cells and cells expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor or the EGFR/erbB2 chimera. In unstimulated cells, the immunolabeling was localized in the central perinuclear area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane and endocytic structures, such as coated pits and endosomes, and with the peripheral cytosol. Receptor activation in cells expressing phosphorylation-defective mutants of Shc and erbB-2 kinase showed that receptor autophosphorylation, but not Shc phosphorylation, is required for redistribution of Shc proteins. The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein. PMID:8628261

  11. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Torkova, Anna; Koroleva, Olga; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Tatyana; Tsentalovich, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed. PMID:26512651

  12. DDR1 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes prosurvival pathway through Notch1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Gu; Hwang, So-Young; Aaronson, Stuart A; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W

    2011-05-20

    DDR1 (discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1) kinase s highly expressed in a variety of human cancers and occasionally mutated in lung cancer and leukemia. It is now clear that aberrant signaling through the DDR1 receptor is closely associated with various steps of tumorigenesis, although little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of DDR1 in cancer. Besides the role of DDR1 in tumorigenesis, we previously identified DDR1 kinase as a transcriptional target of tumor suppressor p53. DDR1 is functionally activated as determined by its tyrosine phosphorylation, in response to p53-dependent DNA damage. In this study, we report the characterization of the Notch1 protein as an interacting partner of DDR1 receptor, as determined by tandem affinity protein purification. Upon ligand-mediated DDR1 kinase activation, Notch1 was activated, bound to DDR1, and activated canonical Notch1 targets, including Hes1 and Hey2. Moreover, DDR1 ligand (collagen I) treatment significantly increased the active form of Notch1 receptor in the nuclear fraction, whereas DDR1 knockdown cells show little or no increase of the active form of Notch1 in the nuclear fraction, suggesting a novel intracellular mechanism underlying autocrine activation of wild-type Notch signaling through DDR1. DDR1 activation suppressed genotoxic-mediated cell death, whereas Notch1 inhibition by a γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, enhanced cell death in response to stress. Moreover, the DDR1 knockdown cancer cells showed the reduced transformed phenotypes in vitro and in vivo xenograft studies. The results suggest that DDR1 exerts prosurvival effect, at least in part, through the functional interaction with Notch1.

  13. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  14. Activation of tyrosine kinase c-Abl contributes to α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Donghoon; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Kumar, Manoj; Mao, Xiaobo; Shin, Joo Ho; Lee, Yunjong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Ko, Han Seok

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein contributes to the formation of Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathologic hallmarks of Parkinson disease (PD) and α-synucleinopathies. Although a number of human mutations have been identified in familial PD, the mechanisms that promote α-synuclein accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Here, we report that hyperactivity of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl critically regulates α-synuclein–induced neuropathology. In mice expressing a human α-synucleinopathy–associated mutation (hA53Tα-syn mice), deletion of the gene encoding c-Abl reduced α-synuclein aggregation, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active c-Abl in hA53Tα-syn mice accelerated α-synuclein aggregation, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Moreover, c-Abl activation led to an age-dependent increase in phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein. In human postmortem samples, there was an accumulation of phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein in brain tissues and Lewy bodies of PD patients compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that c-Abl phosphorylation of α-synuclein at tyrosine 39 enhances α-synuclein aggregation. Taken together, this work establishes a critical role for c-Abl in α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration and demonstrates that selective inhibition of c-Abl may be neuroprotective. This study further indicates that phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein is a potential disease indicator for PD and related α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27348587

  15. Purified human platelet-derived growth factor receptor has ligand-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bishayee, S; Ross, A H; Womer, R; Scher, C D

    1986-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R), a 180-kDa single-chain polypeptide, was purified from membranes of the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line MG-63. Purification was achieved by treatment of membranes with PDGF and ATP, followed by solubilization with nonionic detergent and successive chromatography on solid-phase anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody and DEAE-cellulose. The PDGF-R, which was estimated to be 50-80% pure by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 32P-labeled preparations, was free of contaminating epidermal growth factor receptor and had no detectable phosphatase activity. It specifically bound 125I-labeled PDGF, a reaction quantified by binding of the ligand-PDGF-R complex to the anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. The purified receptor displayed PDGF-stimulatable tyrosine kinase activity, assayed by autophosphorylation of PDGF-R at tyrosine residues and by phosphorylation of angiotensin II. The Km for ATP in the autophosphorylation reaction was 7.5 microM. Addition of PDGF did not change the Km but increased the Vmax 1.7-fold. Images PMID:3018745

  16. The Activation of c-Src Tyrosine Kinase: Conformational Transition Pathway and Free Energy Landscape.

    PubMed

    Fajer, Mikolai; Meng, Yilin; Roux, Benoît

    2016-10-28

    Tyrosine kinases are important cellular signaling allosteric enzymes that regulate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and migration. Their activity must be tightly controlled, and malfunction can lead to a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Src, a prototypical model system and a representative member of the Src-family, functions as complex multidomain allosteric molecular switches comprising SH2 and SH3 domains modulating the activity of the catalytic domain. The broad picture of self-inhibition of c-Src via the SH2 and SH3 regulatory domains is well characterized from a structural point of view, but a detailed molecular mechanism understanding is nonetheless still lacking. Here, we use advanced computational methods based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent to advance our understanding of kinase activation. To elucidate the mechanism of regulation and self-inhibition, we have computed the pathway and the free energy landscapes for the "inactive-to-active" conformational transition of c-Src for different configurations of the SH2 and SH3 domains. Using the isolated c-Src catalytic domain as a baseline for comparison, it is observed that the SH2 and SH3 domains, depending upon their bound orientation, promote either the inactive or active state of the catalytic domain. The regulatory structural information from the SH2-SH3 tandem is allosterically transmitted via the N-terminal linker of the catalytic domain. Analysis of the conformational transition pathways also illustrates the importance of the conserved tryptophan 260 in activating c-Src, and reveals a series of concerted events during the activation process.

  17. Tyrosine kinases activate store-mediated Ca2+ entry in human platelets through the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, J A; Graves, D; Sage, S O

    2000-01-01

    We have recently reported that store-mediated Ca(2+) entry in platelets is likely to be mediated by a reversible trafficking and coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum with the plasma membrane, a model termed 'secretion-like coupling'. In this model the actin cytoskeleton plays a key regulatory role. Since tyrosine kinases have been shown to be important for Ca(2+) entry in platelets and other cells, we have now investigated the possible involvement of tyrosine kinases in the secretion-like-coupling model. Treatment of platelets with thrombin or thapsigargin induced actin polymerization by a calcium-independent pathway. Methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prevented thrombin- or thapsigargin-induced actin polymerization. The effects of tyrosine kinases in store-mediated Ca(2+) entry were found to be entirely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. PP1, an inhibitor of the Src family of proteins, partially inhibited store-mediated Ca(2+) entry. In addition, depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores stimulated cytoskeletal association of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase pp60(src), a process that was sensitive to treatment with cytochalasin D and PP1, but not to inhibition of Ras proteins using prenylcysteine analogues. Finally, combined inhibition of both Ras proteins and tyrosine kinases resulted in complete inhibition of Ca(2+) entry, suggesting that these two families of proteins have independent effects in the activation of store-mediated Ca(2+) entry in human platelets. PMID:11023829

  18. PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) is independent of PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cartel, N J; Liu, J; Wang, J; Post, M

    2001-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a key component of downstream signaling events, which is activated subsequent to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation. Specifically, p42(MAPK) activity peaked 60 min after addition of PDGF-BB, declined thereafter, and was determined not to be a direct or necessary component of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. PDGF-BB also activated MAPK kinase 2 (MAPKK2) but had no effect on MAPKK1 and Raf-1 activity. Chemical inhibition of Janus kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src kinase, or tyrosine phosphorylation inhibition of the PDGF beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) did not abrogate PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation or its threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. A dominant negative cytoplasmic receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility variant 4 (RHAMMv4), a regulator of MAPKK-MAPK interaction and activation, did not inhibit PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation nor did a construct expressing PDGFR-beta with cytoplasmic tyrosines mutated to phenylalanine. However, overexpression of a dominant negative PDGFR-beta lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain abrogated p42(MAPK) activity. These results suggest that PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) requires the PDGFR-beta but is independent of its tyrosine phosphorylation.

  19. Microglial activatory (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif)- and inhibitory (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif)-signaling receptors for recognition of the neuronal glycocalyx.

    PubMed

    Linnartz, Bettina; Neumann, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Microglia sense intact or lesioned cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and respond accordingly. To fulfill this task, microglia express a whole set of recognition receptors. Fc receptors and DAP12 (TYROBP)-associated receptors such as microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) and the complement receptor-3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) trigger the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-signaling cascade, resulting in microglial activation, migration, and phagocytosis. Those receptors are counter-regulated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-signaling receptors, such as sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectins (Siglecs). Siglecs recognize the sialic acid cap of healthy neurons thus leading to an ITIM signaling that turns down microglial immune responses and phagocytosis. In contrast, desialylated neuronal processes are phagocytosed by microglial CR3 signaling via an adaptor protein containing an ITAM. Thus, the aberrant terminal glycosylation of neuronal surface glycoproteins and glycolipids could serve as a flag for microglia, which display a multitude of diverse carbohydrate-binding receptors that monitor the neuronal physical condition and respond via their ITIM- or ITAM-signaling cascade accordingly.

  20. Target-specific control of lymphoid-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) activity

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Zandra E.; Bishop, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily of enzymes, is an important mediator of human-leukocyte signaling. Lyp has also emerged as a potential anti-autoimmune therapeutic target, owing to the association of a Lyp-activating mutation with an array of autoimmune disorders. Toward the goal of generating a selective inhibitor of Lyp activity that could be used for investigating Lyp’s roles in cell signaling and autoimmune-disease progression, here we report that Lyp’s PTP domain can be readily sensitized to target-specific inhibition by a cell-permeable small molecule. Insertion of a tetracysteine-motif-containing peptide at a conserved position in Lyp’s catalytic domain generated a mutant enzyme (Lyp-CCPGCC) that retains activity comparable to that of wild-type Lyp in the absence of added ligand. Upon addition of a tetracysteine-targeting biarsenical compound (FlAsH), however, the activity of the Lyp-CCPGCC drops dramatically, as assayed with either small-molecule or phosphorylated-peptide PTP substrates. We show that FlAsH-induced Lyp-CCPGCC inhibition is potent, specific, rapid, and independent of the nature of the PTP substrate used in the inhibition assay. Moreover, we show that FlAsH can be used to specifically target overexpressed Lyp-CCPGCC in a complex proteomic mixture. Since the mammalian-cell permeability of FlAsH is well established, it is likely that FlAsH-mediated inhibition of Lyp-CCPGCC will be useful for specifically targeting Lyp activity in engineered leukocytes and autoimmune-disease models. PMID:20594861

  1. Cutting Edge: Selective Tyrosine Dephosphorylation of Interferon-Activated Nuclear STAT5 by the VHR Phosphatase1

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Richard; Zhu, Wei; Cerignoli, Fabio; Alonso, Andres; Mustelin, Tomas; David, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5 is required for its transcriptional activity. In this article we show that the small dual-specificity phosphatase VHR selectively dephosphorylates IFN-α- and β-activated, tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5, leading to the subsequent inhibition of STAT5 function. Phosphorylation of VHR at Tyr138 was required for its phosphatase activity toward STAT5. In addition, the Src homology 2 domain of STAT5 was required for the effective dephosphorylation of STAT5 by VHR. The tyrosine kinase Tyk2, which mediates the phosphorylation of STAT5, was also responsible for the phosphorylation of VHR at Tyr138. PMID:17785772

  2. The insect neuropeptide PTTH activates receptor tyrosine kinase torso to initiate metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; Yamanaka, Naoki; Gilbert, Lawrence I; O'Connor, Michael B

    2009-12-04

    Holometabolous insects undergo complete metamorphosis to become sexually mature adults. Metamorphosis is initiated by brain-derived prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), which stimulates the production of the molting hormone ecdysone via an incompletely defined signaling pathway. Here we demonstrate that Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates embryonic terminal cell fate in Drosophila, is the PTTH receptor. Trunk, the embryonic Torso ligand, is related to PTTH, and ectopic expression of PTTH in the embryo partially rescues trunk mutants. In larvae, torso is expressed specifically in the prothoracic gland (PG), and its loss phenocopies the removal of PTTH. The activation of Torso by PTTH stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and the loss of ERK in the PG phenocopies the loss of PTTH and Torso. We conclude that PTTH initiates metamorphosis by activation of the Torso/ERK pathway.

  3. Viral immunoreceptor-associated tyrosine-based activation motifs: potential players in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grande, Shannon M; Ross, Susan R; Monroe, John G

    2006-04-01

    Cancer is thought to arise as a consequence of multiple insults to a cell. Mutations that lead to increased expression or activity of proto-oncogenes or decreased expression of tumor suppressors are common insults that have been identified to date. However, when considering tumor viruses, viral proteins that modify cellular gene expression, alter host immune surveillance, or affect signaling pathways are also common players. Notably, several of these tumor viruses encode proteins containing an immunoreceptor-associated tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), a signaling motif recently implicated in epithelial cell oncogenesis. As expression of proteins bearing this motif is normally restricted to hematopoietic cells, recent work highlighting the consequences of ITAM expression in epithelial cells suggests it may play a role in solid tumor formation.

  4. Targeting glycoprotein VI and the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Stegner, David; Haining, Elizabeth J; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery thrombosis and ischemic stroke are often initiated by the disruption of an atherosclerotic plaque and consequent intravascular platelet activation. Thus, antiplatelet drugs are central in the treatment and prevention of the initial, and subsequent, vascular events. However, novel pharmacological targets for platelet inhibition remain an important goal of cardiovascular research because of the negative effect of existing antiplatelet drugs on primary hemostasis. One promising target is the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI. Blockade or antibody-mediated depletion of this receptor in circulating platelets is beneficial in experimental models of thrombosis and thrombo-inflammatory diseases, such as stroke, without impairing hemostasis. In this review, we summarize the importance of glycoprotein VI and (hem)immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in hemostasis, thrombosis, and thrombo-inflammatory processes and discuss the targeting strategies currently under development for inhibiting glycoprotein VI and its signaling.

  5. Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors that mediate cellular activation via single tyrosine based activation motifs.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Ann M; Brown, Gordon D

    2010-03-01

    Different dendritic cell (DC) subsets have distinct specialized functions contributed in part by their differential expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a group of PRRs expressed by DCs and other myeloid cells that can recognize endogenous ligands as well as a wide range of exogenous structures present on pathogens. Dual roles in homeostasis and immunity have been demonstrated for some members of this receptor family. Largely due to their endocytic ability and subset specific expression, DC-expressed CLRs have been the focus of significant antigen-targeting studies. A number of CLRs function on the basis of signaling via association with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing adapter proteins. Others contain ITAM-related motifs or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in their cytoplasmic tails. Here we review CLRs that induce intracellular signaling via a single tyrosine-based ITAM-like motif and highlight their relevance in terms of DC function.

  6. Stimulation of dopamine synthesis and activation of tyrosine hydroxylase by phorbol diesters in rat striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Onali, P.; Olianas, M.C.

    1987-03-23

    In rat striatal synaptosomes, 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 4 ..beta..-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), two activators of Ca/sup 2 +/-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) increased dopamine (DA) synthesis measured by following the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C) tyrosine. Maximal stimulation (21-28% increase of basal rate) was produced by 0.5 ..mu..M PMA and 1 ..mu..M PDBu. 4 ..beta..-Phorbol and 4 ..beta..-phorbol 13-acetate, which are not activators of protein kinase C, were ineffective at 1 ..mu..M. PMA did not change the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)DOPA. Addition of 1 mM EGTA to a Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation medium failed to affect PMA stimulation. KCl (60 mM) enhanced DA synthesis by 25%. Exposure of synaptosomes to either PMA or PDBu prior to KCl addition resulted in a more than additive increase (80-100%) of DA synthesis. A similar synergistic effect was observed when the phorbol diesters were combined with either veratridine or d-amphetamine but not with forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Pretreatment of striatal synaptosomes with phorbol diesters produced an activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) associated with a 60% increase of the Vmax and a decrease of the Km for the pterine cofactor 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin. These results indicate that protein kinase C participates in the regulation of striatal TH in situ and that its activation may act synergistically with DA releasing agents in stimulating DA synthesis. 37 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Characterization of a tyrosine phosphatase activity in the oogenesis of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D M P; Machado, E A

    2006-09-01

    In this work, phosphatase activity was characterized in the ovary and the haemolymph of Periplaneta americana. The optimum pH for these activities was 4.0, and a temperature of 44 degrees C was ideal for the maximal enzyme activity. The phosphatase activities were inhibited by NaF, sodium tartrate, Pi, sodium orthovanadate, and ammonium molybdate. The ovarian phosphatase activity at pH 4.0 was almost exclusive against phosphotyrosine, with little or no effect on the residues of phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. These results indicate that this phosphatase activity is due to the presence of an acid tyrosine phosphatase. The phosphatase activities of acid extracts from P. americana ovaries (OEX) and an acid extract from P. americana haemolymph (HEX) were analyzed in non-denaturant gel electrophoresis using an analog substrate beta-naphtyl phosphate. The gel revealed two bands with phosphatase activity in the ovary and one band in the haemolymph; these bands were excised and submitted to a 10% SDS-PAGE showing a single 70-kDa polypeptide in both samples. Histochemistry of the ovary with alpha-naphtyl phosphate for localization of acid phosphatase activity showed mainly labeling associated to the oocyte peripheral vesicles, basal lamina, and between follicle cells. Electron microscopy analysis showed that acid phosphatase was localized in small peripheral vesicles in the oocyte, but not inside yolk granules. The possible role of this phosphatase during oogenesis and embryogenesis is also discussed in this article.

  8. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptors influence tyrosine hydroxylase activity in retinal dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, P M; Rauch, A L

    1983-12-12

    Dopamine (DA) is a putative neurotransmitter in a population of interneurons in the mammalian retina that are activated by photic stimulation. Pharmacological studies were conducted to determine if alpha 2-adrenergic receptors influence the activity of retinal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a biochemical indicator of changes in the activity of the DA-containing neurons. TH activity was low in dark-adapted retinas and high in light-exposed retinas. Systemic administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and piperoxane, to dark-adapted rats significantly stimulated TH activity. This effect was apparently mediated locally within the retina because the response could also be elicited by direct injection of yohimbine into the vitreous. The dose-response relationships for the effects of alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists on retinal TH activity were similar to those for the effects on brain noradrenergic neurons, where alpha 2-adrenoceptors have been shown to be involved in the autoregulation of neuronal activity. Clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, had no effect when administered alone to dark-adapted rats, but it attenuated the stimulatory effect of yohimbine. In contrast, clonidine decreased TH activity of light-exposed retinas, an effect that was reversed by yohimbine. These observations suggest that alpha 2-adrenoceptors influence the activity of retinal DA-containing neurons.

  9. A single tyrosine of the interleukin-9 (IL-9) receptor is required for STAT activation, antiapoptotic activity, and growth regulation by IL-9.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, J B; Uyttenhove, C; Van Roost, E; DeLestré, B; Donckers, D; Van Snick, J; Renauld, J C

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9), a T-cell-derived cytokine, interacts with a specific receptor associated with the IL-2 receptor gamma chain. In this report, we analyze the functional domains of the human IL-9 receptor transfected into mouse lymphoid cell lines. Three different functions were examined: growth stimulation in factor-dependent pro-B Ba/F3 cells, protection against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, and Ly-6A2 induction in BW5147 lymphoma cells. The results indicated that a single tyrosine, at position 116 in the cytoplasmic domain, was required for all three activities. In addition, we observed that human IL-9 reduced the proliferation rate of transfected BW5147 cells, an effect also dependent on the same tyrosine. This amino acid was necessary for IL-9-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor and for STAT activation but not for IRS-2/4PS activation or for JAK1 phosphorylation, which depended on a domain closer to the plasma membrane. We also showed that JAK1 was constitutively associated with the IL-9 receptor. Activated STAT complexes induced by IL-9 were found to contain STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 transcription factors. Moreover, sequence homologies between human IL-9 receptor tyrosine 116 and tyrosines (of other receptors activating STAT3 and STAT5 were observed. Taken together, these data indicate that a single tyrosine of the IL-9 receptor, required for activation of three different STAT proteins, is necessary for distinct activities of this cytokine, including proliferative responses.

  10. Rational Design of a Dephosphorylation-Resistant Reporter Enables Single-Cell Measurement of Tyrosine Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Abigail H; Lebhar, Michael S; Proctor, Angela; Wang, Qunzhao; Lawrence, David S; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2016-02-19

    Although peptide-based reporters of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity have been used to study PTK enzymology in vitro, the application of these reporters to intracellular conditions is compromised by their dephosphorylation, preventing PTK activity measurements. Nonproteinogenic amino acids may be utilized to rationally design selective peptidic ligands by accessing greater chemical and structural diversity than is available using the native amino acids. We describe a peptidic reporter that, upon phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is resistant to dephosphorylation both in vitro and in cellulo. The reporter contains a conformationally constrained phosphorylatable moiety (7-(S)-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) in the place of L-tyrosine and is efficiently phosphorylated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Dephosphorylation of the reporter occurs 3 orders of magnitude more slowly compared with that of the conventional tyrosine-containing reporter.

  11. Extracellular assembly and activation principles of oncogenic class III receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Kenneth; Savvides, Savvas N

    2012-11-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades initiated by class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK-IIIs) and their cytokine ligands contribute to haematopoiesis and mesenchymal tissue development. They are also implicated in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and cancers. Recent snapshots of RTK-III ectodomains in complex with cognate cytokines have revealed timely insights into the structural determinants of RTK-III activation, evolution and pathology. Importantly, candidate 'driver' and 'passenger' mutations that have been identified in RTK-IIIs can now be collectively mapped for the first time to structural scaffolds of the corresponding RTK-III ectodomains. Such insights will generate a renewed interest in dissecting the mechanistic effects of such mutations and their therapeutic relevance.

  12. The Activating C-type Lectin-like Receptor NKp65 Signals through a Hemi-immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motif (hemITAM) and Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Björn; Wotapek, Tanja; Zöller, Tobias; Rutkowski, Emilia; Steinle, Alexander

    2017-02-24

    NKp65 is an activating human C-type lectin-like receptor (CTLR) triggering cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion upon high-affinity interaction with the cognate CTLR keratinocyte-associated C-type lectin (KACL) selectively expressed by human keratinocytes. Previously, we demonstrated that NKp65-mediated cellular cytotoxicity depends on tyrosine 7, located in a cytoplasmic sequence motif of NKp65 resembling a hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM). HemITAMs have been reported for a few activating myeloid-specific CTLRs, including Dectin-1 and CLEC-2, and consist of a single tyrosine signaling unit preceded by a triacidic motif. Upon receptor engagement, the hemITAM undergoes phosphotyrosinylation and specifically recruits spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), initiating cellular activation. In this study, we addressed the functionality of the putative hemITAM of NKp65. We show that NKp65 forms homodimers and is phosphorylated at the hemITAM-embedded tyrosine 7 upon engagement by antibodies or KACL homodimers. HemITAM phosphotyrosinylation initiates a signaling pathway involving and depending on Syk, leading to cellular activation and natural killer (NK) cell degranulation. However, although NKp65 utilizes Syk for NK cell activation, a physical association of Syk with the NKp65 hemITAM could not be detected, unlike shown previously for the hemITAM of myeloid CTLR. Failure of NKp65 to recruit Syk is not due to an alteration of the triacidic motif, which rather affects the efficiency of hemITAM phosphotyrosinylation. In summary, NKp65 utilizes a hemITAM-like motif for cellular activation that requires Syk, although Syk appears not to be recruited to NKp65.

  13. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, H.J.; White, M.F.; Khan, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the ..beta..-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 22/sup 0/C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit (..cap alpha..Pep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the (/sup 32/P)phosphate originally found in the ..beta..-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the ..beta..-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor.

  14. Structure of Escherichia coli tyrosine Kinase Etk Reveals a Novel Activation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,D.; Zheng, J.; She, Y.; Jia, Z.

    2008-01-01

    While protein tyrosine (Tyr) kinases (PTKs) have been extensively characterized in eukaryotes, far less is known about their emerging counterparts in prokaryotes. The inner-membrane Wzc/Etk protein belongs to the bacterial PTK family, which has an important function in regulating the polymerization and transport of virulence-determining capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The kinase uses a unique two-step activation process involving intra-phosphorylation of a Tyr residue, although the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Herein, we report the first crystal structure of a bacterial PTK, the C-terminal kinase domain of Escherichia coli Tyr kinase (Etk) at 2.5-Angstroms resolution. The fold of the Etk kinase domain differs markedly from that of eukaryotic PTKs. Based on the observed structure and supporting mass spectrometric evidence of Etk, a unique activation mechanism is proposed that involves the phosphorylated Tyr residue, Y574, at the active site and its specific interaction with a previously unidentified key Arg residue, R614, to unblock the active site. Both in vitro kinase activity and in vivo antibiotics resistance studies using structure-guided mutants further support the novel activation mechanism.

  15. Novel enhancement mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylase enzymatic activity by nitric oxide through S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Sung, Chun Chau; Chung, Kenny K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting step enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines. Catecholamines function both as hormone and neurotransmitters in the peripheral and central nervous systems, therefore TH’s expression and enzymatic activity is tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Several post-translational modifications have been shown to regulate TH’s enzymatic activity such as phosphorylation, nitration and S-glutathionylation. While phosphorylation at N-terminal of TH can activate its enzymatic activity, nitration and S-glutathionylation can inactivate TH. In this study, we found that TH can also be S-nitrosylated by nitric oxide (NO). S-nitrosylation is a reversible modification of cysteine (cys) residue in protein and is known to be an emerging signaling mechanism mediated by NO. We found that TH can be S-nitrosylated at cys 279 and TH S-nitrosylation enhances its enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo. These results provide a novel mechanism of how NO can modulate TH’s enzymatic activity through S-nitrosylation. PMID:28287127

  16. Analysis of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) binding to ZAP-70 by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Vély, F; Nunès, J A; Malissen, B; Hedgecock, C J

    1997-11-01

    The signaling function of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is mediated via CD3 polypeptides, the cytoplasmic sequences of which bear conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM). ITAM are defined by two YxxL/I sequences separated by a six-eight amino acid long spacer. Upon antigen recognition, ITAM become phosphorylated on both tyrosine residues, creating a high affinity binding site for the tandem SH2 domains found in the protein tyrosine kinase ZAP-70. Using surface plasmon resonance, we further dissected the sequences required for the binding of ZAP-70 to each TCR-associated ITAM. First, we generated protein tyrosine phosphatase-resistant ITAM peptide analogs, in which difluorophosphonomethyl phenylalanyl (F2p) replaced both phosphotyrosines, and showed that those protein tyrosine phosphatase-resistant analogs bind ZAP-70 with high affinity, establishing a rational strategy for the design of novel pharmacological tools capable of interfering with TCR signaling function. Second, we substituted the five amino acids separating the two YxxL/I sequences of the CD3 zeta 1 ITAM with a non-peptidic linker made up of gamma-amino butyric acid units and demonstrated that the length of this intervening sequence rather than its chemical composition is essential for high affinity binding of phosphorylated ITAM to the ZAP-70 SH2 domains.

  17. Kinetic Characterization of O-Phospho-L-Tyrosine Phosphohydrolase Activity of Two Fungal Phytases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal phytases belonging to 'Histidine Acid Phosphatase' or HAP class of phosphomonoesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytic acid could also hydrolyze O-phospho-tyrosine. Two phytases from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori with pH optima 2.5 were tested for phospho-tyrosine hydrola...

  18. Cooperation of imipramine blue and tyrosine kinase blockade demonstrates activity against chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Kamilla M.E.; Berhan, Samuel; Liu, Suhu; Silvestri, Giovannino; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Frank, David A.; Aggarwal, Bharat; Bonner, Michael Y.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), including nilotinib, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However current unmet clinical needs include combating activation of additional survival signaling pathways in persistent leukemia stem cells after long-term TKI therapy. A ubiquitous signaling alteration in cancer, including CML, is activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling, which may potentiate stem cell activity and mediate resistance to both conventional chemotherapy and targeted inhibitors. We have developed a novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, imipramine blue (IB) that targets ROS generation. ROS levels are known to be elevated in CML with respect to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and not corrected by TKI. We demonstrate that IB has additive benefit with nilotinib in inhibiting proliferation, viability, and clonogenic function of TKI-insensitive quiescent CD34+ CML chronic phase (CP) cells while normal CD34+ cells retained their clonogenic capacity in response to this combination therapy in vitro. Mechanistically, the pro-apoptotic activity of IB likely resides in part through its dual ability to block NF-κB and re-activate the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Combining BCR-ABL1 kinase inhibition with NADPH oxidase blockade may be beneficial in eradication of CML and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27438151

  19. Spatio-temporally precise activation of engineered receptor tyrosine kinases by light

    PubMed Central

    Grusch, Michael; Schelch, Karin; Riedler, Robert; Reichhart, Eva; Differ, Christopher; Berger, Walter; Inglés-Prieto, Álvaro; Janovjak, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a large family of cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones and regulate a variety of cell behaviours in health and disease. Contactless activation of RTKs with spatial and temporal precision is currently not feasible. Here, we generated RTKs that are insensitive to endogenous ligands but can be selectively activated by low-intensity blue light. We screened light-oxygen-voltage (LOV)-sensing domains for their ability to activate RTKs by light-activated dimerization. Incorporation of LOV domains found in aureochrome photoreceptors of stramenopiles resulted in robust activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and rearranged during transfection (RET). In human cancer and endothelial cells, light induced cellular signalling with spatial and temporal precision. Furthermore, light faithfully mimicked complex mitogenic and morphogenic cell behaviour induced by growth factors. RTKs under optical control (Opto-RTKs) provide a powerful optogenetic approach to actuate cellular signals and manipulate cell behaviour. PMID:24986882

  20. The effect of angiotensin 1-7 on tyrosine kinases activity in rat anterior pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    Rebas, Elzbieta . E-mail: elkar@zdn.am.lodz.pl; Zabczynska, Joanna; Lachowicz, Agnieszka

    2006-09-01

    Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is a peptide originated from Ang II. It is known that in vessels Ang 1-7 shows opposite effects to Ang II. Ang 1-7 can modify processes of proliferation. However, Ang 1-7 action in pituitary gland cells was never studied. Moreover, the specific binding sites for Ang 1-7 are still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ang 1-7 on tyrosine kinases (PTKs) activity in the anterior pituitary. The reaction of phosphorylation was carrying out in presence of different concentration of Ang 1-7 and losartan (antagonist of AT1 receptor) and PD123319 (antagonist of AT2). Our results show that Ang 1-7 inhibited activity of PTK to 60% of basic activity. Losartan did not change the Ang 1-7-induced changes in PTKs activity. The presence of PD123319 together with Ang 1-7 caused stronger inhibition PTKs activity than Ang 1-7 alone. These observations suggest that Ang 1-7 binds to the novel, unknown, specific for this peptide receptor.

  1. Identification of Canonical Tyrosine-dependent and Non-canonical Tyrosine-independent STAT3 Activation Sites in the Intracellular Domain of the Interleukin 23 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Doreen M.; Mrotzek, Simone; Klöcker, Tobias; Schröder, Jutta; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Signaling of interleukin 23 (IL-23) via the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and the shared IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) controls innate and adaptive immune responses and is involved in the differentiation and expansion of IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper (TH17) cells. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) appears to be the major signaling pathway of IL-23, and STAT binding sites were predicted in the IL-23R but not in the IL-12Rβ1 chain. Using site-directed mutagenesis and deletion variants of the murine and human IL-23R, we showed that the predicted STAT binding sites (pYXXQ; including Tyr-504 and Tyr-626 in murine IL-23R and Tyr-484 and Tyr-611 in human IL-23R) mediated STAT3 activation. Furthermore, we identified two uncommon STAT3 binding/activation sites within the murine IL-23R. First, the murine IL-23R carried the Y542PNFQ sequence, which acts as an unusual Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-binding protein activation site of STAT3. Second, we identified a non-canonical, phosphotyrosine-independent STAT3 activation motif within the IL-23R. A third predicted site, Tyr-416 in murine and Tyr-397 in human IL-23R, is involved in the activation of PI3K/Akt and the MAPK pathway leading to STAT3-independent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells upon stimulation with IL-23. In contrast to IL-6-induced short term STAT3 phosphorylation, cellular activation by IL-23 resulted in a slower but long term STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating that the IL-23R might not be a major target of negative feedback inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. In summary, we characterized IL-23-dependent signal transduction with a focus on STAT3 phosphorylation and identified canonical tyrosine-dependent and non-canonical tyrosine-independent STAT3 activation sites in the IL-23R. PMID:23673666

  2. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  3. The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 modulates the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Tessy; Sankarshanan, Mohan; Mauldin, Ileana S.; Mullins, David W.; Lorenz, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    The importance of regulatory T cells (Treg) for immune tolerance is well recognized, yet the signaling molecules influencing their suppressive activity are relatively poorly understood. Here, through in vivo studies and complementary ex vivo studies, we make several important observations. First, we identify the cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 as a novel ‘endogenous brake’ and modifier of the suppressive ability of Treg cells; consistent with this notion, loss of SHP-1 expression strongly augments the ability of Treg cells to suppress inflammation in a mouse model. Second, specific pharmacological inhibition of SHP-1 enzymatic activity via the cancer drug sodium stibogluconate (SSG) potently augmented Treg cell suppressor activity both in vivo and ex vivo. Finally, through a quantitative imaging approach, we directly demonstrate that Treg cells prevent the activation of conventional T cells, and that SHP-1-deficient Treg cells are more efficient suppressors. Collectively, our data reveal SHP-1 as a critical modifier of Treg cell function, and a potential therapeutic target for augmenting Treg cell-mediated suppression in certain disease states. PMID:20952680

  4. TCR engagement induces proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2) translocation to the T cell-APC interface independently of Pyk2 activity and in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated fashion.

    PubMed

    Sancho, David; Montoya, María C; Monjas, Alicia; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Katagiri, Takuya; Gil, Diana; Tejedor, Reyes; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2002-07-01

    The relocation of kinases in T lymphocytes during their cognate interaction with APCs is essential for lymphocyte activation. We found that the proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2) is rapidly translocated to the T cell-APC contact area upon T cell-specific recognition of superantigen-pulsed APCs. Stimulation with anti-CD3-coated latex microspheres was sufficient for Pyk2 reorientation, and the coengagement of CD28 boosted Pyk2 redistribution. Nevertheless, Pyk2 translocation did not result in its recruitment to lipid rafts. Two results support that Pyk2 translocation was independent of its kinase activity. First, Lck activity was required for TCR-induced Pyk2 translocation, but not for TCR-induced Pyk2 activation. Second, a kinase-dead Pyk2 mutant was equally translocated upon TCR triggering. In addition, Lck activity alone was insufficient to induce Pyk2 reorientation and activation, requiring the presence of at least one intact immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Despite the dependence on functional Lck and on phosphorylated ITAM for Pyk2 translocation, the ITAM-binding tyrosine kinase zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) was not essential. All these data suggest that, by translocating to the vicinity of the immune synapse, Pyk2 could play an essential role in T cell activation and polarized secretion of cytokines.

  5. The CLK family kinases, CLK1 and CLK2, phosphorylate and activate the tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-1B.

    PubMed

    Moeslein, F M; Myers, M P; Landreth, G E

    1999-09-17

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B is an important regulator of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and is itself regulated by phosphorylation. We report that PTP-1B and its yeast analog, YPTP, are phosphorylated and activated by members of the CLK family of dual specificity kinases. CLK1 and CLK2 phosphorylation of PTP-1B in vitro activated the phosphatase activity approximately 3-5-fold using either p-nitrophenol phosphate, or tyrosine-phosphorylated myelin basic protein as substrates. Co-expression of CLK1 or CLK2 with PTP-1B in HEK 293 cells led to a 2-fold stimulation of phosphatase activity in vivo. Phosphorylation of PTP-1B at Ser(50) by CLK1 or CLK2 is responsible for its enzymatic activation. These findings suggest that phosphorylation at Ser(50) by serine threonine kinases may regulate the activation of PTP-1B in vivo. We also show that CLK1 and CLK2 phosphorylate and activate the S. cerevisiae PTP-1B family member, YPTP1. CLK1 phosphorylation of YPTP1 led to a 3-fold stimulation of phosphatase activity in vitro. We demonstrate that CLK phosphorylation of Ser(83) on YPTP1 is responsible for the activation of this enzyme. These findings demonstrate that the CLK kinases activate PTP-1B family members, and this phosphatase may be an important cellular target for CLK action.

  6. δ-Tocopherol inhibits receptor tyrosine kinase-induced AKT activation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2016-11-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies and supported by animal studies with vitamin E forms, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol (δ-T). Several recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-tocopherol, however, yielded disappointing results. Whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer is a serious concern. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of the different forms of tocopherols would enhance our understanding of this topic. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-T was the most effective tocopherol form in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. By profiling the effects of δ-T on the cell signaling using the phospho-kinase array, we found that the most inhibited target was the phosphorylation of AKT on T308. Further study on the activation of AKT by EGFR and IGFR revealed that δ-T attenuated the EGF/IGF-induced activation of AKT (via the phosphorylation of AKT on T308 induced by the activation of PIK3). Expression of dominant active PIK3 and AKT in prostate cancer cell line DU145 in which PIK3, AKT, and PTEN are wild type caused the cells to be reflectory to the inhibition of δ-T, supporting that δ-T inhibits the PIK3-mediated activation of AKT. Our data also suggest that δ-T interferes with the EGF-induced EGFR internalization, which leads to the inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of AKT. In summary, our results revealed a novel mechanism of δ-T in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, supporting the cancer preventive activity δ-T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  8. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  9. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-05-20

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use.

  10. Structural Basis for Activation of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase KIT by Stem Cell Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzawa,S.; Opatowsky, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Mandiyan, V.; Lax, I.; Schlessinger, J.

    2007-01-01

    Stem Cell Factor (SCF) initiates its multiple cellular responses by binding to the ectodomain of KIT, resulting in tyrosine kinase activation. We describe the crystal structure of the entire ectodomain of KIT before and after SCF stimulation. The structures show that KIT dimerization is driven by SCF binding whose sole role is to bring two KIT molecules together. Receptor dimerization is followed by conformational changes that enable lateral interactions between membrane proximal Ig-like domains D4 and D5 of two KIT molecules. Experiments with cultured cells show that KIT activation is compromised by point mutations in amino acids critical for D4-D4 interaction. Moreover, a variety of oncogenic mutations are mapped to the D5-D5 interface. Since key hallmarks of KIT structures, ligand-induced receptor dimerization, and the critical residues in the D4-D4 interface, are conserved in other receptors, the mechanism of KIT stimulation unveiled in this report may apply for other receptor activation.

  11. Cell Density-Dependent Increase in Tyrosine-Monophosphorylated ERK2 in MDCK Cells Expressing Active Ras or Raf

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the principal hub proteins that transmit growth signals from upstream oncogene products including Ras and BRaf to downstream effector proteins. However, there are both reports supporting and refuting the increase in ERK activity in cancer tissues expressing the active Ras and BRaf proteins. We considered that the cell density might account for this discrepancy. To examine this possibility, we prepared Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that expressed an active HRas, NRas, KRas, or BRaf and an ERK biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). As we anticipated, expression of the active Ras or BRaf increased ERK activity at low cell densities. However, the ERK activity was markedly suppressed at high cell densities irrespective of the expression of the active Ras or BRaf. Western blotting analysis with Phos-tag gel revealed the decrease of tyrosine and threonine-diphosphorylated active ERK and the increase of tyrosine-monophosphorylated inactive ERK at high cell density. In addition, we found that calyculin A, an inhibitor for PPP-subfamily protein serine/threonine phosphatases, decreased the tyrosine-monophosphorylated ERK. Our study suggests that PPP-subfamily phosphatases may be responsible for cell density-dependent ERK dephosphorylation in cancer cells expressing active Ras or BRaf protein. PMID:27936234

  12. UV Observations of Prominence Activation and Cool Loop Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 MK. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: an activated prominence and repeated motions in a loop near the prominence. We calculated three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the mass, pressure, average density, and kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx. 10(exp 5) K)loops, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding the mechanism(s) leading to energy and mass flow in these solar features.

  13. Bruton's tyrosine kinase activity is negatively regulated by Sab, the Btk-SH3 domain-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Yamadori, T; Baba, Y; Matsushita, M; Hashimoto, S; Kurosaki, M; Kurosaki, T; Kishimoto, T; Tsukada, S

    1999-05-25

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is crucial for human and murine B cell development, and its deficiency causes human X-linked agammaglobulinemia and murine X-linked immunodeficiency. In this report, we describe the function of the Btk-binding protein Sab (SH3-domain binding protein that preferentially associates with Btk), which we reported previously as a newly identified Src homology 3 domain-binding protein. Sab was shown to inhibit the auto- and transphosphorylation activity of Btk, which prompted us to propose that Sab functions as a transregulator of Btk. Forced overexpression of Sab in B cells led to the reduction of B cell antigen receptor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk and significantly reduced both early and late B cell antigen receptor-mediated events, including calcium mobilization, inositol 1, 4,5-trisphosphate production, and apoptotic cell death, where the involvement of Btk activity has been demonstrated previously. Together, these results indicate the negative regulatory role of Sab in the B cell cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase pathway.

  14. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase activity is negatively regulated by Sab, the Btk-SH3 domain-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Yamadori, Tomoki; Baba, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Masato; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kurosaki, Mari; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Tsukada, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is crucial for human and murine B cell development, and its deficiency causes human X-linked agammaglobulinemia and murine X-linked immunodeficiency. In this report, we describe the function of the Btk-binding protein Sab (SH3-domain binding protein that preferentially associates with Btk), which we reported previously as a newly identified Src homology 3 domain-binding protein. Sab was shown to inhibit the auto- and transphosphorylation activity of Btk, which prompted us to propose that Sab functions as a transregulator of Btk. Forced overexpression of Sab in B cells led to the reduction of B cell antigen receptor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk and significantly reduced both early and late B cell antigen receptor-mediated events, including calcium mobilization, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, and apoptotic cell death, where the involvement of Btk activity has been demonstrated previously. Together, these results indicate the negative regulatory role of Sab in the B cell cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase pathway. PMID:10339589

  15. Tissue Specific Expression of Cre in Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Active Transporter-Positive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenyi; Brown, Andrew; Fisher, Dan; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a preferred model system over the mouse for neurological studies, and cell type-specific Cre expression in the rat enables precise ablation of gene function in neurons of interest, which is especially valuable for neurodegenerative disease modeling and optogenetics. Yet, few such Cre rats are available. Here we report the characterization of two Cre rats, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre and dopamine active transporter (DAT or Slc6a3)-Cre, by using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a fluorescent reporter for Cre activity. We detected Cre expression in expected neurons in both Cre lines. Interestingly, we also found that in Th-Cre rats, but not DAT-Cre rats, Cre is expressed in female germ cells, allowing germline excision of the floxed allele and hence the generation of whole-body knockout rats. In summary, our data demonstrate that targeted integration of Cre cassette lead to faithful recapitulation of expression pattern of the endogenous promoter, and mRNA FISH, in addition to IHC, is an effective method for the analysis of the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in the rat brain, alleviating the dependence on high quality antibodies that are often not available against rat proteins. The Th-Cre and the DAT-Cre rat lines express Cre in selective subsets of dopaminergic neurons and should be particularly useful for researches on Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26886559

  16. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors activate autophagy as a cytoprotective response in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Weidong; Pan, Hongming; Chen, Yan; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yanshan; Li, Jing; Ge, Weiting; Feng, Lifeng; Lin, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiaojia; Wang, Xian; Jin, Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib have been widely used in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Unfortunately, the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs is limited because of natural and acquired resistance. As a novel cytoprotective mechanism for tumor cell to survive under unfavorable conditions, autophagy has been proposed to play a role in drug resistance of tumor cells. Whether autophagy can be activated by gefitinib or erlotinib and thereby impair the sensitivity of targeted therapy to lung cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we first report that gefitinib or erlotinib can induce a high level of autophagy, which was accompanied by the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, cytotoxicity induced by gefitinib or erlotinib was greatly enhanced after autophagy inhibition by the pharmacological inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) and siRNAs targeting ATG5 and ATG7, the most important components for the formation of autophagosome. Interestingly, EGFR-TKIs can still induce cell autophagy even after EGFR expression was reduced by EGFR specific siRNAs. In conclusion, we found that autophagy can be activated by EGFR-TKIs in lung cancer cells and inhibition of autophagy augmented the growth inhibitory effect of EGFR-TKIs. Autophagy inhibition thus represents a promising approach to improve the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

  17. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F.

    2010-11-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

  18. MD-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS-induced activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S.; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that MD-2 is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific, it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Herbimycin A, and by an inhibitor of endocytosis, Cytochalsin-D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD2 and not on cell surface. Furthermore, we identify two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine have reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD2 co-precipitates and colocalizes with Lyn kinase, most likely in ER. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phophorylation. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response. PMID:21918188

  19. Myeloid differentiation factor-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-10-15

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific; it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, as well as by an inhibitor of endocytosis, cytochalasin D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD-2 and not on the cell surface. Furthermore, we identified two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine had reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD-2 coprecipitated and colocalized with Lyn kinase, most likely in the endoplasmic reticulum. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response.

  20. Natural products possessing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity found in the last decades

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-shi; Liang, Lin-fu; Guo, Yue-wei

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of approximately 300 secondary metabolites with inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which were isolated from various natural sources or derived from synthetic process in the last decades. The structure-activity relationship and the selectivity of some compounds against other protein phosphatases were also discussed. Potential pharmaceutical applications of several PTP1B inhibitors were presented. PMID:22941286

  1. l-Tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles increase the antitumoral activity of direct electric current in a metastatic melanoma cell model

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Vânia Emerich Bucco; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Holandino, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of tumor growth induced by treatment with direct electric current (DC) has been reported in several models. One of the mechanisms responsible for the antitumoral activity of DC is the generation of oxidative species, known as chloramines. With the aim of increasing chloramine production in the electrolytic medium and optimizing the antitumoral effects of DC, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with the amino acid tyrosine were obtained. The physical–chemical characterization showed that the NPs presented size in nanometric range and monomodal distribution. A slightly negative electrokinetic potential was also found in both blank NPs and l-tyrosine-loaded PCL NPs. The yield of the loading process was approximately 50%. Within 3 h of dissolution assay, a burst release of about 80% l-tyrosine was obtained. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DC was significantly increased when associated with l-tyrosine-loaded NPs, using a murine multidrug-resistant melanoma cell line model. This study showed that the use of the combination of nanotechnology and DC has a promising antineoplastic potential and opens a new perspective in cancer therapy. PMID:21187948

  2. Cruciform-extruding regulatory element controls cell-specific activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E L; Peng, H; Esparza, F M; Maltchenko, S Z; Stachowiak, M K

    1998-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is expressed specifically in catecholaminergic cells. We have identified a novel regulatory sequence in the upstream region of the bovine TH gene promoter formed by a dyad symmetry element (DSE1;-352/-307 bp). DSE1 supports TH promoter activity in TH-expressing bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin (BAMC) cells and inhibits promoter activity in non-expressing TE671 cells. DNase I footprinting of relaxed TH promoter DNA showed weak binding of nuclear BAMC cell proteins to a short sequence in the right DSE1 arm. In BAMC cells, deletion of the right arm markedly reduced the expression of luciferase from the TH promoter. However, deletion of the left DSE1 arm or its reversed orientation (RevL) also inactivated the TH promoter. In supercoiled TH promoter, DSE1 assumes a cruciform-like conformation i.e., it binds cruciform-specific 2D3 antibody, and S1 nuclease-cleavage and OsO4-modification assays have identified an imperfect cruciform extruded by the DSE1. DNase I footprinting of supercoiled plasmid showed that cruciformed DSE1 is targeted by nuclear proteins more efficiently than the linear duplex isomer and that the protected site encompasses the left arm and center of DSE1. Our results suggest that the disruption of intrastrand base-pairing preventing cruciform formation and protein binding to DSE1 is responsible for its inactivation in DSE1 mutants. DSE1 cruciform may act as a target site for activator (BAMC cells) and repressor (TE671) proteins. Its extrusion emerges as a novel mechanism that controls cell-specific promoter activity. PMID:9512554

  3. Truncation and Activation of Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-regulated Kinase 1A by Calpain I

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nana; Yin, Xiaomin; Gu, Jianlan; Zhang, Xinhua; Shi, Jianhua; Qian, Wei; Ji, Yuhua; Cao, Maohong; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylation and dysregulation of exon 10 splicing of Tau are pivotally involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and/or other tauopathies. Alternative splicing of Tau exon 10, which encodes the second microtubule-binding repeat, generates Tau isoforms containing three and four microtubule-binding repeats, termed 3R-Taus and 4R-Taus, respectively. Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) lies at the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. Overexpression of this kinase may contribute to the early Tau pathology in Down syndrome via phosphorylation of Tau and dysregulation of Tau exon 10. Here, we report that Dyrk1A was truncated at the C terminus and was associated with overactivation of calpain I in AD brain. Calpain I proteolyzed Dyrk1A in vitro first at the C terminus and further at the N terminus and enhanced its kinase activity toward Tau via increased Vmax but not Km. C-terminal truncation of Dyrk1A resulted in stronger activity than its full-length protein in promotion of exon 10 exclusion and phosphorylation of Tau. Dyrk1A was truncated in kainic acid-induced excitotoxic mouse brains and coincided with an increase in 3R-Tau expression and phosphorylation of Tau via calpain activation. Moreover, truncation of Dyrk1A was correlated with an increase in the ratio of 3R-Tau/4R-Tau and Tau hyperphosphorylation in AD brain. Collectively, these findings suggest that truncation/activation of Dyrk1A by Ca2+/calpain I might contribute to Tau pathology via promotion of exon 10 exclusion and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in AD brain. PMID:25918155

  4. Characterization of Tyrosine Nitration and Cysteine Nitrosylation Modifications by Metastable Atom-Activation Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Shannon L.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2011-02-01

    The fragmentation behavior of nitrated and S-nitrosylated peptides were studied using collision induced dissociation (CID) and metastable atom-activated dissociation mass spectrometry (MAD-MS). Various charge states, such as 1+, 2+, 3+, 2-, of modified and unmodified peptides were exposed to a beam of high kinetic energy helium (He) metastable atoms resulting in extensive backbone fragmentation with significant retention of the post-translation modifications (PTMs). Whereas the high electron affinity of the nitrotyrosine moiety quenches radical chemistry and fragmentation in electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), MAD does produce numerous backbone cleavages in the vicinity of the modification. Fragment ions of nitrosylated cysteine modifications typically exhibit more abundant neutral losses than nitrated tyrosine modifications because of the extremely labile nature of the nitrosylated cysteine residues. However, compared with CID, MAD produced between 66% and 86% more fragment ions, which preserved the labile -NO modification. MAD was also able to differentiate I/L residues in the modified peptides. MAD is able to induce radical ion chemistry even in the presence of strong radical traps and therefore offers unique advantages to ECD, ETD, and CID for determination of PTMs such as nitrated and S-nitrosylated peptides.

  5. Correlation of disease activity in proliferative glomerulonephritis with glomerular spleen tyrosine kinase expression.

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Stephen P; Bhangal, Gurjeet; Page, Theresa; Cook, H Terence; Pusey, Charles D; Tam, Frederick W K

    2015-07-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is an important component of the intracellular signaling pathway for various immunoreceptors. Inhibition of SYK has shown promise in preclinical models of autoimmune and glomerular disease. However, the description of SYK expression in human renal tissue, which would be desirable ahead of clinical studies, is lacking. Here we conducted immunohistochemical analysis for total and phosphorylated SYK in biopsy specimens from >120 patients with a spectrum of renal pathologies, including thin basement membrane lesion, minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, and acute tubular necrosis. We found significant SYK expression in proliferative glomerulonephritis and that glomerular expression levels correlated with presenting serum creatinine and histological features of disease activity that predict outcome in IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, and antiglomerular basement membrane disease. SYK was phosphorylated within pathological lesions, such as areas of extracapillary and endocapillary proliferation, and appeared to localize to both infiltrating leucocytes and to resident renal cells within diseased glomeruli. Thus SYK is associated with the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritides, suggesting that these conditions may respond to SYK inhibitor treatment.

  6. A tyrosine kinase regulates alpha-adrenoceptor-stimulated contraction and phospholipase D activation in the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Jinsi, A; Paradise, J; Deth, R C

    1996-04-29

    Since previous studies had indicated a role for tyrosine kinases in alpha 2-adrenoceptor-induced contractile responses in other blood vessels, as well as in the activation of phospholipase D, we examined the sensitivity of these responses in rat aorta to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Contractions induced by both noradrenaline and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist UK14304 (5-bromo-6-[2-imidazolin-2-yl-amino]-quinoxaline) were fully inhibited by genistein, with the latter responses being more sensitive. Contractions induced by high K+ buffer were also inhibited, but to a lesser extent. Both agonists caused a stimulation of phospholipase D activity, which could be blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, indicating involvement of either Gi or Go. Genistein completely inhibited the agonist-induced phospholipase D activity and also substantially reduced the basal level of phospholipase D activity. Pretreatment with either the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin or the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine was also effective in eliminating the agonist-induced increase of phospholipase D. These results indicate that a tyrosine kinase-regulated phospholipase D plays a critical role in alpha-adrenoceptor-induced contractions of the rat aorta and that stimulation of both alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors is essential to allow phospholipase activation.

  7. Lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes protein tyrosine dephosphorylation and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase in human mononuclear phagocytes. Role of the Src homology 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Knutson, K L; Hmama, Z; Herrera-Velit, P; Rochford, R; Reiner, N E

    1998-01-02

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a putative virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that inhibits monocyte functions, and this may involve antagonism of cell signaling pathways. The effects of LAM on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cells of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 were examined. LAM promoted tyrosine dephosphorylation of multiple cell proteins and attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. To examine whether these effects of LAM could be related to activation of a phosphatase, fractions from LAM-treated cells were analyzed for dephosphorylation of para-nitrophenol phosphate. The data show that LAM induced increased phosphatase activity associated with the membrane fraction. The Src homology 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is important for signal termination and was examined as a potential target of LAM. Exposure of cells to LAM brought about (i) an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-1, and (ii) translocation of the phosphatase to the membrane. Phosphatase assay of SHP-1 immunoprecipitated from LAM-treated cells, using phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase as substrate, indicated that LAM promoted increased activity of SHP-1 in vivo. LAM also activated SHP-1 directly in vitro. Exposure of cells to LAM also attenuated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-12, and major histocompatibility class II molecules. These results suggest that one mechanism by which LAM deactivates monocytes involves activation of SHP-1.

  8. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM promote focal adhesion turnover and transient tyrosine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby hyaluronan (HA) stimulates cell motility was investigated in a C-H-ras transformed 10T 1/2 fibroblast cell line (C3). A significant (p < 0.001) stimulation of C3 cell motility with HA (10 ng/ml) was accompanied by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as detected by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies using immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins was found to be both rapid and transient with phosphorylation occurring within 1 min of HA addition and dissipating below control levels 10-15 min later. These responses were also elicited by an antibody generated against a peptide sequence within the HA receptor RHAMM. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, 10 micrograms/ml or herbimycin A, 0.5 micrograms/ml) or microinjection of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited the transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to HA as well as prevented HA stimulation of cell motility. To determine a link between HA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and the resulting cell locomotion, cytoskeletal reorganization was examined in C3 cells plated on fibronectin and treated with HA or anti-RHAMM antibody. These agents caused a rapid assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescent localization of vinculin. The time course with which HA and antibody induced focal adhesion turnover exactly paralleled the induction of transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphotyrosine staining colocalized with vinculin within structures in the lamellapodia of these cells. Notably, the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, was rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated after HA stimulation. These results suggest that HA stimulates locomotion via a rapid and transient protein tyrosine kinase signaling event mediated by RHAMM. They also provide a possible molecular basis for focal adhesion turnover, a process that is

  9. Phosphorylation and recruitment of Syk by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-based phosphorylation of tamalin.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masayuki; Kitano, Jun; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Moriyoshi, Koki; Yanagi, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Muto, Takanori; Jingami, Hisato; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2004-07-30

    Tamalin is a scaffold protein that forms a multiple protein assembly including metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and several postsynaptic and protein-trafficking scaffold proteins in distinct mode of protein-protein association. In the present investigation, we report that tamalin possesses a typical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which enables Syk kinase to be recruited and phosphorylated by the Src family kinases. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis of rat brain membrane fractions showed that tamalin is present in a multimolecular protein assembly comprising not only mGluR1 but also c-Src, Fyn, and a protein phosphatase, SHP-2. The protein association of both tamalin and c-Src, as determined by truncation analysis of mGluR1 in COS-7 cells, occurred at the carboxyl-terminal tail of mGluR1. Mutation analysis of tyrosine with phenylalanine in COS-7 cells revealed that paired tyrosines at the ITAM sequence of tamalin are phosphorylated preferentially by c-Src and Fyn, and this phosphorylation can recruit Syk kinase and enables it to be phosphorylated by the Src family kinases. The phosphorylated tyrosines at the ITAM sequence of tamalin were highly susceptible to dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatases in COS-7 cells. Importantly, tamalin was endogenously phosphorylated and associated with Syk in retinoic acid-treated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells that undergo neuron-like differentiation. The present investigation demonstrates that tamalin is a novel signaling molecule that possesses a PDZ domain and a PDZ binding motif and mediates Syk signaling in an ITAM-based fashion.

  10. Nerve growth factor rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 by a kinase activity associated with the product of the trk protooncogene.

    PubMed

    Vetter, M L; Martin-Zanca, D; Parada, L F; Bishop, J M; Kaplan, D R

    1991-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the survival and differentiation of specific populations of neurons. The molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to NGF are poorly understood, but two clues have emerged recently. First, NGF rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of several unidentified proteins in the NGF-responsive pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 [Maher, P. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6788-6791]. Second, the protein-tyrosine kinase encoded by the protooncogene trk (p140trk), a member of the receptor class of tyrosine kinases, becomes activated and phosphorylated on tyrosine after NGF treatment of PC12 cells [Kaplan, D. R., Martin-Zanca, D. & Parada, L. F. (1991) Nature (London) 350, 158-160]. We now report that NGF rapidly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1), and we present evidence that the responsible tyrosine kinase is either p140trk or a closely associated protein. Treatment of responsive cells with NGF elicited phosphorylation of PLC-gamma 1 on tyrosine and serine. PLC-gamma 1 immunoprecipitated from NGF-stimulated cells was phosphorylated in vitro by coprecipitating protein kinase activity, and the phosphorylations occurred principally on tyrosine. The responsible kinase could be depleted from cellular lysates by antibodies specific for p140trk. This procedure also depleted a 140-kDa protein that normally coprecipitated with PLC-gamma 1 and became phosphorylated on tyrosine in vivo in response to NGF. Analysis of tryptic peptides from PLC-gamma 1 indicated that the residues phosphorylated in vitro by p140trk-associated kinase activity were largely congruent with those phosphorylated in vivo after NGF treatment. Our findings identify PLC-gamma 1 as a likely substrate for the trk-encoded tyrosine kinase, and they provide a link between NGF-dependent activation of p140trk and the stimulation of intracellular second messenger pathways.

  11. EVIDENCE OF IMPULSIVE HEATING IN ACTIVE REGION CORE LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2010-11-01

    Using a full spectral scan of an active region from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) we have obtained emission measure EM(T) distributions in two different moss regions within the same active region. We have compared these with theoretical transition region EMs derived for three limiting cases, namely, static equilibrium, strong condensation, and strong evaporation from Klimchuk et al. The EM distributions in both the moss regions are strikingly similar and show a monotonically increasing trend from log T[K] = 5.15-6.3. Using photospheric abundances, we obtain a consistent EM distribution for all ions. Comparing the observed and theoretical EM distributions, we find that the observed EM distribution is best explained by the strong condensation case (EM{sub con}), suggesting that a downward enthalpy flux plays an important and possibly dominant role in powering the transition region moss emission. The downflows could be due to unresolved coronal plasma that is cooling and draining after having been impulsively heated. This supports the idea that the hot loops (with temperatures of 3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions are heated by nanoflares.

  12. DDR2 plays a role in fibroblast migration independent of adhesion ligand and collagen activated DDR2 tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Herrera, Mireya Liliana; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto

    2012-12-07

    Discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that can be activated by soluble collagen and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions including organism growth and wound repair. In the current studies, we used fibronectin and collagen-coated 2D surfaces and collagen matrices in combination with siRNA technology to investigate the role of DDR2 in a range of fibroblast motile activities. Silencing DDR2 with siRNA inhibited cell spreading and migration, and similar inhibition occurred regardless whether cells were interacting with fibronectin or collagen surfaces. Under the assay conditions used, DDR2 tyrosine kinase activation was not observed unless soluble collagen was added to the incubation medium. Finally silencing DDR2 also inhibited human fibroblast migration in 3D collagen matrices but had no effect on 3D collagen matrix remodeling and contraction. Taken together, our findings suggest that DDR2 is required for normal fibroblast spreading and migration independent of adhesion ligand and collagen activation of DDR2 tyrosine kinase.

  13. Identification of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of K1 transforming protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Guo, J; Li, M; Choi, J K; DeMaria, M; Rosenzweig, M; Jung, J U

    1998-09-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is consistently identified in Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity-based lymphoma. KSHV encodes a transforming protein called K1 which is structurally similar to lymphocyte receptors. We have found that a highly conserved region of the cytoplasmic domain of K1 resembles the sequence of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). To demonstrate the signal-transducing activity of K1, we constructed a chimeric protein in which the cytoplasmic tail of the human CD8alpha polypeptide was replaced with that of KSHV K1. Expression of the CD8-K1 chimera in B cells induced cellular tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium mobilization upon stimulation with an anti-CD8 antibody. Mutational analyses showed that the putative ITAM of K1 was required for its signal-transducing activity. Furthermore, tyrosine residues of the putative ITAM of K1 were phosphorylated upon stimulation, and this allowed subsequent binding of SH2-containing proteins. These results demonstrate that the KSHV transforming protein K1 contains a functional ITAM in its cytoplasmic domain and that it can transduce signals to induce cellular activation.

  14. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), a unique module linking antigen and Fc receptors to their signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Isakov, N

    1997-01-01

    Signal transduction by the T cell and B cell antigen receptors and by receptors for a variety of immunoglobulins' Fc region is strictly dependent on a receptor subunit cytoplasmic module termed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). This module exists in one or more copies in each of the receptor-associated signal-transducing molecules and it possesses two repeats of the consensus sequence Tyr-X-X-Leu/Ile spaced by six to eight amino acids. Receptor engagement is followed by a rapid and transient phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within their ITAMs, thereby creating temporary binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing signaling molecules operating downstream of the activated receptor. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings on the functional role of ITAMs in antigen and Fc receptor-mediated signal transduction, with a particular emphasis on kinases operating upstream and downstream of the ITAMs.

  15. The effect of butaclamol and of other neuroleptic agents on the apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Bronaugh, R L; Tabak, J; Ohashi, T; Goldstein, M

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the two enantiomers of butaclamol and of several neuroleptics on the apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity was investigated. The (+) but not the (-) enantiomer of butaclamol reverses the apomorphine-elicited enzyme inhibition. (+) Butaclamol is more potent than the other tested neuroleptics. All the tested neuroleptics reverse the apomorphine-elicited enzyme inhibition but their relative potency differs. Using two criteria, namely the concentrations of neuroleptics required to reverse enzyme inhibition maximally or by 25%, the order of decreasing potency is as follows: (+) butaclamol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, pimozide, chlorpromazine. The results suggest that the reversal of apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity is a valid test model for screening antipsychotic drugs.

  16. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  17. Proton coupled electron transfer and redox-active tyrosine Z in the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

    PubMed

    Keough, James M; Jenson, David L; Zuniga, Ashley N; Barry, Bridgette A

    2011-07-27

    Proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions play an essential role in many enzymatic processes. In PCET, redox-active tyrosines may be involved as intermediates when the oxidized phenolic side chain deprotonates. Photosystem II (PSII) is an excellent framework for studying PCET reactions, because it contains two redox-active tyrosines, YD and YZ, with different roles in catalysis. One of the redox-active tyrosines, YZ, is essential for oxygen evolution and is rapidly reduced by the manganese-catalytic site. In this report, we investigate the mechanism of YZ PCET in oxygen-evolving PSII. To isolate YZ(•) reactions, but retain the manganese-calcium cluster, low temperatures were used to block the oxidation of the metal cluster, high microwave powers were used to saturate the YD(•) EPR signal, and YZ(•) decay kinetics were measured with EPR spectroscopy. Analysis of the pH and solvent isotope dependence was performed. The rate of YZ(•) decay exhibited a significant solvent isotope effect, and the rate of recombination and the solvent isotope effect were pH independent from pH 5.0 to 7.5. These results are consistent with a rate-limiting, coupled proton electron transfer (CPET) reaction and are contrasted to results obtained for YD(•) decay kinetics at low pH. This effect may be mediated by an extensive hydrogen-bond network around YZ. These experiments imply that PCET reactions distinguish the two PSII redox-active tyrosines.

  18. VCP, the mammalian homolog of cdc48, is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to T cell antigen receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Egerton, M; Ashe, O R; Chen, D; Druker, B J; Burgess, W H; Samelson, L E

    1992-01-01

    Activation of T cells through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) results in the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of cellular proteins, one of the earliest being a 100 kDa protein. We have sought to identify this 100 kDa substrate by partially purifying the protein by antiphosphotyrosine (APT) affinity purification, in order to obtain amino acid sequence data and, using this information, to isolate the cDNA clone encoding the molecule. We report here that the amino acid sequence data showed pp100 to be the murine equivalent of porcine valosin containing protein (VCP), a finding confirmed from the cloning and sequencing of the murine pp100 cDNA. Sequence analysis has shown VCP to be a member of a family of ATP binding, homo-oligomeric proteins, and the mammalian homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc48p, a protein essential to the completion of mitosis in yeast. We also provide proof that both endogenous and expressed murine VCP are tyrosine phosphorylated in response to T cell activation. Thus we have identified a novel component of the TCR mediated tyrosine kinase activation pathway that may provide a link between TCR ligation and cell cycle control. Images PMID:1382975

  19. ETHANOL INHIBITS L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION AND DEPHOSPHORYLATION AND ACTIVATION OF PP60SRC

    PubMed Central

    Yeaney, Natalie K.; He, Min; Tang, Ningfeng; Malouf, Alfred T.; O’Riordan, Mary Ann; Lemmon, Vance; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome(Abel, 2000) is a leading cause of mental retardation. The neuropathology found in fetal alcohol syndrome is similar to the phenotypes expressed in diseases caused by mutations in the gene for L1 cell adhesion molecule. L1 has a crucial role in the developing nervous system, acting in cell-cell adhesion, neuronal guidance, and growth. We have previously shown that L1 mediated neurite outgrowth and L1 activation of ERK1/2 is exquisitely sensitive to ethanol (Tang, He, O'Riordan, Farkas, Buck, Lemmon, and Bearer, 2006). One possible mechanism for this effect is through disruption of a tyrosine based sorting signal, Y(1176)RSLE, on the cytoplasmic domain of L1. Our goal was to determine if ethanol inhibited the sorting signal or its phosphorylation state. Ethanol had no effect on L1 distribution to the growth cone or its ability to be expressed on the cell surface. Clustering of L1 resulted in increased dephosphorylation of Y(1176), increased L1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and an increase in the activation of pp60src, all of which were inhibited by 25 mM ethanol. Inhibition of pp60src inhibited increases in L1 tyrosine and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and Y(1176) dephosphorylation. We conclude that ethanol disrupts L1 trafficking/signaling following its expression on the surface of the growth cone, and prior to its activation of pp60src. PMID:19457108

  20. Syk-dependent phosphorylation of CLEC-2: a novel mechanism of hem-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling.

    PubMed

    Séverin, Sonia; Pollitt, Alice Y; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Nash, Craig A; Mourão-Sá, Diego; Eble, Johannes A; Senis, Yotis A; Watson, Steve P

    2011-02-11

    The C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC-2 signals via phosphorylation of a single cytoplasmic YXXL sequence known as a hem-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM). In this study, we show that phosphorylation of CLEC-2 by the snake toxin rhodocytin is abolished in the absence of the tyrosine kinase Syk but is not altered in the absence of the major platelet Src family kinases, Fyn, Lyn, and Src, or the tyrosine phosphatase CD148, which regulates the basal activity of Src family kinases. Further, phosphorylation of CLEC-2 by rhodocytin is not altered in the presence of the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2, even though PLCγ2 phosphorylation and platelet activation are abolished. A similar dependence of phosphorylation of CLEC-2 on Syk is also seen in response to stimulation by an IgG mAb to CLEC-2, although interestingly CLEC-2 phosphorylation is also reduced in the absence of Lyn. These results provide the first definitive evidence that Syk mediates phosphorylation of the CLEC-2 hemITAM receptor with Src family kinases playing a critical role further downstream through the regulation of Syk and other effector proteins, providing a new paradigm in signaling by YXXL-containing receptors.

  1. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the bombesin receptor complex in small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudino, G; Cirillo, D; Naldini, L; Rossino, P; Comoglio, P M

    1988-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that bombesin-like peptides produced by small cell lung carcinomas may sustain deregulated proliferation through an autocrine mechanism. We have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin leads to the activation of a protein-tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates a 115-kDa protein (p115) associated with the bombesin receptor complex in mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. We now report that phosphotyrosine antibodies recognize a 115-kDa protein, phosphorylated on tyrosine, in four human small cell lung carcinoma cell lines producing bombesin but not in a nonproducer "variant" line. p115 from detergent-treated small cell lung carcinoma cells binds to bombesin-Sepharose and can be phosphorylated on tyrosine in the presence of radiolabeled ATP and Mn2+. As for the p115 immunoprecipitated from mouse fibroblast, the small cell lung carcinoma p115 can be phosphorylated in an immunocomplex kinase assay. However, the latter does not require the presence of exogenous bombesin for activity. Binding data, obtained by using radiolabeled ligand, suggest receptor occupancy in the cell lines producing bombesin. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that proliferation in some human small cell lung carcinoma lines is under autocrine control, regulated through activation of bombesin receptors. Images PMID:2451242

  2. IGF-1R modulation of acute GH-induced STAT5 signaling: role of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yujun; Zhang, Yue; Buckels, Ashiya; Paterson, Andrew J; Jiang, Jing; Clemens, Thomas L; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Du, Keyong; Chang, Yingzi; Frank, Stuart J

    2013-11-01

    GH is a potent anabolic and metabolic factor that binds its cell surface receptor (GHR), activating the GHR-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2, which phosphorylates and activates the latent transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). Some GH actions are mediated by the elaboration of IGF-1, which exerts effects by binding and activating the heterotetrameric tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor, IGF-1R. In addition to this GH-GHR-IGF-1-IGF-1R scheme, we have demonstrated in primary osteoblasts and in islet β-cells that then deletion or silencing of IGF-1R results in diminished GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation, suggesting that the presence of IGF-1R may facilitate GH signaling. In this study, we explore potential roles for protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in modulating GH-induced signaling, comparing conditions in which IGF-1R is present or diminished. We confirm that in mouse primary osteoblasts harboring loxP sites flanking the IGF-1R gene, infection with an adenovirus that expresses the Cre recombinase results in IGF-1R deletion and diminished acute GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we present a new model of IGF-1R silencing, in which expression of short hairpin RNA directed at IGF-1R greatly reduces IGF-1R abundance in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. In both models, treatment with a chemical inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B), but not one of src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphotase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2, reverses the loss of GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation in cells lacking IGF-1R but has no effect in cells with intact IGF-1R. Furthermore, expression of either a dominant-negative PTP-1B or the PTP-1B-interacting inhibitory protein, constitutive photomorphogenesis 1, also rescues acute GH-induced STAT5 signaling in IGF-1R-deficient cells but has no effect in IGF-1R replete cells. By expressing a substrate-trapping mutant PTP-1B, we demonstrate that tyrosine

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activities of ursane- and lupane-type triterpenes from Sorbus pohuashanensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Li, Wei; Higai, Koji; Koike, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, and has received much attention as a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance diseases because of its critical roles in negatively regulating insulin- and leptin-signaling cascades. Six ursane-type triterpenes, 3β-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1), pomolic acid-3β-acetate (2), pomolic acid (3), ursolaldehyde (4), euscaphic acid (5) and 3β-acetoxy-urs-11-en-28,13-olide (6), and a lupane-type triterpene, betulinic acid (7), from the fruits of Sorbus pohuashanensis, exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 to 54.8 μM. Kinetics analyses revealed that compounds 2, 3, and 7 are non-competitive PTP1B inhibitors, and compounds 1 and 6 are mixed-type PTP1B inhibitors.

  4. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor activates the receptor tyrosine kinase RET and promotes kidney morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Q C; Worby, C A; Lechner, M S; Dixon, J E; Dressler, G R

    1996-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase RET functions during the development of the kidney and the enteric nervous system, yet no ligand has been identified to date. This report demonstrates that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) activates RET, as measured by tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular catalytic domain. GDNF also binds RET with a dissociation constant of 8 nM, and 125I-labeled GDNF can be coimmunoprecipitated with anti-RET antibodies. In addition, exogenous GDNF stimulates both branching and proliferation of embryonic kidneys in organ culture, whereas neutralizing antibodies against GDNF inhibit branching morphogenesis. These data indicate that RET and GDNF are components of a common signaling pathway and point to a role for GDNF in kidney development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8855235

  5. Formation of a tyrosine adduct involved in lignin degradation by Trametopsis cervina lignin peroxidase: a novel peroxidase activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuta; Pogni, Rebecca; Acebes, Sandra; Lucas, Fátima; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Fernández, María I; de los Ríos, Vivian; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Basosi, Riccardo; Hammel, Kenneth E; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T

    2013-06-15

    LiP (lignin peroxidase) from Trametopsis cervina has an exposed catalytic tyrosine residue (Tyr181) instead of the tryptophan conserved in other lignin-degrading peroxidases. Pristine LiP showed a lag period in VA (veratryl alcohol) oxidation. However, VA-LiP (LiP after treatment with H2O2 and VA) lacked this lag, and H2O2-LiP (H2O2-treated LiP) was inactive. MS analyses revealed that VA-LiP includes one VA molecule covalently bound to the side chain of Tyr181, whereas H2O2-LiP contains a hydroxylated Tyr181. No adduct is formed in the Y171N variant. Molecular docking showed that VA binding is favoured by sandwich π stacking with Tyr181 and Phe89. EPR spectroscopy after peroxide activation of the pre-treated LiPs showed protein radicals other than the tyrosine radical found in pristine LiP, which were assigned to a tyrosine-VA adduct radical in VA-LiP and a dihydroxyphenyalanine radical in H2O2-LiP. Both radicals are able to oxidize large low-redox-potential substrates, but H2O2-LiP is unable to oxidize high-redox-potential substrates. Transient-state kinetics showed that the tyrosine-VA adduct strongly promotes (>100-fold) substrate oxidation by compound II, the rate-limiting step in catalysis. The novel activation mechanism is involved in ligninolysis, as demonstrated using lignin model substrates. The present paper is the first report on autocatalytic modification, resulting in functional alteration, among class II peroxidases.

  6. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

  7. Smart active pilot-in-the-loop systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Segun

    1995-04-01

    Representation of on-orbit microgravity environment in a 1-g environment is a continuing problem in space engineering analysis, procedures development and crew training. A way of adequately depicting weightlessness in the performance of on-orbit tasks is by a realistic (or real-time) computer based representation that provides the look, touch, and feel of on-orbit operation. This paper describes how a facility, the Systems Engineering Simulator at the Johnson Space Center, is utilizing recent advances in computer processing power and multi- processing capability to intelligently represent all systems, sub-systems and environmental elements associated with space flight operations. It first describes the computer hardware and interconnection between processors; the computer software responsible for task scheduling, health monitoring, sub-system and environment representation; control room and crew station. It then describes, the mathematical models that represent the dynamics of contact between the Mir and the Space Shuttle during the upcoming US and Russian Shuttle/Mir space mission. Results are presented comparing the response of the smart, active pilot-in-the-loop system to non-time critical CRAY model. A final example of how these systems are utilized is given in the development that supported the highly successful Hubble Space Telescope repair mission.

  8. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  9. Activation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for dephosphorylation of host cell proteins in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Püls, Jurgen; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

    2002-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori type I strains harbour the cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI), a 37 kb sequence,which encodes the components of a type IV secretion system. CagA, the first identified effector protein of the cag-PAI, is translocated into eukaryotic cells and tyrosine phosphorylated (CagAP-tyr) by a host cell tyrosine kinase. Translocation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of a set of phosphorylated host cell proteins of unknown identity. CagA proteins of independent H. pylori strains vary in sequence and thus in the number and composition of putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs). The CagA protein of H. pylori strain J99 (CagAJ99) does not carry any of three putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPM-A, TPM-B or TPM-C) predicted by the MOTIF algorithm in CagA proteins. CagA,n is not tyrosine phosphorylated and is inactive in the dephosphorylation of host cell proteins. By site-specific mutagenesis,we introduced a TPM-C into CagA,. by replacing a single lysine with a tyrosine. This slight modification resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of CagAJ99 and host cell protein dephosphorylation. In contrast, the removal of the indigenous TPM-C from CagAP12 did not abolish its tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that further phosphorylated sites are present in CagAP12. By generation of hybrid CagA proteins, a phosphorylation of the most N-terminal TPM-A could be excluded. Our data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation at TPM-C is sufficient, but not exclusive,to activate translocated CagA. Activated CagAPtr might either convert into a phosphatase itself or activate a cellular phosphatase to dephosphorylate cellular phosphoproteins and modulate cellular signalling cascades of the host.

  10. Quantum Chemical Studies on Stability and Chemical Activities in Calcium Ion Bound Calmodulin Loops.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Samapan; Ghosh, Mahua; De Raychaudhury, Molly; Chakrabarti, J

    2015-11-19

    Quantum chemical (QC) calculations for macromolecules require truncation of the molecule, highlighting the portion of interest due to heavy computation cost. As a result, an estimation of the effects of truncation is important to interpret the energy spectrum of such calculations. We perform density functional theory based QC calculations on calcium ion bound EF-hand loops of Calmodulin isolated from the crystal structure in an implicit solvent. We find that the terminal contributions of neutral capping are negligible across the entire ground-state energy spectrum. The coordination energy range and the nature of hybridization of the coordination state molecular orbitals remain qualitatively similar across these loops. While the HOMO and LUMO of loops in the N-terminal domain are dominated by the acidic aspartates, and the polar/hydrophobic residues, respectively, these levels of the C-terminal domain loops show strong localized electron density on the phenyl rings of the tyrosines. The Fukui index calculation identifies the hydroxyl oxygen in the phenyl ring of Y99 as a potent nucleophile. Our analysis indicates a general way of interpreting the electronic energy spectra to understand stability and functions of large biomolecules where the truncation of the molecule and, hence, the terminal capping effects are inevitable.

  11. Regulatory role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the swelling-activated chloride current in isolated rabbit articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Noriaki; Imai, Shinji; Toyoda, Futoshi; Isoya, Eiji; Kumagai, Kousuke; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Matsusue, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Articular chondrocytes are exposed in vivo to the continually changing osmotic environment and thus require volume regulatory mechanisms. The present study was designed to investigate (i) the functional role of the swelling-activated Cl− current (ICl,swell) in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and (ii) the regulatory role of tyrosine phosphorylation in ICl,swell, in isolated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Whole-cell membrane currents were recorded from chondrocytes in isosmotic, hyposmotic and hyperosmotic external solutions under conditions where Na+, K+ and Ca2+ currents were minimized. The cell surface area was also measured using microscope images from a separate set of chondrocytes and was used as an index of cell volume. The isolated chondrocytes exhibited a RVD during sustained exposure to hyposmotic solution, which was mostly inhibited by the ICl,swell blocker 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl)oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) at 20 μm. Exposure to a hyposmotic solution activated ICl,swell, which was also largely inhibited by 20 μm DCPIB. ICl,swell in rabbit articular chondrocytes had a relative taurine permeability (Ptau/PCl) of 0.21. Activation of ICl,swell was significantly reduced by the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein (30 μm) but was only weakly affected by its inactive analogue daidzein (30 μm). Intracellular application of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (250 and 500 μm) resulted in a gradual activation of a Cl− current even in isosmotic solutions. This Cl− current was almost completely inhibited by 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS, 500 μm) and was also largely suppressed by exposure to hyperosmotic solution, thus indicating a close similarity to ICl,swell. Pretreatment of chondrocytes with genistein significantly prevented the activation of the Cl− current by sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that the basal activity of endogenous PTK is required for

  12. Bioassay-guided isolation of an active compound with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity from Sargassum fusiforme by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Gu, Dongyu; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Wang, Yi; Guo, Hong; Yang, Yi; Tian, Jing

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and efficient method using high-speed counter-current chromatography was established for the bioassay-guided separation of an active compound with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity from Sargassum fusiforme. Under the bioassay guidance, the ethyl acetate extract with the best IC50 value of 0.37 ± 0.07 μg/mL exhibited a potential protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity, which was further separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/methanol/water (5:4:1, v/v). As a result, dibutyl phthalate (19.7 mg) with the purity of 95.3% was obtained from 200 mg of the ethyl acetate extract. Its IC50 was 14.05 ± 0.06 μM, which was further explained by molecular docking. The result of molecular docking showed that dibutyl phthalate enfolded in the catalytic site of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. The main force between dibutyl phthalate and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B was the hydrogen bond interaction with Gln266. In addition, hydrogen bond, van der Waals force and hydrophobic interaction with the amino acids (Ala217, Ile219, and Gly220) were also responsible for the stable protein-ligand complex.

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase Meg2 dephosphorylates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and suppresses tumor growth in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is over-activated or phosphorylated in breast cancers. The hyper-phosphorylation of STAT3 was attributed to either up-regulated phosphorylation by several tyrosine-kinases or down-regulated activity of phosphatases. Although several factors have been identified to phosphorylate STAT3, it remains unclear how STAT3 is dephosphorylated by PTPMeg2. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PTPMeg2 as a phosphatase in regulation of the activity of STAT3 in breast cancers. Methods Immunoprecipitation assays were used to study the interaction of STAT3 with PTPMeg2. A series of biochemistry experiments were performed to evaluate the role of PTPMeg2 in the dephosphorylation of STAT3. Two breast cancer cell lines MCF7 (PTPMeg2 was depleted as it was endogenously high) and MDA-MB-231 (PTPMeg2 was overexpressed as it was endogenously low) were used to compare the level of phosphorylated STAT3 and the tumor growth ability in vitro and in vivo. Samples from breast carcinoma (n = 73) were subjected to a pair-wise Pearson correlation analysis for the correlation of levels of PTPMeg2 and phosphorylated STAT3. Results PTPMeg2 directly interacts with STAT3 and mediates its dephosphorylation in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of PTPMeg2 decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 while depletion of PTPMeg2 increased its phosphorylation. The decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is coupled with suppression of STAT3 transcriptional activity and reduced tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Levels of PTPMeg2 and phosphorylated STAT3 were inversely correlated in breast cancer tissues (P = 0.004). Conclusions PTPMeg2 is an important phosphatase for the dephosphorylation of STAT3 and plays a critical role in breast cancer development. PMID:22394684

  14. Tyrosine administration enhances dopamine synthesis and release in light-activated rat retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. J.; Watkins, C. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of dark-adapted albino rats to light (350 lux) significantly elevated retinal levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid during the next hour; their return to a dark environment caused dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid levels to fall. Retinal dopamine levels were increased slightly by light exposure, suggesting that the increase in dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid reflected accelerated dopamine synthesis. Administration of tyrosine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) further elevated retinal dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid among light-exposed animals, but failed to affect dopamine release among animals in the dark. These observations show that a physiological stimulus - light exposure - can cause catecholaminergic neurons to become tyrosine-dependent; they also suggest that food consumption may affect neurotransmitter release within the retina.

  15. Regulation of ERBB Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activities in Breast Cancer by the KEK Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    can also inhibit transformation in mouse mammary tumor cells with deregulated expression of receptors and ligands of the ErbB family. 14. SUBJECT...Reportable outcomes Conclusions References Appendices 7 4 5. INTRODUCTION: In 20-30% of breast tumors , ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the...inhibit transformation in mouse mammary tumor cells with deregulated expression of receptors and ligands of the ErbB family. In the second year of

  16. Identification and Targeting of Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a . REPORT U b . ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 86 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER...man. Parts a and b are completed. We have initiated Part c and currently developing a library of tyrosine kinases for functional validation. a . We...from primary prostate or metastatic tissue. ( B ) Further evaluation of a separate run of 10 metastatic CRPC lesions reveals patient-specific and

  17. Positive And Negative Feedback Loops Coupled By Common Transcription Activator And Repressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewiesiuk, Jan; Łopaciuk, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Dynamical systems consisting of two interlocked loops with negative and positive feedback have been studied using the linear analysis of stability and numerical solutions. Conditions for saddle-node bifurcation were formulated in a general form. Conditions for Hopf bifurcations were found in a few symmetrical cases. Auto-oscillations, when they exist, are generated by the negative feedback repressive loop. This loop determines the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. The positive feedback loop of activation slightly modifies the oscillations. Oscillations are possible when the difference between Hilll's coefficients of the repression and activation is sufficiently high. The highly cooperative activation loop with a fast turnover slows down or even makes the oscillations impossible. The system under consideration can constitute a component of epigenetic or enzymatic regulation network.

  18. Src kinases and ERK activate distinct responses to Stitcher receptor tyrosine kinase signaling during wound healing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Yao, Liqun; Samakovlis, Christos

    2014-04-15

    Metazoans have evolved efficient mechanisms for epidermal repair and survival following injury. Several cellular responses and key signaling molecules that are involved in wound healing have been identified in Drosophila, but the coordination of cytoskeletal rearrangements and the activation of gene expression during barrier repair are poorly understood. The Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Stitcher (Stit, also known as Cad96Ca) regulates both re-epithelialization and transcriptional activation by Grainy head (Grh) to induce restoration of the extracellular barrier. Here, we describe the immediate downstream effectors of Stit signaling in vivo. Drk (Downstream of receptor kinase) and Src family tyrosine kinases bind to the same docking site in the Stit intracellular domain. Drk is required for the full activation of transcriptional responses but is dispensable for re-epithelialization. By contrast, Src family kinases (SFKs) control both the assembly of a contractile actin ring at the wound periphery and Grh-dependent activation of barrier-repair genes. Our analysis identifies distinct pathways mediating injury responses and reveals an RTK-dependent activation mode for Src kinases and their central functions during epidermal wound healing in vivo.

  19. Tyrosine 569 in the c-Fms juxtamembrane domain is essential for kinase activity and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Myles, G M; Brandt, C S; Carlberg, K; Rohrschneider, L R

    1994-01-01

    The receptor (Fms) for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a member of the tyrosine kinase class of growth factor receptors. It maintains survival, stimulates growth, and drives differentiation of the macrophage lineage of hematopoietic cells. Fms accumulates on the cell surface and becomes activated for signal transduction after M-CSF binding and is then internalized via endocytosis for eventual degradation in lysosomes. We have investigated the mechanism of endocytosis as part of the overall signaling process of this receptor and have identified an amino acid segment near the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region surrounding tyrosine 569 that is important for internalization. Mutation of tyrosine 569 to alanine (Y569A) eliminates ligand-induced rapid endocytosis of receptor molecules. The mutant Fms Y569A also lacks tyrosine kinase activity; however, tyrosine kinase activity is not essential for endocytosis because the kinase inactive receptor Fms K614A does undergo ligand-induced endocytosis, albeit at a reduced rate. Mutation of tyrosine 569 to phenylalanine had no effect on the M-CSF-induced endocytosis of Fms, and a four-amino-acid sequence containing Y-569 could support endocytosis when transferred into the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region of a glycophorin A construct. These results indicate that tyrosine 569 within the juxtamembrane region of Fms is part of a signal recognition sequence for endocytosis that does not require tyrosine phosphorylation at this site and that this domain also influences the kinase activity of the receptor. These results are consistent with a ligand-dependent step in recognition of the potential cryptic internalization signal. Images PMID:8007983

  20. Pre-Treatment with Tyrosine Reverses Hypothermia Induced Behavioral Depression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    accelerated firing activates the enzyme tyrosine- hydroxylase , making it more tyrosine sensitive. The reduction of brain NA is accompanied by a behavioral...regions of the brain. The accelerated firing activates the enzyme tyrosine- hydroxylase , making it more tyrosine sensitive. The reduction of brain NA...depletion. The accelerated firing activates the enzyme tyrosine- hydroxylase (7), making it more tyrosine sensitive. It has been reported that

  1. The activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst by anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA) from patients with systemic vasculitis requires tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C activation

    PubMed Central

    Radford, D J; Lord, J M; Savage, C O S

    1999-01-01

    The ability of antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) from patients with systemic vasculitis to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) and tyrosine kinases was examined in human neutrophils. Using the superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome C, the kinetics of ANCA-induced superoxide (O2−) production were characterized and subsequently manipulated by specific inhibitors of PKC and tyrosine kinases. With this approach, ANCA IgG, but not normal IgG or ANCA F(ab′)2 fragments caused a time and dose dependent release of O2− from TNF-α primed neutrophils. The kinetics of ANCA-induced O2− production showed an initial 10–15 min lag phase compared to the N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine response, suggesting differences in the signalling pathways recruited by these two stimuli. Inhibitor studies revealed that ANCA-activation involved members of both the Ca2+-dependent and -independent PKC isoforms and also tyrosine kinases. ANCA IgG resulted in the translocation of the βII isoform of PKC at a time corresponding to the end of the lag phase of O2− production, suggesting that PKC activity may be instrumental in processes regulating the activity of the NADPH oxidase in response to ANCA. Tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins also peaked 10–15 min after stimulation with ANCA but not normal IgG. These data suggest that PKC and tyrosine kinases regulate O2− production from neutrophils stimulated with autoantibodies from patients with systemic vasculitis. PMID:10540175

  2. Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Activation in the ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Andrew J.; Telesco, Shannon E.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The ErbB/EGFR/HER family of kinases consists of four homologous receptor tyrosine kinases which are important regulatory elements in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Somatic mutations in, or over-expression of, the ErbB family is found in many cancers and is correlated with a poor prognosis; particularly, clinically identified mutations found in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of ErbB1 have been shown to increase its basal kinase activity and patients carrying these mutations respond remarkably to the small tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Here, we analyze the potential effects of the currently catalogued clinically identified mutations in the ErbB family kinase domains on the molecular mechanisms of kinase activation. Recently, we identified conserved networks of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions characteristic to the active and inactive conformation, respectively. Here, we show that the clinically identified mutants influence the kinase activity in distinctive fashion by affecting the characteristic interaction networks. PMID:21701703

  3. Androgen Receptor Activation in Castration-Recurrent Prostate Cancer: The Role of Src-Family and Ack1 Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Irwin H.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing appreciation that castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP) is driven by the continued expression of androgen receptor (AR). AR activation in CR-CaP through various mechanisms, including AR overexpression, expression of AR splice variants or mutants, increased expression of co-regulator proteins, and by post-translational modification, allows for the induction of AR-regulated genes in response to very low levels of tissue-expressed, so-called intracrine androgens, resulting in pathways that mediate CaP proliferation, anti-apoptosis and oncogenic aggressiveness. The current review focuses on the role played by Src-family (SFK) and Ack1 non-receptor tyrosine kinases in activating AR through direct phosphorylation, respectively, on tyrosines 534 or 267, and how these modifications facilitate progression to CR-CaP. The fact that SFK and Ack1 are central mediators for multiple growth factor receptor signaling pathways that become activated in CR-CaP, especially in the context of metastatic growth in the bone, has contributed to recent therapeutic trials using SFK/Ack1 inhibitors in monotherapy or in combination with antagonists of the AR activation axis. PMID:24948875

  4. Ultradian rhythmicity of tyrosine aminotransferase activity in Euglena gracillis: Analysis by cosine and non-sinusoidal fitting procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus-Steinmetz, Ulrich; Balzer, Ivonne; Hardeland, Rüdiger

    1990-03-01

    Although the geophysical periodicity of the earth's rotation corresponds to a biological cyclicity of ca. 24 h, cellular temporal organization comprises a multifrequency time structure, in which ultradian rhythms may be regarded as subelements of the circadian oscillator. In Euglena gracilis kept under conditons in which various cellular functions oscillate with a circadian period, tyrosine aminotransferase activity exhibited predominantly an ultradian cycle, whereas its circadian frequency was only weakly expressed. Ultradian period lengths were in the range of 4 5 h, as demonstrated by least squares fitting of cosines and of a non-sinusoidal regression function.

  5. Involvement of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in platelet activation: tyrosine phosphorylation mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and protein kinase C, translocation to the cytoskeleton and association with Shc through Grb2.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, T; Yatomi, Y; Asazuma, N; Satoh, K; Ozaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) (also known as RAFTK, CAKbeta or CADTK) has been identified as a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of protein-tyrosine kinases and it has been suggested that the mode of Pyk2 activation is distinct from that of FAK. In the present study we investigated the mode of Pyk2 activation in human platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, Pyk2, as well as FAK, was markedly tyrosine-phosphorylated, in a manner mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-mediated aggregation. The residual Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in the absence of platelet aggregation was completely abolished by pretreatment with BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid acetoxymethyl ester]. The Pyk2 phosphorylation was inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation. In contrast, direct activation of PKC with the active phorbol ester PMA induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK but only when platelets were fully aggregated with the exogenous addition of fibrinogen (the ligand for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin). Furthermore, PMA-induced Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation was also observed when platelets adhered to immobilized fibrinogen. The activation of the von Willebrand factor (vWF)--glycoprotein Ib pathway with botrocetin together with vWF failed to induce Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation. Most Pyk2 and FAK was present in the cytosol and membrane skeleton fractions in unstimulated platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, both Pyk2 and FAK were translocated to the cytoskeleton in an aggregation-dependent manner. In immunoprecipitation studies, Pyk2, as well as FAK, seemed to associate with Shc through Grb2. With the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Shc-SH2, Grb2-SH2, and Grb2 N-terminal and C-terminal SH3 domains, it was implied that the proline-rich region of Pyk2 (and FAK) binds to the N

  6. Downstream signaling molecules bind to different phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) peptides of the high affinity IgE receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Kihara, H; Bhattacharyya, S; Sakamoto, H; Appella, E; Siraganian, R P

    1996-11-01

    The cytoplasmic tails of both the beta and gamma subunits of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) contain a consensus sequence termed the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). This motif plays a critical role in receptor-mediated signal transduction. Synthetic peptides based on the ITAM sequences of the beta and gamma subunits of FcepsilonRI were used to investigate which proteins associate with these motifs. Tyrosine-phosphorylated beta and gamma ITAM peptides immobilized on beads precipitated Syk, Lyn, Shc, Grb2, and phospholipase C-gamma1 from lysates of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Syk was precipitated predominantly by the tyrosine-diphosphorylated gamma ITAM peptide, but much less by the diphosphorylated beta ITAM peptide or by the monophosphorylated peptides. Phospholipase C-gamma1, Shc, and Grb2 were precipitated only by the diphosphorylated beta ITAM peptide. Non-phosphorylated ITAM peptides did not precipitate these proteins. In membrane binding assays, fusion proteins containing the Src homology 2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma1, Shc, Syk, and Lyn directly bound the tyrosine-phosphorylated ITAM peptides. Although the ITAM sequences of the beta and gamma subunits of FcepsilonRI are similar, once they are tyrosine-phosphorylated they preferentially bind different downstream signaling molecules. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITAM of the gamma subunit recruits and activates Syk, whereas the beta subunit may be important for the Ras signaling pathway.

  7. Talin1 is critical for force-dependent reinforcement of initial integrin–cytoskeleton bonds but not tyrosine kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Grégory; Jiang, Guoying; Sutton, Deborah H.; Critchley, David R.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cells rapidly transduce forces exerted on extracellular matrix contacts into tyrosine kinase activation and recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins to reinforce integrin–cytoskeleton connections and initiate adhesion site formation. The relationship between these two processes has not been defined, particularly at the submicrometer level. Using talin1-deficient cells, it appears that talin1 is critical for building early mechanical linkages. Deletion of talin1 blocked laser tweezers, force-dependent reinforcement of submicrometer fibronectin-coated beads and early formation of adhesion sites in response to force, even though Src family kinases, focal adhesion kinase, and spreading were activated normally. Recruitment of vinculin and paxillin to sites of force application also required talin1. FilaminA had a secondary role in strengthening fibronectin–integrin–cytoskeleton connections and no role in stretch-dependent adhesion site assembly. Thus, force-dependent activation of tyrosine kinases is independent of early force-dependent structural changes that require talin1 as part of a critical scaffold. PMID:14581461

  8. Talin1 is critical for force-dependent reinforcement of initial integrin-cytoskeleton bonds but not tyrosine kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Grégory; Jiang, Guoying; Sutton, Deborah H; Critchley, David R; Sheetz, Michael P

    2003-10-27

    Cells rapidly transduce forces exerted on extracellular matrix contacts into tyrosine kinase activation and recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins to reinforce integrin-cytoskeleton connections and initiate adhesion site formation. The relationship between these two processes has not been defined, particularly at the submicrometer level. Using talin1-deficient cells, it appears that talin1 is critical for building early mechanical linkages. Deletion of talin1 blocked laser tweezers, force-dependent reinforcement of submicrometer fibronectin-coated beads and early formation of adhesion sites in response to force, even though Src family kinases, focal adhesion kinase, and spreading were activated normally. Recruitment of vinculin and paxillin to sites of force application also required talin1. FilaminA had a secondary role in strengthening fibronectin-integrin-cytoskeleton connections and no role in stretch-dependent adhesion site assembly. Thus, force-dependent activation of tyrosine kinases is independent of early force-dependent structural changes that require talin1 as part of a critical scaffold.

  9. The structural role of receptor tyrosine sulfation in chemokine recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ludeman, Justin P; Stone, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of secreted and transmembrane proteins, including many GPCRs such as chemokine receptors. Most chemokine receptors contain several potentially sulfated tyrosine residues in their extracellular N-terminal regions, the initial binding site for chemokine ligands. Sulfation of these receptors increases chemokine binding affinity and potency. Although receptor sulfation is heterogeneous, insights into the molecular basis of sulfotyrosine (sTyr) recognition have been obtained using purified, homogeneous sulfopeptides corresponding to the N-termini of chemokine receptors. Receptor sTyr residues bind to a shallow cleft defined by the N-loop and β3-strand elements of cognate chemokines. Tyrosine sulfation enhances the affinity of receptor peptides for cognate chemokines in a manner dependent on the position of sulfation. Moreover, tyrosine sulfation can alter the selectivity of receptor peptides among several cognate chemokines for the same receptor. Finally, binding to receptor sulfopeptides can modulate the oligomerization state of chemokines, thereby influencing the ability of a chemokine to activate its receptor. These results increase the motivation to investigate the structural basis by which tyrosine sulfation modulates chemokine receptor activity and the biological consequences of this functional modulation. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-5 PMID:24116930

  10. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  11. Tyrosine residues at the carboxyl terminus of Vav1 play an important role in regulation of its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Lazer, Galit; Pe'er, Liron; Farago, Marganit; Machida, Kazuya; Mayer, Bruce J; Katzav, Shulamit

    2010-07-23

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is an essential signal transducer protein in the hematopoietic system, where it is expressed physiologically. It is also involved in several human malignancies. Tyrosine phosphorylation at the Vav1 amino terminus plays a central role in regulating its activity; however, the role of carboxyl terminal tyrosine residues is unknown. We found that mutation of either Tyr-826 (Y826F) or Tyr-841 (Y841F) to phenylalanine led to loss of Vav1 GEF activity. When these Vav1 mutants were ectopically expressed in pancreatic cancer cells lacking Vav1, they failed to induce growth in agar, indicating loss of transforming potential. Furthermore, although Y841F had no effect on Vav1-stimulated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity, Y826F doubled NFAT activity when compared with Vav1, suggesting that Tyr-826 mediates an autoinhibitory effect on NFAT activity. SH2 profiling revealed that Shc, Csk, Abl, and Sap associate with Tyr-826, whereas SH2-B, Src, Brk, GTPase-activating protein, and phospholipase C-gamma associate with Tyr-841. Although the mutations in the Tyr-826 and Tyr-841 did not affect the binding of the carboxyl SH3 of Vav1 to other proteins, binding to several of the proteins identified by the SH2 profiling was lost. Of interest is Csk, which associates with wild-type Vav1 and Y841F, yet it fails to associate with Y826F, suggesting that loss of binding between Y826F and Csk might relieve an autoinhibitory effect, leading to increased NFAT. Our data indicate that GEF activity is critical for the function of Vav1 as a transforming protein but not for NFAT stimulation. The association of Vav1 with other proteins, detected by SH2 profiling, might affect other Vav1-dependent activities, such as NFAT stimulation.

  12. Selectivity of fungal sesquiterpene synthases: role of the active site's H-1 alpha loop in catalysis.

    PubMed

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Wawrzyn, Grayson T; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2010-12-01

    Sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate into a myriad of structurally diverse compounds with various biological activities. We examine here the role of the conserved active site H-α1 loop in catalysis in three previously characterized fungal sesquiterpene synthases. The H-α1 loops of Cop3, Cop4, and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus were altered by site-directed mutagenesis and the resultant product profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to the wild-type enzymes. In addition, we examine the effect of swapping the H-α1 loop from the promiscuous enzyme Cop4 with the more selective Cop6 and the effect of acidic or basic conditions on loop mutations in Cop4. Directed mutations of the H-α1 loop had a marked effect on the product profile of Cop3 and Cop4, while little to no change was shown in Cop6. Swapping of the Cop4 and Cop6 loops with one another was again shown to influence the product profile of Cop4, while the product profile of Cop6 remained identical to the wild-type enzyme. The loop mutations in Cop4 also implicate specific residues responsible for the pH sensitivity of the enzyme. These results affirm the role of the H-α1 loop in catalysis and provide a potential target to increase the product diversity of terpene synthases.

  13. Reduced protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity of CD45 on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Pang, M; Amano, K; Koide, J; Abe, T

    1997-07-01

    To disclose the mechanism of aberrant function of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in SLE, we focused on the catalytic function of CD45, and determined the CD45 PTPase activity in SLE patients. The sample population consisted of 32 SLE patients with different disease activity. PTPase activity of cell lysates immunoprecipitated by anti-CD45 MoAb was assayed against phosphotyrosine analogue PNPP, followed by measuring the release of para-nitro phenol at 410 nm. CD45 PTPase activity of PBL was significantly decreased in SLE patients, compared with that of normal controls and patients with systemic sclerosis (964 +/- 265, 1202 +/- 172, 1210 +/- 125, respectively; SLE versus normal, P<0.05). It was correlated with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score (r = 0.597, P = 0.0006), but not with the dose of prednisolone (r = 0.214, P = 0.2657), indicating that CD45 PTPase activity became reduced when the disease was active, but it was not affected by prednisolone. Moreover, it was not corrected by in vitro culture with or without stimulation. The expression of CD45 on PBL was comparable between normal and SLE, raising a possibility that it may be due to aberrant regulation of catalytic function of CD45 in SLE. Given the evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins by tyrosine kinases and phosphatases is one of the key biochemical events in the signal transduction pathway, the decreased CD45 PTPase activity in SLE may account for the defective signal transduction via TCR/CD3, leading to dysregulated effector function of the lymphocytes.

  14. A Role for the Tec Family Tyrosine Kinase Txk in T Cell Activation and Thymocyte Selection

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Connie L.; Rabin, Ronald L.; Grinberg, Alexander; Tsay, Henry C.; Farber, Joshua; Love, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    Recent data indicate that several members of the Tec family of protein tyrosine kinases function in antigen receptor signal transduction. Txk, a Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, is expressed in both immature and mature T cells and in mast cells. By overexpressing Txk in T cells throughout development, we found that Txk specifically augments the phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1–mediated calcium signal transduction pathway upon T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement. Although Txk is structurally different from inducible T cell kinase (Itk), another Tec family member expressed in T cells, expression of the Txk transgene could partially rescue defects in positive selection and signaling in itk−/− mice. Conversely, in the itk+/+ (wild-type) background, overexpression of Txk inhibited positive selection of TCR transgenic thymocytes, presumably due to induction of cell death. These results identify a role for Txk in TCR signal transduction, T cell development, and selection and suggest that the Tec family kinases Itk and Txk perform analogous functions. PMID:10562318

  15. Chronic Oxidative Stress Causes Amplification and Overexpression of ptprz1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase to Activate β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ or receptor tyrosine phosphatase β) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16∼552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the β-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated β-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear β-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating β-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification. PMID:18055543

  16. Chronic oxidative stress causes amplification and overexpression of ptprz1 protein tyrosine phosphatase to activate beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-12-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta or receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16 approximately 552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the beta-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated beta-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear beta-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating beta-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification.

  17. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor.

    PubMed

    Lotz-Jenne, Carina; Lüthi, Urs; Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-05-03

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered "off-target" effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo.

  18. RANTES induces tyrosine kinase activity of stably complexed p125FAK and ZAP-70 in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The chemokine RANTES is a chemoattractant and activating factor for T lymphocytes. Investigation of the signal transduction mechanisms induced by RANTES in T cells revealed tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple protein species with prominent bands at 70-85 and 120-130 kD. Immunoprecipitation and Western analyses revealed that a protein of 125 kD was identical to the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pp125FAK. RANTES stimulated phosphorylation of FAK as early as 30 seconds and immunoblots using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies revealed that there was consistent phosphorylation of a 68-70 kD species in the pp125FAK immunoprecipitates. Immunoblotting and kinase assays showed this to be two separate proteins, the tyrosine kinase zeta-associated protein (ZAP) 70, and the focal adhesion protein paxillin. These results indicate a potentially important role for RANTES in the generation of T cell focal adhesions and subsequent cell activation via a molecular complex containing FAK, ZAP-70, and paxillin. PMID:9064347

  19. Active region coronal loops observed at the total solar eclipse of February 16, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, Yoishiro; Kurokawa, Hiroki; Saito, Sumisaburo

    Coronal loop structures above an active region observed at the total eclipse of February 16, 1980 in Kenya are analyzed. Temperatures and densities of the loops are derived from three monochromatic images of Fe X λ6374 (1×106K or cool corona), Fe XIV λ5303 (2×106K or hot corona), and continuum. These monochromatic images are processed for the analyses, and pure images of the active region corona are obtained. Results from a morphological diagnostics are presented.

  20. Ca2+/Calmodulin and Apo-Calmodulin Both Bind to and Enhance the Tyrosine Kinase Activity of c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Estefanía; Benaim, Gustavo; Villalobo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in multiple cellular processes, including: cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, stress response, and cell adhesion and migration, among others. And when deregulated by mutations, overexpression, and/or the arrival of faulty incoming signals, its hyperactivity contributes to the development of hematological and solid tumors. c-Src is a prototypical member of this family of kinases, which is highly regulated by a set of phosphorylation events. Other factor contributing to the regulation of Src activity appears to be mediated by the Ca2+ signal generated in cells by different effectors, where the Ca2+-receptor protein calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role. In this report we demonstrate that CaM directly interacts with Src in both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manners in vitro and in living cells, and that the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) inhibits the activation of this kinase induced by the upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in human carcinoma epidermoide A431 cells, and by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in both A431 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+/CaM complex strongly activates the auto-phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src toward exogenous substrates, but most relevantly and for the first time, we demonstrate that Ca2+-free CaM (apo-CaM) exerts a far higher activatory action on Src auto-phosphorylation and kinase activity toward exogenous substrates than the one exerted by the Ca2+/CaM complex. This suggests that a transient increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ is not an absolute requirement for CaM-mediated activation of Src in living cells, and that a direct regulation of Src by apo-CaM could be inferred. PMID:26058065

  1. Active Site Loop Conformation Regulates Promiscuous Activity in a Lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a “hot spot” in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity. PMID:25706379

  2. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of enterococci grown in media with different nutritional potential: tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine accumulation and tyrDC gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Gardini, Fausto; Torriani, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accumulate tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine by two strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in two cultural media added or not with tyrosine. All the enterococcal strains possessed a tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC) which determined tyramine accumulation in all the conditions tested, independently on the addition of high concentration of free tyrosine. Enterococci differed in rate and level of biogenic amines accumulation. E. faecalis EF37 and E. faecium FC12 produced tyramine in high amount since the exponential growth phase, while 2-phenylethylamine was accumulated when tyrosine was depleted. E. faecium FC12 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 showed a slower tyraminogenic activity which took place mainly in the stationary phase up to 72 h of incubation. Moreover, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 produced 2-phenylethylamine only in the media without tyrosine added. In BHI added or not with tyrosine the tyrDC gene expression level differed considerably depending on the strains and the growth phase. In particular, the tyrDC gene expression was high during the exponential phase in rich medium for all the strains and subsequently decreased except for E. faecium FC12. Even if tyrDC presence is common among enterococci, this study underlines the extremely variable decarboxylating potential of strains belonging to the same species, suggesting strain-dependent implications in food safety.

  3. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of enterococci grown in media with different nutritional potential: tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine accumulation and tyrDC gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Gardini, Fausto; Torriani, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accumulate tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine by two strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in two cultural media added or not with tyrosine. All the enterococcal strains possessed a tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC) which determined tyramine accumulation in all the conditions tested, independently on the addition of high concentration of free tyrosine. Enterococci differed in rate and level of biogenic amines accumulation. E. faecalis EF37 and E. faecium FC12 produced tyramine in high amount since the exponential growth phase, while 2-phenylethylamine was accumulated when tyrosine was depleted. E. faecium FC12 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 showed a slower tyraminogenic activity which took place mainly in the stationary phase up to 72 h of incubation. Moreover, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 produced 2-phenylethylamine only in the media without tyrosine added. In BHI added or not with tyrosine the tyrDC gene expression level differed considerably depending on the strains and the growth phase. In particular, the tyrDC gene expression was high during the exponential phase in rich medium for all the strains and subsequently decreased except for E. faecium FC12. Even if tyrDC presence is common among enterococci, this study underlines the extremely variable decarboxylating potential of strains belonging to the same species, suggesting strain-dependent implications in food safety. PMID:25914676

  4. The catecholamines up (Catsup) protein of Drosophila melanogaster functions as a negative regulator of tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Stathakis, D G; Burton, D Y; McIvor, W E; Krishnakumar, S; Wright, T R; O'Donnell, J M

    1999-01-01

    We report the genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical analyses of Catecholamines up (Catsup), a gene that encodes a negative regulator of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Mutations within this locus are semidominant lethals of variable penetrance that result in three broad, overlapping effective lethal phases (ELPs), indicating that the Catsup gene product is essential throughout development. Mutants from each ELP exhibit either cuticle defects or catecholamine-related abnormalities, such as melanotic salivary glands or pseudotumors. Additionally, Catsup mutants have significantly elevated TH activity that may arise from a post-translational modification of the enzyme. The hyperactivation of TH in Catsup mutants results in abnormally high levels of catecholamines, which can account for the lethality, visible phenotypes, and female sterility observed in these mutants. We propose that Catsup is a component of a novel system that downregulates TH activity, making Catsup the fourth locus found within the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene cluster that functions in catecholamine metabolism. PMID:10471719

  5. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif-bearing receptors regulate the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-induced activation of immune competent cells.

    PubMed

    Gergely, J; Pecht, I; Sármay, G

    1999-05-03

    ITIM-bearing receptors, a family which only recently has been recognized, play a key role in the regulation of the ITAM-induced activation of immune competent cells. The mechanism of ITM-mediated regulation in various cells was recently clarified. The present review focuses on ITIM bearing membrane proteins that negatively regulate the activation of cells when co-crosslinked with ITAM containing receptors, illustrates the inhibitory processes by the negative regulation of B-, NK-, T-cells and mast cells and summarizes current views on the mechanism of ITIM-mediated inhibition.

  6. Palmitoylation of either Cys-3 or Cys-5 is required for the biological activity of the Lck tyrosine protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Yurchak, L K; Sefton, B M

    1995-01-01

    Palmitoylation can regulate both the affinity for membranes and the biological activity of proteins. To study the importance of the palmitoylation of the Src-like tyrosine protein kinase p56lck in the function of the protein, Cys-3, Cys-5, or both were mutated to serine, and the mutant proteins were expressed stably in fibroblasts and T cells. Both Cys-3 and Cys-5 were apparent sites of palmitoylation in Lck expressed in fibroblasts, as only the simultaneous mutation of both Cys-3 and Cys-5 caused a large reduction in the incorporation of [3H]palmitic acid. The double mutant S3/5Lck was no longer membrane bound when examined by either immunofluorescence or cell fractionation. This indicated that palmitoylation was required for association of Lck with the plasma membrane. Since the S3/5Lck protein was myristoylated, myristoylation of Lck is not sufficient for membrane binding. When Cys-3, Cys-5, or both Cys-3 and Cys-5 were changed to serine in activated F505Lck, palmitoylation of either Cys-3 or Cys-5 was found to be necessary and sufficient for the transformation of fibroblasts and for the induction of spontaneous, antigen-independent interleukin-2 production in the T-helper cell line DO-11.10. Nonpalmitoylated F505Lck exhibited little activity in vivo, where it did not induce elevated levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, and in vitro, where it was unable to phosphorylate angiotensin in an in vitro kinase assay. These findings suggest that F505Lck must be anchored stably to membranes to become activated. Because palmitoylation is dynamic, it may be involved in regulating the cellular localization of p56(lck), and consequently its activity, by altering the proximity of p56(lck) to its activators and/or targets. PMID:8524258

  7. Thermally activated transport of a dislocation loop within an elastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, Kazuhito; Kuramoto, Eiichi

    2007-08-01

    We report thermally activated transport of a dislocation loop in terms of a line tension model, where the dislocation line is assumed to be a flexible string. According to conventional rate theory, the features of thermal activation are determined by the saddle-point geometry in high dimensional configuration space. If the circumference of a dislocation loop L is longer than a critical length Lc, the selected saddle-point configuration is the well known double-kink type solution. On the other hand, the manner of the thermal activation of a dislocation loop shorter than Lc is rather point-defect-like. In the present work, we pay attention to the temperature dependence of transition rate which is represented such as ν0∗exp(-E/kT). The pre-exponential factor depends on temperature like ν0∗˜T for sufficiently long dislocation loops on the basis of the analysis.

  8. Tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the association of phospholipase C-gamma with the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, B; Bellot, F; Honegger, A M; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J; Zilberstein, A

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells transfected with wild-type EGF receptor induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). The EGF receptor and PLC-gamma were found to be physically associated such that antibodies directed against PLC-gamma or the EGF receptor coimmunoprecipitated both proteins. The association between PLC-gamma and wild-type EGF receptor was dependent on the concentration of EGF, but EGF did not enhance the association between PLC-gamma and a kinase-negative mutant of the EGF receptor. Oligomerization of the EGF receptor was not sufficient to induce association of the EGF receptor with PLC-gamma, since the kinase-negative mutant receptor underwent normal dimerization in response to EGF yet did not associate with PLC-gamma. The form of PLC-gamma associated with the EGF receptor appeared to be primarily the non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form. It is concluded that the kinase activity of the EGF receptor is essential for association of PLC-gamma with the EGF receptor, possibly by stimulating receptor autophosphorylation. Images PMID:2153914

  9. Activation of HER3 Interferes with Antitumor Effects of Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: Suggestion of Combination Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Torka, Robert; Pénzes, Kinga; Gusenbauer, Simone; Baumann, Christine; Szabadkai, István; Őrfi, Lászlȯ; Kéri, György; Ullrich, Axel

    2014-01-01

    The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been established as a strong candidate for targeted therapy of cancer. However, the benefits of targeted therapies are limited due to acquired resistance and activation of alternative RTKs. Therefore, we asked if cancer cells are able to overcome targeted Axl therapies. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of Axl by short interfering RNA or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BMS777607 induces the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) and the neuregulin 1(NRG1)–dependent phosphorylation of HER3 in MDA-MB231 and Ovcar8 cells. Moreover, analysis of 20 Axl-expressing cancer cell lines of different tissue origin indicates a low basal phosphorylation of RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) as a general requirement for HER3 activation on Axl inhibition. Consequently, phosphorylation of AKT arises as an independent biomarker for Axl treatment. Additionally, we introduce phosphorylation of HER3 as an independent pharmacodynamic biomarker for monitoring of anti-Axl therapy response. Inhibition of cell viability by BMS777607 could be rescued by NRG1-dependent activation of HER3, suggesting an escape mechanism by tumor microenvironment. The Axl-TKI MPCD84111 simultaneously blocked Axl and HER2/3 signaling and thereby prohibited HER3 feedback activation. Furthermore, dual inhibition of Axl and HER2/3 using BMS777607 and lapatinib led to a significant inhibition of cell viability in Axl-expressing MDA-MB231 and Ovcar8 cells. Therefore, we conclude that, in patient cohorts with expression of Axl and low basal activity of AKT, a combined inhibition of Axl and HER2/3 kinase would be beneficial to overcome acquired resistance to Axl-targeted therapies. PMID:24862757

  10. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  11. Active vibroacoustic control with multiple local feedback loops.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Stephen J; Gardonio, Paolo; Sors, Thomas C; Brennan, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    When multiple actuators and sensors are used to control the vibration of a panel, or its sound radiation, they are usually positioned so that they couple into specific modes and are all connected together with a centralized control system. This paper investigates the physical effects of having a regular array of actuator and sensor pairs that are connected only by local feedback loops. An array of 4 x 4 force actuators and velocity sensors is first simulated, for which such a decentralized controller can be shown to be unconditionally stable. Significant reductions in both the kinetic energy of the panel and in its radiated sound power can be obtained for an optimal value of feedback gain, although higher values of feedback gain can induce extra resonances in the system and degrade the performance. A more practical transducer pair, consisting of a piezoelectric actuator and velocity sensor, is also investigated and the simulations suggest that a decentralized controller with this arrangement is also stable over a wide range of feedback gains. The resulting reductions in kinetic energy and sound power are not as great as with the force actuators, due to the extra resonances being more prominent and at lower frequencies, but are still worthwhile. This suggests that an array of independent modular systems, each of which included an actuator, a sensor, and a local feedback control loop, could be a simple and robust method of controlling broadband sound transmission when integrated into a panel.

  12. Knock-in Mutation of the Distal Four Tyrosines of Linker for Activation of T Cells Blocks Murine T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Connie L.; Menon, Rashmi K.; Grinberg, Alexander; Zhang, Weiguo; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Love, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    The integral membrane adapter protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) performs a critical function in T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction by coupling the TCR to downstream signaling pathways. After TCR engagement, LAT is tyrosine phosphorylated by ZAP-70 creating docking sites for multiple src homology 2–containing effector proteins. In the Jurkat T cell line, the distal four tyrosines of LAT bind PLCγ-1, Grb2, and Gads. Mutation of these four tyrosine residues to phenylalanine (4YF) blocked TCR-mediated calcium mobilization, Erk activation, and nuclear factor (NF)-AT activation. In this study, we examined whether these four tyrosine residues were essential for T cell development by generating LAT “knock-in” mutant mice that express the 4YF mutant protein under the control of endogenous LAT regulatory sequences. Significantly, the phenotype of 4YF knock-in mice was identical to LAT−/− (null) mice; thymocyte development was arrested at the immature CD4−CD8− stage and no mature T cells were present. Knock-in mice expressing wild-type LAT protein, generated by a similar strategy, displayed a normal T cell developmental profile. These results demonstrate that the distal four tyrosine residues of LAT are essential for preTCR signaling and T cell development in vivo. PMID:11457888

  13. The pseudo-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of CD5 mediates its inhibitory action on B-cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Gary-Gouy, H; Bruhns, P; Schmitt, C; Dalloul, A; Daëron, M; Bismuth, G

    2000-01-07

    Genetic studies revealed that CD5 could be a negative regulator of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). We explore here the effect of human CD5 on BCR-triggered responses. B cells were obtained expressing a chimera composed of extracellular and transmembrane domains of Fcgamma type IIB receptor fused to CD5 cytoplasmic domain (CD5cyt). Coligation of the chimera with the BCR induces CD5cyt tyrosine phosphorylation. A rapid inhibition of BCR-induced calcium response is observed, as well as a partial but delayed inhibition of phospholipase Cgamma-1 phosphorylation. Activation of extracellular regulated kinase-2 is also severely impaired. Moreover, at the functional level, interleukin-2 production is abolished. Src homology 2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and Src homology 2 domain-bearing inositol 5'-phosphatase SHIP usually participate in negative regulation of the BCR. We show that they do not associate with the phosphorylated CD5 chimera. We finally demonstrate that the pseudo-immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif present in CD5cyt is involved because its deletion eliminates the inhibitory effect of the chimera, both at biochemical and functional levels. These results demonstrate the inhibitory role of CD5 pseudo-immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif tyrosine phosphorylation on BCR signaling. They further support the idea that CD5 uses mechanisms different from those already described to negatively regulate the BCR pathway.

  14. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  15. The Non-receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tec Controls Assembly and Activity of the Noncanonical Caspase-8 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Zwolanek, Florian; Riedelberger, Michael; Stolz, Valentina; Jenull, Sabrina; Istel, Fabian; Köprülü, Afitap Derya; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Tec family kinases are intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in numerous functions, including T cell and B cell regulation. However, a role in microbial pathogenesis has not been described. Here, we identified Tec kinase as a novel key mediator of the inflammatory immune response in macrophages invaded by the human fungal pathogen C. albicans. Tec is required for both activation and assembly of the noncanonical caspase-8, but not of the caspase-1 inflammasome, during infections with fungal but not bacterial pathogens, triggering the antifungal response through IL-1β. Furthermore, we identify dectin-1 as the pathogen recognition receptor being required for Syk-dependent Tec activation. Hence, Tec is a novel innate-specific inflammatory kinase, whose genetic ablation or inhibition by small molecule drugs strongly protects mice from fungal sepsis. These data demonstrate a therapeutic potential for Tec kinase inhibition to combat invasive microbial infections by attenuating the host inflammatory response. PMID:25474208

  16. TLR4 Signaling Is Coupled to SRC Family Kinase Activation, Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Zonula Adherens Proteins, and Opening of the Paracellular Pathway in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelia*

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Angelini, Daniel J.; Yang, Shiqi; Xia, Guanjun; Cross, Alan S.; Mann, Dean; Bannerman, Douglas D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Goldblum, Simeon E.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and their substrates required for LPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). LPS disrupted barrier integrity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and prior broad spectrum PTK inhibition was protective. LPS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, VE-cadherin, γ-catenin, and p120ctn. Two SRC family PTK (SFK)-selective inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656, blocked LPS-induced increments in tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn and paracellular permeability. In HMVEC-Ls, c-SRC, YES, FYN, and LYN were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels. Selective small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of c-SRC, FYN, or YES diminished LPS-induced SRC Tyr416 phosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn, and barrier disruption, whereas knockdown of LYN did not. For VE-cadherin phosphorylation, knockdown of either c-SRC or FYN provided total protection, whereas YES knockdown was only partially protective. For p120ctn phosphorylation, knockdown of FYN, c-SRC, or YES each provided comparable but partial protection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was expressed both on the surface and intracellular compartment of HMVEC-Ls. Prior knockdown of TLR4 blocked both LPS-induced SFK activation and barrier disruption. These data indicate that LPS recognition by TLR4 activates the SFKs, c-SRC, FYN, and YES, which, in turn, contribute to tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins to open the endothelial paracellular pathway. PMID:18326860

  17. Cytoskeletal polarization of T cells is regulated by an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lowin-Kropf, B; Shapiro, V S; Weiss, A

    1998-02-23

    Binding of a T cell to an appropriate antigen-presenting cell (APC) induces the rapid reorientation of the T cell cytoskeleton and secretory apparatus towards the cell-cell contact site in a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and peptide/major histocompatibility complex-dependent process. Such T cell polarization directs the delivery of cytokines and cytotoxic mediators towards the APC and contributes to the highly selective and specific action of effector T cells. To study the signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal rearrangements in T lymphocytes, we set up a conjugate formation assay using Jurkat T cells as effectors and cell-sized latex beads coated with various antibodies as artificial APCs. Here, we report that beads coated with antibodies specific for the TCR-CD3 complex were sufficient to induce T cell polarization towards the bead attachment site, as judged by reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and localized actin polymerization. Thus, these cytoskeletal changes did not depend on activation of additional coreceptors. Moreover, single subunits of the TCR complex, namely TCR-zeta and CD3epsilon, were equally effective in inducing cytoskeletal polarization. However, mutagenesis of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), present three times in TCR-zeta and once in CD3epsilon, revealed that the induction of cytoskeletal rearrangements required the presence of at least one intact ITAM. In agreement with this result, lack of functional Lck, the protein tyrosine kinase responsible for ITAM phosphorylation, abolished both MTOC reorientation and polarized actin polymerization. Both inhibitor and transient overexpression studies demonstrated that MTOC reorientation could occur in the absence of Ras activation. Our results suggest that APC-induced T cell polarization is a TCR-mediated event that is coupled to the TCR by the same signaling motif as TCR-induced gene activation, but diverges in its distal signaling

  18. Use of an open-loop system to increase physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children’s physical activity. Non-overweight, sedentary boys and girls (8-12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physic...

  19. Ras-independent activation of ERK signaling via the torso receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated by Rap1.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Snigdha; Smolik, Sarah M; Forte, Michael A; Stork, Philip J S

    2005-02-22

    In Drosophila embryos, the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activates the small G protein Ras (D-Ras1) and the protein kinase Raf (D-Raf) to activate ERK to direct differentiation of terminal structures . However, genetic studies have demonstrated that Torso, and by extension other RTKs, can activate Raf and ERK independently of Ras . In mammalian cells, the small G protein Rap1 has been proposed to couple RTKs to ERKs. However, the ability of Rap1 to activate ERKs remains controversial, in part because direct genetic evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that D-Rap1, the Drosophila homolog of Rap1, can activate D-Raf and ERK. We show that D-Rap1 binds D-Raf and activates ERKs in a GTP- and D-Raf-dependent manner. Targeted disruption of D-Rap1 expression decreased both Torso-dependent ERK activation and the ERK-dependent expression of the zygotic genes tailless and huckebein to levels similar to those achieved in D-Ras1 null embryos. Furthermore, combined deficiencies of D-Ras1 and D-Rap1 completely abolished expression of these genes, mimicking the phenotype observed in embryos lacking D-Raf. These studies provide the first direct genetic evidence of Rap1-mediated activation of the MAP kinase cascade in eukaryotic organisms.

  20. Enhanced immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling is related to pathological bone resorption during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Vanhees, I; Gunst, J; Janssens, T; Wauters, A; Van Herck, E; Van Cromphaut, S; Van den Berghe, G; Owen, H C

    2013-11-01

    Prolonged critically ill patients present with distinct alterations in calcium and bone metabolism. Circulating bone formation markers are reduced and bone resorption markers are substantially elevated, indicating an uncoupling between osteoclast and osteoblast activity, possibly resulting in pronounced bone loss, impaired traumatic or surgical fracture healing, and osteoporosis. In addition, we have previously shown that increased circulating osteoclast precursors in critically ill patients result in increased osteoclastogenesis in vitro, possibly through FcγRIII signaling. In the current study, we investigated the effects of sustained critical illness on bone metabolism at the tissue level in a standardized rabbit model of prolonged (7 days), burn injury-induced critical illness. This in vivo model showed a reduction in serum ionized calcium and osteocalcin levels, as is seen in humans. Trabecular area, bone mineral content, and -density were decreased in sick rabbits [by 43% (p<0.01), 31% (p<0.01), and 29% (p<0.05), respectively], as was the trabecular gene expression of osteoblast and angiogenesis markers, indicating decreased bone formation and impaired vascularization. There was no change in the expression of osteoclast differentiation markers from the canonical RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway, however, there was an increase in expression of markers from the non-canonical, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling pathway, FcγRIII, and DAP12 (148% and 59%, respectively; p<0.01). The current study has shown a detrimental effect of prolonged critical illness on trabecular bone integrity, possibly explained by reduced osteoblast differentiation and angiogenesis, coupled with increased osteoclastogenesis signaling that may be mediated via the non-canonical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling pathway.

  1. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE REGION LOOP GEOMETRY. I. HOW CAN IT AFFECT CORONAL SEISMOLOGY?

    SciTech Connect

    Selwa, M.; Ofman, L.; Solanki, S. K. E-mail: leon.ofman@nasa.gov

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical results of coronal loop oscillation excitation using a three-dimensional (3D) MHD model of an idealized active region (AR) field. The AR is initialized as a potential dipole magnetic configuration with gravitationally stratified density and contains a loop with a higher density than its surroundings. We study different ways of excitation of vertical kink oscillations of this loop by velocity: as an initial condition, and as an impulsive excitation with a pulse of a given position, duration, and amplitude. We vary the geometry of the loop in the 3D MHD model and find that it affects both the period of oscillations and the synthetic observations (difference images) that we get from oscillations. Due to the overestimated effective length of the loop in the case of loops which have maximum separation between their legs above the footpoints (>50% of observed loops), the magnetic field obtained from coronal seismology can also be overestimated. The 3D MHD model shows how the accuracy of magnetic field strength determined from coronal seismology can be improved. We study the damping mechanism of the oscillations and find that vertical kink waves in 3D stratified geometry are damped mainly due to wave leakage in the horizontal direction.

  2. Loop Dynamics of the Extracellular Domain of Human Tissue Factor and Activation of Factor VIIa

    PubMed Central

    Minazzo, Agnese S.; Darlington, Reuben C.; Ross, J.B. Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In the crystal structure of the complex between the soluble extracellular domain of tissue factor (sTF) and active-site-inhibited VIIa, residues 91 and 92 in the Pro79-Pro92 loop of sTF interact with the catalytic domain of VIIa. It is not known, however, whether this loop has a role in allosteric activation of VIIa. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements of probes covalently bound to sTF mutants E84C and T121C show that binding uninhibited Factor VIIa affects segmental motions in sTF. Glu84 resides in the Pro79-Pro92 loop, and Thr121 resides in the turn between the first and second antiparallel β-strands of the sTF subdomain that interacts with the Gla and EGF1 domains of VIIa; neither Glu84 nor Thr121 makes direct contact with VIIa. Probes bound to T121C report limited segmental flexibility in free sTF, which is lost after VIIa binding. Probes bound to E84C report substantial segmental flexibility in the Pro79-Pro92 loop in free sTF, which is greatly reduced after VIIa binding. Thus, VIIa binding reduces dynamic motions in sTF. In particular, the decrease in the Pro79-Pro92 loop motions indicates that loop entropy has a role in the thermodynamics of the protein-protein interactions involved in allosteric control of VIIa activation. PMID:19167313

  3. Novel multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib inhibits bFGF-activated signaling in neuroblastoma cells and suppresses neuroblastoma growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiaxiong; Pan, Jessie; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Yanling; Zhang, Huiyuan; Hu, Ting; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common pediatric malignancies in children. Abnormal activation of receptor tyrosine kinases contributes to the pathological development of NB. Therefore, targeting tyrosine kinase receptors to cure NB is a promising strategy. Here, we report that a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib inhibited NB cell proliferation and induced NB cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ponatinib suppressed the colony formation ability of NB cells. Mechanistically, ponatinib effectively inhibited the FGFR1-activated signaling pathway. Ponatinib also enhanced the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on NB cells. Furthermore, ponatinib demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in vivo by inhibiting tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. In summary, our results showed that ponatinib inhibited NB growth both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27564113

  4. Facilitation of polymer looping and giant polymer diffusivity in crowded solutions of active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jaeoh; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Kim, Won Kyu; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    We study the dynamics of polymer chains in a bath of self-propelled particles (SPP) by extensive Langevin dynamics simulations in a two-dimensional model system. Specifically, we analyse the polymer looping properties versus the SPP activity and investigate how the presence of the active particles alters the chain conformational statistics. We find that SPPs tend to extend flexible polymer chains, while they rather compactify stiffer semiflexible polymers, in agreement with previous results. Here we show that higher activities of SPPs yield a higher effective temperature of the bath and thus facilitate the looping kinetics of a passive polymer chain. We explicitly compute the looping probability and looping time in a wide range of the model parameters. We also analyse the motion of a monomeric tracer particle and the polymer’s centre of mass in the presence of the active particles in terms of the time averaged mean squared displacement, revealing a giant diffusivity enhancement for the polymer chain via SPP pooling. Our results are applicable to rationalising the dimensions and looping kinetics of biopolymers at constantly fluctuating and often actively driven conditions inside biological cells or in suspensions of active colloidal particles or bacteria cells.

  5. Palmitoylation of protease-activated receptor-1 regulates adaptor protein complex-2 and -3 interaction with tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting.

    PubMed

    Canto, Isabel; Trejo, JoAnn

    2013-05-31

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the coagulant protease thrombin. Thrombin binds to and cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away. In addition to rapid desensitization, PAR1 trafficking is critical for the regulation of cellular responses. PAR1 displays constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), which binds to a distal tyrosine-based motif localized within the C-terminal tail (C-tail) domain. Once internalized, PAR1 is sorted from endosomes to lysosomes via AP-3 interaction with a second C-tail tyrosine motif proximal to the transmembrane domain. However, the regulatory processes that control adaptor protein recognition of PAR1 C-tail tyrosine-based motifs are not known. Here, we report that palmitoylation of PAR1 is critical for regulating proper utilization of tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting. We show that PAR1 is basally palmitoylated at highly conserved C-tail cysteines. A palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 mutant is competent to signal and exhibits a marked increase in constitutive internalization and lysosomal degradation compared with wild type receptor. Intriguingly, enhanced constitutive internalization of PAR1 is mediated by AP-2 and requires the proximal tyrosine-based motif rather than the distal tyrosine motif used by wild type receptor. Moreover, palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 displays increased degradation that is mediated by AP-3. These findings suggest that palmitoylation of PAR1 regulates appropriate utilization of tyrosine-based motifs by adaptor proteins and endocytic trafficking, processes that are critical for maintaining appropriate expression of PAR1 at the cell surface.

  6. Mutagenesis of a specificity-determining residue in tyrosine hydroxylase establishes that the enzyme is a robust phenylalanine hydroxylase but a fragile tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Daubner, S Colette; Avila, Audrey; Bailey, Johnathan O; Barrera, Dimitrios; Bermudez, Jaclyn Y; Giles, David H; Khan, Crystal A; Shaheen, Noel; Thompson, Janie Womac; Vasquez, Jessica; Oxley, Susan P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2013-02-26

    The aromatic amino acid hydroxylases tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) have essentially identical active sites; however, PheH is nearly incapable of hydroxylating tyrosine, while TyrH can readily hydroxylate both tyrosine and phenylalanine. Previous studies have indicated that Asp425 of TyrH is important in determining the substrate specificity of that enzyme [Daubner, S. C., Melendez, J., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 9652-9661]. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of amino acids 423-427, a mobile loop containing Asp425, shows that only mutagenesis of Asp425 alters the activity of the enzyme significantly. Saturation mutagenesis of Asp425 results in large (up to 10(4)) decreases in the V(max) and V(max)/K(tyr) values for tyrosine hydroxylation, but only small decreases or even increases in the V(max) and V(max)/K(phe) values for phenylalanine hydroxylation. The decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylation activity of the mutant proteins is due to an uncoupling of tetrahydropterin oxidation from amino acid hydroxylation with tyrosine as the amino acid substrate. In contrast, with the exception of the D425W mutant, the extent of coupling of tetrahydropterin oxidation and amino acid hydroxylation is unaffected or increases with phenylalanine as the amino acid substrate. The decrease in the V(max) value with tyrosine as the substrate shows a negative correlation with the hydrophobicity of the amino acid residue at position 425. The results are consistent with a critical role of Asp425 being to prevent a hydrophobic interaction that results in a restricted active site in which hydroxylation of tyrosine does not occur.

  7. Effects of manganese on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and TH-phosphorylation in a dopaminergic neural cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Danhui; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-07-15

    Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn impairs the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we showed that PKC{delta} negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report that Mn exposure can affect the enzymatic activity of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by activating PKC{delta}-PP2A signaling pathway in a dopaminergic cell model. Low dose Mn (3-10 {mu}M) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3 h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40. The PKC{delta} specific inhibitor rottlerin did not prevent Mn-induced TH activity or TH-Ser40 phosphorylation. On the contrary, chronic exposure to 0.1-1 {mu}M Mn for 24 h induced a dose-dependent decrease in TH activity. Interestingly, chronic Mn treatment significantly increased PKC{delta} kinase activity and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme activity. Treatment with the PKC{delta} inhibitor rottlerin almost completely prevented chronic Mn-induced reduction in TH activity, as well as increased PP2A activity. Neither acute nor chronic Mn exposures induced any cytotoxic cell death or altered TH protein levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that low dose Mn exposure impairs TH activity in dopaminergic cells through activation of PKC{delta} and PP2A activity.

  8. Major increase in endopeptidase activity of human cathepsin B upon removal of occluding loop contacts.

    PubMed

    Nägler, D K; Storer, A C; Portaro, F C; Carmona, E; Juliano, L; Ménard, R

    1997-10-14

    The main feature distinguishing cathepsin B from other cysteine proteases of the papain family is the presence of a large insertion loop, termed the occluding loop, which occupies the S' subsites of the enzyme. The loop is held in place mainly by two contacts with the rest of the enzyme, involving residues His110 and Arg116 on the loop that form salt bridges with Asp22 and Asp224, respectively. The influence of this loop on the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) substrates. Wild-type cathepsin B displays poor activity against the substrates Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp and Abz-QVVAGA-EDDnp as compared to cathepsin L and papain. Appreciable increases in kcat/KM were observed for cathepsin B containing the single mutations D22A, H110A, R116A, and D224A. The highest activity however is observed for mutants where both loop to enzyme contacts are disrupted. For the triple-mutant D22A/H110A/R116A, an optimum kcat/KM value of 12 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 was obtained for hydrolysis of Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, which corresponds to a 600-fold increase relative to wild-type cathepsin B and approaches the level of activity observed with cathepsin L or papain. By comparison, the mutations have little effect on the hydrolysis of Cbz-FR-MCA. The influence of the mutations on the pH dependency of activity also indicates that the complexity of pH activity profiles normally observed for cathepsin B is related to the presence of the occluding loop. The major increase in endopeptidase activity is attributed to an increase in loop "flexibility" and suggests that the occluding loop might move when an endopeptidase substrate binds to the enzyme. The possible contribution of these interactions in regulating endopeptidase activity and the implications for cathepsin B activity in physiological or pathological conditions are discussed.

  9. Sustained High Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Activity in the Sperm of Obese Males Impairs the Sperm Acrosome Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Qipeng; Xu, Binqiang; Jiang, Xiaohong; Dai, Yutian; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of a causal link between male obesity and subfertility or infertility has been demonstrated previously. However, the mechanism underlying this link is incompletely understood. Here, we report that sustained high protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity in sperm of obese donors plays an essential role in coupling male obesity and subfertility or infertility. First, PTP1B level and activity were significantly higher in sperm from ob/ob mice than in wild-type littermates. High PTP1B level and activity in sperm was also observed in obese patients compared with non-obese donors. The enhanced sperm PTP1B level and activity in ob/ob mice and obese patients correlated with a defect of the sperm acrosome reaction (AR). Second, treating sperm from male ob/ob mice or obese men with a specific PTP1B inhibitor largely restored the sperm AR. Finally, blockade of sperm AR by enhanced PTP1B activity in male ob/ob mice or obese men was due to prolonged dephosphorylation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor by PTP1B, leading to the inability to reassemble the trans-SNARE complexes, which is a critical step in sperm acrosomal exocytosis. In summary, our study demonstrates for the first time that a sustained high PTP1B level or activity in the sperm of obese donors causes a defect of sperm AR and that PTP1B is a novel potential therapeutic target for male infertility treatment. PMID:24519936

  10. The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A is essential for blocking BCR-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Fruehling, S; Longnecker, R

    1997-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) blocks B-cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction in EBV-immortalized B lymphocytes in vitro. The cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain of LMP2A contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs consist of paired tyrosine and leucine residues and play a central role in signal transduction of the BCR and the T-cell receptor (TCR). To investigate the importance of the LMP2A ITAM, two EBV recombinants were constructed, each containing a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine point mutation at amino acid 74 or 85 within the ITAM of LMP2A. Tyrosine phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, and induction of BZLF1 expression were no longer blocked in the LMP2A ITAM mutant LCLs following BCR cross-linking. In addition, the Syk protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was unable to bind LMP2A in unstimulated LCLs infected with either of the LMP2A ITAM mutants. Analysis of Syk phosphorylation before and after BCR cross-linking in the LMP2A mutant ITAM LCLs compared with wild-type EBV LCLs indicates a specific role of the LMP2A ITAM on the LMP2A-mediated negative effect on the Syk PTK. These data indicate the importance of the LMP2A ITAM motif in the LMP2A-mediated block on BCR signal transduction and position the role of the Syk PTK as being central to the function of LMP2A.

  11. Tyrosine dephosphorylation enhances the therapeutic target activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by disrupting its interaction with estrogen receptor (ER)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shao; Yin, Ning; Qi, Xiaomei; Pfister, Sandra L.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Ma, Rong; Chen, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions can increase or decrease its therapeutic target activity and the determining factors involved, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report that tyrosine-dephosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) increases its therapeutic target activity by disrupting its interaction with estrogen receptor (ER). Protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 (PTPH1) dephosphorylates the tyrosine kinase EGFR, disrupts its interaction with the nuclear receptor ER, and increases breast cancer sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). These effects require PTPH1 catalytic activity and its interaction with EGFR, suggesting that the phosphatase may increase the sensitivity by dephosphorylating EGFR leading to its dissociation with ER. Consistent with this notion, a nuclear-localization defective ER has a higher EGFR-binding activity and confers the resistance to TKI-induced growth inhibition. Additional analysis show that PTPH1 stabilizes EGFR, stimulates the membranous EGFR accumulation, and enhances the growth-inhibitory activity of a combination therapy of TKIs with an anti-estrogen. Since EGFR and ER both are substrates for PTPH1 in vitro and in intact cells, these results indicate that an inhibitory EGFR-ER protein complex can be switched off through a competitive enzyme-substrate binding. Our results would have important implications for the treatment of breast cancer with targeted therapeutics. PMID:26079946

  12. The serine and threonine residues in the Ig-alpha cytoplasmic tail negatively regulate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Müller, R; Wienands, J; Reth, M

    2000-07-18

    The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is a multiprotein complex consisting of the membrane-bound Ig molecule and the Ig-alpha/Ig-beta heterodimer. On BCR engagement, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta become phosphorylated not only on tyrosine residues of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif but also on serine and threonine residues. We have mutated all serine and threonine residues in the Ig-alpha tail to alanine and valine, respectively. The mutated Ig-alpha sequence was expressed either as a single-chain Fv/Ig-alpha molecule or in the context of the complete BCR. In both cases, the mutated Ig-alpha showed a stronger tyrosine phosphorylation than the wild-type Ig-alpha and initiated increased signaling on stimulation. These findings suggest that serine/threonine kinases can negatively regulate signal transduction from the BCR.

  13. NFAM1, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing molecule that regulates B cell development and signaling.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Makoto; Arase, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Arata; Yamasaki, Sho; Shiina, Ritsuko; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Sakurai, Daiju; Yokosuka, Tadashi; Arase, Noriko; Iwashima, Makio; Kitamura, Toshio; Moriya, Hideshige; Saito, Takashi

    2004-05-25

    A functional cDNA cloning system was developed by using a retrovirus library encoding CD8-chimeric proteins and a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-GFP reporter cell line to identify molecules inducing NFAT activation. By using this strategy, NFAT activating molecule 1 (NFAM1) was cloned as an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing cell surface molecule belonging to the Ig superfamily and is predominantly expressed in spleen B and T cells. NFAM1 crosslinking induced ITAM phosphorylation, ZAP-70/Syk recruitment, NFAT activation, and cytokine production. In vivo overexpression of NFAM1 in bone marrow chimeras and transgenic mice induced severe impairment of early B cell development in an ITAM-dependent manner. In NFAM1-expressing B cells, B cell antigen receptor stimulation induced NFAM1 translocation to lipid raft, and NFAM1 co-crosslinking augmented B cell antigen receptor signaling. The results suggest that NFAM1 modulates B cell signaling through its ITAM, which regulates B cell development.

  14. A system of counteracting feedback loops regulates Cdc42p activity during spontaneous cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Ozbudak, Ertugrul M; Becskei, Attila; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    Cellular polarization is often a response to distinct extracellular or intracellular cues, such as nutrient gradients or cortical landmarks. However, in the absence of such cues, some cells can still select a polarization axis at random. Positive feedback loops promoting localized activation of the GTPase Cdc42p are central to this process in budding yeast. Here, we explore spontaneous polarization during bud site selection in mutant yeast cells that lack functional landmarks. We find that these cells do not select a single random polarization axis, but continuously change this axis during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This is reflected in traveling waves of activated Cdc42p which randomly explore the cell periphery. Our integrated computational and in vivo analyses of these waves reveal a negative feedback loop that competes with the aforementioned positive feedback loops to regulate Cdc42p activity and confer dynamic responsiveness on the robust initiation of cell polarization.

  15. Non-steady, Intermittent, Hot Loops in an Active Region Observed with the SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadavid, Ana C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.

    2013-07-01

    While there is accumulated evidence of high temperature coronal emission in active region cores that corresponds to structures in equilibrium, other studies have found of evolving loops. We investigate the EUV intensity variations of two low and short coronal loops observed in the core of NOAA AR 11250 on 13 July 2011 between UT 12:02 and 16:32. The loops (32 Mm loop 1, 23 Mm loop 2), run directly between the AR opposite polarities, and are first detectable in the 94Å band (effective temperature ~ 7 MK). Space-time slices present intermittent brightenings evocative of turbulence. Spatial averages over the intermoss loop region lead to light curves used to analyze the temporal evolution of the loops. We find quantities with scaling regimes that are characteristic of intermittent processes. In particular intensity histograms display scaling ranges with slopes ~ -1.8, and spectra also show a scaling region for frequencies 1-8 mHz, with slopes - 3.8 (loop 1) and -2.8 (loop 2). We further investigate the time evolution of the loops in five other AIA EUV channels. The results are separated into two classes. Group A (94Å, 335Å, 211Å) characterized by hotter temperatures 2-6 MK), and group B (193Å, 171Å, 131Å) by cooler temperatures (0.4 - 1.6 MK). In loop 1 (group A) the intensity peaks in the 94Å channel are followed by maxima in the 335 Å channel with a time lag of ~10 min, suggestive of a cooling pattern with an exponential decay. The 211Å maxima follow those in the 335 Å channel, but there is no systematic relation which would indicate a progressive cooling process. In group B the signals in the 171 and 131Å channels track each other closely, and tend to lag behind the 193Å. The three signals follow a general gradual increase reaching a maximum at about the middle of the time series and then decrease. An exponential cooling model can also be associated with the 193 and 171Å pair. For loop 2 the observations in the group B light curves present similar

  16. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide increases tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins and opens the paracellular pathway in lung microvascular endothelia through TLR4, TRAF6, and src family kinase activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: LPS is a key mediator in vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections and opens the pulmonary vascular endothelial paracellular pathway through protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. We asked which PTKs and signaling molecules mediate LPS-induced endothel...

  17. SRC-DEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 IS REQUIRED FOR ZINC-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Src-dependent Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyrosine 845 Is Required for Zinc-induced Ras Activation
    Weidong Wu 1 , Lee M. Graves 2 , Gordon N. Gill 3 , Sarah J. Parsons 4 , and James M. Samet 5
    1 Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biolo...

  18. PTP-PEST targets a novel tyrosine site in p120 catenin to control epithelial cell motility and Rho GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Espejo, Rosario; Jeng, Yowjiun; Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana; Rengifo-Cam, William; Honkus, Krysta; Anastasiadis, Panos Z; Sastry, Sarita K

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is implicated in regulating the adherens junction protein, p120 catenin (p120), however, the mechanisms are not well defined. Here, we show, using substrate trapping, that p120 is a direct target of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-PEST, in epithelial cells. Stable shRNA knockdown of PTP-PEST in colon carcinoma cells results in an increased cytosolic pool of p120 concomitant with its enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased association with E-cadherin. Consistent with this, PTP-PEST knockdown cells exhibit increased motility, enhanced Rac1 and decreased RhoA activity on a collagen substrate. Furthermore, p120 localization is enhanced at actin-rich protrusions and lamellipodia and has an increased association with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, VAV2, and cortactin. Exchange factor activity of VAV2 is enhanced by PTP-PEST knockdown whereas overexpression of a VAV2 C-terminal domain or DH domain mutant blocks cell motility. Analysis of point mutations identified tyrosine 335 in the N-terminal domain of p120 as the site of PTP-PEST dephosphorylation. A Y335F mutant of p120 failed to induce the 'p120 phenotype', interact with VAV2, stimulate cell motility or activate Rac1. Together, these data suggest that PTP-PEST affects epithelial cell motility by controlling the distribution and phosphorylation of p120 and its availability to control Rho GTPase activity.

  19. Polymorphism in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Gene Is Associated with Activity-Impulsivity in German Shepherd Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kubinyi, Enikő; Vas, Judit; Hejjas, Krisztina; Ronai, Zsolt; Brúder, Ildikó; Turcsán, Borbála; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Miklósi, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and two personality traits, activity-impulsivity and inattention, in German Shepherd Dogs. The behaviour of 104 dogs was characterized by two instruments: (1) the previously validated Dog-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (Dog-ADHD RS) filled in by the dog owners and (2) the newly developed Activity-impulsivity Behavioural Scale (AIBS) containing four subtests, scored by the experimenters. Internal consistency, inter-observer reliability, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were demonstrated for AIBS. Dogs possessing at least one short allele were proved to be more active-impulsive by both instruments, compared to dogs carrying two copies of the long allele (activity-impulsivity scale of Dog-ADHD RS: p = 0.007; AIBS: p = 0.023). The results have some potential to support human studies; however, further research should reveal the molecular function of the TH gene variants, and look for the effect in more breeds. PMID:22272320

  20. Intrinsic resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with activating EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Baocheng; Chu, Huili; Yao, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying activating EGFR mutations is a useful predictive strategy that helps select a population of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations (predominantly an in-frame deletion in exon 19 and an L858R substitution) are highly responsive to first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, and show improved progression-free survival without serious side effects. However, all patients with activating EGFR mutations who are initially responsive to EGFR TKIs eventually develop acquired resistance after a median progression-free survival of 10–16 months, followed by disease progression. Moreover, ~20%–30% of NSCLC patients have no objective tumor regression on initial EGFR TKI treatment, although they harbor an activating EGFR mutation. These patients represent an NSCLC subgroup that is defined as having intrinsic or primary resistance to EGFR TKIs. Different mechanisms of acquired EGFR TKI resistance have been identified, and several novel compounds have been developed to reverse acquired resistance, but little is known about EGFR TKI intrinsic resistance. In this review, we summarize the latest findings involving mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to EGFR TKIs in advanced NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations and present possible therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. PMID:27382309

  1. Tyrosine supplementation in chronic experimental uremia.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C L; Mandel, S; Mrozinska, K; Wapnir, R A

    1983-08-01

    The occurrence of low tyrosine tissue levels in uremic subjects, possibly due to impaired phenylalanine hydroxylation, suggests that tyrosine may be an essential amino acid in uremia. Additional dietary tyrosine may thus re-dress the deficiency. This study examined growth and tyrosine/phenylalanine metabolism in uremic rats during tyrosine supplementation. Rats made uremic (U) by 7/8 nephrectomy were compared to pair-fed (CP) and ad libitum-fed (CA), sham-operated controls. Two sets of each group of rats were studied after 21 days on the respective diets: I = Purina Lab Chow; II = same + 3.5% tyrosine. Plasma tyrosine was below normal in U and CP-fed diet I. With diet II, the tyrosine:phenylalanine ratio in U was lower than both CA and CP. In rats fed diet II, the tyrosine:phenylalanine ratio became indistinguishable among the three groups. Growth parameters in U and CP were similar, regardless of the diet. Body weight gain, tibial length, muscle mass, and tissue protein did not improve in uremic animals supplemented with tyrosine. The specific activity of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase in U was not different from CA or CP. However, loss of cortical renal mass appeared to be the major determinant of decreased kidney phenylalanine hydroxylation in experimental uremia. This alteration is likely to be the greatest contributory factor to the alteration of plasma levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine. The data presented do not support a proposed essentiality of tyrosine in uremia.

  2. Reflective chamber for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of active/passive millimeter wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholes, W. J.; Wilsdorf, T. T.

    A unique reflective chamber has been developed at the MICOM Advanced Simulation Center for hardware-in-the-loop simulation for combined active and passive millimeter sensors. This paper describes the reasons for developing such a reflective chamber and provides results of measurement of active reflection levels and radiometric temperatures within the chamber. Utilization of this chamber in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation for a millimeter wave weapon system is described, including the computer equipment and software system for real-time control of the simulator.

  3. Role of a strictly conserved active site tyrosine in cofactor genesis in the copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Jennifer L; Klinman, Judith P

    2006-03-14

    The copper amine oxidases catalyze the O(2)-dependent, two-electron oxidation of amines to aldehydes at an active site that contains Cu(II) and topaquinone (TPQ) cofactor. TPQ arises from the autocatalytic, post-translational oxidation of a tyrosine side chain within the same active site. The contributions of individual active site amino acids to each of these chemical processes are being delineated. Previously, using the amine oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO), mutations of a strictly conserved and structurally pivotal active site tyrosine (Y305) were studied and their effects on the catalytic cycle demonstrated [Hevel, J. M., Mills, S. A., and Klinman, J. P. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 3683-3693]. This study examines mutations at the same position for their effects on cofactor generation. While the Y305A mutation had moderate effects on the kinetics of catalysis (2.5- and 8-fold effects on k(cat) using ethylamine and benzylamine as substrates), the same mutation slows cofactor formation by approximately 45-fold relative to that of the wild-type (WT). Additionally, the Y305A mutant forms at least two species: primarily TPQ at lower pH and a species with a blue-shifted absorbance at high pH (lambda(max) = 400 nm). The 400 nm species does not react with phenylhydrazine or ethylamine and is stable toward pH buffer exchange, long-term storage (>3 weeks), incubation at high temperatures, or incubation with reductants and colorimetric peroxide quenching reagents. A similar species accumulates appreciably even at approximately neutral pH in the Y305F mutant, despite the fact that the rate of TPQ formation is reduced only 3-fold relative to that of WT HPAO. This small impact of Y305F on the rate of biogenesis contracts with a decrease in k(cat) (using ethylamine as the substrate) of 125-fold. The opposing effects of mutations at position 305 in biogenesis versus catalysis indicate that a single residue can be recruited for different roles during these

  4. Dynamic Effects of Topoisomerase I Inhibition on R-Loops and Short Transcripts at Active Promoters.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Jessica; Bertoncini, Stefania; Aloisi, Iris; Cristini, Agnese; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio; Forcato, Mattia; Sordet, Olivier; Capranico, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase I-DNA-cleavage complexes (Top1cc) stabilized by camptothecin (CPT) have specific effects at transcriptional levels. We recently reported that Top1cc increase antisense transcript (aRNAs) levels at divergent CpG-island promoters and, transiently, DNA/RNA hybrids (R-loop) in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of colon cancer HCT116 cells. However, the relationship between R-loops and aRNAs was not established. Here, we show that aRNAs can form R-loops in N-TERA-2 cells under physiological conditions, and that promoter-associated R-loops are somewhat increased and extended in length immediately upon cell exposure to CPT. In contrast, persistent Top1ccs reduce the majority of R-loops suggesting that CPT-accumulated aRNAs are not commonly involved in R-loops. The enhancement of aRNAs by Top1ccs is present both in human colon cancer HCT116 cells and WI38 fibroblasts suggesting a common response of cancer and normal cells. Although Top1ccs lead to DSB and DDR kinases activation, we do not detect a dependence of aRNA accumulation on ATM or DNA-PK activation. However, we showed that the cell response to persistent Top1ccs can involve an impairment of aRNA turnover rather than a higher synthesis rate. Finally, a genome-wide analysis shows that persistent Top1ccs also determine an accumulation of sense transcripts at 5'-end gene regions suggesting an increased occurrence of truncated transcripts. Taken together, the results indicate that Top1 may regulate transcription initiation by modulating RNA polymerase-generated negative supercoils, which can in turn favor R-loop formation at promoters, and that transcript accumulation at TSS is a response to persistent transcriptional stress by Top1 poisoning.

  5. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Cheng, Long; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  6. Synthesis and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibition activities of two new synthetic bromophenols and their methoxy derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yongchao; Shi, Dayong; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2011-11-01

    3-bromo-4,5-bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2-benzenediol ( 1) is a natural bromophenol isolated from the red algae Rhodomela confervoides that exhibits significant inhibition against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Based on its activity, we synthesized two new synthetic bromophenols and their methoxy derivatives from vanillin using the structure of natural bromophenol 1 as a scaffold. The structures of these bromophenols were elucidated from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and high resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry as 2,3-dibromo-1-(2'-bromo-6'-(3″,4″-dimethoxybenzyl)-3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene ( 2), 2,3-dibromo-1-(2'-bromo-6'-(2″-bromo-4″,5″-dimethoxybenzyl)-3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene ( 3), 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-6'-(2″-bromo-4″,5″-dihydroxybenzyl)-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)pyrocatechol ( 4) and 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-6'-(3″,4″-dihydroxybenzyl)-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)pyrocatechol ( 5). PTP1B inhibition activities of these compounds were evaluated using a colorimetric assay, and compounds 3 and 4 demonstrated interesting activity against PTP1B.

  7. Two distinct but convergent groups of cells trigger Torso receptor tyrosine kinase activation by independently expressing torso-like.

    PubMed

    Furriols, Marc; Ventura, Gemma; Casanova, Jordi

    2007-07-10

    Cell fate determination is often the outcome of specific interactions between adjacent cells. However, cells frequently change positions during development, and thus signaling molecules might be synthesized far from their final site of action. Here, we analyze the regulation of the torso-like gene, which is required to trigger Torso receptor tyrosine kinase activation in the Drosophila embryo. Whereas torso is present in the oocyte, torso-like is expressed in the egg chamber, at the posterior follicle cells and in two separated groups of anterior cells, the border cells and the centripetal cells. We find that JAK/STAT signaling regulates torso-like expression in the posterior follicle cells and border cells but not in the centripetal cells, where torso-like is regulated by a different enhancer. The border and centripetal cells, which are originally apart, converge at the anterior end of the oocyte, and we find that both groups contribute to trigger Torso activation. Our results illustrate how independently acquired expression of a signaling molecule can constitute a mechanism by which distinct groups of cells act together in the activation of a signaling pathway.

  8. TOPK promotes lung cancer resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors by phosphorylating and activating c-Jun

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ting; Niu, Mengjie; Zhang, Shengli; Jia, Lintao; Li, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have shown promising clinical efficacy in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, resistance is frequently observed in malignant cells, operating through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. The present study shows that T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is upregulated in NSCLC and excessively activated in TKI-refractory cells. TOPK dictates the responsiveness of lung cancers to the EGFR-targeted TKI gefitinib through the transcription factor AP-1 component c-Jun. TOPK binds directly to and phosphorylates c-Jun, which consequently activates the transcription of AP-1 target genes, including CCND1 and CDC2. TOPK silencing sensitizes EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer cells to gefitinib and increases gefitinib efficacy in preclinical lung adenocarcinoma xenograft models. These findings represent a novel mechanism of lung cancer resistance to TKIs and suggest that TOPK may have value both as a predictive biomarker and as a therapeutic target: TOPK-targeted therapy may synergize with EGFR-targeted therapy in lung cancers. PMID:26745678

  9. Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sancier, Florence; Dumont, Aurélie; Sirvent, Audrey; Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-02-24

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Kir3 following kappa-opioid receptor activation of p38 MAPK causes heterologous desensitization.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Cecilea C; Xu, Mei; Chavkin, Charles

    2009-11-13

    Prior studies showed that tyrosine 12 phosphorylation in the N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel, K(ir)3.1 facilitates channel deactivation by increasing intrinsic GTPase activity of the channel. Using a phosphoselective antibody directed against this residue (pY12), we now report that partial sciatic nerve ligation increased pY12-K(ir)3.1-immunoreactivity (ir) in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) or lacking the G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) genes. Treatment of AtT-20 cells stably expressing KOR-GFP with the selective KOR agonist U50,488 increased both phospho-p38-ir and pY12-K(ir)3.1-ir. The U50,488-induced increase in pY12-K(ir)3.1-ir was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Cells expressing KOR(S369A)-GFP did not increase either phospho-p38-ir or pY12-K(ir)3.1-ir following U50,488 treatment. Whole cell voltage clamp of AtT-20 cells expressing KOR-GFP demonstrated that p38 activation by U50,488 reduced somatostatin-evoked K(ir)3 currents. This heterologous desensitization was blocked by SB203580 and was not evident in cells expressing KOR(S369A)-GFP. Tyrosine phosphorylation of K(ir)3.1 was likely mediated by p38 MAPK activation of Src kinase. U50,488 also increased (pY418)Src-ir; this increase was blocked by SB203580 and not evident in KOR(S369A)-GFP expressing AtT20 cells; the Src inhibitor PP2 blocked the U50,488-induced increase in pY12-K(ir)3.1-ir; and the heterologous desensitization of K(ir)3 currents was blocked by PP2. These results suggest that KOR causes phosphorylation of Y12-K(ir)3.1 and channel inhibition through a GRK3-, p38 MAPK- and Src-dependent mechanism. Reduced inward potassium current following nerve ligation would increase dorsal horn neuronal excitability and may contribute to the neuropathic pain response.

  11. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jendresen, Christian Bille; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji; Gaspar, Paula; Siedler, Solvej; Förster, Jochen; Maury, Jérôme; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2015-07-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches. We therefore identified 22 sequences in silico using synteny information and aiming for sequence divergence. We performed a comparative in vivo study, expressing the genes intracellularly in bacteria and yeast. When produced heterologously, some enzymes resulted in significantly higher production of p-coumaric acid in several different industrially important production organisms. Three novel enzymes were found to have activity exclusively for phenylalanine, including an enzyme from the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterial-type enzyme from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, and a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (producing 230 μM cinnamic acid per unit of optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) in the medium using Escherichia coli as the heterologous host). Novel tyrosine ammonia-lyases having higher reported substrate specificity than previously characterized enzymes were also identified. Enzymes from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae resulted in high production of p-coumaric acid in Escherichia coli (producing 440 μM p-coumaric acid OD600 unit(-1) in the medium) and in Lactococcus lactis. The enzymes were also efficient in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where p-coumaric acid accumulation was improved 5-fold over that in strains expressing previously characterized tyrosine ammonia-lyases.

  12. Cigarette smoke induces aberrant EGF receptor activation that mediates lung cancer development and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Filosto, Simone; Becker, Cathleen R; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2012-04-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling are implicated in lung cancer development. Therefore, much effort was spent in developing specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that bind to the EGFR ATP-pocket, blocking EGFR phosphorylation/signaling. Clinical use of TKIs is effective in a subset of lung cancers with mutations in the EGFR kinase domain, rendering the receptor highly susceptible to TKIs. However, these benefits are limited, and emergence of additional EGFR mutations usually results in TKI resistance and disease progression. Previously, we showed one mechanism linking cigarette smoke to EGFR-driven lung cancer. Specifically, exposure of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress stimulates aberrant EGFR phosphorylation/activation with impaired receptor ubiquitination/degradation. The abnormal stabilization of the activated receptor leads to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Here, we describe for the first time a novel posttranslational mechanism of EGFR resistance to TKIs. Exposure of airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke causes aberrant phosphorylation/activation of EGFR, resulting in a conformation that is different from that induced by the ligand EGF. Unlike EGF-activated EGFR, cigarette smoke-activated EGFR binds c-Src and caveolin-1 and does not undergo canonical dimerization. Importantly, the cigarette smoke-activated EGFR is not inhibited by TKIs (AG1478; erlotinib; gefitinib); in fact, the cigarette smoke exposure induces TKI-resistance even in the TKI-sensitive EGFR mutants. Our findings show that cigarette smoke exposure stimulates not only aberrant EGFR phosphorylation impairing receptor degradation, but also induces a different EGFR conformation and signaling that are resistant to TKIs. Together, these findings offer new insights into cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer development and TKI resistance.

  13. S-Nitrosylation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 involves its activation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xian-Liang; Liu, Dong-Hai; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Hu, Shu-Qun; Chen, Yu-Guo; Xu, Tie

    2015-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) in cerebral ischemia is involved in the modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type (NMDA) glutamate receptor activity and Ca(2+) dynamics, resulting in ischemic neuron death ultimately. A number of reports indicate that PYK2 is a redox sensitive kinase that must be activated by an estrogen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of PYK2 activation remains incompletely illustrated. Accumulating attention is focused on nitric oxide (NO, a free radical) which plays a critical role in cellular signal transduction through stimulus-coupled S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. Here we reported that PYK2 over-expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was S-nitrosylated (forming SNO-PYK2) by reacting with GSNO, an exogenous NO donor, at one critical cysteine residue (Cys534) with a biotin switch assay. Moreover, our results showed that S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of PYK2 over-expressed in SH-SY5Y cells was significantly increased after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We further investigated whether the activation (phosphorylation) of PYK2 was associated with S-nitrosylation following SH-SY5Y cells OGD. Our results showed that the cysteine534 residue (site of S-nitrosylation) mutant PYK2 over-expressed in SH-SY5Y cells diminished S-nitrosylation of PYK2 and inhibited its phosphorylation induced by OGD. In addition, overexpression of the mutant PYK2 protein could prevent nuclear accumulation and abrogate neuronal cell death compared to wild type PYK2 in SH-SY5Y cells induced by OGD. These data suggest that the activation of PYK2 following OGD may be modulated by S-nitrosylation, which provides a new avenue for stroke therapy by targeting the post-translational modification machinery.

  14. Decavanadate inhibits the cell-free activation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase without affecting tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, N; Sakai, T; Nishimura, Y; Sakai, M; Araki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Ishibashi, S

    1999-08-01

    NADPH oxidase was activated by arachidonate in a cell-free system consisting of membrane and cytosol fractions prepared from guinea pig neutrophils. Vanadate apparently inhibited the NADPH oxidase activity in the cell-free system (IC50=2 microM) without phosphotyrosine accumulation. The pH dependency and stability of the inhibitory effect observed for vanadate solution indicated that decavanadate, an isopolyanion of vanadate, was responsible for the inhibition. Pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide) also inhibited the oxidase activity but at a higher concentration (IC50=0.2 mM). Decavanadate lowered the Vmax but did not affect the Km value of NADPH oxidase for NADPH. Decavanadate inhibited the activation process of NADPH oxidase but not the oxidase activity itself. Decavanadate-pretreatment of membrane and cytosol fractions irreversibly decreased the abilities of both fractions to activate NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system. Translocation of p47-phox, one of the cytosolic activation factors of NADPH oxidase, from cytosol to membrane, was little affected by decavanadate. These results suggest that decavanadate inhibits the activation of NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system without affecting the phosphotyrosine phosphatase, and that decavanadate can bind to both the membrane and cytosolic activation factors when they are in a dormant state, but not to the active oxidase complex.

  15. Essential role of two tyrosines and two tryptophans on the photoprotection activity of the Orange Carotenoid Protein.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adjélé; Punginelli, Claire; Couturier, Mohea; Perreau, François; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2011-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have developed photoprotective mechanisms to protect themselves from lethal high light intensities. One of these mechanisms involves the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy into heat. In cyanobacteria, light activation of a soluble carotenoid protein, the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), binding a keto carotenoid, is the key inducer of this mechanism. Blue-green light absorption triggers structural changes within the carotenoid and the protein, leading to the conversion of a dark orange form into a red active form. Here we report the role in photoconversion and photoprotection of individual conserved tyrosines and tryptophans surrounding the rings of the carotenoid. Our results demonstrate that the interaction between the keto group of the carotenoid and Tyr201 and Trp288 is essential for OCP photoactivity. In addition, these amino acids are responsible for carotenoid affinity and specificity. We have already demonstrated that the aromatic character of Tyr44 and Trp110 interacting with the hydroxyl ring is critical. Here we show that the replacement of Tyr44 by Ser affects the stability of the red form avoiding its accumulation at any temperature, while Trp110Ser is affected in the energy necessary to the orange to red conversion and in the interaction with the antenna. Collectively our data support the idea that the red form is essential for photoprotection but not sufficient. Specific conformational changes occurring in the protein seem to be critical to the events leading to energy dissipation.

  16. 1,2-Naphthoquinone activates vanilloid receptor 1 through increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to contraction of guinea pig trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuno, Shota; Taguchi, Keiko; Iwamoto, Noriko; Yamano, Shigeru; Cho, Arthur K.; Froines, John R.; Kumagai, Yoshito . E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    1,2-Naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) has recently been identified as an environmental quinone in diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and atmospheric PM{sub 2.5}. We have found that this quinone is capable of causing a concentration-dependent contraction of tracheal smooth muscle in guinea pigs with EC{sub 5} value of 18.7 {mu}M. The contraction required extracellular calcium and was suppressed by L-type calcium channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem. It was found that 1,2-NQ activated phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/lipoxygenase (LO)/vanilloid receptor (VR1) signaling. Additionally, 1,2-NQ was capable of transactivating protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in guinea pig trachea, suggesting that phosphorylation of PTKs contributes to 1,2-NQ-induced tracheal contraction. Consistent with this notion, this action was blocked by the PTKs inhibitor genistein and the EGFR antagonist PD153035, indicating that contraction was, at least in part, attributable to PTKs phosphorylation that activates VR1, resulting in increased intracellular calcium content in the smooth muscle cells.

  17. Chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a transgenic mouse model of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, Kaoru; Ruffino, Lynnsie; Kawamoto, Toru; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Digiovanni, John

    2005-08-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer after hepatocellular cancer. At the time of diagnosis, most BTC are at an advanced stage and are unresectable. There is presently no effective curative treatment of the advanced disease nor is there any effective clinical therapy that will prevent the development of BTC. All of these factors render gallbladder cancer nearly incurable with a poor survival rate. The aim of our study was to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of gallbladder carcinoma as the advancement of more effective treatment options would significantly improve prognosis. In the present study, we examined the effect of gefitinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor/tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR/TKI), on the development of gallbladder carcinoma in BK5.erbB2 mice. In addition, we examined the effect of another quinazoline derivative, GW2974, which is able to block the activation of both the EGFR and erbB2, in this model. Animals were treated with either 400 ppm gefitinib or 200 ppm GW2974 as a supplement in the diet using either a chemopreventive or therapeutic protocol. The results show that both compounds were potent chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in this mouse model of human BTC. The results also suggest that activation of the EGFR plays an important role in development of BTC in this model and that targeting both the EGFR and erbB2 may be an effective strategy for treatment of this disease.

  18. Antidepressant Activity of Enicostemma littorale Blume in Shp2 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase)-inhibited Animal Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Doss, VA; Kuberapandian, Dharaniyambigai

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. Methods: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) to young Wistar rats. E. littorale aqueous extract (100 mg/kg b.w., oral) was administered. Forced swimming test (FST), biochemical, and histopathological parameters were performed with reference to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg b.w., oral) treatment. Results: High-performance thin-layer chromatography confirmed the presence of swertiamarin, a unique glycoside present in the Gentianaceae family. FST indicated high rates of immobility in depressed groups and low rates in plant extract-administered group with reference to fluoxetine. Biochemical assays indicated significantly (P < 0.05) increased levels of total protein, superoxide dismutase, triglycerides, and total serum cholesterol, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in plant extract-administered groups in comparison to the depressed groups. Histopathological analysis indicated disorganized neuronal architecture during depression whereas rejuvenation of neuronal patterns was observed during treatment with plant extract and fluoxetine. Conclusions: This study shows that sodium orthovanadate induces depression in animals and also establishes the antidepressant activity of E. littorale. PMID:27761214

  19. Dynamic active-site protection by the M. tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpB lid domain.

    PubMed

    Flynn, E Megan; Hanson, Jeffrey A; Alber, Tom; Yang, Haw

    2010-04-07

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpB shows resistance to the oxidative conditions that prevail within an infected host macrophage, but the mechanism of this molecular adaptation is unknown. Crystal structures of PtpB revealed previously that a closed, two-helix lid covers the active site. By measuring single-molecule Forster-type resonance energy transfer to probe the dynamics of two helices that constitute the lid, we obtained direct evidence for large, spontaneous opening transitions of PtpB with the closed form of both helices favored approximately 3:1. Despite similar populations of conformers, the two helices move asynchronously as demonstrated by different opening and closing rates under our experimental conditions. Assuming that lid closure excludes oxidant, the rates of opening and closing quantitatively accounted for the slow observed rate of oxidative inactivation. Increasing solvent viscosity using glycerol but not PEG8000 resulted in higher rates of oxidative inactivation due to an increase in the population of open conformers. These results establish that the rapid conformational gating of the PtpB lid constitutes a reversible physical blockade that transiently masks the active site and retards oxidative inactivation.

  20. Systematic mutagenesis of the active site omega loop of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Petrosino, J F; Palzkill, T

    1996-01-01

    Beta-Lactamase is a bacterial protein that provides resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. TEM-1 beta-lactamase is the most prevalent plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in gram-negative bacteria. Normally, this enzyme has high levels of hydrolytic activity for penicillins, but mutant beta-lactamases have evolved with activity toward a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. It has been shown that active site substitutions are responsible for changes in the substrate specificity. Since mutant beta-lactamases pose a serious threat to antimicrobial therapy, the mechanisms by which mutations can alter the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase are of interest. Previously, screens of random libraries encompassing 31 of 55 active site amino acid positions enabled the identification of the residues responsible for maintaining the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. In addition to substitutions found in clinical isolates, many other specificity-altering mutations were also identified. Interestingly, many nonspecific substitutions in the N-terminal half of the active site omega loop were found to increase ceftazidime hydrolytic activity and decrease ampicillin hydrolytic activity. To complete the active sight study, eight additional random libraries were constructed and screened for specificity-altering mutations. All additional substitutions found to alter the substrate specificity were located in the C-terminal half of the active site loop. These mutants, much like the N-terminal omega loop mutants, appear to be less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Further analysis of a 165-YYG-167 triple mutant, selected for high levels of ceftazidime hydrolytic activity, provides an example of the correlation which exists between enzyme instability and increased ceftazidime hydrolytic activity in the ceftazidime-selected omega loop mutants. PMID:8606154

  1. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells.

  2. Angiotensin II stimulates calcineurin activity in proximal tubule epithelia through AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform.

    PubMed

    Lea, Janice P; Jin, Shao G; Roberts, Brian R; Shuler, Michael S; Marrero, Mario B; Tumlin, James A

    2002-07-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) contributes to the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume by regulating sodium transport in the nephron. In nonepithelial cells, activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by AT-1 receptors stimulates the generation of 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and the release of intracellular calcium. Calcineurin, a serine-threonine phosphatase, is activated by calcium and calmodulin, and both PLC and calcineurin have been linked to sodium transport in the proximal tubule. An examination of whether AngII activates calcineurin in a model of proximal tubule epithelia (LLC-PK1 cells) was performed; AngII increased calcineurin activity within 30 s. An examination of whether AngII activates PLC in proximal tubule epithelia was also performed after first showing that all three families of PLC isoforms are present in LLC-PK1 cells. Application of AngII increased IP(3) generation by 60% within 15 s, which coincided with AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform also observed at 15 s. AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by the AT-1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. Subsequently, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation blocked the AngII-induced activation of calcineurin, as did coincubation with an inhibitor of PLC activity and with an antagonist of the AT-1 receptor. It is therefore concluded that AngII stimulates calcineurin phosphatase activity in proximal tubule epithelial cells through a mechanism involving AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC isoform.

  3. Analysis of the binding of the Src homology 2 domain of Csk to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the suppression and mitotic activation of c-Src.

    PubMed Central

    Sabe, H; Hata, A; Okada, M; Nakagawa, H; Hanafusa, H

    1994-01-01

    Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), a protein-tyrosine kinase, bearing the Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) domains, has been implicated in phosphorylation of c-Src Tyr-527, resulting in suppression of c-Src kinase activity. We found that mutations in the SH2 or SH3 domain of Csk, though they did not affect its kinase activity, resulted in a loss of suppression of c-Src activity in fibroblasts. In normal fibroblasts, tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin and focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK, which colocalize at focal adhesion plaques, were the major proteins to which the Csk SH2 domain bound. Loss of binding to these proteins by the Csk SH2 mutants correlated with loss of the activity to suppress c-Src. Consistent with this observation, the levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK were greatly reduced during mitosis, whereas the kinase activity of c-Src was elevated. We suggest that the SH2 domain is required for Csk to suppress c-Src, perhaps in combination with the SH3 domain, by anchoring Csk to a particular subcellular location where c-Src may exist. Our data also indicate that a certain fraction of the Csk and Src family kinases function at the focal adhesion plaques. The activity of the c-Src kinase localized at the focal adhesion plaques appears to be regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Images PMID:7513429

  4. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, D. Y.; Kobanov, N. I.; Chelpanov, A. A.; Kochanov, A. A.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Chupin, S. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.; Tomin, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet-optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1-2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe IX 171 Å line. High frequency oscillations (5-7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle is close to 40° above the umbra boundaries in the transition region.

  5. LRRK2 Inhibits FAK Activity by Promoting FERM-mediated Autoinhibition of FAK and Recruiting the Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-2

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Insup; Byun, Ji-won; Park, Sang Myun; Jou, Ilo

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we reported that LRRK2 directly binds to and phosphorylates the threonine 474 (T474)-containing Thr-X-Arg(Lys) (TXR) motif of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine (Y) 397 residue (pY397-FAK), which is a marker of its activation. Mechanistically, however, it remained unclear how T474-FAK phosphorylation suppressed FAK activation. Here, we report that T474-FAK phosphorylation could inhibit FAK activation via at least two different mechanisms. First, T474 phosphorylation appears to induce a conformational change of FAK, enabling its N-terminal FERM domain to autoinhibit Y397 phosphorylation. This is supported by the observation that the levels of pY397-FAK were increased by deletion of the FERM domain and/or mutation of the FERM domain to prevent its interaction with the kinase domain of FAK. Second, pT474-FAK appears to recruit SHP-2, which is a phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylating pY397-FAK. We found that mutation of T474 into glutamate (T474E-FAK) to mimic phosphorylation induced more strong interaction with SHP-2 than WT-FAK, and that pharmacological inhibition of SHP-2 with NSC-87877 rescued the level of pY397 in HEK293T cells. These results collectively show that LRRK2 suppresses FAK activation through diverse mechanisms that include the promotion of autoinhibition and/or the recruitment of phosphatases, such as SHP-2. PMID:27790061

  6. Mycobacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases A and B Inhibitors Augment the Bactericidal Activity of the Standard Anti-tuberculosis Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; He, Rongjun; Pinn, Michael L.; He, Yantao; Burrows, Francis; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Karakousis, Petros C.

    2016-01-01

    Novel drugs are required to shorten the duration of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and to combat the emergence of drug resistance. One approach has been to identify and target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence factors, which promote the establishment of TB infection and pathogenesis. Mtb produces a number of virulence factors, including two protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), mPTPA and mPTPB, to evade the antimicrobial functions of host macrophages. To assess the therapeutic potential of targeting the virulent Mtb PTPs, we developed highly potent and selective inhibitors of mPTPA (L335-M34) and mPTPB (L01-Z08) with drug-like properties. We tested the bactericidal activity of L335-M34 and L01-Z08 alone or together in combination with the standard antitubercular regimen of isoniazid-rifampicin-pyrazinamide (HRZ) in the guinea pig model of chronic TB infection, which faithfully recapitulates some of the key histological features of human TB lesions. Following a single dose of L335-M34 50mg/kg and L01-Z08 20 mg/kg, plasma levels were maintained at levels 10-fold greater than the biochemical IC50 for 12–24 hours. Although neither PTP inhibitor alone significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity of HRZ, dual inhibition of mPTPA and mPTPB in combination with HRZ showed modest synergy, even after 2 weeks of treatment. After 6 weeks of treatment, the degree of lung inflammation correlated with the bactericidal activity of each drug regimen. This study highlights the potential utility of targeting Mtb virulence factors, and specifically the Mtb PTPs, as a strategy for enhancing the activity of standard anti-TB treatment. PMID:27478867

  7. Helix movement is coupled to displacement of the second extracellular loop in rhodopsin activation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Shivani; Hornak, Viktor; Yan, Elsa C Y; Syrett, Natalie; Goncalves, Joseph A; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Ziliox, Martine; Sakmar, Thomas P; Sheves, Mordechai; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O; Eilers, Markus

    2009-02-01

    The second extracellular loop (EL2) of rhodopsin forms a cap over the binding site of its photoreactive 11-cis retinylidene chromophore. A crucial question has been whether EL2 forms a reversible gate that opens upon activation or acts as a rigid barrier. Distance measurements using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy between the retinal chromophore and the beta4 strand of EL2 show that the loop is displaced from the retinal binding site upon activation, and there is a rearrangement in the hydrogen-bonding networks connecting EL2 with the extracellular ends of transmembrane helices H4, H5 and H6. NMR measurements further reveal that structural changes in EL2 are coupled to the motion of helix H5 and breaking of the ionic lock that regulates activation. These results provide a comprehensive view of how retinal isomerization triggers helix motion and activation in this prototypical G protein-coupled receptor.

  8. New functional aspects of the atypical protein tyrosine phosphatase VHZ.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Hengge, Alvan C

    2013-11-12

    LDP3 (VHZ) is the smallest classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) known to date and was originally misclassified as an atypical dual-specificity phosphatase. Kinetic isotope effects with steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of VHZ and mutants with p-nitrophenol phosphate have revealed several unusual properties. VHZ is significantly more active than previously reported but remains one of the least active PTPs. Highly unusual for a PTP, VHZ possesses two acidic residues (E134 and D65) in the active site. D65 occupies the position corresponding to the typical general acid in the PTP family. However, VHZ primarily utilizes E134 as the general acid, with D65 taking over this role when E134 is mutated. This unusual behavior is facilitated by two coexisting, but unequally populated, substrate binding modes. Unlike most classical PTPs, VHZ exhibits phosphotransferase activity. Despite the presence of the Q-loop that normally prevents alcoholysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate in other classical PTPs, VHZ readily phosphorylates ethylene glycol. Although mutations of Q-loop residues affect this phosphotransferase activity, mutations on the IPD loop that contains the general acid exert more control over this process. A single P68V substitution on this loop completely abolishes phosphotransferase activity. The ability of native VHZ to catalyze transphosphorylation may lead to an imbalance of intracellular phosphorylation, which could explain the correlation of its overexpression with several types of cancer.

  9. Effect of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) on pharmacological activity of cyclic endomorphin-2 and morphiceptin analogs.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Jakub; Perlikowska, Renata; Wyrębska, Anna; Gach, Katarzyna; Piekielna, Justyna; do-Rego, Jean Claude; Toth, Geza; Kluczyk, Alicja; Janecki, Tomasz; Janecka, Anna

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of new side-chain-to-side-chain cyclized endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and morphiceptin analogs of a general structure Tyr-c(Xaa-Phe-Phe-Yaa)NH(2) or Tyr-c(Xaa-Phe-D-Pro-Yaa)NH(2), respectively, where Xaa and Yaa were L/D Asp or L/D Lys. Further modification of these analogs was achieved by introduction of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) instead of Tyr in position 1. Peptides were synthesized by solid phase method and cleaved from the resin by a microwave-assisted procedure. Dmt(1)-substituted analogs displayed high affinity at the μ-opioid receptors, remained intact after incubation with the rat brain homogenate and showed remarkable, long-lasting μ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive activity after central, but not peripheral administration. Our results demonstrate that cyclization is a promising strategy in the development of new opioid analgesics, but further modifications are necessary to enhance the blood-brain barrier permeability.

  10. Cdk5/p35 phosphorylates lemur tyrosine kinase-2 to regulate protein phosphatase-1C phosphorylation and activity.

    PubMed

    Manser, Catherine; Vagnoni, Alessio; Guillot, Florence; Davies, Jennifer; Miller, Christopher C J

    2012-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk5)/p35 and protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) are two major enzymes that control a variety of physiological processes within the nervous system including neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity and axonal transport. Defective cdk5/p35 and PP1 function are also implicated in several major human neurodegenerative diseases. Cdk5/p35 and the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1C) both bind to the brain-enriched, serine-threonine kinase lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2). Moreover, LMTK2 phosphorylates PP1C on threonine-320 (PP1Cthr³²⁰) to inhibit its activity. Here, we demonstrate that LMTK2 is phosphorylated on serine-1418 (LMTK2ser¹⁴¹⁸) by cdk5/p35 and present evidence that this regulates its ability to phosphorylate PP1Cthr³²⁰. We thus describe a new signalling pathway within the nervous system that links cdk5/p35 with PP1C and which has implications for a number of neuronal functions and neuronal dysfunction.

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation and protein degradation control the transcriptional activity of WRKY involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIQ) are among the most structurally diverse and pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. A plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, was isolated from Coptis japonica and identified as a transcriptional activator of BIQ biosynthesis. However, the expression of CjWRKY1 gene alone was not sufficient for the activation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we report the importance of post-translational regulation of CjWRKY1 in BIQ biosynthesis. First, we detected the differential accumulation of CjWRKY1 protein in two cell lines with similar CjWRKY1 gene expression but different levels of accumulated alkaloids. Further investigation of the WRKY protein identified the phosphorylation of the WRKYGQK core domain at Y115. The CjWRKYY115E phosphorylation-mimic mutant showed loss of nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and transactivation activity compared to wild-type CjWRKY1. Rapid degradation of the CjWRKY1 protein was also confirmed following treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome and protease inhibitors. The existence of two independent degradation pathways as well as protein phosphorylation suggests the fine-tuning of CjWRKY1 activities is involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of BIQs. PMID:27552928

  12. The Drosophila Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase LAR Is Required for Development of Circadian Pacemaker Neuron Processes That Support Rhythmic Activity in Constant Darkness But Not during Light/Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Parul

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, a transcriptional feedback loop that is activated by CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes and repressed by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) complexes keeps circadian time. The timing of CLK-CYC activation and PER-TIM repression is regulated post-translationally, in part through rhythmic phosphorylation of CLK, PER, and TIM. Although kinases that control PER, TIM, and CLK levels, activity, and/or subcellular localization have been identified, less is known about phosphatases that control clock protein dephosphorylation. To identify clock-relevant phosphatases, clock-cell-specific RNAi knockdowns of Drosophila phosphatases were screened for altered activity rhythms. One phosphatase that was identified, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase leukocyte-antigen-related (LAR), abolished activity rhythms in constant darkness (DD) without disrupting the timekeeping mechanism in brain pacemaker neurons. However, expression of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), which mediates pacemaker neuron synchrony and output, is eliminated in the dorsal projections from small ventral lateral (sLNv) pacemaker neurons when Lar expression is knocked down during development, but not in adults. Loss of Lar function eliminates sLNv dorsal projections, but PDF expression persists in sLNv and large ventral lateral neuron cell bodies and their remaining projections. In contrast to the defects in lights-on and lights-off anticipatory activity seen in flies that lack PDF, Lar RNAi knockdown flies anticipate the lights-on and lights-off transition normally. Our results demonstrate that Lar is required for sLNv dorsal projection development and suggest that PDF expression in LNv cell bodies and their remaining projections mediate anticipation of the lights-on and lights-off transitions during a light/dark cycle. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In animals, circadian clocks drive daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. Because key circadian

  13. The pepsin residue glycine-76 contributes to active-site loop flexibility and participates in catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewska, M; Tanaka, T; Yada, R Y

    2000-01-01

    Glycine residues are known to contribute to conformational flexibility of polypeptide chains, and have been found to contribute to flexibility of some loops associated with enzymic catalysis. A comparison of porcine pepsin in zymogen, mature and inhibited forms revealed that a loop (a flap), consisting of residues 71--80, located near the active site changed its position upon substrate binding. The loop residue, glycine-76, has been implicated in the catalytic process and thought to participate in a hydrogen-bond network aligning the substrate. This study investigated the role of glycine-76 using site-directed mutagenesis. Three mutants, G76A, G76V and G76S, were constructed to increase conformational restriction of a polypeptide chain. In addition, the serine mutant introduced a hydrogen-bonding potential at position 76 similar to that observed in human renin. All the mutants, regardless of amino acid size and polarity, had lower catalytic efficiency and activated more slowly than the wild-type enzyme. The slower activation process was associated directly with altered proteolytic activity. Consequently, it was proposed that a proteolytic cleavage represents a limiting step of the activation process. Lower catalytic efficiency of the mutants was explained as a decrease in the flap flexibility and, therefore, a different pattern of hydrogen bonds responsible for substrate alignment and flap conformation. The results demonstrated that flap flexibility is essential for efficient catalytic and activation processes. PMID:10861225

  14. A redundant role of the CD3 gamma-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in mature T cell function.

    PubMed

    Haks, M C; Cordaro, T A; van den Brakel, J H; Haanen, J B; de Vries, E F; Borst, J; Krimpenfort, P; Kruisbeek, A M

    2001-02-15

    At least four different CD3 polypeptide chains are contained within the mature TCR complex, each encompassing one (CD3gamma, CD3delta, and CD3epsilon) or three (CD3zeta) immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within their cytoplasmic domains. Why so many ITAMs are required is unresolved: it has been speculated that the different ITAMs function in signal specification, but they may also serve in signal amplification. Because the CD3zeta chains do not contribute unique signaling functions to the TCR, and because the ITAMs of the CD3-gammadeltaepsilon module alone can endow the TCR with normal signaling capacity, it thus becomes important to examine how the CD3gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-ITAMs regulate TCR signaling. We here report on the role of the CD3gamma chain and the CD3gamma-ITAM in peripheral T cell activation and differentiation to effector function. All T cell responses were reduced or abrogated in T cells derived from CD3gamma null-mutant mice, probably because of decreased expression levels of the mature TCR complex lacking CD3gamma. Consistent with this explanation, T cell responses proceed undisturbed in the absence of a functional CD3gamma-ITAM. Loss of integrity of the CD3gamma-ITAM only slightly impaired the regulation of expression of activation markers, suggesting a quantitative contribution of the CD3gamma-ITAM in this process. Nevertheless, the induction of an in vivo T cell response in influenza A virus-infected CD3gamma-ITAM-deficient mice proceeds normally. Therefore, if ITAMs can function in signal specification, it is likely that either the CD3delta and/or the CD3epsilon chains endow the TCR with qualitatively unique signaling functions.

  15. p53 oligomerization and DNA looping are linked with transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, J E; Tegtmeyer, P; Mayr, G A; Reed, M; Wang, Y; Wang, P; Hough, P V; Mastrangelo, I A

    1994-01-01

    We examined the role of p53 oligomerization in DNA binding and in transactivation. By conventional electron microscopy (EM) and scanning transmission EM, we find that wild-type tetramers contact 18-20 bp at single or tandem 19 bp consensus sequences and also stack in apparent register, tetramer on top of tetramer. Stacked tetramers link separated DNA binding sites with DNA loops. Interestingly, the p53(1-320) segment, which lacks the C-terminal tetramerization domain, binds DNA consensus sites as stacked oligomers. Although the truncated protein binds DNA with reduced efficiency, it nevertheless induces DNA looping by self-association. p53, therefore, has a C-terminal tetramerization domain that enhances DNA binding and a non-tetrameric oligomerization domain that stacks p53 at consensus sites and loops separated consensus sites via protein-protein interactions. Using model promoters, we demonstrate that wild-type and tetramerization-deficient p53s activate transcription well when tandem consensus sites are proximal to TATA sequences and poorly when tandem sites are distal. In the presence of proximal sites, however, stimulation by distal sites increases 25-fold. Tetramerization and stacking of tetramers, therefore, provide dual mechanisms to augment the number of p53 molecules available for activation through p53 response elements. DNA looping between separated response elements further increases the concentration of local p53 by translocating distally bound protein to the promoter. Images PMID:7813439

  16. Heating mechanisms for intermittent loops in active region cores from AIA/SDO EUV observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Nigro, G.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate intensity variations and energy deposition in five coronal loops in active region cores. These were selected for their strong variability in the AIA/SDO 94 Å intensity channel. We isolate the hot Fe XVIII and Fe XXI components of the 94 Å and 131 Å by modeling and subtracting the 'warm' contributions to the emission. HMI/SDO data allow us to focus on 'inter-moss' regions in the loops. The detailed evolution of the inter-moss intensity time series reveals loops that are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with a nanoflare storm, with a spike in the hot 131 Å signals leading and the other five EUV emission channels following in progressive cooling order. A sharp increase in electron temperature tends to follow closely after the hot 131 Å signal confirming the impulsive nature of the process. A cooler process of growing emission measure follows more slowly. The Fourier power spectra of the hot 131 Å signals, when averaged over the five loops, present three scaling regimes with break frequencies near 0.1 min{sup –1} and 0.7 min{sup –1}. The low frequency regime corresponds to 1/f noise; the intermediate indicates a persistent scaling process and the high frequencies show white noise. Very similar results are found for the energy dissipation in a 2D 'hybrid' shell model of loop magneto-turbulence, based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics, that is compatible with nanoflare statistics. We suggest that such turbulent dissipation is the energy source for our loops.

  17. Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic Activation of the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    progesterone (PR) receptor positive), basal ( triple negative : ER/PER/Her2 negative ) and the Her2 (ER/PR negative , Her2 amplification and/or overexpression...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0392 TITLE: Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic...CONTRACT NUMBER Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic Activation of the Met Receptor 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0392 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  18. Activation of proacrosin accompanies upregulation of sp32 protein tyrosine phosphorylation in pig sperm.

    PubMed

    Sun, P L; Yang, L X; Cui, J-J; Tian, Y; Liu, Y; Jin, Y

    2013-12-11

    This study investigated the relationship between acrosin activation and pig sperm proacrosin binding protein (sp32) phosphorylation levels. Differently processed pig spermatozoa (fresh semen sperm, capacitation sperm, acrosome reaction sperm, capacitation-like sperm, and thawed sperm) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. The fresh semen and capacitation sperm groups both produced proacrosin protein bands of 55 kDa; however, the result of the fresh semen sperm group was clearer than that of the capacitation sperm group. The thawed sperm group showed a shallow strip at 55 kDa. The capacitation and acrosome reaction sperm groups produced obvious proacrosin protein bands at 35 kDa, and the strips of the capacitation sperm group were again clearer. A faint band was visible at 32 kDa in the acrosome reaction sperm group. The capacitation, thawed, and acrosome reaction sperm groups showed significant strips in sp32, and the bands of the acrosome reaction sperm group were shallower than those of the 2 other groups. The capacitation and thawed sperm groups produced significant strips at 40 kDa, and the capacitation sperm group produced an additional strip at 55 kDa. In conclusion, sp32 phosphorylation levels can promote proacrosin activation into the active acrosin.

  19. Motor activity affects adult skeletal muscle re-innervation acting via tyrosine kinase receptors.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Stefano; Bartolini, Fanny; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Betti, Michele; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Lattanzi, Davide; Di Palma, Michael; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, muscle expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein under activity control has been reported. BDNF is a neurotrophin known to be involved in axon sprouting in the CNS. Hence, we set out to study the effect of chronic treadmill mid-intensity running on adult rat muscle re-innervation, and to explore the involvement of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors. After nerve crush, muscle re-innervation was evaluated using intracellular recordings, tension recordings, immunostaining and Western blot analyses. An enhanced muscle multiple innervation was found in running rats that was fully reversed to control values blocking Trk receptors or interrupting the running activity. An increase in muscle multiple innervation was also found in sedentary rats treated with a selective TrkB receptor agonist. The expression of TrkB receptors by intramuscular axons was demonstrated, and increased muscle expression of BDNF was found in running animals. The increase in muscle multiple innervation was consistent with the faster muscle re-innervation that we found in running animals. We conclude that, when regenerating axons contact muscle cells, muscle activity progressively increases modulating BDNF and possibly other growth factors, which in turn, acting via Trk receptors, induce axon sprouting to re-innervate skeletal muscle.

  20. Src-Mediated Phosphorylation of the Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL-3 Is Required for PRL-3 Promotion of Rho Activation, Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Fiordalisi, James J.; Dewar, Brian J.; Graves, Lee M.; Madigan, James P.; Cox, Adrienne D.

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis-associated tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3/PTP4A is upregulated in numerous cancers, but the mechanisms modulating PRL-3 activity other than its expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report evidence for both Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PRL-3 and Src-mediated regulation of PRL-3 biological activities. We used structural mutants, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA to demonstrate Src-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous PRL-3 in SW480 colon cancer cells. We also demonstrated that PRL-3 was not tyrosine phosphorylated in SYF mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in Src, Yes and Fyn unless Src was re-expressed. Further, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can stimulate PRL-3 phosphorylation in a Src-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PRL-3-induced cell motility, Matrigel invasion and activation of the cytoskeleton-regulating small GTPase RhoC were abrogated in the presence of the phosphodeficient PRL-3 mutant Y53F, or by use of a Src inhibitor. Thus, PRL-3 requires the activity of a Src kinase, likely Src itself, to promote these cancer-associated phenotypes. Our data establish a model for the regulation of PRL-3 by Src that supports the possibility of their coordinate roles in signaling pathways promoting invasion and metastasis, and supports simultaneous use of novel molecularly targeted therapeutics directed at these proteins. PMID:23691193

  1. Grb2 negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity through the direct interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Hong, Won-Pyo; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Lee, Jong-Ryul; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-10-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation. Upon the stimulation of growth factors and hormones, PLC-gamma1 is rapidly phosphorylated at three known sites; Tyr771, Tyr783 and Tyr1254 and its enzymatic activity is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Grb2, an adaptor protein, specifically interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783. The association of Grb2 with PLC-gamma1 was induced by the treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Replacement of Tyr783 with Phe completely blocked EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Grb2, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783 is essential for the interaction with Grb2. Interestingly, the depletion of Grb2 from HEK-293 cells by RNA interference significantly enhanced increased EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+, while it did not affect EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. Furthermore, overexpression of Grb2 inhibited PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, these results suggest Grb2, in addition to its key function in signaling through Ras, may have a negatively regulatory role on EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  2. Src-mediated phosphorylation of the tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3 is required for PRL-3 promotion of Rho activation, motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Fiordalisi, James J; Dewar, Brian J; Graves, Lee M; Madigan, James P; Cox, Adrienne D

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis-associated tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3/PTP4A is upregulated in numerous cancers, but the mechanisms modulating PRL-3 activity other than its expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report evidence for both Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PRL-3 and Src-mediated regulation of PRL-3 biological activities. We used structural mutants, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA to demonstrate Src-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous PRL-3 in SW480 colon cancer cells. We also demonstrated that PRL-3 was not tyrosine phosphorylated in SYF mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in Src, Yes and Fyn unless Src was re-expressed. Further, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can stimulate PRL-3 phosphorylation in a Src-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PRL-3-induced cell motility, Matrigel invasion and activation of the cytoskeleton-regulating small GTPase RhoC were abrogated in the presence of the phosphodeficient PRL-3 mutant Y53F, or by use of a Src inhibitor. Thus, PRL-3 requires the activity of a Src kinase, likely Src itself, to promote these cancer-associated phenotypes. Our data establish a model for the regulation of PRL-3 by Src that supports the possibility of their coordinate roles in signaling pathways promoting invasion and metastasis, and supports simultaneous use of novel molecularly targeted therapeutics directed at these proteins.

  3. Activity of Crohn's disease assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound analysis of the affected loops.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J M; Maldonado, L; Sanchiz, V; Minguez, M; Benages, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate with colour Doppler ultrasound the vascular changes in the wall of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, and to establish whether these changes reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. Seventy-nine patients with Crohn's disease (44 with active disease and 35 inactive patients) were studied with frequency- and amplitude-encoded duplex Doppler sonography. A group of 35 healthy volunteers were also included. The exam consisted of the search for colour signals in the walls of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, classifying the degree of vascularity with a simple scoring system into three groups: absence of colour signal (score of 0); weak or scattered colour signals (score of 1); and multiple colour signals or clear identification of vessels in the loops walls (score of 2). Doppler curves were obtained of the detected vessels with measurement of the resistive index (RI). There was a visible increase in the gut walls' vascularity in the active patients compared with those with inactive disease. The mean RI was statistically significantly lower in the gut wall vessels of the patients with active illness than that obtained in the inactive patients. Colour Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease.

  4. Synaptic generation of an intracellular retrograde signal requires activation of the tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Stough, Shara; Kopec, Ashley M; Carew, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Cellular changes underlying memory formation can be generated in an activity-dependent manner at specific synapses. Thus an important question concerns the mechanisms by which synaptic signals communicate with the cell body to mediate these cellular changes. A monosynaptic circuit that is enhanced by sensitization in Aplysia is well-suited to study this question because three different subcellular compartments: (i) the sensorimotor SN-MN synapses, (ii) the SN projections to MNs via axonal connections, (iii) the SN cell bodies, can all be manipulated and studied independently. Here, we report that activity-dependent (AD) training in either the entire SN-MN circuit or in only the synaptic compartment, activates MAPK in a temporally and spatially specific pattern. Specifically, we find (i) MAPK activation is first transiently generated at SN-MN synapses during training, (ii) immediately after training MAPK is transiently activated in SN-MN axonal connections and persistently activated in SN cell bodies, and finally, (iii) MAPK is activated in SN cell bodies and SN-MN synapses 1h after training. These data suggest that there is an intracellularly transported retrograde signal generated at the synapse which is later responsible for delayed MAPK activation at SN somata. Finally, we find that this retrograde signal requires activation of tyrosine kinase (TK) and MEK signaling cascades at the synapses.

  5. Dysregulation of catalase activity in newborn myocytes during hypoxia is mediated by c-Abl tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Cabigas, E Bernadette; Liu, Jie; Boopathy, Archana V; Che, Pao Lin; Crawford, Brian H; Baroi, Gitangali; Bhutani, Srishti; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B; Davis, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    In the adult heart, catalase (CAT) activity increases appropriately with increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide, conferring cardioprotection. This mechanism is absent in the newborn for unknown reasons. In the present study, we examined how the posttranslational modification of CAT contributes to its activation during hypoxia/ischemia and the role of c-Abl tyrosine kinase in this process. Hypoxia studies were carried out using primary cardiomyocytes from adult (>8 weeks) and newborn rats. Following hypoxia, the ratio of phosphorylated to total CAT and c-Abl in isolated newborn rat myocytes did not increase and were significantly lower (1.3- and 4.2-fold, respectively; P < .05) than their adult counterparts. Similarly, there was a significant association (P < .0005) between c-Abl and CAT in adult cells following hypoxia (30.9 ± 8.2 to 70.7 ± 13.1 au) that was absent in newborn myocytes. Although ubiquitination of CAT was higher in newborns compared to adults following hypoxia, inhibition of this did not improve CAT activity. When a c-Abl activator (5-(1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydantoin [DPH], 200 µmol/L) was administered prior to hypoxia, not only CAT activity was significantly increased (P < .05) but also phosphorylation levels were also significantly improved (P < .01) in these newborn myocytes. Additionally, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) studies were performed using newborn (4-5 days) rabbit hearts perfused in a Langendorff method. The DPH given as an intracardiac injection into the right ventricle of newborn rabbit resulted in a significant improvement (P < .002) in the recovery of developed pressure after IR, a key indicator of cardiac function (from 74.6% ± 6.6% to 118.7% ± 10.9%). In addition, CAT activity was increased 3.92-fold (P < .02) in the same DPH-treated hearts. Addition of DPH to adult rabbits in contrast had no significant effect (from 71.3% ± 10.7% to 59.4% ± 12.1%). Therefore, in the newborn, decreased phosphorylation of CAT by c

  6. Electrostatic environment surrounding the activation loop phosphotyrosine in the oncoprotein v-Fps.

    PubMed

    Leon, B C; Tsigelny, I; Adams, J A

    2001-08-28

    Autophosphorylation of Tyr-1073 in the activation loop of the oncoprotein v-Fps enhances the phosphoryl transfer reaction without influencing substrate, ATP, or metal ion binding affinities [Saylor, P., et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 17875-17881]. A structural model of v-Fps, generated from the insulin receptor, indicates that pTyr-1073 chelates two arginines. Mutation of these residues to alanine (R1042A and R1066A) results in weakly phosphorylated enzymes, indicating that one electropositive center is insufficient for attaining maximum loop phosphorylation and concomitant high catalytic activity. While the turnover rate for R1066A is similar to that for a mutant lacking a phosphorylatable residue in the activation loop, the rate for R1042A is 50-fold slower. While solvent perturbation studies suggest that the former is due to a slow phosphoryl transfer step, the latter effect results from a slow conformational change in the mutant, potentially linked to motions in the catalytic loop. Binding of a stoichiometric quantity of Mg(2+) is essential for ATP binding and catalysis, while binding of an additional Mg(2+) ion activates further the wild-type enzyme. The affinity of the R1066A enzyme for the second Mg(2+) ion is 23-fold higher than that of the phosphorylated or unphosphorylated form of wild-type v-Fps, with substrate binding unaffected. Conversely, the affinity of R1066A for a substrate mimic lacking a phosphorylation site is 12-fold higher than that for the phosphorylated or unphosphorylated form of wild-type v-Fps, with binding of the second Mg(2+) ion unaffected. A comparison of these enzyme-independent parameters indicates that Arg-1042 and Arg-1066 induce strain in the active site in the repressed form of the enzyme. While this strain is not relieved in the phosphorylated form, the improvements in catalysis in activated v-Fps compensate for reduced metal and substrate binding affinities.

  7. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-11-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

  8. Selective antiviral activity of synthetic soluble L-tyrosine and L-dopa melanins against human immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Montefiori, D C; Zhou, J Y

    1991-01-01

    Melanins are pigments found in hair, skin, irides of the eye, and brain. Their functions in mammals include protection from exposure to sunlight, camouflage from predators, sexual recognition within species, and possible electron transfer reactants. Most natural melanins exist in an insoluble form, which is one reason there is little information on the biological properties of soluble melanins. Here, synthetic soluble melanins were obtained by chemical oxidation of L-tyrosine or spontaneous oxidation of L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). Replication of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) was inhibited by soluble melanin in two human lymphoblastoid cell lines (MT-2 and H9) and in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human T cells. Effective concentrations of 0.15-10 micrograms/ml had no cell toxicity. Melanin blocked infection by cell-free virus and interfered with HIV-induced syncytium formation and cytopathic effects when fusion-susceptible, uninfected cells, were mixed with chronically infected cells. Melanin also impeded the HIV-1 envelope surface glycoprotein, and T cell specific monoclonal antibody leu-3a (CD4), but not leu-5b (CD2), from binding to the surface of MT-2 cells. No effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in viral lysates was observed. These results identify a unique biological property of melanin, and suggest that soluble melanins may represent a new class of pharmacologically active substances which should be further investigated for potential therapeutic utility in the treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

  9. Identification of an activator protein-1-like sequence as the glucocorticoid response element in the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Rani, C S Sheela; Elango, Narayanasamy; Wang, Shou-Shu; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Strong, Randy

    2009-03-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) generally stimulate gene transcription via consensus glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) located in the promoter region. To identify the GRE in the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene promoter, we transiently transfected PC12 cells with a 9-kilobase (kb) TH promoter-luciferase (Luc) construct. Dexamethasone (Dex) stimulated Luc activity, which was abolished by mifepristone (RU486). Serial deletion mutations revealed a Dex-responsive 7-base pair (bp) sequence, TGACTAA, located at -5734 to -5728. Deletion of just these seven nucleotides from the 9-kb promoter completely abolished the Dex response and partially reduced the response to phorbol ester but not to forskolin. The Dex response was fully retained in a construct in which most of the 9-kb promoter was deleted, except for 100 bp around the -5.7-kb region, clearly identifying this 7-bp sequence as solely responsible for GC responsiveness. Conversely, deletion of the proximal cAMP-response element (-45/-38) or activator protein-1 (AP-1) (-207/-201) sites in the 9-kb promoter did not affect Dex and phorbol ester responses. A radiolabeled 25-bp promoter fragment bearing the 7-bp TH-GRE/AP-1 showed specific binding to PC12 nuclear proteins. Using antibodies against the glucocorticoid receptors and AP-1 family of proteins and primers for the TH-GRE/AP-1 region, we detected a specific DNA amplicon in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. This 7-bp TH-GRE/AP-1 sequence (TGACTAA) does not bear similarity to any known GRE but closely resembles the consensus AP-1 binding site, TGACTCA. Our studies describe for the first time a novel GRE/AP-1 site present in the TH gene promoter that is critical for glucocorticoid regulation of the TH gene.

  10. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    PubMed

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  11. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) enhances Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Luan, Yi-Fei; Guo, Peng; Li, Yi-Hang; Liu, Yong; Qi, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that Src could modulate NMDA receptor, and PAR1 could also affect NMDAR signaling. However, whether PAR1 could regulate NMDAR through Src under ICH has not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the role of Src-PSD95-GluN2A signaling cascades in rat ICH model and in vitro thrombin challenged model. Using the PAR1 agonist SFLLR, antagonist RLLFS and Src inhibitor PP2, electrophysiological analysis showed that PAR1 regulated NMDA-induced whole-cell currents (INMDA) though Src in primary cultured neurons. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed the elevated phosphorylation of tyrosine in Src and GluN2A and enhanced interaction of the Src-PSD95-GluN2A under model conditions. Treatment with the PAR1 antagonist RLLFS, AS-PSD95 (Antisense oligonucleotide against PSD95) and Src inhibitor PP2 inhibited the interaction among Src-PSD95-GluN2A, and p-Src, p-GluN2A. Co-application of SFLLR and AS-PSD95, PP2, or MK801 (NMDAR inhibitor) abolished the effect of SF. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that activated thrombin receptor PAR1 induced Src activation, enhanced the interaction among Src-PSD95-GluN2A signaling modules, and up-regulated GluN2A phosphorylation after ICH injury. Elucidation of such signaling cascades would possibly provide novel targets for ICH treatment. PMID:27385592

  12. Zn2+-dependent Activation of the Trk Signaling Pathway Induces Phosphorylation of the Brain-enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Rajagopal, Sathyanarayanan; Shuttleworth, C. William; Paul, Surojit

    2016-01-01

    Excessive release of Zn2+ in the brain is implicated in the progression of acute brain injuries. Although several signaling cascades have been reported to be involved in Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity, a potential contribution of tyrosine phosphatases in this process has not been well explored. Here we show that exposure to high concentrations of Zn2+ led to a progressive increase in phosphorylation of the striatal-enriched phosphatase (STEP), a component of the excitotoxic-signaling pathway that plays a role in neuroprotection. Zn2+-mediated phosphorylation of STEP61 at multiple sites (hyperphosphorylation) was induced by the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) signaling, and activation of cAMP-dependent PKA (protein kinase A). Mutational studies further show that differential phosphorylation of STEP61 at the PKA sites, Ser-160 and Ser-221 regulates the affinity of STEP61 toward its substrates. Consistent with these findings we also show that BDNF/Trk/PKA mediated signaling is required for Zn2+-induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), a substrate of STEP that is involved in Zn2+-dependent neurotoxicity. The strong correlation between the temporal profile of STEP61 hyperphosphorylation and ERK2 phosphorylation indicates that loss of function of STEP61 through phosphorylation is necessary for maintaining sustained ERK2 phosphorylation. This interpretation is further supported by the findings that deletion of the STEP gene led to a rapid and sustained increase in ERK2 phosphorylation within minutes of exposure to Zn2+. The study provides further insight into the mechanisms of regulation of STEP61 and also offers a molecular basis for the Zn2+-induced sustained activation of ERK2. PMID:26574547

  13. Epileptic Activity Increases Cerebral Amino Acid Transport Assessed by 18F-Fluoroethyl-l-Tyrosine Amino Acid PET: A Potential Brain Tumor Mimic.

    PubMed

    Hutterer, Markus; Ebner, Yvonne; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Willuweit, Antje; McCoy, Mark; Egger, Barbara; Schröder, Michael; Wendl, Christina; Hellwig, Dirk; Grosse, Jirka; Menhart, Karin; Proescholdt, Martin; Fritsch, Brita; Urbach, Horst; Stockhammer, Guenther; Roelcke, Ulrich; Galldiks, Norbert; Meyer, Philipp T; Langen, Karl-Josef; Hau, Peter; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET is a well-established method increasingly used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring in gliomas. Epileptic activity, frequently occurring in glioma patients, can influence MRI findings. Whether seizures also affect (18)F-FET PET imaging is currently unknown. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the brain amino acid metabolism during epileptic seizures by (18)F-FET PET and to elucidate the pathophysiologic background.

  14. Inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by CD44 receptor activation of tyrosine kinases increases the action potential afterhyperpolarization in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Biswarup; Li, Yan; Thayer, Stanley A

    2011-02-16

    The cytoplasmic Ca(2+) clearance rate affects neuronal excitability, plasticity, and synaptic transmission. Here, we examined the modulation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) by tyrosine kinases. In rat sensory neurons grown in culture, the PMCA was under tonic inhibition by a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Ca(2+) clearance accelerated in the presence of selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Tonic inhibition of the PMCA was attenuated in cells expressing a dominant-negative construct or shRNA directed to message for the SFKs Lck or Fyn, but not Src. SFKs did not appear to phosphorylate the PMCA directly but instead activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Expression of constitutively active FAK enhanced and dominant-negative or shRNA knockdown of FAK attenuated tonic inhibition. Antisense knockdown of PMCA isoform 4 removed tonic inhibition of Ca(2+) clearance, indicating that FAK acts on PMCA4. The hyaluronan receptor CD44 activates SFK-FAK signaling cascades and is expressed in sensory neurons. Treating neurons with a CD44-blocking antibody or short hyaluronan oligosaccharides, which are produced during injury and displace macromolecular hyaluronan from CD44, attenuated tonic PMCA inhibition. Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels mediate a slow afterhyperpolarization in sensory neurons that was inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and enhanced by knockdown of PMCA4. Thus, we describe a novel kinase cascade in sensory neurons that enables the extracellular matrix to alter Ca(2+) signals by modulating PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) clearance. This signaling pathway may influence the excitability of sensory neurons following injury.

  15. The role of active site tyrosine 58 in Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase.

    PubMed

    Anufrieva, Natalya V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Morozova, Elena A; Bazhulina, Natalia P; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Timofeev, Vladimir P; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2015-09-01

    In the spatial structure of methionine γ-lyase (MGL, EC 4.4.1.11) from Citrobacter freundii, Tyr58 is located at H-bonding distance to the oxygen atom of the phosphate "handle" of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). It was replaced for phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The X-ray structure of the mutant enzyme was determined at 1.96Å resolution. Comparison of spatial structures and absorption spectra of wild-type and mutant holoenzymes demonstrated that the replacement did not result in essential changes of the conformation of the active site Tyr58Phe MGL. The Kd value of PLP for Tyr58Phe MGL proved to be comparable to the Kd value for the wild-type enzyme. The replacement led to a decrease of catalytic efficiencies in both γ- and β-elimination reactions of about two orders of magnitude as compared to those for the wild-type enzyme. The rates of exchange of C-α- and C-β- protons of inhibitors in D2O catalyzed by the mutant form are comparable with those for the wild-type enzyme. Spectral data on the complexes of the mutant form with the substrates and inhibitors showed that the replacement led to a change of rate the limiting step of the physiological reaction. The results allowed us to conclude that Tyr58 is involved in an optimal positioning of the active site Lys210 at some stages of γ- and β-elimination reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications.

  16. Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Carol R.; Hankey, Pamela; Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary; Yu, Shan; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-07-15

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK{sup −/−} mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK{sup −/−} mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK{sup −/−} mice. Whereas F4/80{sup +} macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK{sup −/−} mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK{sup −/−} mice

  17. Tyrosine kinase activity of CD4-associated p56lck may not be required for CD4-dependent T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, T L; Burakoff, S J

    1993-01-01

    The lymphoid-specific tyrosine kinase p56lck (Lck) is critical for the development and activation of T lymphocytes, and Lck kinase activity has been implicated in both T-cell antigen receptor/CD3- and CD4-mediated signaling. CD4-dependent T-cell activation has been demonstrated to be dependent upon the association of CD4 with Lck. To examine the role of the kinase activity of Lck in CD4-dependent T-cell activation, we have generated several kinase-deficient mutants of Lck. When transfected into CD4+ murine T-cell hybridoma cells, these mutants cause approximately 90% diminution in CD4-associated Lck kinase activity. Specifically, upon CD4 crosslinking there is decreased Lck autophosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate. When CD4 is crosslinked to the T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex, decreased phosphorylation of associated substrates is also observed. In spite of this striking inhibition of Lck kinase function, cells expressing the kinase-deficient mutants demonstrate normal or enhanced CD4-dependent antigen responsiveness. These data demonstrate that the level of Lck kinase activity does not correlate with its CD4-associated function and suggest that the kinase activity of Lck may not be required for CD4-mediated signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7505449

  18. EFA6 controls Arf1 and Arf6 activation through a negative feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Dominique; Folly-Klan, Marcia; Labarde, Audrey; Boulakirba, Sonia; Campanacci, Valérie; Franco, Michel; Zeghouf, Mahel; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2014-08-26

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.

  19. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440

  20. The FcepsilonRIbeta immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif exerts inhibitory control on MAPK and IkappaB kinase phosphorylation and mast cell cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Furumoto, Yasuko; Nunomura, Satoshi; Terada, Tomoyoshi; Rivera, Juan; Ra, Chisei

    2004-11-19

    The high affinity IgE Fc receptor (FcepsilonRI) beta chain functions as a signal amplifier and has been linked to atopy, asthma, and allergy. Herein, we report on a previously unrecognized negative regulatory role for the nonconventional beta chain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif that contains three tyrosine residues (YX5YX3Y). Degranulation and leukotriene production was found to be impaired in cells expressing the mutated FcepsilonRIbeta immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs FYY, YYF, FYF, and FFF. In contrast, cytokine synthesis and secretion were enhanced in the YFY and FFF mutants. FcepsilonRI phosphorylation and Lyn kinase co-immunoprecipitation was intact in the YFY mutant but was lost in the FYF and FFF mutants. The phosphorylation of Syk, LAT, phospholipase gamma1/2, and Srchomology 2 domain-containing protein phosphatase 2 was intact, whereas the phosphorylation of SHIP-1 was significantly reduced in the YFY mutant cells. The FYF and FFF mutants were defective in phosphorylating all of these molecules. In contrast, the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAPK, IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), and nuclear NFkappaB activity was enhanced in the YFY and FFF mutants. These findings show that the FcepsilonRIbeta functions to both selectively amplify (degranulation and leukotriene secretion) and dampen (lymphokine) mast cell effector responses.

  1. Activation of protein phosphatase 2A in FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia cells enhances the cytotoxicity of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Erwin M.; Harrison, Celeste; Kahl, Richard; Flanagan, Hayley; Panicker, Nikita; Mashkani, Baratali; Don, Anthony S.; Morris, Jonathan; Toop, Hamish; Lock, Richard B.; Powell, Jason A.; Thomas, Daniel; Guthridge, Mark A.; Moore, Andrew; Ashman, Leonie K.; Skelding, Kathryn A.; Enjeti, Anoop; Verrills, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), via co-expression of its ligand or by genetic mutation, is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we show that FLT3 activation inhibits the activity of the tumor suppressor, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Using BaF3 cells transduced with wildtype or mutant FLT3, we show that FLT3-induced PP2A inhibition sensitizes cells to the pharmacological PP2A activators, FTY720 and AAL(S). FTY720 and AAL(S) induced cell death and inhibited colony formation of FLT3 activated cells. Furthermore, PP2A activators reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, downstream targets shared by both FLT3 and PP2A, in FLT3/ITD+ BaF3 and MV4-11 cell lines. PP2A activity was lower in primary human bone marrow derived AML blasts compared to normal bone marrow, with blasts from FLT3-ITD patients displaying lower PP2A activity than WT-FLT3 blasts. Reduced PP2A activity was associated with hyperphosphorylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit, and reduced expression of PP2A structural and regulatory subunits. AML patient blasts were also sensitive to cell death induced by FTY720 and AAL(S), but these compounds had minimal effect on normal CD34+ bone marrow derived monocytes. Finally, PP2A activating compounds displayed synergistic effects when used in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in FLT3-ITD+ cells. A combination of Sorafenib and FTY720 was also synergistic in the presence of a protective stromal microenvironment. Thus combining a PP2A activating compound and a FLT3 inhibitor may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating AML. PMID:27329844

  2. A Conserved Active Site Tyrosine Residue of Proline Dehydrogenase Helps Enforce the Preference for Proline over Hydroxyproline as the Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, E.L.; Larson, J.D.; Schuermann, J.P.; Tanner, J.J.

    2009-03-02

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to {Delta}-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insight into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analogue L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75, 1.90, and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline 3-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of 20 (Y540S) and 50 (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding the substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate.

  3. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and hemITAM signaling and vascular integrity in inflammation and development.

    PubMed

    Lee, R H; Bergmeier, W

    2016-04-01

    Platelets are essential for maintaining hemostasis following mechanical injury to the vasculature. Besides this established function, novel roles of platelets are becoming increasingly recognized, which are critical in non-injury settings to maintain vascular barrier integrity. For example, during embryogenesis platelets act to support the proper separation of blood and lymphatic vessels. This role continues beyond birth, where platelets prevent leakage of blood into the lymphatic vessel network. During the course of inflammation, platelets are necessary to prevent local hemorrhage due to neutrophil diapedesis and disruption of endothelial cell-cell junctions. Surprisingly, platelets also work to secure tumor-associated blood vessels, inhibiting excessive vessel permeability and intra-tumor hemorrhaging. Interestingly, many of these novel platelet functions depend on immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling but not on signaling via G protein-coupled receptors, which plays a crucial role in platelet plug formation at sites of mechanical injury. Murine platelets express two ITAM-containing receptors: the Fc receptor γ-chain (FcRγ), which functionally associates with the collagen receptor GPVI, and the C-type lectin-like 2 (CLEC-2) receptor, a hemITAM receptor for the mucin-type glycoprotein podoplanin. Human platelets express an additional ITAM receptor, FcγRIIA. These receptors share common downstream effectors, including Syk, SLP-76 and PLCγ2. Here we will review the recent literature that highlights a critical role for platelet GPVI/FcRγ and CLEC-2 in vascular integrity during development and inflammation in mice and discuss the relevance to human disease.

  4. E7080 (lenvatinib), a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates antitumor activities against colorectal cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wiegering, Armin; Korb, Doreen; Thalheimer, Andreas; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Allmanritter, Jan; Matthes, Niels; Linnebacher, Michael; Schlegel, Nicolas; Klein, Ingo; Ergün, Süleyman; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Otto, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Clinical prognosis of metastasized colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is still not at desired levels and novel drugs are needed. Here, we focused on the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor E7080 (Lenvatinib) and assessed its therapeutic efficacy against human CRC cell lines in vitro and human CRC xenografts in vivo. The effect of E7080 on cell viability was examined on 10 human CRC cell lines and human endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitory effect of E7080 on VEGF-induced angiogenesis was studied in an ex vivo mouse aortic ring angiogenesis assay. In addition, the efficacy of E7080 against xenografts derived from CRC cell lines and CRC patient resection specimens with mutated KRAS was investigated in vivo. A relatively low cytotoxic effect of E7080 on CRC cell viability was observed in vitro. Endothelial cells (HUVEC) were more susceptible to the incubation with E7080. This is in line with the observation that E7080 demonstrated an anti-angiogenic effect in a three-dimensional ex vivo mouse aortic ring angiogenesis assay. E7080 effectively disrupted CRC cell-mediated VEGF-stimulated growth of HUVEC in vitro. Daily in vivo treatment with E7080 (5 mg/kg) significantly delayed the growth of KRAS mutated CRC xenografts with decreased density of tumor-associated vessel formations and without tumor regression. This observation is in line with results that E7080 did not significantly reduce the number of Ki67-positive cells in CRC xenografts. The results suggest antiangiogenic activity of E7080 at a dosage that was well tolerated by nude mice. E7080 may provide therapeutic benefits in the treatment of CRC with mutated KRAS.

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition.

  6. New insights into the structural bases of activation of Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors of the Cys-loop superfamily mediate rapid synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system, and include receptors activated by ACh, GABA, glycine and serotonin. They are involved in physiological processes, including learning and memory, and in neurological disorders, and they are targets for clinically relevant drugs. Cys-loop receptors assemble either from five copies of one type of subunit, giving rise to homomeric receptors, or from several types of subunits, giving rise to heteromeric receptors. Homomeric receptors are invaluable models for probing fundamental relationships between structure and function. Receptors contain a large extracellular domain that carries the binding sites and a transmembrane region that forms the ion pore. How the structural changes elicited by agonist binding are propagated through a distance of 50Å to the ion channel gate is central to understanding receptor function. Depending on the receptor subtype, occupancy of either two, as in the prototype muscle nicotinic receptor, or three binding sites, as in homomeric receptors, is required for full activation. The conformational changes initiated at the binding sites are propagated to the gate through the interface between the extracellular and transmembrane domains. This region forms a network that relays structural changes from the binding site towards the pore, and also contributes to open channel lifetime and rate of desensitization. Thus, this coupling region controls the beginning and duration of a synaptic response. Here we review recent advances in the molecular mechanism by which Cys-loop receptors are activated with particular emphasis on homomeric receptors.

  7. VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS FOR A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION FAN LOOP FROM HINODE/EIS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P. R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Mason, H. E.

    2012-01-01

    The velocity pattern of a fan loop structure within a solar active region over the temperature range 0.15-1.5 MK is derived using data from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode satellite. The loop is aligned toward the observer's line of sight and shows downflows (redshifts) of around 15 km s{sup -1} up to a temperature of 0.8 MK, but for temperatures of 1.0 MK and above the measured velocity shifts are consistent with no net flow. This velocity result applies over a projected spatial distance of 9 Mm and demonstrates that the cooler, redshifted plasma is physically disconnected from the hotter, stationary plasma. A scenario in which the fan loops consist of at least two groups of 'strands'-one cooler and downflowing, the other hotter and stationary-is suggested. The cooler strands may represent a later evolutionary stage of the hotter strands. A density diagnostic of Mg VII was used to show that the electron density at around 0.8 MK falls from 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} at the loop base, to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} at a projected height of 15 Mm. A filling factor of 0.2 is found at temperatures close to the formation temperature of Mg VII (0.8 MK), confirming that the cooler, downflowing plasma occupies only a fraction of the apparent loop volume. The fan loop is rooted within a so-called outflow region that displays low intensity and blueshifts of up to 25 km s{sup -1} in Fe XII {lambda}195.12 (formed at 1.5 MK), in contrast to the loop's redshifts of 15 km s{sup -1} at 0.8 MK. A new technique for obtaining an absolute wavelength calibration for the EIS instrument is presented and an instrumental effect, possibly related to a distorted point-spread function, that affects velocity measurements is identified.

  8. The Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase negatively regulates Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis through immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing phagocytic receptors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koji; Malykhin, Alexander; Coggeshall, K Mark

    2002-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms by which the Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) negatively regulates phagocytosis in macrophages are unclear. We addressed the issue using bone marrow-derived macrophages from FcgammaR- or SHIP-deficient mice. Phagocytic activities of macrophages from FcgammaRII(b)(-/-) and SHIP(-/-) mice were enhanced to a similar extent, relative to those from wild type. However, calcium influx was only marginally affected in FcgammaRII(b)(-/-), but greatly enhanced in SHIP(-/-) macrophages. Furthermore, SHIP was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon FcgammaR aggregation even in macrophages from FcgammaRII(b)(-/-) mice or upon clustering of a chimeric receptor containing CD8 and the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing gamma-chain or human-restricted FcgammaRIIa. These findings indicate that, unlike B cells, SHIP is efficiently phosphorylated in the absence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-bearing receptor. We further demonstrate that SHIP directly bound to phosphorylated peptides derived from FcgammaRIIa with a high affinity, comparable to that of FcgammaRII(b). Lastly, FcgammaRIIa-mediated phagocytosis was significantly enhanced in THP-1 cells overexpressing dominant-negative form of SHIP in the absence of FcgammaRII(b). These results indicate that SHIP negatively regulates FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis through all ITAM-containing IgG receptors using a molecular mechanism distinct from that in B cells.

  9. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease affects the tyrosine kinase activity associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, M P; Panariello, L; Quadro, L; Dathan, N A; Fattoruso, O; Colantuoni, V

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Hirschsprung (HSCR) mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene abolishes in cis the tyrosine-phosphorylation associated with the activating mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) in transiently transfected Cos cells. Yet the double mutant RET2AHS retains the ability to form stable dimers, thus dissociating the dimerization from the phosphorylation potential. Co-transfection experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids RET2A and RET2AHS in different ratios drastically reduced the phosphorylation levels of the RET2A protein, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of the HSCR mutation. Also, the phosphorylation associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) allele was affected in experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids co-transfected under the same conditions. Finally, analysis of the enzymic activity of MEN2A and MEN2B tumours confirmed the relative levels of tyrosine phosphorylation observed in Cos cells, indicating that this condition, in vivo, may account for the RET transforming potential. PMID:8670046

  10. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    PubMed

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Park, Choongseok; Ben-Tal, Alona; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rubin, Jonathan E; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2) exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient ventilation. The model

  11. An essential tyrosine residue of Aspergillus polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Stratilová, E; Dzúrová, M; Markovic, O; Jörnvall, H

    1996-03-11

    Based on strict conservation of a tyrosine residue in 24 polygalacturonases, tyrosine modification was assessed in two different forms of the Aspergillus enzyme. The second subform was unknown in structure but submitted to sequence analysis and was found also to have the conserved tyrosine residue. Results of chemical modifications are consistent in showing inactivation of the proteins with all tyrosine-reactive agents tested, acetic anhydride, N-acetyl imidazole, and tetranitromethane. Furthermore, after acetylation, regeneration of enzyme activity was possible with hydroxylamine. Spectrophotometric pH titration showed that one accessible tyrosine residue is ionized at pH 9.3-9.5, whereas the remaining, masked residues are all ionized at pH 10.5. It is concluded that one tyrosine residue is catalytically important, in agreement with the inactivation and reactivation data, that this residue is accessible, and that it is likely to correspond to the strictly conserved residue observed in all forms.

  12. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji; Gaspar, Paula; Siedler, Solvej; Förster, Jochen; Maury, Jérôme; Borodina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches. We therefore identified 22 sequences in silico using synteny information and aiming for sequence divergence. We performed a comparative in vivo study, expressing the genes intracellularly in bacteria and yeast. When produced heterologously, some enzymes resulted in significantly higher production of p-coumaric acid in several different industrially important production organisms. Three novel enzymes were found to have activity exclusively for phenylalanine, including an enzyme from the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterial-type enzyme from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, and a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (producing 230 μM cinnamic acid per unit of optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) in the medium using Escherichia coli as the heterologous host). Novel tyrosine ammonia-lyases having higher reported substrate specificity than previously characterized enzymes were also identified. Enzymes from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae resulted in high production of p-coumaric acid in Escherichia coli (producing 440 μM p-coumaric acid OD600 unit−1 in the medium) and in Lactococcus lactis. The enzymes were also efficient in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where p-coumaric acid accumulation was improved 5-fold over that in strains expressing previously characterized tyrosine ammonia-lyases. PMID:25911487

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the BRI1 receptor kinase occurs via a posttranslational modification and is activated by the juxtamembrane domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In metazoans, receptor kinases control many essential processes related to growth and development and response to the environment. The receptor kinases in plants and animals are structurally similar but evolutionarily distinct from one another, and thus while most animal receptor kinases are tyrosin...

  14. Calcineurin/nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT)-activating and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing protein (CNAIP), a novel ITAM-containing protein that activates the calcineurin/NFAT-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhua; Hu, Guanghui; Wang, Shen-Wu; Li, Yucheng; Martin, Rachel; Li, Kang; Yao, Zhengbin

    2003-05-09

    We report in this study the identification and characterization of a novel protein that we designated as calcineurin/NFAT-activating and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing protein (CNAIP). The predicted 270-amino acid sequence contains an N-terminal signal peptide, an immunoglobin domain in the extracellular region, a transmembrane domain and an ITAM in the cytoplasmic tail. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that CNAIP was preferentially expressed in neutrophils, monocytes, mast cells, and other immune-related cells. Co-transfection of CNAIP expression constructs with luciferase reporter plasmids in HMC-1 cells resulted in activation of interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoters, which was mediated through the calcineurin/NFAT-signaling pathway. Mutation of either or both tyrosines in the ITAM abolished transcriptional activation induced by CNAIP, indicating that the ITAM is indispensable for CNAIP function in activating cytokine gene promoters. Thus, it is concluded that CNAIP is a novel ITAM-containing protein that activates the calcineurin/NFAT-signaling pathway and the downstream cytokine gene promoters.

  15. Autocatalytic tyrosine-phosphorylation of protein kinase CK2 alpha and alpha' subunits: implication of Tyr182.

    PubMed Central

    Donella-Deana, A; Cesaro, L; Sarno, S; Brunati, A M; Ruzzene, M; Pinna, L A

    2001-01-01

    CK2 is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits, whose mechanism of modulation is still obscure. Here we show that CK2 alpha/alpha' subunits undergo intermolecular (trans) tyrosine-autophosphorylation, which is dependent on intrinsic catalytic activity and is suppressed by the individual mutation of Tyr182, a crucial residue of the activation loop, to phenylalanine. At variance with serine-autophosphorylation, tyrosine-autophosphorylation of CK2alpha is reversed by ADP and GDP and is counteracted by the beta-subunit and by a peptide reproducing the activation loop of CK2alpha/alpha' (amino acids 175-201). These results disclose new perspectives about the mode of regulation of CK2 catalytic subunits. PMID:11439109

  16. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  17. Prevention of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation by 3,4-methylenedioxy-beta-nitrostyrene, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ya; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2006-10-01

    Binding fibrinogen to activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa is the final common pathway of platelet aggregation and has become a successful target for antiplatelet therapy. In the present study, we found that a small chemical compound, 3,4-methyl-enedioxy-beta-nitrostyrene (MNS), exhibited potent and broad-spectrum inhibitory effects on human platelet aggregation caused by various stimulators. Moreover, addition of MNS to human platelets that had been aggregated by ADP caused a rapid disaggregation. We demonstrated that the antiaggregatory activity of MNS is due to inhibition of GPIIb/IIIa activation by measuring the binding amount of PAC-1 in platelets. In contrast, MNS is not a direct antagonist of GPIIb/IIIa, because MNS did not affect fibrinogen binding to fixed ADP-stimulated platelets. By investigating how MNS inhibits GPIIb/IIIa activation, we found that MNS potently inhibited the activity of tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk) and prevented protein tyrosine phosphorylation and cytoskeletal association of GPIIb/IIIa and talin, but it had no direct effects on protein kinase C, Ca2+ mobilization, Ca2+-dependent enzymes (myosin light chain kinase and calpain), and arachidonic acid metabolism, and it did not affect the cellular levels of cyclic nucleotides. Therefore, MNS represents a new class of tyrosine kinase inhibitor that potently prevents GPIIb/IIIa activation and platelet aggregation without directly affecting other signaling pathways required for platelet activation. Because MNS inhibits GPIIb/IIIa functions in a manner different from GPIIb/IIIa antagonists, this feature may provide a new strategy for treatment of platelet-dependent thrombosis.

  18. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  19. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  20. Identification of a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing molecule, STAM2, by mass spectrometry and its involvement in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Fernandez, M M; Steen, H; Blagoev, B; Nielsen, M M; Roche, S; Mann, M; Lodish, H F

    2000-12-08

    In an effort to clone novel tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates of the epidermal growth factor receptor, we have initiated an approach coupling affinity purification using anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies to mass spectrometry-based identification. Here, we report the identification of a signaling molecule containing a Src homology 3 domain as well as an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). This molecule is 55% identical to a previously isolated molecule designated signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) that was identified as an interleukin (IL)-2-induced phosphoprotein and is therefore designated STAM2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAM2 is induced by growth factors such as epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor as well as by cytokines like IL-3. Several of the deletion mutants tested except the one containing only the amino-terminal region underwent tyrosine phosphorylation upon growth factor stimulation, implying that STAM2 is phosphorylated on several tyrosine residues. STAM2 is downstream of the Jak family of kinases since coexpression of STAM2 with Jak1 or Jak2 but not an unrelated Tec family kinase, Etk, resulted in its tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast to epidermal growth factor receptor-induced phosphorylation, this required the ITAM domain since mutants lacking this region did not undergo tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, overexpression of wild type STAM2 led to an increase in IL-2-mediated induction of c-Myc promoter activation indicating that it potentiates cytokine receptor signaling.

  1. Calcium alginate bead immobilization of cells containing tyrosine ammonia lyase activity for use in the production of p-hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Robert J; Camp, Carl E; Ben-Bassat, Arie; DiCosimo, Robert; Huang, Lixuan; Crum, Grace A; Sariaslani, F Sima; Haynie, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    An Escherichia coli catalyst with tyrosine ammonia lyase activity (TAL) has been stabilized for repeated use in batch conversions of high tyrosine solids to p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA). The TAL biocatalyst was stabilized by controlling the reaction pH to 9.8 +/- 0.1 and immobilizing the cells within a calcium alginate matrix that was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine (GA/PEI). We found a GA range where the bead-encapsulated TAL was not inactivated, and the resulting cross-linking provided the beads with the mechanical stability necessary for repeated use in consecutive batch reactions with catalyst recycle. The GA/PEI calcium alginate TAL catalyst was used in 41 1-L batch reactions where 50 g L(-1) tyrosine was converted to 39 +/- 4 g L(-1) pHCA in each batch. The practical usefulness and ease of this process was demonstrated by scaling up the TAL bead immobilization and using the immobilized TAL catalyst in four 125-L bioconversion reactions to produce over 12 kg of purified pHCA.

  2. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif phosphorylation during engulfment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the neutrophil-restricted CEACAM3 (CD66d) receptor.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Shannon E; Schneider, Jutta; Liao, Edward H; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2003-08-01

    Gonorrhea is characterized by a purulent urethral or cervical discharge consisting primarily of neutrophils associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These interactions are facilitated by gonococcal colony opacity-associated (Opa) protein binding to host cellular CEACAM receptors. Of these, CEACAM3 is restricted to neutrophils and contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) reminiscent of that found within certain phagocytic Fc receptors. CEACAM3 was tyrosine phosphorylated by a Src family kinase-dependent process upon infection by gonococci expressing CEACAM-specific Opa proteins. This phosphorylation was necessary for efficient bacterial uptake; however, a less efficient uptake process became evident when kinase inhibitors or mutagenesis of the ITAM were used to prevent phosphorylation. Ligated CEACAM3 was recruited to a cytoskeleton-containing fraction, intense foci of polymerized actin were evident where bacteria attached to HeLa-CEACAM3, and disruption of polymerized actin by cytochalasin D blocked all bacterial uptake by these cells. These data support a model whereby CEACAM3 can mediate the Opa-dependent uptake of N. gonorrhoeae via either an efficient, ITAM phosphorylation-dependent process that resembles phagocytosis or a less efficient, tyrosine phosphorylation-independent mechanism.

  3. Use of an open-loop system to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, James N; Lobarinas, Christina L; Barkley, Jacob E; White, Tressa M; Paluch, Rocco; Epstein, Leonard H

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children's physical activity. Nonoverweight, sedentary boys and girls (8-12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physical activity by providing access to television (F+R, n = 20); or to feedback, no reinforcement (Feedback, n = 20) or no feedback, no reinforcement control (Control, n = 21) groups. Children wore an accelerometer with a count display for 4-months with a 1-year follow-up. F+R reduced TV by 68 min/day and TV time was lower than the Feedback (p < .005) and Control (p < .002) groups. TV time of F+R remained 31 min lower (p < .02) than baseline at 1-year. F+R had a 44% increase in physical activity, which was greater than the feedback (p < .04) and control (p < .01) groups. An open-loop system decreases TV viewing and increases physical activity of children for 4-months. TV of the F+R group remained lower at 12 months, suggesting a reduction in screen-time habits.

  4. Sensory and decision-related activity propagate in a cortical feedback loop during touch perception

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sung Eun; Yang, Hongdian; Minamisawa, Genki; O’Connor, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The brain transforms physical sensory stimuli into meaningful perceptions. In animals making choices about sensory stimuli, neuronal activity in successive cortical stages reflects a progression from sensation to decision. Feedforward and feedback pathways connecting cortical areas are critical for this transformation. However, the computational roles of these pathways are poorly understood because pathway-specific activity has rarely been monitored during a perceptual task. Using cellular-resolution, pathway-specific imaging, we measured neuronal activity across primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices of mice performing a tactile detection task. S1 encoded the stimulus better than S2, while S2 activity more strongly reflected perceptual choice. S1 neurons projecting to S2 fed forward activity that predicted choice. Activity encoding touch and choice propagated in an S1–S2 loop along feedforward and feedback axons. Our results suggest that sensory inputs converge into a perceptual outcome as feedforward computations are reinforced in a feedback loop. PMID:27437910

  5. Inhibition of Src tyrosine kinase activity by squamosamide derivative FLZ attenuates neuroinflammation in both in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Tai, Wenjiao; Ye, Xuan; Bao, Xiuqi; Zhao, Baozhong; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Dan

    2013-12-01

    The participation of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been validated. Excessive activated microglia release a large number of pro-inflammatory factors, damage surrounding neurons and eventually induce neurodegeneration. Inhibition of microglial over-activation might be a promising strategy for PD treatment. FLZ (formulated as: N-(2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl)-2-(2, 5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide, the code name: FLZ), a natural squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, has been shown to inhibit over-activated microglia and protect dopaminergic neurons in previous studies, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in vivo and in vitro PD models. FLZ treatment significantly improved the motor dysfunction of PD model rats induced by intra-nigral injection of LPS and this beneficial effect of FLZ attributed to the inhibition of microglial over-activation and the protection on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). In vitro mechanistic study revealed that the inhibitive effect of FLZ on microglia was mediated by suppressing Src kinase related inflammatory signaling pathway activation and subsequent NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation, inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation. In conclusion, the present study supports that FLZ exerts neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration through its anti-inflammatory effect, which is mediated by suppressing Src tyrosine kinase and the downstream inflammatory signaling pathway. Furthermore, this study defines a critical role of Src tyrosine kinase in neuroinflammation, and suggests that particular tyrosine kinase inhibition may be a potential anti-inflammatory approach for PD treatment.

  6. Involvement of c-Src tyrosine kinase in SHP-1 phosphatase activation by Ang II AT2 receptors in rat fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sergio E; Seguin, Leonardo R; Villarreal, Rodrigo S; Nahmias, Clara; Ciuffo, Gladys M

    2008-10-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) AT(2) receptors are abundantly expressed in rat fetal tissues where they probably contribute to development. In the present study we examine the effects of Ang II type 2 receptor stimulation on SHP-1 activation. Ang II (10(-7) M) elicits a rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-1, maximal at 1 min, in a dose-dependent form, blocked by the AT(2) antagonist, PD123319. SHP-1 phosphorylation is followed in time by tyrosine dephosphorylation of different proteins, suggesting a sequence of events. Ang II induces association of SHP-1 to AT(2) receptors as shown by co-immunoprecipitation, Western blot and binding assays. SHP-1 activity was determined in immunocomplexes obtained with either anti-AT(2) or anti-SHP-1 antibodies, after Ang II stimulation (1 min), in correlation with the maximal level of SHP-1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, following receptor stimulation (1 min) c-Src was associated to AT(2) or SHP-1 immunocomplexes. Preincubation with the c-Src inhibitor PP2 inhibited SHP-1 activation and c-Src association, thus confirming the participation of c-Src in this pathway. We demonstrated here for the first time the involvement of c-Src in SHP-1 activation via AT(2) receptors present in an ex vivo model expressing both receptor subtypes. In this model, AT(2) receptors are not constitutively associated to SHP-1 and SHP-1 is not constitutively activated. Thus, we clearly establish that SHP-1 activation, mediated by the AT(2) subtype, involves c-Src and precedes protein tyrosine dephosphorylation, in rat fetal membranes.

  7. Selectivity of Fungal Sesquiterpene Synthases: Role of the Active Site's H-1α Loop in Catalysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Wawrzyn, GraysonT.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate into a myriad of structurally diverse compounds with various biological activities. We examine here the role of the conserved active site H-α1 loop in catalysis in three previously characterized fungal sesquiterpene synthases. The H-α1 loops of Cop3, Cop4, and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus were altered by site-directed mutagenesis and the resultant product profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to the wild-type enzymes. In addition, we examine the effect of swapping the H-α1 loop from the promiscuous enzyme Cop4 with the more selective Cop6 and the effect of acidic or basic conditions on loop mutations in Cop4. Directed mutations of the H-α1 loop had a marked effect on the product profile of Cop3 and Cop4, while little to no change was shown in Cop6. Swapping of the Cop4 and Cop6 loops with one another was again shown to influence the product profile of Cop4, while the product profile of Cop6 remained identical to the wild-type enzyme. The loop mutations in Cop4 also implicate specific residues responsible for the pH sensitivity of the enzyme. These results affirm the role of the H-α1 loop in catalysis and provide a potential target to increase the product diversity of terpene synthases. PMID:20889795

  8. Isolation of betulinic acid, its methyl ester and guaiane sesquiterpenoids with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity from the roots of Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Na, Minkyun; Hyun Hwang, In; Ho Lee, Seung; Young Bae, Eun; Yeon Kim, Bo; Seog Ahn, Jong

    2009-01-08

    Activity-guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of the roots of Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke (Compositae), using an in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition assay, led to the isolation of four active constituents: betulinic acid (1), betulinic acid methyl ester (2), mokko lactone (3) and dehydrocostuslactone (4), along with nine inactive compounds. Our findings indicate that betulinic acid (1) and its methyl ester 2, as well as the two guaiane sesquiterpenoids 3 and 4 are potential lead moieties for the development of new PTP1B inhibitors.

  9. Extracellular loop 2 in the FSH receptor is crucial for ligand mediated receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Dupakuntla, Madhavi; Pathak, Bhakti; Roy, Binita Sur; Mahale, Smita D

    2012-10-15

    The present study aims to determine the role of the specific residues of the extracellular loops (ELs) of the FSH receptor (FSHR) in hormone binding and receptor activation. By substituting the sequences of each of the ELs of human FSHR with those of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR), we generated three mutant constructs where the three ELs were individually replaced. A fourth construct had all the three substituted ELs. The receptor expression and hormone binding ability of the mutants were comparable to that of the wild type. Hormone-induced signaling and internalization were lower in the EL2 substitution mutant (EL2M). In this mutant, the EL2 of FSHR was substituted with the corresponding loop of LH/CGR. Interestingly, homology modeling revealed a change in the orientation of EL2 in the mutant receptor. Thus, disruption of EL2 affected overall receptor function, suggesting the role of FSHR specific residues of the loop in ligand mediated signaling.

  10. Reconstructing a missing link in the evolution of a recently diverged phosphotriesterase by active-site loop remodeling.

    PubMed

    Afriat-Jurnou, Livnat; Jackson, Colin J; Tawfik, Dan S

    2012-08-07

    Only decades after the introduction of organophosphate pesticides, bacterial phosphotriesterases (PTEs) have evolved to catalyze their degradation with remarkable efficiency. Their closest known relatives, lactonases, with promiscuous phosphotriasterase activity, dubbed PTE-like lactonases (PLLs), share only 30% sequence identity and also differ in the configuration of their active-site loops. PTE was therefore presumed to have evolved from a yet unknown PLL whose primary activity was the hydrolysis of quorum sensing homoserine lactones (HSLs) (Afriat et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 13677-13686). However, how PTEs diverged from this presumed PLL remains a mystery. In this study we investigated loop remodeling as a means of reconstructing a homoserine lactonase ancestor that relates to PTE by few mutational steps. Although, in nature, loop remodeling is a common mechanism of divergence of enzymatic functions, reproducing this process in the laboratory is a challenge. Structural and phylogenetic analyses enabled us to remodel one of PTE's active-site loops into a PLL-like configuration. A deletion in loop 7, combined with an adjacent, highly epistatic, point mutation led to the emergence of an HSLase activity that is undetectable in PTE (k(cat)/K(M) values of up to 2 × 10(4)). The appearance of the HSLase activity was accompanied by only a minor decrease in PTE's paraoxonase activity. This specificity change demonstrates the potential role of bifunctional intermediates in the divergence of new enzymatic functions and highlights the critical contribution of loop remodeling to the rapid divergence of new enzyme functions.

  11. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month.

  12. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  13. Mutational analysis of the active site flap (20s loop) of mandelate racemase.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Jennifer R; Bearne, Stephen L

    2008-01-15

    Mandelate racemase from Pseudomonas putida catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent 1,1-proton transfer that interconverts the enantiomers of mandelate. Residues of the 20s and 50s loops determine, in part, the topology and polarity of the active site and hence the substrate specificity. Previously, we proposed that, during racemization, the phenyl ring of mandelate moves between an S-pocket comprised of residues from the 50s loop and an R-pocket comprised of residues from the 20s loop [Siddiqi, F., Bourque, J. R., Jiang, H., Gardner, M., St. Maurice, M., Blouin, C., and Bearne, S. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 9013-9021]. The 20s loop constitutes a mobile beta-meander flap that covers the active site cavity shielding it from solvent and controlling entry and egress of ligands. To understand the role of the 20s loop in catalysis and substrate specificity, we constructed a series of mutants (V22A, V22I, V22F, T24S, A25V, V26A, V26L, V26F, V29A, V29L, V29F, V26A/V29L, and V22I/V29L) in which the sizes of hydrophobic side chains of the loop residues were varied. Catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) for all mutants were reduced between 6- and 40-fold with the exception of those of V22I, V26A, V29L, and V22I/V29L which had near wild-type efficiencies with mandelate. Thr 24 and Ala 25, located at the tip of the 20s loop, were particularly sensitive to minor alterations in the size of their hydrophobic side chains; however, most mutations were tolerated quite well, suggesting that flap mobility could compensate for increases in the steric bulk of hydrophobic side chains. With the exception of V29L, with mandelate as the substrate, and V22F and V26A/V29L, with 2-naphthylglycolate (2-NG) as the substrate, the values of kcat and Km were not altered in a manner consistent with steric obstruction of the R-pocket, perhaps due to flap mobility compensating for the increased size of the hydrophobic side chains. Surprisingly, V22I and V29L catalyzed the racemization of the bulkier substrate 2-NG

  14. Active Region Loops: Temperature Measurements as a Function of Time from Joint TRACE and SOHO CDS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Del Zanna, G.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mason, H. E.; Martens, P. C. H.; Schmelz, J. T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to quantitatively investigate the structure and time variation of quiescent active region loop structures. We coordinated a joint program of observations (JOP 146) using TRACE, to obtain high-cadence EUV images, and SOHO CDS, to obtain spectroscopic data. Loop intensities are used to determine temperature as a function of time for a single loop, taking full account of the background emission. In many locations, the emission measure loci are consistent with an isothermal structure. However, the results indicate significant changes in the loop temperature (between 1 and 2 MK) over the 6 hr observing period. It is possible that the loop structures are composed of multiple, independently heated strands with sizes less than the resolution of the imager and spectrometer.

  15. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST (PTP-PEST) regulates mast cell-activating signals in PTP activity-dependent and -independent manners.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Satoru; Koizumi, Karen; Honda, Reika; Maruyama, Atsuko; Palmer, Helen E F; Mashima, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) in mast cells leads to degranulation and production of numerous cytokines and lipid mediators that promote allergic inflammation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in response to FcεRI aggregation has been implicated in mast cell activation. Here, we determined the role of PTP-PEST (encoded by PTPN12) in the regulation of mast cell activation using the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line as a model. PTP-PEST expression was significantly induced upon FcεRI-crosslinking, and aggregation of FcεRI induced the phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at Ser39, thus resulting in the suppression of PTP activity. By overexpressing a phosphatase-dead mutant (PTP-PEST CS) and a constitutively active mutant (PTP-PEST SA) in RBL-2H3 cells, we showed that PTP-PEST decreased degranulation and enhanced IL-4 and IL-13 transcription in FcεRI-crosslinked RBL-2H3 cells, but PTP activity of PTP-PEST was not necessary for this regulation. However, FcεRI-induced TNF-α transcription was increased by the overexpression of PTP-PEST SA and suppressed by the overexpression of PTP-PEST CS. Taken together, these results suggest that PTP-PEST is involved in the regulation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation through at least two different processes represented by PTP activity-dependent and -independent pathways.

  16. The transcription factor RUNX2 regulates receptor tyrosine kinase expression in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev K.; Medina, Daniel J.; Markert, Elke; Bryan, Michael A.; Chen, Wenjin; Chen, Suzie; Rabkin, Anna; Vido, Michael J.; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Chekmareva, Marina; Foran, David J.; Lasfar, Ahmed; Goydos, James S.; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases-based autocrine loops largely contribute to activate the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in melanoma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in generating these autocrine loops are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examine the role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression in melanoma. We have demonstrated that RUNX2-deficient melanoma cells display a significant decrease in three receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR, IGF-1R and PDGFRβ. In addition, we found co-expression of RUNX2 and another RTK, AXL, in both melanoma cells and melanoma patient samples. We observed a decrease in phosphoAKT2 (S474) and phosphoAKT (T308) levels when RUNX2 knock down resulted in significant RTK down regulation. Finally, we showed a dramatic up regulation of RUNX2 expression with concomitant up-regulation of EGFR, IGF-1R and AXL in melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4720. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that RUNX2 might be a key player in RTK-based autocrine loops and a mediator of resistance to BRAF V600E inhibitors involving RTK up regulation in melanoma. PMID:27102439

  17. Oxidative Status of DJ-1-dependent Activation of Dopamine Synthesis through Interaction of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and 4-Dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) Decarboxylase with DJ-1*

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Niki, Takeshi; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by loss of dopamine, which is synthesized from tyrosine by two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and 4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC). DJ-1 is a causative gene for the familial form of PD, but little is known about the roles of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to TH and DDC and positively regulated their activities in human dopaminergic cells. Mutants of DJ-1 found in PD patients, including heterozygous mutants, lost their activity and worked as dominant-negative forms toward wild-type DJ-1. When cells were treated with H2O2, 6-hydroxydopamine, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, changes in activities of TH and DDC accompanied by oxidation of cysteine 106 of DJ-1 occurred. It was found that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SH and SOH forms was active and that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SO2H and SO3H forms was inactive in terms of stimulation of TH and DDC activities. These findings indicate an essential role of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis and contribution of DJ-1 to the sporadic form of PD. PMID:19703902

  18. Oxidative status of DJ-1-dependent activation of dopamine synthesis through interaction of tyrosine hydroxylase and 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) decarboxylase with DJ-1.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Niki, Takeshi; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M

    2009-10-16

    Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by loss of dopamine, which is synthesized from tyrosine by two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC). DJ-1 is a causative gene for the familial form of PD, but little is known about the roles of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to TH and DDC and positively regulated their activities in human dopaminergic cells. Mutants of DJ-1 found in PD patients, including heterozygous mutants, lost their activity and worked as dominant-negative forms toward wild-type DJ-1. When cells were treated with H(2)O(2), 6-hydroxydopamine, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, changes in activities of TH and DDC accompanied by oxidation of cysteine 106 of DJ-1 occurred. It was found that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SH and SOH forms was active and that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SO(2)H and SO(3)H forms was inactive in terms of stimulation of TH and DDC activities. These findings indicate an essential role of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis and contribution of DJ-1 to the sporadic form of PD.

  19. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 Is the Major Site of Association of p85 and Is Required for Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Christopher D.; Stauffer, Thomas P.; Yang, Wen-Pin; York, John D.; Huang, Liwen; Blanar, Michael A.; Meyer, Tobias; Peters, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance. However, the signaling pathways responsible for the function of Tie2 remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) associates with Tie2 and that this association confers functional lipid kinase activity. Mutation of tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 abrogated p85 association both in vitro and in vivo in yeast. Tie2 was found to activate PI3-kinase in vivo as demonstrated by direct measurement of increases in cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, by plasma membrane translocation of a green fluorescent protein-Akt pleckstrin homology domain fusion protein, and by downstream activation of the Akt kinase. Activation of PI3-kinase was abrogated in these assays by mutation of Y1101 to phenylalanine, consistent with a requirement for this residue for p85 association with Tie2. These results suggest that activation of PI3-kinase and Akt may in part account for Tie2’s role in both embryonic vascular development and pathologic angiogenesis, and they are consistent with a role for Tie2 in endothelial cell survival. PMID:9632797

  20. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 is the major site of association of p85 and is required for activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt.

    PubMed

    Kontos, C D; Stauffer, T P; Yang, W P; York, J D; Huang, L; Blanar, M A; Meyer, T; Peters, K G

    1998-07-01

    Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance. However, the signaling pathways responsible for the function of Tie2 remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) associates with Tie2 and that this association confers functional lipid kinase activity. Mutation of tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 abrogated p85 association both in vitro and in vivo in yeast. Tie2 was found to activate PI3-kinase in vivo as demonstrated by direct measurement of increases in cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3, 4-bisphosphate, by plasma membrane translocation of a green fluorescent protein-Akt pleckstrin homology domain fusion protein, and by downstream activation of the Akt kinase. Activation of PI3-kinase was abrogated in these assays by mutation of Y1101 to phenylalanine, consistent with a requirement for this residue for p85 association with Tie2. These results suggest that activation of PI3-kinase and Akt may in part account for Tie2's role in both embryonic vascular development and pathologic angiogenesis, and they are consistent with a role for Tie2 in endothelial cell survival.

  1. New compounds from acid hydrolyzed products of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. and their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatas 1B.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke; He, Yan-Ni; Yang, Di; Cao, Jia-Qing; Xia, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Bi, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2014-06-23

    Four new cucurbitane-type triterpene sapogenins, compounds 1-4, together with other eight known compounds were isolated from the acid-hydrolyzed fruits extract of Momordica charantia L. Their chemical structures were established by NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a key target for therapy against type II diabetes. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9 were shown inhibitory activities of 77%, 62%, 62% 60% and 68% against PTP1B, respectively. All of these tested compounds were exhibited higher PTP1B inhibition activities than that of the Na3VO4, a known PTP1B inhibitor used as positive control in present study. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the inhibition activity of PTP1B was associated with the presence and number of -OH groups.

  2. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase pathways regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, A; Pendreigh, R H; Plevin, R

    1995-01-01

    1. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma-interferon (IFN gamma) alone or in combination stimulated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and increased the expression of the 130 kDa isoform of NOS. 2. LPS-induced NOS activity was reduced by incubation with CD14 neutralising antibodies and abolished in macrophages deprived of serum. 3. LPS stimulated a small increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages which was dependent on the presence of serum. However, IFN gamma did not potentiate LPS-stimulated PKC activity. 4. The protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, abolished both LPS- and IFN gamma-stimulated protein kinase C activity and the induction of NOS activity. 5. LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genestein. Genestein also reduced LPS-stimulated protein kinase C activity but did not affect the response to the protein kinase C activator, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). 6. Nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly-ADP ribosylation, abolished LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity. 7. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of a factor which stimulates nucleotide exchange activity on the 21 kDa ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF, reduced LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity by approximately 80%. 8. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase and poly-ADP ribosylation pathways in the regulation of the induction of nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages by LPS and IFN gamma. Images Figure 2 PMID:7533621

  3. Activation of AKT pathway by Nrf2/PDGFA feedback loop contributes to HCC progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Zhang, Yonglong; Wei, Yingze; Liu, Guoyuan; Liu, Yufeng; Gao, Qiongmei; Zou, Liping; Zeng, Wenjiao; Zhang, Nong

    2016-10-04

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor in the antioxidant response, has been found to be ubiquitously expressed in various cancer cells and in the regulation tumor proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance activities. The regulatory roles of Nrf2 in controlling Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nrf2 was significantly elevated in HCC cells and tissues and was correlated with poor prognosis of HCCs. Consistently, Nrf2 significantly promoted HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation suggested a novel association of Nrf2 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). Nrf2 promoted PDGFA transcription by recruiting specificity protein 1 (Sp1) to its promoter, resulting in increased activation of the AKT/p21 pathway and cell cycle progression of HCC cells. As a feedback loop, PDGFA enhanced Nrf2 expression and activation in an AKT dependent manner. In line with these findings, expression of Nrf2 and PDGFA were positively correlated in HCC tissues. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel mechanism of the Nrf2/PDGFA regulatory loop that is crucial for AKT-dependent HCC progression, and thereby provides potential targets for HCC therapy.

  4. Development of Small Molecules that Specifically Inhibit the D-loop Activity of RAD51.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Budke, Brian; Pawlowski, Michal; Connell, Philip P; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-05-26

    RAD51 is the central protein in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and represents a therapeutic target in oncology. Herein we report a novel class of RAD51 inhibitors that were identified by high throughput screening. In contrast to many previously reported RAD51 inhibitors, our lead compound 1 is capable of blocking RAD51-mediated D-loop formation (IC50 21.3 ± 7.8 μM) at concentrations that do not influence RAD51 binding to ssDNA. In human cells, 1 inhibits HR (IC50 13.1 ± 1.6 μM) without blocking RAD51's ability to assemble into subnuclear foci at sites of DNA damage. We determined that the active constituent of 1 is actually an oxidized derivative (termed RI(dl)-1 or 8) of the original screening compound. Our SAR campaign also yielded RI(dl)-2 (hereafter termed 9h), which effectively blocks RAD51's D-loop activity in biochemical systems (IC50 11.1 ± 1.3 μM) and inhibits HR activity in human cells (IC50 3.0 ± 1.8 μM).

  5. Activation of AKT pathway by Nrf2/PDGFA feedback loop contributes to HCC progression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yingze; Liu, Guoyuan; Liu, Yufeng; Gao, Qiongmei; Zou, Liping; Zeng, Wenjiao; Zhang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor in the antioxidant response, has been found to be ubiquitously expressed in various cancer cells and in the regulation tumor proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance activities. The regulatory roles of Nrf2 in controlling Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nrf2 was significantly elevated in HCC cells and tissues and was correlated with poor prognosis of HCCs. Consistently, Nrf2 significantly promoted HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation suggested a novel association of Nrf2 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). Nrf2 promoted PDGFA transcription by recruiting specificity protein 1 (Sp1) to its promoter, resulting in increased activation of the AKT/p21 pathway and cell cycle progression of HCC cells. As a feedback loop, PDGFA enhanced Nrf2 expression and activation in an AKT dependent manner. In line with these findings, expression of Nrf2 and PDGFA were positively correlated in HCC tissues. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel mechanism of the Nrf2/PDGFA regulatory loop that is crucial for AKT-dependent HCC progression, and thereby provides potential targets for HCC therapy. PMID:27588483

  6. Number and locations of agonist binding sites required to activate homomeric Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; De Rosa, María José; Sine, Steven M; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2009-05-06

    Homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors contain five identical agonist binding sites, each formed at a subunit interface. To determine the number and locations of binding sites required to generate a stable active state, we constructed a receptor subunit with a mutation that disables the agonist binding site and a reporter mutation that alters unitary conductance and coexpressed mutant and nonmutant subunits. Although receptors with a range of different subunit compositions are produced, patch-clamp recordings reveal that the amplitude of each single-channel opening event reports the number and, for certain subunit combinations, the locations of subunits with intact binding sites. We find that receptors with three binding sites at nonconsecutive subunit interfaces exhibit maximal mean channel open time, receptors with binding sites at three consecutive or two nonconsecutive interfaces exhibit intermediate open time, and receptors with binding sites at two consecutive or one interface exhibit brief open time. Macroscopic recordings after rapid application of agonist reveal that channel activation slows and the extent of desensitization decreases as the number of binding sites per receptor decreases. The overall results provide a framework for defining mechanisms of activation and drug modulation for homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors.

  7. A mechanism of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequences in the capsid protein VP2 in viral growth and pathogenesis of Coxsackievirus B3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Sun; Park, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Dokeun; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2012-04-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an RNA virus that mainly causes myocarditis. We have reported previously that immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequences are contained in the capsid protein VP2 of CVB3. The substitution of two tyrosines for phenylalanines in the ITAM-like region causes attenuation of CVB3, possibly via defective viral assembly. In this study, we found that Syk, a downstream molecule of ITAM, interacts with the wild-type (WT) CVB3 VP0 protein, but not with the mutant CVB3 VP0 (called YYFF), and that an inhibitor of Syk reduced the growth of CVB3. The WT CVB3 activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a protein activated by ITAM, and eventually induced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-one of the proinflammatory cytokines induced by NF-κB-in macrophages. However, the YYFF form did not. In addition, viral VP2 protein may be dependent on the phosphorylation of an ITAM-like region that affected the activation of NF-κB. Taken together, these results suggest that the ITAM-like sequences in CVB3 VP2 can not only affect viral structure but also act as signals in pathogenesis.

  8. Functional analysis of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mediated signal transduction: the two YxxL segments within a single CD3zeta-ITAM are functionally distinct.

    PubMed

    Sunder-Plassmann, R; Lialios, F; Madsen, M; Koyasu, S; Reinherz, E L

    1997-08-01

    Functional analysis of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) derived from the membrane-proximal ITAM of CD3zeta demonstrates that mutations at either the tyrosine or leucine residues in the N-terminal YxxL segment of the ITAM abolish all signal transduction functions of this ITAM. In contrast, mutations at the tyrosine or leucine residues in the C-terminal YxxL segment abrogate signals for interleukin (IL)-2 production but do not prevent tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM, lck association with the ITAM, activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 or calcium mobilization. Cross-linking of chimeric receptors containing a C-terminal YxxL leucine mutation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP70 but without stable binding to the phosphorylated ITAM. These results indicate that the two YxxL segments in an ITAM are functionally distinct and that both are essential for ZAP70 binding and IL-2 production. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP70 per se is not sufficient to trigger the downstream events leading to IL-2 production. Substitution of an alanine for the bulky side chain at the Y+1 position of the N-terminal YxxL segment reduces the receptor cross-linking requirement necessary to achieve cellular activation and the absolute dependence on lck in this process. Our results reveal that both the number of ITAM as well as the specific amino acid residues within a single ITAM determine the extent of chimeric receptor cross-linking required to trigger tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling events.

  9. Structural Study of a Flexible Active Site Loop in Human Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and Its Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Lucía; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Roitberg, Adrián; Estrin, Darío A; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Marti, Marcelo A; Capece, Luciana

    2016-05-17

    Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of tryptophan to N-formyl kynurenine, the initial and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway. Additionally, this enzyme has been identified as a possible target for cancer therapy. A 20-amino acid protein segment (the JK loop), which connects the J and K helices, was not resolved in the reported hIDO crystal structure. Previous studies have shown that this loop undergoes structural rearrangement upon substrate binding. In this work, we apply a combination of replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments to characterize the structure and dynamics of this protein region. Our simulations show that the JK loop can be divided into two regions: the first region (JK loop(C)) displays specific and well-defined conformations and is within hydrogen bonding distance of the substrate, while the second region (JK loop(N)) is highly disordered and exposed to the solvent. The peculiar flexible nature of JK loop(N) suggests that it may function as a target for post-translational modifications and/or a mediator for protein-protein interactions. In contrast, hydrogen bonding interactions are observed between the substrate and Thr379 in the highly conserved "GTGG" motif of JK loop(C), thereby anchoring JK loop(C) in a closed conformation, which secures the appropriate substrate binding mode for catalysis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirm the key role of this residue, highlighting the importance of the JK loop(C) conformation in regulating the enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the existence of the partially and totally open conformations in the substrate-free form suggests a role of JK loop(C) in controlling substrate and product dynamics.

  10. Interference with immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation modulates or blocks B cell development, depending on the availability of an Igbeta cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed

    Kraus, M; Pao, L I; Reichlin, A; Hu, Y; Canono, B; Cambier, J C; Nussenzweig, M C; Rajewsky, K

    2001-08-20

    To determine the function of immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation, we generated mice in which Igalpha ITAM tyrosines were replaced by phenylalanines (Igalpha(FF/FF)). Igalpha(FF/FF) mice had a specific reduction of B1 and marginal zone B cells, whereas B2 cell development appeared to be normal, except that lambda1 light chain usage was increased. The mutants responded less efficiently to T cell-dependent antigens, whereas T cell-independent responses were unaffected. Upon B cell receptor ligation, the cells exhibited heightened calcium flux, weaker Lyn and Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, and phosphorylation of Igalpha non-ITAM tyrosines. Strikingly, when the Igalpha ITAM mutation was combined with a truncation of Igbeta, B cell development was completely blocked at the pro-B cell stage, indicating a crucial role of ITAM phosphorylation in B cell development.

  11. A Conserved Surface Loop in Type I Dehydroquinate Dehydratases Positions an Active Site Arginine and Functions in Substrate Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Peterson, Scott N.; Caffrey, Michael; Anderson, Wayne F.; Lavie, Arnon

    2012-04-18

    Dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD) catalyzes the third step in the biosynthetic shikimate pathway. We present three crystal structures of the Salmonella enterica type I DHQD that address the functionality of a surface loop that is observed to close over the active site following substrate binding. Two wild-type structures with differing loop conformations and kinetic and structural studies of a mutant provide evidence of both direct and indirect mechanisms of involvement of the loop in substrate binding. In addition to allowing amino acid side chains to establish a direct interaction with the substrate, closure of the loop necessitates a conformational change of a key active site arginine, which in turn positions the substrate productively. The absence of DHQD in humans and its essentiality in many pathogenic bacteria make the enzyme a target for the development of nontoxic antimicrobials. The structures and ligand binding insights presented here may inform the design of novel type I DHQD inhibiting molecules.

  12. Influence of tyrosine-kinase Wzc activity on colanic acid production in Escherichia coli K12 cells.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Brice; Lacour, Soline; Doublet, Patricia; Baubichon-Cortay, Hélène; Cozzone, Alain J; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2007-03-16

    Bacterial tyrosine-kinases have been demonstrated to participate in the regulation of capsule polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and export. However, discrepant data have been reported on the molecular mechanism responsible for this regulation depending on the bacterial species analyzed. Special attention was previously paid to the tyrosine-kinase Wzc(ca) of Escherichia coli K-12, which is involved in the production of the exopolysaccharide, colanic acid, and autophosphorylates by using a cooperative two-step process. In this work, we took advantage of these observations to investigate in further detail the effect of Wzc(ca) phosphorylation on the colanic acid production. First, it is shown that expression of the phosphorylated form of Wzc prevents production of colanic acid whereas expression of the non-phosphorylated form allows biosynthesis of this exopolysaccharide. However, we provide evidence that, in the latter case, the size distribution of the colanic acid polymer is less scattered than in the case of the wild-type strain expressing both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Wzc. It is then demonstrated that colanic acid production is not merely regulated by an on/off mechanism and that, instead, both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Wzc are required to promote colanic acid synthesis. Moreover, a series of data suggests that besides the involvement of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Wzc in the production of colanic acid, two particular regions of this kinase play as such an important role in the synthesis of this exopolysaccharide: a proline-rich domain located in the N-terminal part of Wzc(ca), and a tyrosine cluster present in the C-terminal portion of the enzyme. Furthermore, considering that polysaccharides are known to facilitate bacterial resistance to certain environmental stresses, it is shown that the resistance of E. coli to desiccation is directly connected with the phosphorylation

  13. EGFR tyrosine kinase targeted compounds: in vitro antitumor activity and molecular modeling studies of new benzothiazole and pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Moustafa T; El-Gohary, Nadia S; El-Bendary, Eman R; El-Kerdawy, Mohamed M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we illustrate computer aided drug design of new benzothiazole and pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors. Compounds 1-5 were screened at NCI, USA, for antitumor activity against non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H522), colon cancer (HCT-116, HCT-15 and HT29) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231/ATCC) cell lines in which EGFR is overexpressed in varying levels. Results indicated that these compounds are more potent antitumor agents compared to erlotinib against HT29 and MDA-MB-231/ATCC cell lines. Compound 3 showed GI50 value of 22.3 nM against NCI-H522 cell line, while erlotinib exhibited GI50 value of 1 µM against the same cell line. In addition, these compounds were studied for their EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Virtual screening utilizing molecular modeling and QSAR techniques enabled the understanding of the pharmacophoric requirements for antitumor activity. Docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of EGFR-TK domain was done to predict the analogous binding mode of these compounds to the EGFR-TK inhibitors.

  14. EGFR tyrosine kinase targeted compounds: in vitro antitumor activity and molecular modeling studies of new benzothiazole and pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gabr, Moustafa T.; El-Gohary, Nadia S; El-Bendary, Eman R.; El-Kerdawy, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we illustrate computer aided drug design of new benzothiazole and pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors. Compounds 1-5 were screened at NCI, USA, for antitumor activity against non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H522), colon cancer (HCT-116, HCT-15 and HT29) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231/ATCC) cell lines in which EGFR is overexpressed in varying levels. Results indicated that these compounds are more potent antitumor agents compared to erlotinib against HT29 and MDA-MB-231/ATCC cell lines. Compound 3 showed GI50 value of 22.3 nM against NCI-H522 cell line, while erlotinib exhibited GI50 value of 1 µM against the same cell line. In addition, these compounds were studied for their EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Virtual screening utilizing molecular modeling and QSAR techniques enabled the understanding of the pharmacophoric requirements for antitumor activity. Docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of EGFR-TK domain was done to predict the analogous binding mode of these compounds to the EGFR-TK inhibitors. PMID:26417284

  15. Chronotypic induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by. cap alpha. -methyl-p-tyrosine. [Rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, A.L.; Ferguson, S.M.; Ehret, C.F.

    1981-04-06

    ..cap alpha..Methyl-p-tyrosine induced hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity to different extents depending upon the time of day of administration of the drug. Maximal induction occurred when ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally during the first several hours of the light phase of the daily cycle, but the magnitude of the induction depended on the nutritional state of the animal. Induction was 4- to 5-fold greater in fasting rats. The effect of ..cap alpha..-methyl-ptyrosine on hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase is believed to be mediated by decreases in hypothalamic norepinephrine. This hypothesis was supported by the demonstration that decreasing levels of hypothalamic norepinephrine at times of day when hypothalamic turnover of norepinephrine was greatest resulted in the greatest induction of tyrosine aminotransferase, while lowering hypothalamic norepinephrine at times when turnover was minimal resulted in minimal induction of tyrosine aminotransferase.

  16. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H

    1981-06-01

    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  17. Multiple loop activations and continuous energy release in the solar flare of June 15, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widing, K. G.; Dere, K. P.

    1977-01-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the high-temperature plasma in the solar flare of June 15, 1973, is studied using XUV spectroheliograms and X-ray filtergrams obtained from Skylab. The analysis focuses on the changing forms and brightness of Fe XXIII 263-A and Fe XXIV 255-A images. Temperatures and emission measures computed for different times during the flare are compared with those derived from Solrad-9 flux data, the electron temperature in the bright compact core of the Fe XXIV image is determined, and a coronal origin is suggested for this bright core. The observational evidence shows that the overall flare event involved a number of different preexisting loops and arches which were activated in succession. The activation and heating are found to have persisted well past the end of the burst phase, implying that the energy release did not end when the impulsive phase was over. The overall development of the flare is summarized on the basis of the observed order of appearance of the loops.

  18. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  19. The role of the second and third extracellular loops of the adenosine A1 receptor in activation and allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M C; Wisse, L E; Dinaj, A; Vroling, B; Vriend, G; Ijzerman, A P

    2012-07-01

    The adenosine A1 receptor is a member of the large membrane protein family that signals through G proteins, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs consist of seven transmembrane domains connected by three intracellular and three extracellular loops. Their N-terminus is extracellular, the C-terminal tail is in the cytoplasm. The transmembrane domains in receptor subfamilies that bind the same endogenous ligand, such as dopamine or adenosine, tend to be highly similar. In contrast, the loop regions can vary greatly, both in sequence and in length, and the role these loops have in the activation mechanism of the receptors remains unclear. Here, we investigated the activating role of the second and third extracellular loop of the human adenosine A1 receptor. By means of an (Ala)3 mutagenic scan in which consecutive sets of three amino acids were mutated into alanine residues in EL2 and a classical alanine scan in EL3, we revealed a strong regulatory role for the second extracellular loop (EL2) of the human adenosine A1 receptor. Besides many residues in the second and the third extracellular loops important for adenosine A1 receptor activation, we also identified two residues in EL2, a tryptophan and a glutamate, that affect the influence of the allosteric modulator PD81,723. These results, combined with a comparison of the different receptor loop regions, provide insight in the activation mechanism of this typical class A GPCR and further emphasize the unique pharmacological profile the loops can provide to individual receptors, even within subfamilies of GPCRs.

  20. Direct interaction of Syk and Lyn protein tyrosine kinases in rat basophilic leukemia cells activated via type I Fc epsilon receptors.

    PubMed

    Amoui, M; Dráberová, L; Tolar, P; Dráber, P

    1997-01-01

    Activation of rat mast cells through the receptor with high affinity for IgE (Fc epsilonRI) requires a complex set of interactions involving transmembrane subunits of the Fc epsilonRI and two classes of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). the Src family PTK p53/p56(lyn) (Lyn) and the Syk/ZAP-family PTK p72(syk) (Syk). Early activation events involve increased activity of Lyn and Syk kinases and their translocation into membrane domains containing aggregated Fc epsilonRI, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these changes have remained largely unclear. To determine the role of Fc epsilonRI subunits in this process, we have analyzed Syk- and Lyn-associated proteins in activated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells and their variants deficient in the expression of Fc epsilonRI beta or gamma subunits. Sepharose 4B gel chromatography of postnuclear supernatants from Nonidet-P40-solubilized antigen (Ag)- or pervanadate-activated RBL cells revealed extensive changes in the size of complexes formed by Lyn and Syk kinases and other cellular components. A fusion protein containing Src homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains of Lyn bound Syk from lysates of nonactivated RBL cells; an increased binding was observed when lysates from Ag- or pervanadate-activated cells were used. A similar amount of Syk was bound when lysates from pervanadate-activated variant cells deficient in the expression of Fc epsilonRI beta or gamma subunits were used, suggesting that Fc epsilonRI does not function as the only intermediate in the formation of the Syk-Lyn complexes. Further experiments have indicated that Syk-Lyn interactions occur in Ag-activated RBL cells under in vivo conditions and that these interactions could involve direct binding of the Lyn SH2 domain with phosphorylated tyrosine of Syk. The physical association of Lyn and Syk during mast-like cell activation supports the recently proposed functional cooperation of these two tyrosine kinases in Fc epsilonRI signaling.

  1. Musk Kinase Activity is Modulated By A Serine Phosphorylation Site in The Kinase Loop.

    PubMed

    Camurdanoglu, B Z; Hrovat, C; Dürnberger, G; Madalinski, M; Mechtler, K; Herbst, R

    2016-09-26

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation. S751 is also phosphorylated in muscle tissue and its phosphorylation depends on MuSK kinase activity. A phosphomimetic mutant of S751 increases MuSK kinase activity in response to non-saturating agrin concentrations . In addition, basal MuSK and AChR phosphorylation as well as AChR cluster size are increased. We believe that the phosphorylation of S751 provides a novel mechanism to relief the autoinhibition of the MuSK activation loop. Such a lower autoinhibition could foster or stabilize MuSK kinase activation, especially during stages when no or low level of agrin are present. Phosphorylation of S751 might therefore represent a novel mechanism to modulate MuSK kinase activity during prepatterning or NMJ maintenance.

  2. Flatness-based control in successive loops for stabilization of heart's electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Melkikh, Alexey

    2016-12-01

    The article proposes a new flatness-based control method implemented in successive loops which allows for stabilization of the heart's electrical activity. Heart's pacemaking function is modeled as a set of coupled oscillators which potentially can exhibit chaotic behavior. It is shown that this model satisfies differential flatness properties. Next, the control and stabilization of this model is performed with the use of flatness-based control implemented in cascading loops. By applying a per-row decomposition of the state-space model of the coupled oscillators a set of nonlinear differential equations is obtained. Differential flatness properties are shown to hold for the subsystems associated with the each one of the aforementioned differential equations and next a local flatness-based controller is designed for each subsystem. For the i-th subsystem, state variable xi is chosen to be the flat output and state variable xi+1 is taken to be a virtual control input. Then the value of the virtual control input which eliminates the output tracking error for the i-th subsystem becomes reference setpoint for the i + 1-th subsystem. In this manner the control of the entire state-space model is performed by successive flatness-based control loops. By arriving at the n-th row of the state-space model one computes the control input that can be actually exerted on the aforementioned biosystem. This real control input of the coupled oscillators' system, contains recursively all virtual control inputs associated with the previous n - 1 rows of the state-space model. This control approach achieves asymptotically the elimination of the chaotic oscillation effects and the stabilization of the heart's pulsation rhythm. The stability of the proposed control scheme is proven with the use of Lyapunov analysis.

  3. The solar extreme ultra-violet corona: Resolved loops and the unresolved active region corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan Wesley

    In this work, physical characteristics of the solar corona as observed in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) regime are investigated. The focus will be the regions of intense EUV radiation generally found near the locations of sunspots. These regions are commonly called active regions. Multiple space- based observing platforms have been deployed in the last decade; it is possible to use several of these observatories in combination to develop a more complete picture of the solar corona. Joint Observing Program 146 was created to collect spectroscopic intensities using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and EUV images using NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The emission line intensities are analyzed to develop an understanding of the temperature and density of the active region coronal plasma. However, the performance of the CDS instrument in the spatial and temporal domains is limited and to compensate for these limitations, data collected by the TRACE instrument provide a high spatial and temporal resolution set of observations. One of the most exciting unsolved problems in solar astrophysics is to understand why the corona maintains a temperature roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the underlying material. A detailed investigation of the coronal emission has provided constraints on models of the heating mechanism, since the temperature, density and evolution of emission rates for multiple ionic species are indicative of the mechanism(s) working to heat the corona. The corona appears to consist of multiple unresolved structures as well as resolved active region structures, called coronal loops. The purpose of the present work is to determine the characteristics of the unresolved background corona. Using the characterizations of the coronal unresolved background, results for loops after background subtraction are also presented. This work demonstrates the magnitude of the unresolved coronal emission with

  4. Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and matrix metalloproteinases causes blood-brain barrier injury: Novel mechanism for neurodegeneration associated with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Haorah, James; Schall, Kathy; Ramirez, Servio H; Persidsky, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) regulates the passage of molecules and leukocytes in and out of the brain. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and alteration of basement membrane (BM) associated with BBB injury was documented in stroke patients. While chronic alcoholism is a risk factor for developing stroke, underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH)-induced protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signaling resulted a loss of BBB integrity via MMPs activation and degradation of BM component, collagen IV. Treatment of BMVEC with EtOH or acetaldehyde (AA) for 2-48 h increased MMP-1, -2 and -9 activities or decreased the levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1, -2) in a PTK-dependent manner without affecting protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. Enhanced PTK activity after EtOH exposure correlated with increased phosphorylated proteins of selective receptor and nonreceptor PTKs. Up-regulation of MMPs activities and protein contents paralleled a decrease in collagen IV content, and inhibitors of EtOH metabolism, MMP-2 and -9, or PTK reversed all these effects. Using human BMVEC assembled into BBB models, we found that EtOH/AA diminished barrier tightness, augmented permeability, and monocyte migration across the BBB via activation of PTKs and MMPs. These findings suggest that alcohol associated BBB injury could be mediated by MMPs via BM protein degradation and could serve as a comorbidity factor for neurological disorders like stroke or neuroinflammation. Furthermore, our preliminary experiments indicated that human astrocytes secreted high levels of MMP-1 and -9 following exposure to EtOH, suggesting the role of BM protein degradation and BBB compromise as a result of glial activation by ethanol. These results provide better understanding of multifaceted effects of alcohol on the brain and could help develop new therapeutic interventions.

  5. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  6. Detection of Ligand‐induced Conformational Changes in the Activation Loop of Aurora‐A Kinase by PELDOR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Selena G.; Grazia Concilio, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The structure of protein kinases has been extensively studied by protein crystallography. Conformational movement of the kinase activation loop is thought to be crucial for regulation of activity; however, in many cases the position of the activation loop in solution is unknown. Protein kinases are an important class of therapeutic target and kinase inhibitors are classified by their effect on the activation loop. Here, we report the use of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) and site‐directed spin labeling to monitor conformational changes through the insertion of MTSL [S‐(1‐oxyl‐2,2,5,5‐tetramethyl‐2,5‐dihydro‐1 H‐pyrrol‐3‐yl)methyl methanesulfonothioate] on the dynamic activation loop and a stable site on the outer surface of the enzyme. The action of different ligands such as microtubule‐associated protein (TPX2) and inhibitors could be discriminated as well as their ability to lock the activation loop in a fixed conformation. This study provides evidence for structural adaptations that could be used for drug design and a methodological approach that has potential to characterize inhibitors in development. PMID:28032021

  7. The activation loop of PIP5K functions as a membrane sensor essential for lipid substrate processing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aizhuo; Sui, Dexin; Wu, Dianqing; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), a representative member of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) family, is a major enzyme that biosynthesizes the signaling molecule PI(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) in eukaryotic cells. The stringent specificity toward lipid substrates and the high sensitivity to the membrane environment strongly suggest a membrane-sensing mechanism, but the underlying structural basis is still largely unknown. We present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on a peptide commensurate with a PIP5K’s activation loop, which has been reported to be a determinant of lipid substrate specificity and subcellular localization of PIP5K. Although the activation loop is severely disordered in the crystal structure of PIP5K, the NMR experiments showed that the largely unstructured peptide folded into an amphipathic helix upon its association with the 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micellar surface. Systematic mutagenesis and functional assays further demonstrated the crucial roles of the amphipathic helix and its hydrophobic surface in kinase activity and membrane-sensing function, supporting a working model in which the activation loop is a critical structural module conferring a membrane-sensing mechanism on PIP5K. The activation loop, surprisingly functioning as a membrane sensor, represents a new paradigm of kinase regulation by the activation loop through protein-membrane interaction, which also lays a foundation on the regulation of PIP5K (and other PIPKs) by membrane lipids for future studies. PMID:28138522

  8. Elucidation of a four-site allosteric network in fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaibin; Marsiglia, William M; Cho, Min-Kyu; Huang, Zhifeng; Deng, Jingjing; Blais, Steven P; Gai, Weiming; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Neubert, Thomas A; Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is tightly regulated by protein allostery within the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. Yet the molecular determinants of allosteric connectivity in tyrosine kinase domain are incompletely understood. By means of structural (X-ray and NMR) and functional characterization of pathogenic gain-of-function mutations affecting the FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase domain, we elucidated a long-distance allosteric network composed of four interconnected sites termed the ‘molecular brake’, ‘DFG latch’, ‘A-loop plug’, and ‘αC tether’. The first three sites repress the kinase from adopting an active conformation, whereas the αC tether promotes the active conformation. The skewed design of this four-site allosteric network imposes tight autoinhibition and accounts for the incomplete mimicry of the activated conformation by pathogenic mutations targeting a single site. Based on the structural similarity shared among RTKs, we propose that this allosteric model for FGFR kinases is applicable to other RTKs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21137.001 PMID:28166054

  9. Biodegradation of bromoamine acid using combined airlift loop reactor and biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Guangfei; Lu, Hong; Jin, Ruofei; Lei, Tianming; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hua

    2011-03-01

    The biodegradation of bromoamine acid (BAA) in a combined airlift loop reactor (ALR) and biological activated carbon (BAC) system was investigated. The results showed that the ALR using Sphingomonas xenophaga as inoculum and granular activated carbon (GAC) as carrier, could run steadily for over 3 months at less than 950 mg L(-1) BAA. And the efficiencies of BAA decolorization and COD removal in ALR reached about 90% and 50% within 12h, respectively. When it was further aerated for another 12h, the ALR effluent gradually became yellow due to the auto-oxidation of BAA decolorization products which were identified by HPLC-MS. Further biotreatment of the ALR effluent using BAC showed that the efficiency of TOC removal could reach 90%. Moreover, the release efficiencies of Br(-) and SO(4)(2-) were 73.5% and 67.4%, respectively. It indicated that BAC system was effective in the biodegradation of the auto-oxidative BAA decolorization products.

  10. Using "On/Off" (19)F NMR/Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals to Sense Tyrosine Kinase/Phosphatase Activity in Vitro and in Cell Lysates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhen; Sun, Hongbin; Hu, Chen; Li, Gongyu; Liu, Xiaomei; Chen, Peiyao; Cui, Yusi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Junfeng; Liang, Gaolin

    2016-03-15

    Tyrosine kinase and phosphatase are two important, antagonistic enzymes in organisms. Development of noninvasive approach for sensing their activity with high spatial and temporal resolution remains challenging. Herein, we rationally designed a hydrogelator Nap-Phe-Phe(CF3)-Glu-Tyr-Ile-OH (1a) whose supramolecular hydrogel (i.e., Gel 1a) can be subjected to tyrosine kinase-directed disassembly, and its phosphate precursor Nap-Phe-Phe(CF3)-Glu-Tyr(H2PO3)-Ile-OH (1b), which can be subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-instructed self-assembly to form supramolecular hydrogel Gel 1b, respectively. Mechanic properties and internal fibrous networks of the hydrogels were characterized with rheology and cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Disassembly/self-assembly of their corresponding supramolecular hydrogels conferring respective "On/Off" (19)F NMR/MRI signals were employed to sense the activity of these two important enzymes in vitro and in cell lysates for the first time. We anticipate that our new (19)F NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method would facilitate pharmaceutical researchers to screen new inhibitors for these two enzymes without steric hindrance.

  11. CB₁ cannabinoid receptors promote maximal FAK catalytic activity by stimulating cooperative signaling between receptor tyrosine kinases and integrins in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Dalton, George D; Peterson, Lynda J; Howlett, Allyn C

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P) of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates FAK activation. Phosphorylated FAK Tyr 397 binds Src family kinases (Src), which in turn directly phosphorylate FAK Tyr 576/577 to produce maximal FAK enzymatic activity. CB₁ cannabinoid receptors (CB₁) are abundantly expressed in the nervous system and influence FAK activation by presently unknown mechanisms. The current investigation determined that CB₁-stimulated maximal FAK catalytic activity is mediated by Gi/o proteins in N18TG2 neuronal cells, and that G12/13 regulation of Rac1 and RhoA occurs concomitantly. Immunoblotting analyses using antibodies against FAK phospho-Tyr 397 and phospho-Tyr 576/577 demonstrated that the time-course of CB₁-stimulated FAK 576/577 Tyr-P occurred in three phases: Phase I (0-2 min) maximal Tyr-P, Phase II (5-20 min) rapid decline in Tyr-P, and Phase III (>20 min) plateau in Tyr-P at submaximal levels. In contrast, FAK 397 Tyr-P was monophasic and significantly lower in magnitude. FAK 397 Tyr-P and Phase I FAK 576/577 Tyr-P involved protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B and Shp1/Shp2)-mediated Src activation, Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and integrin activation. Phase I maximal FAK 576/577 Tyr-P also required cooperative signaling between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins. The integrin antagonist RGDS peptide, Flk-1 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) antagonist SU5416, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist AG 1478 blocked Phase I FAK 576/577 Tyr-P. CB₁ agonists failed to stimulate FAK Tyr-P in the absence of integrin activation upon suspension in serum-free culture media. In contrast, cells grown on the integrin ligands fibronectin and laminin displayed increased FAK 576/577 Tyr-P that was augmented by CB₁ agonists and blocked by the Src inhibitor PP2 and Flk-1 VEGFR antagonist SU5416. Taken together, these studies have identified a complex integrative pathway utilized by CB₁ to stimulate

  12. pSer40 tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry identifies the anatomical location of C1 neurons in rat RVLM that are activated by hypotension.

    PubMed

    Nedoboy, P E; Mohammed, S; Kapoor, K; Bhandare, A M; Farnham, M M J; Pilowsky, P M

    2016-03-11

    Identification of neurons, and their phenotype, that are activated in response to specific stimuli is a critical step in understanding how neural networks integrate inputs to produce specific outputs. Here, we developed novel mouse monoclonal antibodies of different IgG isotypes that are specific to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and to tyrosine hydroxylase activated at its serine 40 position (pSer40TH), in order to assess changes in the activity of phenotypically identified cardiovascular neurons using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. We find that the proportion of C1 pSer40TH-positive neurons in the central and medial region of the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases dramatically following hydralazine treatment, whereas phenylephrine treatment does not significantly change the pSer40TH/TH ratio in these regions compared to control. This finding suggests that there is a mediolateral topology associated with the activation of C1 neurons following baroreceptor loading or unloading. Overall, we conclude first, that our newly characterized monoclonal antibodies are specific, and selective, against TH and pSer40TH. Secondly, that they can be used to label TH and pSer40TH immunoreactive neurons simultaneously, and thirdly that that they can be used to identify the activation state of catecholamine synthetizing neurons after physiological stimuli. Finally, we find that there is basal level of activation of TH neurons in the lateral, central and medial regions (∼ 70%, 30% and 45%, respectively) of the C1 area, but that following unloading of the baroreceptors there is a marked increase in activation of central (∼ 80%) and medial (∼ 90%) C1 neurons in the RVLM.

  13. Structure-Based Network Analysis of Activation Mechanisms in the ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: The Regulatory Spine Residues Are Global Mediators of Structural Stability and Allosteric Interactions

    PubMed Central

    James, Kevin A.; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    The ErbB protein tyrosine kinases are among the most important cell signaling families and mutation-induced modulation of their activity is associated with diverse functions in biological networks and human disease. We have combined molecular dynamics simulations of the ErbB kinases with the protein structure network modeling to characterize the reorganization of the residue interaction networks during conformational equilibrium changes in the normal and oncogenic forms. Structural stability and network analyses have identified local communities integrated around high centrality sites that correspond to the regulatory spine residues. This analysis has provided a quantitative insight to the mechanism of mutation-induced “superacceptor” activity in oncogenic EGFR dimers. We have found that kinase activation may be determined by allosteric interactions between modules of structurally stable residues that synchronize the dynamics in the nucleotide binding site and the αC-helix with the collective motions of the integrating αF-helix and the substrate binding site. The results of this study have pointed to a central role of the conserved His-Arg-Asp (HRD) motif in the catalytic loop and the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif as key mediators of structural stability and allosteric communications in the ErbB kinases. We have determined that residues that are indispensable for kinase regulation and catalysis often corresponded to the high centrality nodes within the protein structure network and could be distinguished by their unique network signatures. The optimal communication pathways are also controlled by these nodes and may ensure efficient allosteric signaling in the functional kinase state. Structure-based network analysis has quantified subtle effects of ATP binding on conformational dynamics and stability of the EGFR structures. Consistent with the NMR studies, we have found that nucleotide-induced modulation of the residue interaction networks is not limited to the

  14. Thermal and Kinetic Properties of Motions in a Prominence Activation and Nearby Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese; Landi, E.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of a prominence activation and motions in a nearby loop. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us to analyze the thermal and kinetic energy of the moving sources as functions of time. The loop and prominence are most apparent in lines formed at temperatures below 250,000 K. We find that in most cases the temperature distribution of plasma in a moving feature changes relatively little over time periods of about 20 minutes.

  15. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  16. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.; Donachie, Martin

    2014-05-10

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  17. Plasiatine, an Unprecedented Indole–Phenylpropanoid Hybrid from Plantago asiatica as a Potent Activator of the Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Shp2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhong-Hua; Shi, Yi-Ming; Qiang, Zhe; Wang, Xia; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Yang, Yan; Du, Bao-Wen; Peng, Hui-Pan; Ji, Xu; Li, Honglin; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2016-04-01

    Plasiatine (1), isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, is an unprecedented indole analogue linked to a phenylpropanoid moiety via a carbon bond that builds up a novel heteromeric construction with a C19N2 scaffold. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic data and computational evidence. Notably, experimental assay demonstrated that 1 significantly enhanced the activity of the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 0.97 μM, and activated phosphorylation of ERK, a known target of Shp2. Moreover, plasiatine (1) promoted hepatocellular HepG2 cells migration. Molecular docking suggested that plasiatine (1) binds to the catalytic cleft of Shp2. These results identified plasiatine (1) as the first small molecule Shp2 activator, and it warrants further investigation as a novel pharmaceutical tool to study the function of Shp2 in tumorigenesis.

  18. Importance of the extracellular loops in G protein-coupled receptors for ligand recognition and receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M C; van Westen, G J P; Li, Q; IJzerman, A P

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major drug target of medicines on the market today. Therefore, much research is and has been devoted to the elucidation of the function and three-dimensional structure of this large family of membrane proteins, which includes multiple conserved transmembrane domains connected by intra- and extracellular loops. In the last few years, the less conserved extracellular loops have garnered increasing interest, particularly after the publication of several GPCR crystal structures that clearly show the extracellular loops to be involved in ligand binding. This review will summarize the recent progress made in the clarification of the ligand binding and activation mechanism of class-A GPCRs and the role of extracellular loops in this process.

  19. A novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reverses the diabetic phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Brown, K K; Henke, B R; Blanchard, S G; Cobb, J E; Mook, R; Kaldor, I; Kliewer, S A; Lehmann, J M; Lenhard, J M; Harrington, W W; Novak, P J; Faison, W; Binz, J G; Hashim, M A; Oliver, W O; Brown, H R; Parks, D J; Plunket, K D; Tong, W Q; Menius, J A; Adkison, K; Noble, S A; Willson, T M

    1999-07-01

    The discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma was the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic agents suggested a key role for PPAR-gamma in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Through the use of high-throughput biochemical assays, GW1929, a novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of human PPAR-gamma, was identified. Chronic oral administration of GW1929 or troglitazone to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats resulted in dose-dependent decreases in daily glucose, free fatty acid, and triglyceride exposure compared with pretreatment values, as well as significant decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin. Whole body insulin sensitivity, as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, was significantly increased in treated animals. Comparison of the magnitude of glucose lowering as a function of serum drug concentrations showed that GW1929 was 2 orders of magnitude more potent than troglitazone in vivo. These data were consistent with the relative in vitro potencies of GW1929 and troglitazone. Isolated perfused pancreas studies performed at the end of the study confirmed that pancreata from vehicle-treated rats showed no increase in insulin secretion in response to a step change in glucose from 3 to 10 mmol/l. In contrast, pancreata from animals treated with GW1929 showed a first- and second-phase insulin secretion pattern. Consistent with the functional data from the perfusion experiments, animals treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist had more normal islet architecture with preserved insulin staining compared with vehicle-treated ZDF rats. This is the first demonstration of in vivo efficacy of a novel nonthiazolidinedione identified as a high-affinity ligand for human PPAR-gamma. The increased potency of GW1929 compared with troglitazone both in vitro and in vivo may translate into improved clinical efficacy when used as monotherapy in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, the significant

  20. A Mutational Analysis of the Active Site Loop Residues in cis-3-Chloroacrylic Acid Dehalogenase

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Huddleston, Jamison P.; Johnson, William H.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    cis -3-Chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (cis-CaaD) from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 and a homologue from Corynebacterium glutamicum designated Cg10062 share 34% sequence identity (54% similarity). The former catalyzes a key step in a bacterial catabolic pathway for the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, whereas the latter has no known biological activity. Although Cg10062 has the six active site residues (Pro-1, His-28, Arg-70, Arg-73, Tyr-103, Glu-114) that are critical for cis-CaaD activity, it shows only a low level cis-CaaD activity and lacks the specificity of cis-CaaD: Cg10062 processes both isomers of 3-chloroacrylate with a preference for the cis-isomer. Although the basis for these differences is unknown, a comparison of the crystal structures of the enzymes covalently modified by an adduct resulting from their incubation with the same inhibitor offers a possible explanation. A 6-residue active site loop in cis-CaaD shows a strikingly different conformation from that observed in Cg10062: the loop closes down on the active site of cis-CaaD, but not on that of Cg10062. In order to examine what this loop might contribute to cis-CaaD catalysis and specificity, the residues were changed individually to those found in Cg10062. Subsequent kinetic and mechanistic analysis suggests that the T34A mutant of cis-CaaD is more Cg10062-like. The mutant enzyme shows a 4-fold increase in Km (using cis-3-bromoacrylate), but not to the degree observed for Cg10062 (687-fold). The mutation also causes a 4-fold decrease in the burst rate (compared to the wild type cis-CaaD), whereas Cg10062 shows no burst rate. More telling is the reaction of the T34A mutant of cis-CaaD with the alternate substrate, 2,3-butadienoate. In the presence of NaBH4 and the allene, cis-CaaD is completely inactivated after one turnover due to the covalent modification of Pro-1. The same experiment with Cg10062 does not result in the covalent modification of Pro-1. The different outcomes are attributed to

  1. Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).

  2. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2012-07-01

    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods.

  3. Rho-associated kinase ROCK activates LIM-kinase 1 by phosphorylation at threonine 508 within the activation loop.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K; Nagata, K; Maekawa, M; Ishizaki, T; Narumiya, S; Mizuno, K

    2000-02-04

    LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) phosphorylates cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, and regulates actin cytoskeletal reorganization. LIMK1 is activated by the small GTPase Rho and its downstream protein kinase ROCK. We now report the site of phosphorylation of LIMK1 by ROCK. In vitro kinase reaction revealed that the active forms of ROCK phosphorylated LIMK1 on the threonine residue and markedly increased its cofilin-phosphorylating activity. A LIMK1 mutant (T508A) with replacement of Thr-508 within the activation loop of the kinase domain by alanine was neither phosphorylated nor activated by ROCK. Replacement of Thr-508 by serine changed the ROCK-catalyzed phosphorylation residue from threonine to serine. A LIMK1 mutant with replacement of Thr-508 by two glutamates increased the kinase activity about 2-fold but was not further activated by ROCK. In addition, wild-type LIMK1, but not its T508A mutant, was activated by co-expression with ROCK in cultured cells. These results suggest that ROCK activates LIMK1 in vitro and in vivo by phosphorylation at Thr-508. Together with the recent finding that PAK1, a downstream effector of Rac, also activates LIMK1 by phosphorylation at Thr-508, these results suggest that activation of LIMK1 is one of the common targets for Rho and Rac to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton.

  4. Murine T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin 2 correlates with a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity and the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y H; Buchholz, M J; Nordin, A A

    1993-01-01

    The addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to anti-CD3-activated murine G0 phase T cells results in an increased level of tyrosine phosphorylation of a single 97-kDa protein. The degree of tyrosine phosphorylation paralleled the amount of rIL-2 added and correlated with the extent of DNA synthesis. IL-2 treatment resulted in a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity without detectable modification of its level of tyrosine phosphorylation and gel mobility. When G0 T cells were activated by phorbol dibutyrate in the absence of IL-2, the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expressed failed to induce a proliferative signal, and neither the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein nor the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity was detected. Northern analysis of the total RNA extracted from these cells showed the accumulation of IL-2R alpha chain-specific mRNA but neither c-myc nor cdc2 mRNA was expressed. The addition of 100 nM rIL-2 to T cells activated by phorbol dibutyrate was able to induce a proliferative response, and under these conditions tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein, the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity, and specific mRNA for IL-2R alpha chain, c-myc, and cdc2 were detected. Unstimulated G0 T cells responded to 100 nM rIL-2 in the same manner as phorbol dibutyrate-activated cells. Irrespective of the signal-transducing structures involved, the IL-2-induced proliferative response closely correlates with an increase in p56lck kinase activity along with the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7682694

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase: enzymatic assays.

    PubMed

    Montalibet, Jacqueline; Skorey, Kathryn I; Kennedy, Brian P

    2005-01-01

    Activity assays for tyrosine phosphatases are based on the hydrolysis of a arylphosphate moiety from a synthetic substrate yielding a spectroscopically active product. Many different substrates can be used for these assays with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), fluorescein diphosphate (FDP), and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbellyferyl phosphate (DiFMUP) being the most efficient and versatile. Equally, larger molecules such as phosphotyrosyl peptides can also be used to mimic more natural substrates. Activity assays include the determinations of the rate of dephosphorylation and calculations of kinetic constants such as k(cat) and K(M). These assays are useful to identify and characterize tyrosine phosphatases and are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors.

  6. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Marybeth C.; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E.; MacInnis, Judith A.; D’Cunha, Godwin B.

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications. PMID:27014206

  7. Deguelin Potentiates Apoptotic Activity of an EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (AG1478) in PIK3CA-Mutated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yuh; Maeda, Toyonobu; Suzuki, Atsuko; Takada, Satoshi; Fujii, Masato; Kato, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to be intrinsically resistant to inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Until now, clinical outcomes for HNSCC using EGFR inhibitors as single agents have yielded disappointing results. Here, we aimed to study whether combinatorial treatment using AG1478 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and deguelin, which is a rotenoid isolated from the African plant Mundulea sericea, could enhance the anti-tumor effects of AG1478 in HNSCC. For Ca9-22 cells with EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA wild types, AG1478 alone suppressed both phosphorylated levels of ERK and AKT and induced apoptosis. On the contrary, for HSC-4 cells with EGFR and KRAS wild types, and a PIK3CA mutant, AG1478 alone did not suppress the phosphorylated level of AKT nor induce apoptosis, while it suppressed ERK phosphorylation. Forced expression of constitutively active PIK3CA (G1633A mutation) significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of AG1478 on the PIK3CA wild-type Ca9-22 cells. When HSC-4 cells with the PIK3CA G1633A mutation were treated with a combination of AG1478 and deguelin, combination effects on apoptosis induction were observed through the inhibition of the AKT pathway. These results suggest that the combination of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with deguelin is a potential therapeutic approach to treat PIK3CA-mutated HNSCC. PMID:28134774

  8. The signal peptide of the IgE receptor alpha-chain prevents surface expression of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-free receptor pool.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Barbara; Fiebiger, Edda

    2010-05-14

    The high affinity receptor for IgE, Fc epsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRI), is an activating immune receptor and key regulator of allergy. Antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE-loaded FcepsilonRI alpha-chains induces cell activation via immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in associated signaling subunits, such as FcepsilonRI gamma-chains. Here we show that the human FcepsilonRI alpha-chain can efficiently reach the cell surface by itself as an IgE-binding receptor in the absence of associated signaling subunits when the endogenous signal peptide is swapped for that of murine major histocompatibility complex class-I H2-K(b). This single-chain isoform of FcepsilonRI exited the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), trafficked to the Golgi and, subsequently, trafficked to the cell surface. Mutational analysis showed that the signal peptide regulates surface expression in concert with other described ER retention signals of FcepsilonRI-alpha. Once the FcepsilonRI alpha-chain reached the cell surface by itself, it formed a ligand-binding receptor that stabilized upon IgE contact. Independently of the FcepsilonRI gamma-chain, this single-chain FcepsilonRI was internalized after receptor cross-linking and trafficked into a LAMP-1-positive lysosomal compartment like multimeric FcepsilonRI. These data suggest that the single-chain isoform is capable of shuttling IgE-antigen complexes into antigen loading compartments, which plays an important physiologic role in the initiation of immune responses toward allergens. We propose that, in addition to cytosolic and transmembrane ER retention signals, the FcepsilonRI alpha-chain signal peptide contains a negative regulatory signal that prevents expression of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-free IgE receptor pool, which would fail to induce cell activation.

  9. Characterization and cDNA cloning of phospholipase C-gamma, a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W H; Dionne, C A; Kaplow, J; Mudd, R; Friesel, R; Zilberstein, A; Schlessinger, J; Jaye, M

    1990-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth factors (HBGFs) bind to high-affinity cell surface receptors which possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. A Mr 150,000 protein phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to class 1 HBGF (HBGF-1) was purified and partially sequenced. On the basis of this sequence, cDNA clones were isolated from a human endothelial cell library and identified as encoding phospholipase C-gamma. Phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma in intact cells treated with HBGF-1 was directly demonstrated by using antiphospholipase C-gamma antibodies. Thus, HBGF-1 joins epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, whose receptor activation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and probable activation of phospholipase C-gamma. Images PMID:2167438

  10. From Concept-to-Flight: An Active Active Fluid Loop Based Thermal Control System for Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David; Karlmann, Paul; Mastropietro, A. J.; Liu, Yuanming; Miller, Jennifer; Pauken, Michael; Lyra, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, which was launched on November 26, 2011, incorporates a novel active thermal control system to keep the sensitive electronics and science instruments at safe operating and survival temperatures. While the diurnal temperature variations on the Mars surface range from -120 C to +30 C, the sensitive equipment are kept within -40 C to +50 C. The active thermal control system is based on a single-phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) system which removes or recovers excess waste heat and manages it to maintain the sensitive equipment inside the rover at safe temperatures. This paper will describe the entire process of developing this active thermal control system for the MSL rover from concept to flight implementation. The development of the rover thermal control system during its architecture, design, fabrication, integration, testing, and launch is described.

  11. Closed Loop Active Flow Separation Detection and Control in a Multistage Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2005-01-01

    Active closed loop flow control was successfully demonstrated on a full annulus of stator vanes in a low speed axial compressor. Two independent methods of detecting separated flow conditions on the vane suction surface were developed. The first technique detects changes in static pressure along the vane suction surface, while the second method monitors variation in the potential field of the downstream rotor. Both methods may feasibly be used in future engines employing embedded flow control technology. In response to the detection of separated conditions, injection along the suction surface of each vane was used. Injected mass flow on the suction surface of stator vanes is known to reduce separation and the resulting limitation on static pressure rise due to lowered diffusion in the vane passage. A control algorithm was developed which provided a proportional response of the injected mass flow to the degree of separation, thereby minimizing the performance penalty on the compressor system.

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop implementation for an active heave compensated drawworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraspahic, Sanin; Gu, Peter; Farji, Lawk; Iskandarani, Yousef; Shi, Peng; Karimi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the setup and running of a hardware-in-loop (HIL) simulation for an active heave compensated (AHC) draw-works. A simulation model of the draw-works is executed on a PC to simulate the AHC draw-works with a physical PLC. The PLC (ET200S) is configured with a controller architecture that regulates the motor angular displacement and velocity through actuation of the servo valves. Furthermore, a graphical user interface is developed for operation of the AHC system. The HIL test allowed tuning of the physical controller in terms of heave stabilization and positioning. The conclusion after the testing is a PLC which is ready for operation without necessitating the use a physical prototype of the process.

  13. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation.

  14. Biological activities of the homologous loop regions in the laminin α chain LG modules.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Yuji; Urushibata, Shunsuke; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-06-10

    Each laminin α chain (α1-α5 chains) has chain-specific diverse biological functions. The C-terminal globular domain of the α chain consists of five laminin-like globular (LG1-5) modules and plays a critical role in biological activities. The LG modules consist of a 14-stranded β-sheet (A-N) sandwich structure. Previously, we described the chain-specific biological activities of the loop regions between the E and F strands in the LG4 modules using five homologous peptides (G4EF1-G4EF5). Here, we further analyze the biological activities of the E-F strands loop regions in the rest of LG modules. We designed 20 homologous peptides (approximately 20 amino acid length), and 17 soluble peptides were used for the cell attachment assay. Thirteen peptides promoted cell attachment activity with different cell morphologies. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, G2EF1, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by heparin, and peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, and G2EF1 specifically bound to syndecan-overexpressing cells. Cell attachment to peptides G2EF3, G3EF1, G3EF3, G5EF1, G5EF3, and G5EF5 was inhibited EDTA. Further, cell attachment to peptides G3EF3, G5EF1, and G5EF5 was inhibited by both anti-integrin α2 and β1 antibodies, whereas cell attachment to peptide G5EF3 was inhibited by only anti-integrin β1 antibody. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF4, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by both heparin and EDTA and was not inhibited by anti-integrin antibodies. The active peptide sequence alignments suggest that the syndecan-binding peptides contain a "basic amino acid (BAA)-Gly-BAA" motif in the middle of the molecule and that the integrin-binding peptides contain an "acidic amino acid (AAA)"-Gly-BAA motif. Core-switched peptide analyses suggested that the "BAA-Gly-BAA" motif is critical for binding to syndecans and that the "AAA-Gly-BAA" motif has potential to recognize integrins. These findings are useful for understanding chain-specific biological activities of laminins and to evaluate

  15. Two helices in the third intracellular loop determine anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) activation by calcium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jesun; Jung, Jooyoung; Tak, Min Ho; Wee, Jungwon; Lee, Byeongjoon; Jang, Yongwoo; Chun, Hyeyeon; Yang, Dong-Jin; Yang, Young Duk; Park, Sang Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Hyun, Soonsil; Yu, Jaehoon; Cho, Hawon; Hartzell, H Criss; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-01

    Anoctamin 1 (ANO1)/TMEM16A is a Cl(-) channel activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mediating numerous physiological functions. However, little is known of the ANO1 activation mechanism by Ca(2+). Here, we demonstrate that two helices, "reference" and "Ca(2+) sensor" helices in the third intracellular loop face each other with opposite charges. The two helices interact directly in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Positively and negatively charged residues in the two helices are essential for Ca(2+)-dependent activation because neutralization of these charges change the Ca(2+) sensitivity. We now predict that the Ca(2+) sensor helix attaches to the reference helix in the resting state, and as intracellular Ca(2+) rises, Ca(2+) acts on the sensor helix, which repels it from the reference helix. This Ca(2+)-dependent push-pull conformational change would be a key electromechanical movement for gating the ANO1 channel. Because chemical activation of ANO1 is viewed as an alternative means of rescuing cystic fibrosis, understanding its gating mechanism would be useful in developing novel treatments for cystic fibrosis.

  16. An immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif in the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope protein plays a role in virus-induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Ross, Susan R; Schmidt, John W; Katz, Elad; Cappelli, Laura; Hultine, Stacy; Gimotty, Phyllis; Monroe, John G

    2006-09-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) induces breast cancer with almost 100% efficiency in susceptible strains through insertional activation of protooncogenes, such as members of the wnt and fibroblast growth factor (fgf) families. We previously showed that expression of the MMTV envelope protein (Env) in normal immortalized mammary epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional cultures caused their morphological transformation, and that this phenotype depended on an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) present in Env and signaling through the Syk tyrosine kinase (E. Katz, M. H. Lareef, J. C. Rassa, S. M. Grande, L. B. King, J. Russo, S. R. Ross, and J. G. Monroe, J. Exp. Med. 201:431-439, 2005). Here, we examined the role of the Env protein in virus-induced mammary tumorigenesis in vivo. Similar to the effect seen in vitro, Env expression in the mammary glands of transgenic mice bearing either full-length wild-type provirus or only Env transgenes showed increased lobuloalveolar budding. Introduction of the ITAM mutation into the env of an infectious, replication-competent MMTV or into MMTV/murine leukemia virus pseudotypes had no effect on incorporation of Env into virus particles or on in vitro infectivity. Moreover, replication-competent MMTV bearing the ITAM mutation in Env infected lymphoid and mammary tissue at the same level as wild-type MMTV and was transmitted through milk. However, mammary tumor induction was greatly attenuated, and the pattern of oncogene activation was altered. Taken together, these studies indicate that the MMTV Env protein participates in mammary epithelial cell transformation in vivo and that this requires a functional ITAM in the envelope protein.

  17. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  18. A Single Glycan at the 99-Loop of Human Kallikrein-related Peptidase 2 Regulates Activation and Enzymatic Activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shihui; Skala, Wolfgang; Magdolen, Viktor; Briza, Peter; Biniossek, Martin L; Schilling, Oliver; Kellermann, Josef; Brandstetter, Hans; Goettig, Peter

    2016-01-08

    Human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (KLK2) is a key serine protease in semen liquefaction and prostate cancer together with KLK3/prostate-specific antigen. In order to decipher the function of its potential N-glycosylation site, we produced pro-KLK2 in Leishmania tarentolae cells and compared it with its non-glycosylated counterpart from Escherichia coli expression. Mass spectrometry revealed that Asn-95 carries a core glycan, consisting of two GlcNAc and three hexoses. Autocatalytic activation was retarded in glyco-pro-KLK2, whereas the activated glyco-form exhibited an increased proteolytic resistance. The specificity patterns obtained by the PICS (proteomic identification of protease cleavage sites) method are similar for both KLK2 variants, with a major preference for P1-Arg. However, glycosylation changes the enzymatic activity of KLK2 in a drastically substrate-dependent manner. Although glyco-KLK2 has a considerably lower catalytic efficiency than glycan-free KLK2 toward peptidic substrates with P2-Phe, the situation was reverted toward protein substrates, such as glyco-pro-KLK2 itself. These findings can be rationalized by the glycan-carrying 99-loop that prefers to cover the active site like a lid. By contrast, the non-glycosylated 99-loop seems to favor a wide open conformation, which mostly increases the apparent affinity for the substrates (i.e. by a reduction of Km). Also, the cleavage pattern and kinetics in autolytic inactivation of both KLK2 variants can be explained by a shift of the target sites due to the presence of the glycan. These striking effects of glycosylation pave the way to a deeper understanding of kallikrein-related peptidase biology and pathology.

  19. The Second Extracellular Loop of the Adenosine A1 Receptor Mediates Activity of Allosteric Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Dylan P.; McRobb, Fiona M.; Leonhardt, Susan A.; Purdy, Michael; Figler, Heidi; Marshall, Melissa A.; Chordia, Mahendra; Figler, Robert; Linden, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric enhancers of the adenosine A1 receptor amplify signaling by orthosteric agonists. Allosteric enhancers are appealing drug candidates because their activity requires that the orthosteric site be occupied by an agonist, thereby conferring specificity to stressed or injured tissues that produce adenosine. To explore the mechanism of allosteric enhancer activity, we examined their action on several A1 receptor constructs, including (1) species variants, (2) species chimeras, (3) alanine scanning mutants, and (4) site-specific mutants. These findings were combined with homology modeling of the A1 receptor and in silico screening of an allosteric enhancer library. The binding modes of known docked allosteric enhancers correlated with the known structure-activity relationship, suggesting that these allosteric enhancers bind to a pocket formed by the second extracellular loop, flanked by residues S150 and M162. We propose a model in which this vestibule controls the entry and efflux of agonists from the orthosteric site and agonist binding elicits a conformational change that enables allosteric enhancer binding. This model provides a mechanism for the observations that allosteric enhancers slow the dissociation of orthosteric agonists but not antagonists. PMID:24217444

  20. Intracellular Loop 2 Peptides of the Human 5HT1a Receptor are Differential Activators of Gi

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian; Squires, Carley; Parker, Keith K.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide mimics of intracellular loop 2 (ic2) of the human 5HT1a receptor have been studied with respect to their ability to inhibit agonist binding via interference with receptor-G-protein coupling. These peptides give shallow concentration-effect relationships. Additionally, these peptides have been studied with respect to their ability to trigger the signal transduction system of this Gi-coupled receptor. Two signaling parameters have been quantified: concentration of intracellular cAMP and changes in incorporation into the G protein of a stable analog of GTP. In both cases, peptide mimics near midloop of ic2 actually show agonist activity with efficacy falling off toward both loop termini near TM 3 and TM 4. Previous results have suggested that the loop region near the TM3/ic2 interface is primarily responsible for receptor-G-protein coupling, while the current result emphasizes the mid-ic2 loop region's ability to activate the G protein following initial coupling. A limited number of peptides from the receptor's TM5/ic3 loop vicinity were also studied regarding agonist inhibition and G-protein activation. These peptides provide additional evidence that the human 5HT1a receptor, TM5/ic3 loop region, is involved in both coupling and activation actions. Overall, these results provide further information about potential pharmacological intervention and drug development with respect to the human 5HT1a receptor/G-protein system. Finally, the structural evidence generated here provides testable models pending crystallization and X-ray analysis of the receptor. PMID:22649462

  1. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors target cancer stem cells in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Solarek, Wojciech; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to analyze the impact of multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the cancer stem cell subpopulation in renal cell cancer. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth inhibition related to a tumor niche factor - oxygen deprivation - as hypoxia develops along with the anti-angiogenic activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in renal tumors. Cells were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib, in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Cell proliferation along with drug toxicity were evaluated. It was shown that the proliferation rate of cancer stem cells was decreased by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of the growth inhibition was limited by hypoxic conditions and 3D intratumoral cell-cell interactions. We conclude that understanding the complex molecular interaction feedback loops between differentiated cancer cells, cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment in 3D culture should aid the identification of novel treatment targets and to evalute the efficacy of renal cancer therapies. Cell-cell interaction may represent a critical microenvironmental factor regulating cancer stem cell self-renewal potential, enhancing the stem cell phenotype and limiting drug toxicity. At the same time the role of hypoxia in renal cancer stem cell biology is also significant.

  2. Antitumor activities of the targeted multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor lenvatinib (E7080) against RET gene fusion-driven tumor models.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Kotaro; Takase, Kazuma; Sugi, Naoko Hata; Yamamoto, Yuji; Iwata, Masao; Tsuruoka, Akihiko

    2013-10-28

    RET gene fusions are recurrent oncogenes identified in thyroid and lung carcinomas. Lenvatinib is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently under evaluation in several clinical trials. Here we evaluated lenvatinib in RET gene fusion-driven preclinical models. In cellular assays, lenvatinib inhibited auto-phosphorylation of KIF5B-RET, CCDC6-RET, and NcoA4-RET. Lenvatinib suppressed the growth of CCDC6-RET human thyroid and lung cancer cell lines, and as well, suppressed anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity of RET gene fusion-transformed NIH3T3 cells. These results demonstrate that lenvatinib can exert antitumor activity against RET gene fusion-driven tumor models by inhibiting oncogenic RET gene fusion signaling.

  3. Perindopril increases the swallowing reflex by inhibiting substance P degradation and tyrosine hydroxylase activation in a rat model of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Jun-ichi; Kojima, Natsuki; Saeki, Kohji; Ishihara, Miki; Takayama, Makoto

    2015-01-05

    Patients with hypertension have a high risk of ischemic stroke and subsequent stroke-associated pneumonia. Stroke-associated pneumonia is most likely to develop in patients with dysphagia. The present study was designed to compare the ameliorative effects of different treatments in rat model of dysphagia. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causing disorders of the swallowing reflex. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (perindopril, imidapril and enalapril), an angiotensin II type 1-receptor blocker (losartan), a vasodilator (hydralazine) and an indirect dopamine agonist (amantadine) were dissolved in drinking water and administered to the rats for six weeks. The blood pressure, the swallowing reflex under anesthesia, the substance P content in the striatum and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the substantial nigra were measured. Compared to the vehicle control, the decrease in the swallowing reflex induced by BCAO was attenuated significantly by enalapril, imidapril and perindopril, but only slightly by losartan. Hydralazine had no effect on the swallowing reflex. Amantadine significantly attenuated the decreased swallowing reflex but increased the blood pressure. Cerebral hypoperfusion for six weeks decreased the TH expression and substance P level. Perindopril improved both the TH expressions and substance P level, but imidapril, enalapril and amantadine only improved the substance P level. The present findings indicate that perindopril could be useful for preventing dysphagia in the chronic stage of stroke by attenuating the decrease in TH expression and the decrease in the substance P level.

  4. Transforming and Tumorigenic Activity of JAK2 by Fusion to BCR: Molecular Mechanisms of Action of a Novel BCR-JAK2 Tyrosine-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ormazábal, Cristina; Santos-Roncero, Matilde; Galán-Díez, Marta; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Figuera, Ángela; Arranz, Eva; Vizmanos, José Luis; Bueren, Juan A.; Río, Paula; Fernández-Ruiz, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations in tumors frequently produce fusion genes coding for chimeric proteins with a key role in oncogenesis. Recent reports described a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene in fatal chronic and acute myeloid leukemia, but the functional behavior of the chimeric protein remains uncharacterized. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to describe a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient has been in complete remission for six years following treatment and autologous transplantation, and minimal residual disease was monitored by real-time RT-PCR. BCR-JAK2 codes for a protein containing the BCR oligomerization domain fused to the JAK2 tyrosine-kinase domain. In vitro analysis of transfected cells showed that BCR-JAK2 is located in the cytoplasm. Transduction of hematopoietic Ba/F3 cells with retroviral vectors carrying BCR-JAK2 induced IL-3-independent cell growth, constitutive activation of the chimeric protein as well as STAT5 phosphorylation and translocation to the nuclei, where Bcl-xL gene expression was elicited. Primary mouse progenitor cells transduced with BCR-JAK2 also showed increased proliferation and survival. Treatment with the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 abrogated BCR-JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation, decreased Bcl-xL expression and triggered apoptosis of transformed Ba/F3 cells. Therefore, BCR-JAK2 is a novel tyrosine-kinase with transforming activity. It deregulates growth factor-dependent proliferation and cell survival, which can be abrogated by the TG101209 inhibitor. Moreover, transformed Ba/F3 cells developed tumors when injected subcutaneously into nude mice, thus proving the tumorigenic capacity of BCR-JAK2 in vivo. Together these findings suggest that adult and pediatric patients with BCR-ABL-negative leukemia and JAK2 overexpression may benefit from targeted therapies. PMID:22384256

  5. Homooligomerization of the cytoplasmic domain of the T cell receptor zeta chain and of other proteins containing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Alexander; Aivazian, Dikran; Stern, Lawrence

    2004-02-24

    Antigen receptors on T cells, B cells, mast cells, and basophils all have cytoplasmic domains containing one or more copies of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), tyrosine residues of which are phosphorylated upon receptor engagement in an early and obligatory event in the signaling cascade. How clustering of receptor extracellular domains leads to phosphorylation of cytoplasmic domain ITAMs is not known, and little structural or biochemical information is available for the ITAM-containing cytoplasmic domains. Here we investigate the conformation and oligomeric state of several immune receptor cytoplasmic domains, using purified recombinant proteins and a variety of biophysical and biochemical techniques. We show that all of the cytoplasmic domains of ITAM-containing signaling subunits studied are oligomeric in solution, namely, T cell antigen receptor zeta, CD3epsilon, CD3delta, and CD3gamma, B cell antigen receptor Igalpha and Igbeta, and Fc receptor FcepsilonRIgamma. For zeta(cyt), the oligomerization behavior is best described by a two-step monomer-dimer-tetramer fast dynamic equilibrium with dissociation constants in the order of approximately 10 microM (monomer-dimer) and approximately 1 mM (dimer-tetramer). In contrast to the other ITAM-containing proteins, Igalpha(cyt) forms stable dimers and tetramers even below 10 microM. Circular dichroic analysis reveals the lack of stable ordered structure of the cytoplasmic domains studied, and oligomerization does not change the random-coil-like conformation observed. The random-coil nature of zeta(cyt) was also confirmed by heteronuclear NMR. Phosphorylation of zeta(cyt) and FcepsilonRIgamma(cyt) does not significantly alter their oligomerization behavior. The implications of these results for transmembrane signaling and cellular activation by immune receptors are discussed.

  6. Self-regulation of exopolysaccharide production in Bacillus subtilis by a tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Wacker, Sarah A; Losick, Richard

    2014-08-01

    We report that the Bacillus subtilis exopolysaccharide (EPS) is a signaling molecule that controls its own production. EPS synthesis depends on a tyrosine kinase that consists of a membrane component (EpsA) and a kinase component (EpsB). EPS interacts with the extracellular domain of EpsA, which is a receptor, to control kinase activity. In the absence of EPS, the kinase is inactivated by autophosphorylation. The presence of EPS inhibits autophosphorylation and instead promotes the phosphorylation of a glycosyltransferase in the biosynthetic pathway, thereby stimulating the production of EPS. Thus, EPS production is subject to a positive feedback loop that ties its synthesis to its own concentration. Tyrosine kinase-mediated self-regulation could be a widespread feature of the control of exopolysaccharide production in bacteria.

  7. XAFS of human tyrosine hydroxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, W.; Haavik, J.; Winkler, H.; Trautwein, A. X.; Nolting, H.-F.

    1995-02-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyses the rate-limiting step (hydroxylation of tyrosine to form dihydroxyphenylalanine) in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. The human enzyme (hTH) is present in four isoforms, generated by splicing of pre-mRNA. The purified apoenzyme (metal free) binds stoichiometric amounts of iron. The incorporation of Fe(II) results in a rapid and up to 40-fold increase of activity [1]. Besides the coordination of the metal centers in native enzyme we studied the purported inhibition of TH by its immediate products. So we analysed Fe-hTH isoform 1 native as well as oxidized with dopamine and Co-hTH isoform 2.

  8. Antitumor Activity of Lenvatinib (E7080): An Angiogenesis Inhibitor That Targets Multiple Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Preclinical Human Thyroid Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Tohyama, Osamu; Matsui, Junji; Kodama, Kotaro; Hata-Sugi, Naoko; Kimura, Takayuki; Iwata, Masao; Funahashi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by blockading the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer. Lenvatinib mesilate (lenvatinib) is a potent inhibitor of VEGF receptors (VEGFR1–3) and other prooncogenic and prooncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1–4), platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), KIT, and RET. We examined the antitumor activity of lenvatinib against human thyroid cancer xenograft models in nude mice. Orally administered lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in 5 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), 5 anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and 1 medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) xenograft models. Lenvatinib also showed antiangiogenesis activity against 5 DTC and 5 ATC xenografts, while lenvatinib showed in vitro antiproliferative activity against only 2 of 11 thyroid cancer cell lines: that is, RO82-W-1 and TT cells. Western blot analysis showed that cultured RO82-W-1 cells overexpressed FGFR1 and that lenvatinib inhibited the phosphorylation of FGFR1 and its downstream effector FRS2. Lenvatinib also inhibited the phosphorylation of RET with the activated mutation C634W in TT cells. These data demonstrate that lenvatinib provides antitumor activity mainly via angiogenesis inhibition but also inhibits FGFR and RET signaling pathway in preclinical human thyroid cancer models. PMID:25295214

  9. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  10. Antitumor activity of lenvatinib (e7080): an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets multiple receptor tyrosine kinases in preclinical human thyroid cancer models.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Osamu; Matsui, Junji; Kodama, Kotaro; Hata-Sugi, Naoko; Kimura, Takayuki; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Minoshima, Yukinori; Iwata, Masao; Funahashi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by blockading the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer. Lenvatinib mesilate (lenvatinib) is a potent inhibitor of VEGF receptors (VEGFR1-3) and other prooncogenic and prooncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-4), platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), KIT, and RET. We examined the antitumor activity of lenvatinib against human thyroid cancer xenograft models in nude mice. Orally administered lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in 5 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), 5 anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and 1 medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) xenograft models. Lenvatinib also showed antiangiogenesis activity against 5 DTC and 5 ATC xenografts, while lenvatinib showed in vitro antiproliferative activity against only 2 of 11 thyroid cancer cell lines: that is, RO82-W-1 and TT cells. Western blot analysis showed that cultured RO82-W-1 cells overexpressed FGFR1 and that lenvatinib inhibited the phosphorylation of FGFR1 and its downstream effector FRS2. Lenvatinib also inhibited the phosphorylation of RET with the activated mutation C634W in TT cells. These data demonstrate that lenvatinib provides antitumor activity mainly via angiogenesis inhibition but also inhibits FGFR and RET signaling pathway in preclinical human thyroid cancer models.

  11. Roles of tyrosine kinase-, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathways in ethanol-induced contractions of rat aortic smooth muscle: possible relation to alcohol-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2002-08-01

    Insights into the relations between and among ethanol-induced contractions in rat aorta, tyrosine kinases (including src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3Ks), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) were investigated in the present study. Ethanol-induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat aortic rings were attenuated greatly by pretreatment of the arteries with low concentrations of an antagonist of protein tyrosine kinases (genistein), an src homology domain 2 (SH2) inhibitor peptide, a highly specific antagonist of p38 MAPK (SB-203580), a potent, selective antagonist of two specific MAPK kinases-MEK1/MEK2 (U0126)-and a selective antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PD-98059), as well as by treatment with wortmannin or LY-294002 (both are selective antagonists of PI-3Ks). Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50)) levels obtained for these seven antagonists were consistent with reported inhibition constant (Ki) values for these tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and MAPKK antagonists. Ethanol-induced transient and sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in primary single smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were markedly attenuated in the presence of genistein, an SH2 domain inhibitor peptide, SB-203580, U0126, PD-98059, wortmannin, and LY-294002. A variety of specific antagonists of known endogenously formed vasoconstrictors did not inhibit or attenuate either the ethanol-induced contractions or the elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Results of the present study support the suggestion that activation of tyrosine kinases (including the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), PI-3Ks, and MAPK seems to play an important role in ethanol-induced contractions and the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. These signaling pathways thus may be important in hypertension in human beings associated with chronic alcohol

  12. Calcineurin-NFAT activation and DSCR-1 auto-inhibitory loop: how is homoeostasis regulated?

    PubMed

    Minami, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signalling plays a critical role not only in the immune and nervous systems, but also in cardiovascular development and pathological endothelial cell activation during angiogenesis or inflammation. Studies in NFAT-null mice demonstrated that there is high redundancy between functions of the different NFAT family members. Deletion of only one NFAT causes mild phenotypes, but compound deletions of multiple NFAT family members leads to severe abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that many NFAT target genes are related to cell growth and inflammation, whereas the gene most strongly induced by NFAT in endothelial cells is an auto-inhibitory molecule, Down syndrome critical region (DSCR)-1. The NFAT-DSCR-1 signalling axis may vary depending on the cell-type or signal dosage level under the microenvironment. In the endothelium, stable expression of the DSCR-1 short isoform attenuates septic inflammatory shock, tumour growth and tumour metastasis to lung. Moreover, dysfunction of DSCR-1 and the NFAT priming kinase, DYRK1A, prevents NFAT nuclear occupancy. This change in NFAT nuclear localization is responsible for many of the features of Down syndrome. Thus, fine-tuning of the NFAT-DSCR-1 negative feedback loop may enable therapeutic manipulation in vasculopathic diseases.

  13. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with double stem-loops show strong immunostimulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Xiuli; Wan, Min; Yu, Yue; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current understanding of TLR9 recognition of CpG ODN, we have tried to design a series of CpG ODNs that display double stem-loops when being analyzed for their secondary structures using 'mfold web server'. Proliferation of human PBMC and bioassay for IFN production were used as technical platforms in primary screening. Interestingly, two of them, designated as DSL01 and D-SL03, belonging to B class CpG ODN and C class CpG ODN respectively, showed vigorous immunostimulatory activity and were chosen for further tests. Flow cytometry analysis showed that both of them could activate human B cells, NK cells, mononuclear cells and T cells and up-regulate expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR on the surface of subsets in human PBMCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that those two ODNs potently stimulated proliferation of PBMC/splenocytes obtained from diverse vertebrate species. Noticeably, both of them displayed anti-breast cancer effect in mice when administered by peritumoral injection.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Ponpandian, Lakshmi Narayanan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y) in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest. PMID:26918378

  15. Structural basis of tubulin tyrosination by tubulin tyrosine ligase

    PubMed Central

    Prota, Andrea E.; Magiera, Maria M.; Kuijpers, Marijn; Bargsten, Katja; Frey, Daniel; Wieser, Mara; Jaussi, Rolf; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kammerer, Richard A.; Janke, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) catalyzes the post-translational retyrosination of detyrosinated α-tubulin. Despite the indispensable role of TTL in cell and organism development, its molecular mechanism of action is poorly understood. By solving crystal structures of TTL in complex with tubulin, we here demonstrate that TTL binds to the α and β subunits of tubulin and recognizes the curved conformation of the dimer. Biochemical and cellular assays revealed that specific tubulin dimer recognition controls the activity of the enzyme, and as a consequence, neuronal development. The TTL–tubulin structure further illustrates how the enzyme binds the functionally crucial C-terminal tail sequence of α-tubulin and how this interaction catalyzes the tyrosination reaction. It also reveals how TTL discriminates between α- and β-tubulin, and between different post-translationally modified forms of α-tubulin. Together, our data suggest that TTL has specifically evolved to recognize and modify tubulin, thus highlighting a fundamental role of the evolutionary conserved tubulin tyrosination cycle in regulating the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:23358242

  16. Spectroscopic study of a dark lane and a cool loop in a solar limb active region by Hinode/EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Imada, S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-10

    We investigated a cool loop and a dark lane over a limb active region on 2007 March 14 using the Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer. The cool loop is clearly seen in the spectral lines formed at the transition region temperature. The dark lane is characterized by an elongated faint structure in the coronal spectral lines and is rooted on a bright point. We examined their electron densities, Doppler velocities, and nonthermal velocities as a function of distance from the limb. We derived electron densities using the density sensitive line pairs of Mg VII, Si X, Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XIV spectra. We also compared the observed density scale heights with the calculated scale heights from each peak formation temperatures of the spectral lines under the hydrostatic equilibrium. We noted that the observed density scale heights of the cool loop are consistent with the calculated heights, with the exception of one observed cooler temperature; we also found that the observed scale heights of the dark lane are much lower than their calculated scale heights. The nonthermal velocity in the cool loop slightly decreases along the loop, while nonthermal velocity in the dark lane sharply falls off with height. Such a decrease in the nonthermal velocity may be explained by wave damping near the solar surface or by turbulence due to magnetic reconnection near the bright point.

  17. Low-order design and high-order simulation of active closed-loop control for aerospace structures under construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Partially constructed/assembled structures in space are complicated enough but their dynamics will also be operating in closed-loop with feedback controllers. The dynamics of such structures are modeled by large-scale finite element models. The model dimension L is extremely large (approximately 10,000) while the numbers of actuators (M) and sensors (P) are small. The model parameters M(sub m) mass matrix, D(sub o) damping matrix, and K(sub o) stiffness matrix, are all symmetric and sparse (banded). Thus simulation of open-loop structure models of very large dimension can be accomplished by special integration techniques for sparse matrices. The problem of simulation of closed-loop control of such structures is complicated by the addition of controllers. Simulation of closed-loop controlled structures is an essential part of the controller design and evaluation process. Current research in the following areas is presented: high-order simulation of actively controlled aerospace structures; low-order controller design and SCI compensation for unmodeled dynamics; prediction of closed-loop stability using asymptotic eigenvalue series; and flexible robot manipulator control experiment.

  18. Multivariable Adaptive Closed-Loop Control of an Artificial Pancreas Without Meal and Activity Announcement

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Bayrak, Elif Seyma; Quinn, Lauretta; Littlejohn, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate closed-loop control is essential for developing artificial pancreas (AP) systems that adjust insulin infusion rates from insulin pumps. Glucose concentration information from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems is the most important information for the control system. Additional physiological measurements can provide valuable information that can enhance the accuracy of the control system. Proportional-integral-derivative control and model predictive control have been popular in AP development. Their implementations to date rely on meal announcements (e.g., bolus insulin dose based on insulin:carbohydrate ratios) by the user. Adaptive control techniques provide a powerful alternative that do not necessitate any meal or activity announcements. Materials and Methods Adaptive control systems based on the generalized predictive control framework are developed by extending the recursive modeling techniques. Physiological signals such as energy expenditure and galvanic skin response are used along with glucose measurements to generate a multiple-input–single-output model for predicting future glucose concentrations used by the controller. Insulin-on-board (IOB) is also estimated and used in control decisions. The controllers were tested with clinical studies that include seven cases with three different patients with type 1 diabetes for 32 or 60 h without any meal or activity announcements. Results The adaptive control system kept glucose concentration in the normal preprandial and postprandial range (70–180 mg/dL) without any meal or activity announcements during the test period. After IOB estimation was added to the control system, mild hypoglycemic episodes were observed only in one of the four experiments. This was reflected in a plasma glucose value of 56 mg/dL (YSI 2300 STAT; Yellow Springs Instrument, Yellow Springs, OH) and a CGM value of 63 mg/dL). Conclusions Regulation of blood glucose concentration with an AP

  19. N-Linked Glycosylation of Protease-activated Receptor-1 Second Extracellular Loop

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Antonio G.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) contains five N-linked glycosylation consensus sites as follows: three residing in the N terminus and two localized on the surface of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). To study the effect of N-linked glycosylation in the regulation of PAR1 signaling and trafficking, we generated mutants in which the critical asparagines of the consensus sites were mutated. Here, we report that both the PAR1 N terminus and ECL2 serve as sites for N-linked glycosylation but have different functions in the regulation of receptor signaling and trafficking. N-Linked glycosylation of the PAR1 N terminus is important for transport to the cell surface, whereas the PAR1 mutant lacking glycosylation at ECL2 (NA ECL2) trafficked to the cell surface like the wild-type receptor. However, activated PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant internalization was impaired compared with wild-type receptor, whereas constitutive internalization of unactivated receptor remained intact. Remarkably, thrombin-activated PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant displayed an enhanced maximal signaling response compared with wild-type receptor. The increased PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant signaling was not due to defects in the ability of thrombin to cleave the receptor or signal termination mechanisms. Rather, the PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant displayed a greater efficacy in thrombin-stimulated G protein signaling. Thus, N-linked glycosylation of the PAR1 extracellular surface likely influences ligand docking interactions and the stability of the active receptor conformation. Together, these studies strongly suggest that N-linked glycosylation of PAR1 at the N terminus versus the surface of ECL2 serves distinct functions critical for proper regulation of receptor trafficking and the fidelity of thrombin signaling. PMID:20368337

  20. Activation of the Non-receptor Tyrosine Kinase cSrc in Macrophage-rich Atherosclerotic Plaques of Human Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Toi, Sono; Shibata, Noriyuki; Sawada, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Makio; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    To determine the involvement of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase cSrc in plaque destabilization in carotid atherosclerosis (CAS), which is responsible for cerebral infarction, we performed quantitative and morphological detection of phosphorylated active cSrc (p-cSrc) and histopathological examination in CAS lesions. We examined carotid endarterectomy specimens obtained from 32 CAS patients. Each specimen was used for immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses of p-cSrc, histopathological analysis, and image analysis of macrophage content. There was a strong positive correlation between cSrc activation on blots and macrophage content on sections. When we defined the macrophage-rich plaque (MRP) and the macrophage-poor plaque (MPP) as having macrophage content more and less than 5%, respectively, the p-cSrc density and the occurrence of plaque hemorrhage and thrombus formation were significantly increased in the MRP group (n=18) compared to the MPP group (n=14). p-cSrc immunoreactivity was localized in lesional endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells, which contained proinflammatory substances: the upstream oxidized low density lipoprotein, tissue factor and osteopontin, and the downstream active forms of extracellular signal-activated kinase and p38 and nuclear factor-κB. Our results suggest that cSrc activation in lesional cells contributes to plaque destabilization in CAS via persistent inflammation. PMID:18224247