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Sample records for activation mechanism involving

  1. Potentiation of antidepressant-like activity with lithium: mechanism involved.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Franck; Bourin, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last decade, many augmentation strategies have been developed to increase the activity of antidepressant drugs or to reduce their long onset of action by acting on different targets. One of the first augmentation strategy used in psychiatric disorders is coadministration of lithium and antidepressant drugs. However, the underlaying mechanism of action involved in the potentiatory effect of lithium is still unclear and many hypotheses have been suggested such as activity on BDNF, ACTH, thyroid hormones and serotonin neurotransmission. All these systems being embedded in each other, we focused on the 5-HT neurotransmission-increase induced by lithium treatment. Based on neurobiochemical and behavioral results we tried to better understand its mechanism of action and we concluded that effect of lithium on 5-HT neurotransmission could be linked to a partial agonist activity on 5-HT1B autoreceptors, or to a modulatory activity on these receptors, located in the cortical area in the case of a short term treatment, or in the hippocampus in the case of a long term treatment. We also suggested that the anti-manic effect of lithium was linked to this activity on 5-HT1B receptors, occurring this time on 5-HT1B postsynaptic (heteroreceptors on dopaminergic pathways) receptors levels.

  2. DNA methylation, riboswitches, and transcription factor activity: fundamental mechanisms of gene-nutrient interactions involving vitamins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Janet; Vieira, Amandio

    2006-12-01

    Nutrient-gene interactions occur with a variety of nutrients including some minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and other lipids. Fundamental molecular mechanisms that underlie many of the effects of nutrients on gene expression are presented herein. Two of the mechanisms described influence gene transcription: DNA methylation and transcription factor activation. Another mechanism, riboswitching, can regulate gene expression at different levels, for example, at the mRNA translation level. The first two mechanisms are widely distributed across animal phyla. Riboswitches are documented primarily in more primitive organisms, but may prove to be of wider relevance. Riboswitches are known for several vitamins; those involving thiamine are presented here. The role of folates and retinoids in DNA methylation and transcriptional factor (nuclear retinoid receptor) activities, respectively, is presented in the context of cell proliferation and differentiation, and related physiological or pathological effects during embryogenesis and cancer.

  3. Cissus sicyoides: Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiarrheal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Cássia Santos, Raquel; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Rodrigues, Vinicius Peixoto; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Pupo, André Sampaio; da Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smooth muscle and/or intestinal transit. PMID:26805827

  4. Dura-evoked neck muscle activity involves purinergic and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongyuan; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-12-16

    We have previously demonstrated that noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues including the frontal dura reflexly evokes significant increases in neck muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic receptor mechanisms may be involved in these EMG effects, and whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor processes modulate the purinergic mechanisms. Application of the P2X1, P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (but not vehicle) to the dural surface evoked a significant (P<0.05) increase in ipsilateral neck EMG activity that could be suppressed by dural or intrathecal application of the selective P2X1, P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) ATP (TNP-ATP) but not by vehicle; the intrathecal application of 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, also significantly reduced the neck EMG activity evoked by dural application of α,β-methylene ATP. These data suggest that purinergic receptor mechanisms contribute to the increased neck activity that can be reflexly evoked by noxious stimulation of the frontal dura, and that NMDA as well as purinergic receptor mechanisms in the medulla may modulate these purinergic-related effects. PMID:26559728

  5. Ellagic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in liver protection.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    Traditional drugs or therapies rarely have effects on regression of chronic liver diseases, which result in many cases from sustained oxidative stress. In recent years, ellagic acid (EA) has gained attention due to its multiple biological activities and several molecular targets. This is the first review focused on the pharmacological properties and on the molecular mechanisms activated by EA in terms of liver protection. EA possesses antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, antisteatosic, anticholestatic, antifibrogenic, antihepatocarcinogenic and antiviral properties that improves the hepatic architectural and functions against toxic and pathological conditions. The molecular mechanisms that EA activates include the scavenging of free radicals, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, modulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines synthesis, the regulation of biochemical pathways involved in the synthesis and degradation of lipids as well as the maintenance of essential trace elements levels. EA also inhibits hepatic stellate cells and mast cells activation, the proliferation of transformed cells, as well as viral replication by increasing antioxidant response, induction of apoptosis, downregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and angiogenesis, and stimulation of cellular immune response. Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of EA as an innovative pharmacological strategy, the number of phase I and II trials in patients is scarce, precluding its clinical application. In these sense, the use of new delivery systems that enhances EA bioavailability would improve the results already obtained. Also it remains to be determined if treatment with urolithins instead of EA would represent a better strategy in hepatic disease treatment.

  6. Novel mechanisms for activated protein C cytoprotective activities involving noncanonical activation of protease-activated receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Laurent; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2013-08-01

    The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC's cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC's cytoprotective versus thrombin's proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects. PMID:23788139

  7. Functional responses and molecular mechanisms involved in histone-mediated platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Carestia, A; Rivadeneyra, L; Romaniuk, M A; Fondevila, C; Negrotto, S; Schattner, M

    2013-11-01

    Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in cell nuclei and they can be released by either dying or inflammatory cells. The recent observations that histones are major components of neutrophil extracellular traps and promote platelet aggregation and platelet-dependent thrombin generation have shown that these proteins are potent prothrombotic molecules. Because the mechanism(s) of platelet activation by histones are not completely understood, we explored the ability of individual recombinant human histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 to induce platelet activation as well as the possible molecular mechanisms involved. All histones were substrates for platelet adhesion and spreading and triggered fibrinogen binding, aggregation, von Willebrand factor release, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates; however, H4 was the most potent. Histone-mediated fibrinogen binding, P-selectin and PS exposure and the formation of mixed aggregates were potentiated by thrombin. Histones induced the activation of ERK, Akt, p38 and NFκB. Accordingly, histone-induced platelet activation was significantly impaired by pretreatment of platelets with inhibitors of ERK (U 0126), PI3K/Akt (Ly 294002), p38 (SB 203580) and NFκB (BAY 11-7082 and Ro 106-9920). Preincubation of platelets with either aspirin or dexamethasone markedly decreased fibrinogen binding and the adhesion mediated by histones without affecting P-selectin exposure. Functional platelet responses induced by H3 and H4, but not H1, H2A and H2B, were partially mediated through interaction with Toll-like receptors -2 and -4. Our data identify histones as important triggers of haemostatic and proinflammatory platelet responses, and only haemostatic responses are partially inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23965842

  8. Functional responses and molecular mechanisms involved in histone-mediated platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Carestia, A; Rivadeneyra, L; Romaniuk, M A; Fondevila, C; Negrotto, S; Schattner, M

    2013-11-01

    Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in cell nuclei and they can be released by either dying or inflammatory cells. The recent observations that histones are major components of neutrophil extracellular traps and promote platelet aggregation and platelet-dependent thrombin generation have shown that these proteins are potent prothrombotic molecules. Because the mechanism(s) of platelet activation by histones are not completely understood, we explored the ability of individual recombinant human histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 to induce platelet activation as well as the possible molecular mechanisms involved. All histones were substrates for platelet adhesion and spreading and triggered fibrinogen binding, aggregation, von Willebrand factor release, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates; however, H4 was the most potent. Histone-mediated fibrinogen binding, P-selectin and PS exposure and the formation of mixed aggregates were potentiated by thrombin. Histones induced the activation of ERK, Akt, p38 and NFκB. Accordingly, histone-induced platelet activation was significantly impaired by pretreatment of platelets with inhibitors of ERK (U 0126), PI3K/Akt (Ly 294002), p38 (SB 203580) and NFκB (BAY 11-7082 and Ro 106-9920). Preincubation of platelets with either aspirin or dexamethasone markedly decreased fibrinogen binding and the adhesion mediated by histones without affecting P-selectin exposure. Functional platelet responses induced by H3 and H4, but not H1, H2A and H2B, were partially mediated through interaction with Toll-like receptors -2 and -4. Our data identify histones as important triggers of haemostatic and proinflammatory platelet responses, and only haemostatic responses are partially inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs.

  9. Nelfinavir and other protease inhibitors in cancer: mechanisms involved in anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Koltai, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the mechanisms of anti-cancer activity of nelfinavir and other protease inhibitors (PIs) based on evidences reported in the published literature. Methods: We extensively reviewed the literature concerning nelfinavir (NFV) as an off target anti-cancer drug and other PIs. A classification of PIs based on anti-cancer mode of action was proposed. Controversies regarding nelfinavir mode of action were also addressed. Conclusions: The two main mechanisms involved in anti-cancer activity are endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response pathway and Akt inhibition. However there are many other effects, partially dependent and independent of those mentioned, that may be useful in cancer treatment, including MMP-9 and MMP-2 inhibition, down-regulation of CDK-2, VEGF, bFGF, NF-kB, STAT-3, HIF-1 alfa, IGF, EGFR, survivin, BCRP, androgen receptor, proteasome, fatty acid synthase (FAS), decrease in cellular ATP concentration and upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, Bax, increased radiosensitivity, and autophagy. The end result of all these effects is slower growth, decreased angiogenesis, decreased invasion and increased apoptosis, which means reduced proliferation and increased cancer cells death. PIs may be classified according to their anticancer activity at clinically achievable doses, in AKT inhibitors, ER stressors and Akt inhibitors/ER stressors. Beyond the phase I trials that have been recently completed, adequately powered and well-designed clinical trials are needed in the various cancer type settings, and specific trials where NFV is tested in association with other known anti-cancer pharmaceuticals should be sought, in order to find an appropriate place for NFV in cancer treatment. The analysis of controversies on the molecular mechanisms of NFV hints to the possibility that NFV works in a different way in tumor cells and in hepatocytes and adipocytes. PMID:26097685

  10. Activity-Dependent Dendritic Spine Shrinkage and Growth Involve Downregulation of Cofilin via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Barbara; Saffin, Jean-Michel; Halpain, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    A current model posits that cofilin-dependent actin severing negatively impacts dendritic spine volume. Studies suggested that increased cofilin activity underlies activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and that reduced cofilin activity induces activity-dependent spine growth. We suggest instead that both types of structural plasticity correlate with decreased cofilin activity. However, the mechanism of inhibition determines the outcome for spine morphology. RNAi in rat hippocampal cultures demonstrates that cofilin is essential for normal spine maintenance. Cofilin-F-actin binding and filament barbed-end production decrease during the early phase of activity-dependent spine shrinkage; cofilin concentration also decreases. Inhibition of the cathepsin B/L family of proteases prevents both cofilin loss and spine shrinkage. Conversely, during activity-dependent spine growth, LIM kinase stimulates cofilin phosphorylation, which activates phospholipase D-1 to promote actin polymerization. These results implicate novel molecular mechanisms and prompt a revision of the current model for how cofilin functions in activity-dependent structural plasticity. PMID:24740405

  11. Involvement of mast cells and proteinase-activated receptor 2 in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ayumi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2016-03-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin induces neuropathic pain, a dose-limiting side effect, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show the potential involvement of cutaneous mast cells in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin induced mechanical allodynia, which peaked on day 10 after injection. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was almost completely prevented by congenital mast cell deficiency. The numbers of total and degranulated mast cells was significantly increased in the skin after oxaliplatin administration. Repetitive topical application of the mast cell stabilizer azelastine hydrochloride inhibited mechanical allodynia and the degranulation of mast cells without affecting the number of mast cells in oxaliplatin-treated mice. The serine protease inhibitor camostat mesilate and the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 significantly inhibited oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it was not inhibited by the H1 histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine. Single oxaliplatin administration increased the activity of cutaneous serine proteases, which was attenuated by camostat and mast cell deficiency. Depletion of the capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents by neonatal capsaicin treatment almost completely prevented oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, the increase in the number of mast cells, and the activity of cutaneous serine proteases. These results suggest that serine protease(s) released from mast cells and PAR2 are involved in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Therefore, oxaliplatin may indirectly affect the functions of mast cells through its action on capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents.

  12. Involvement of mast cells and proteinase-activated receptor 2 in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ayumi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2016-03-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin induces neuropathic pain, a dose-limiting side effect, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show the potential involvement of cutaneous mast cells in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin induced mechanical allodynia, which peaked on day 10 after injection. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was almost completely prevented by congenital mast cell deficiency. The numbers of total and degranulated mast cells was significantly increased in the skin after oxaliplatin administration. Repetitive topical application of the mast cell stabilizer azelastine hydrochloride inhibited mechanical allodynia and the degranulation of mast cells without affecting the number of mast cells in oxaliplatin-treated mice. The serine protease inhibitor camostat mesilate and the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 significantly inhibited oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it was not inhibited by the H1 histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine. Single oxaliplatin administration increased the activity of cutaneous serine proteases, which was attenuated by camostat and mast cell deficiency. Depletion of the capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents by neonatal capsaicin treatment almost completely prevented oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, the increase in the number of mast cells, and the activity of cutaneous serine proteases. These results suggest that serine protease(s) released from mast cells and PAR2 are involved in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Therefore, oxaliplatin may indirectly affect the functions of mast cells through its action on capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents. PMID:26804251

  13. HSP27 Alleviates Cardiac Aging in Mice via a Mechanism Involving Antioxidation and Mitophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shenglan; Wang, Yana; Zhang, Xiaojin; Kong, Qiuyue; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian

    2016-01-01

    Aging-induced cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of cardiac aging. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) protects cardiac function against ischemia or chemical challenge. We hypothesized that HSP27 attenuates cardiac aging. Transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific expression of the HSP27 gene and wild-type (WT) littermates were employed in the experiments. Echocardiography revealed a significant decline in the cardiac function of old WT mice compared with young WT mice. In striking contrast, the aging-induced impairment of cardiac function was attenuated in old Tg mice compared with old WT mice. Levels of cardiac aging markers were lower in old Tg mouse hearts than in old WT mouse hearts. Less interstitial fibrosis and lower contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins were detected in old Tg hearts than in old WT hearts. Furthermore, old Tg hearts demonstrated lower accumulation of LC3-II and p62 than old WT hearts. Levels of Atg13, Vps34, and Rab7 were also higher in old Tg hearts than in old WT hearts. Additionally, old Tg hearts had higher levels of PINK1 and Parkin than old WT hearts, suggesting that mitophagy was activated in old Tg hearts. Taken together, HSP27 alleviated cardiac aging and this action involved antioxidation and mitophagy activation. PMID:27110324

  14. Biochemistry and therapeutic implications of mechanisms involved in FOXP3 activity in immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Saouaf, Sandra J; Samanta, Arabinda; Shen, Yuan; Hancock, Wayne W; Greene, Mark I

    2007-10-01

    While mutations in human FOXP3 predispose individuals to autoimmune conditions, it is unclear how the mutant protein fails to function as a transcriptional regulator. There is also limited detail of how FOXP3 itself interacts with the transcriptional machinery and which components of the FOXP3 ensembles exert phenotypic changes to render cells able to mediate suppression. Increasing evidence indicates that the level and duration of FOXP3 expression plays a crucial role in the development and function of natural regulatory T cells (Tregs). Our studies focus on the post-translational modification of the FOXP3 protein, and how the FOXP3 complex ensemble, containing histone modification and chromatin-remodeling enzymes, defines its functional role in regulatory T cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying FOXP3 activity will provide therapeutic implications for transplantation, allergy, autoimmune disease and cancer. PMID:17703930

  15. Phospholipase A{sub 2} is involved in the mechanism of activation of neutrophils by polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Tithof, P.K.; Schiamberg, E.; Ganey, P.E.; Peters-Golden, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), activates neutrophils to produce superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by a mechanism that involves phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides; however, subsequent signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. This study determines whether phospholipase A{sub 2}-dependent release of arachidonic acid is involved in PCB-induced O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production. O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production was measured in vitro in glycogen-elicited, rat neutrophils in the presence and absence of the inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2}: quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), and manoalide. All three agents significantly decreased the amount of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} detected during stimulation of neutrophils with Aroclor 1242. Similar inhibition occurred when neutrophils were activated with the classical stimuli, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate. The effects of BPB and manoalide were not a result of cytotoxicity or other nonspecific effects. Significant release of {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid preceded O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production in neutrophils stimulated with Aroclor 1242 or fMLP. Manoalide, at a concentration that abolished O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production, also inhibited the release of {sup 3}H-arachidonate. Aspirin, zileuton, or WEB 2086 did not affect Aroclor 1242-induced O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production, suggesting that eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor are not needed for neutrophil activation by PCBs. Activation of phos-pholipase A{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production do not appear to involve the Ah receptor. These data suggest that Aroclor 1242 stimulates neutrophils to produce O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} by a mechanism that involves phospholipase A{sub 2}-dependent release of arachiodonic acid. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Aging enhances a mechanically-induced reduction in tendon strength by an active process involving matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Dudhia, Jayesh; Scott, Charlotte M; Draper, Edward R C; Heinegård, Dick; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Smith, Roger K

    2007-08-01

    Age-associated and degenerative loss of functional integrity in soft tissues develops from effects of cumulative and subtle changes in their extracellular matrix (ECM). The highly ordered tendon ECM provides the tissue with its tensile strength during loading. As age and exercise collide in the high incidence of tendinopathies, we hypothesized that aged tendons fail due to cumulative damage resulting from a combination of diminished matrix repair and fragmentation of ECM proteins induced by prolonged cyclical loading, and that this is an active cell-mediated process. We developed an equine tendon explant model to examine the effect of age on the influence of prolonged cyclical loading at physiologically relevant strain rates (5% strain, 1 Hz for 24 h) on tissue mechanical properties, loss of ECM protein and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. We show significantly diminished mechanical strength of cyclically loaded tissue compared to controls (39.7 +/- 12%, P activity. Furthermore, tendon from older specimens was more susceptible to weakening (11-30 years, 50%P active process, and that MMPs may contribute to loss of functional competence, exaggerated by age, via load-induced proteolytic disruption of the ECM.

  17. Antimanic-like activity of candesartan in mice: Possible involvement of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Souza Gomes, Júlia Ariana; de Souza, Greicy Coelho; Berk, Michael; Cavalcante, Lígia Menezes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F; Budni, Josiane; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2015-11-01

    Activation of the brain angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) triggers pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory mechanisms which are involved in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Candesartan (CDS) is an AT1 receptor antagonist with potential neuroprotective properties. Herein we investigated CDS effects against oxidative, neurotrophic inflammatory and cognitive effects of amphetamine (AMPH)-induced mania. In the reversal protocol adult mice were given AMPH 2 mg/kg i.p. or saline and between days 8 and 14 received CDS 0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg orally, lithium (Li) 47.5 mg/kg i.p., or saline. In the prevention treatment, mice were pretreated with CDS, Li or saline prior to AMPH. Locomotor activity and working memory performance were assessed. Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and TNF-α levels were evaluated in the hippocampus (HC) and cerebellar vermis (CV). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3beta) levels were measured in the HC. CDS and Li prevented and reversed the AMPH-induced increases in locomotor activity. Only CDS prevented and reversed AMPH-induced working memory deficits. CDS prevented AMPH-induced alterations in GSH (HC and CV), TBARS (HC and CV), TNF-α (HC and CV) and BDNF (HC) levels. Li prevented alterations in BDNF and phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta. CDS reversed AMPH-induced alterations in GSH (HC and CV), TBARS (HC), TNF-α (CV) and BDNF levels. Li reversed AMPH-induced alterations in TNF-α (HC and CV) and BDNF (HC) levels. CDS is effective in reversing and preventing AMPH-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations, providing a rationale for the design of clinical trials investigating CDS׳s possible therapeutic effects.

  18. Transcriptional reporters for genes activated by cell wall stress through a non-catalytic mechanism involving Mpk1 and SBF

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Young; Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The Mpk1 MAP kinase of the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) signaling pathway induces transcription of the FKS2 gene in response to cell wall stress through a non-catalytic mechanism that involves stable association of Mpk1 with the Swi4 transcription factor. This dimeric complex binds to a Swi4 recognition site in the FKS2 promoter. The Swi6 transcription factor is also required to bind this ternary complex for transcription initiation to ensue. In this context, the Mlp1 pseudokinase serves a redundant function with Mpk1. We have identified three additional genes, CHA1, YLR042c, and YKR013w that are induced by cell wall stress through the same mechanism. We report on the behavior of several promoter-lacZ reporter plasmids designed to detect cell wall stress transcription through this pathway. PMID:20641022

  19. PPARα regulates cholinergic-driven activity of midbrain dopamine neurons via a novel mechanism involving α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Scheggi, Simona; Carta, Gianfranca; Madeddu, Camilla; Lecca, Salvatore; Luchicchi, Antonio; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Ennas, M Grazia; Castelli, M Paola; Fratta, Walter; Schilstrom, Bjorn; Banni, Sebastiano; De Montis, M Graziella; Pistis, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons control reward-driven learning, and their dysregulation can lead to psychiatric disorders. Tonic and phasic activity of these dopaminergic neurons depends on cholinergic tone and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly those containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs). Nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type-α (PPARα) tonically regulate β2*-nAChRs and thereby control dopamine neuron firing activity. However, it is unknown how and when PPARα endogenous ligands are synthesized by dopamine cells. Using ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiological techniques combined with biochemical and behavioral analysis, we show that activation of α7-nAChRs increases in the rat VTA both the tyrosine phosphorylation of the β2 subunit of nAChRs and the levels of two PPARα endogenous ligands in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Accordingly, in vivo production of endogenous PPARα ligands, triggered by α7-nAChR activation, blocks in rats nicotine-induced increased firing activity of dopamine neurons and displays antidepressant-like properties. These data demonstrate that endogenous PPARα ligands are effectors of α7-nAChRs and that their neuromodulatory properties depend on phosphorylation of β2*-nAChRs on VTA dopamine cells. This reveals an autoinhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing dopamine cell overexcitation engaged during hypercholinergic drive. Our results unveil important physiological functions of nAChR/PPARα signaling in dopamine neurons and how behavioral output can change after modifications of this signaling pathway. Overall, the present study suggests PPARα as new therapeutic targets for disorders associated with unbalanced dopamine-acetylcholine systems. PMID:23554501

  20. Involvement of Mechanical Stress in Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Segura, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Context: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a frequent disorder characterized by progressive hair miniaturization in a very similar pattern among all affected men. The pathogenesis is related to androgen-inducible overexpression of transforming growth factor β-1 from balding dermal papilla cells, which is involved in epithelial inhibition and perifollicular fibrosis. Recent research shows that hair follicle androgen sensitivity is regulated by Hic-5, an androgen receptor co-activator which may be activated by the mechanical stimulation. Moreover, the dermis of scalp susceptible to be affected by AGA is firmly bounded to the galea aponeurotica, so the physical force exerted by the occipitofrontalis muscle is transmitted to the scalp skin. Aims: To know whether mechanical stress supported by hair follicles is involved in AGA phenomenon. Materials and Methods: It is performed with a finite element analysis of a galea model and a schematic representation of AGA progression according to Hamilton–Norwood scale in order to establish the correlation between elastic deformation in scalp and clinical progression of male pattern baldness. Results: The result was a highly significant correlation (r: −0.885, P < 0.001) that clearly identifies a mechanical factor in AGA development. Conclusions: All these data suggest that mechanical stress determines AGA patterning and a stretch-induced and androgen-mediated mechanotransduction in dermal papilla cells could be the primary mechanism in AGA pathogenesis. PMID:26622151

  1. Allosteric activation of SENP1 by SUMO1 β-grasp domain involves a dock-and-coalesce mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) are conjugated to proteins to regulate a variety of cellular processes. SENPs are cysteine proteases with a catalytic center located within a channel between two subdomains that catalyzes SUMO C-terminal cleavage for processing of SUMO precursors and de-SUMOylation of target proteins. The β-grasp domain of SUMOs binds to an exosite cleft, and allosterically activates SENPs via an unknown mechanism. Our molecular dynamics simulations showed that binding of the β-grasp domain induces significant conformational and dynamic changes in SENP1, including widening of the exosite cleft and quenching of nanosecond dynamics in all but a distal region. A dock-and-coalesce mechanism emerges for SENP-catalyzed SUMO cleavage: the wedging of the β-grasp domain enables the docking of the proximal portion of the C-terminus and the strengthened cross-channel motional coupling initiates inter-subdomain correlated motions to allow for the distal portion to coalesce around the catalytic center. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18249.001 PMID:27576863

  2. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human) of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P < 0.01), and immunohistochemistry with Neurofilament 200 indicated more myelinated afferents existed in MTrSs (P < 0.01). Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) recordings at MTrSs showed that specific block of myelinated afferents in sciatic nerve with tetrodotoxin (TTX) led to significantly decreased SEA (P < 0.05). Behavioral assessment showed that mechanical pain thresholds (MPTs) of MTrSs were lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Block of myelinated afferents by intramuscular TTX injection increased MPTs of MTrSs significantly (P < 0.01), while MPTs of non-MTrSs first decreased (P < 0.05) and then increased (P > 0.05). 30 min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs. PMID:26064165

  3. Allosteric activation of SENP1 by SUMO1 β-grasp domain involves a dock-and-coalesce mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) are conjugated to proteins to regulate a variety of cellular processes. SENPs are cysteine proteases with a catalytic center located within a channel between two subdomains that catalyzes SUMO C-terminal cleavage for processing of SUMO precursors and de-SUMOylation of target proteins. The β-grasp domain of SUMOs binds to an exosite cleft, and allosterically activates SENPs via an unknown mechanism. Our molecular dynamics simulations showed that binding of the β-grasp domain induces significant conformational and dynamic changes in SENP1, including widening of the exosite cleft and quenching of nanosecond dynamics in all but a distal region. A dock-and-coalesce mechanism emerges for SENP-catalyzed SUMO cleavage: the wedging of the β-grasp domain enables the docking of the proximal portion of the C-terminus and the strengthened cross-channel motional coupling initiates inter-subdomain correlated motions to allow for the distal portion to coalesce around the catalytic center. PMID:27576863

  4. Mechanism of hyperinsulinism in short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency involves activation of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Chen, Pan; Palladino, Andrew; Narayan, Srinivas; Russell, Laurie K; Sayed, Samir; Xiong, Guoxiang; Chen, Jie; Stokes, David; Butt, Yasmeen M; Jones, Patricia M; Collins, Heather W; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S; Nissim, Itzhak; Smith, Thomas J; Strauss, Arnold W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD deficiency. hadh(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to oral amino acid with decrease of glucose level and elevation of insulin. Hypersensitivity to oral amino acid in hadh(-/-) mice can be explained by abnormal insulin responses to a physiological mixture of amino acids and increased sensitivity to leucine stimulation in isolated perifused islets. Measurement of cytosolic calcium showed normal basal levels and abnormal responses to amino acids in hadh(-/-) islets. Leucine, glutamine, and alanine are responsible for amino acid hypersensitivity in islets. hadh(-/-) islets have lower intracellular glutamate and aspartate levels, and this decrease can be prevented by high glucose. hadh(-/-) islets also have increased [U-(14)C]glutamine oxidation. In contrast, hadh(-/-) mice have similar glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with controls. Perifused hadh(-/-) islets showed no differences from controls in response to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, even with addition of either a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoate) or a long-chain fatty acid (palmitate). Pull-down experiments with SCHAD, anti-SCHAD, or anti-GDH antibodies showed protein-protein interactions between SCHAD and GDH. GDH enzyme kinetics of hadh(-/-) islets showed an increase in GDH affinity for its substrate, α-ketoglutarate. These studies indicate that SCHAD deficiency causes hyperinsulinism by activation of GDH via loss of inhibitory regulation of GDH by SCHAD.

  5. 17beta-estradiol-mediated neuroprotection and ERK activation require a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism involving GRK2 and beta-arrestin-1.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Reymundo; Hu, Eric; Zhou, Miou; Baudry, Michel

    2009-04-01

    17-beta-Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone involved in numerous bodily functions, including several brain functions. In particular, E2 is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity and other forms of brain injuries, a property that requires the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and possibly that of other signaling molecules. The mechanism and identity of the receptor(s) involved remain unclear, although it has been suggested that E2 receptor alpha (ERalpha) and G proteins are involved. We, therefore, investigated whether E2-mediated neuroprotection and ERK activation were linked to pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-protein-coupled effector systems. Biochemical and image analysis of organotypic hippocampal slices and cortical neuronal cultures showed that E2-mediated neuroprotection as well as E2-induced ERK activation were sensitive to PTX. The sensitivity to PTX suggested a possible role of G-protein- and beta-arrestin-mediated mechanisms. Western immunoblots from E2-treated cortical neuronal cultures revealed an increase in phosphorylation of both G-protein-coupled receptor-kinase 2 and beta-arrestin-1, a G-protein-coupled receptor adaptor protein. Transfection of neurons with beta-arrestin-1 small interfering RNA prevented E2-induced ERK activation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that E2 increased the recruitment of beta-arrestin-1 and c-Src to ERalpha. These findings suggested that ERalpha is regulated by a mechanism associated with receptor desensitization and downregulation. In support of this idea, we found that E2 treatment of cortical synaptoneurosomes resulted in internalization of ERalpha, whereas treatment of cortical neurons with the ER agonists E-6-BSA-FITC [beta-estradiol-6-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate] and E-6-biotin [1,3,5(10)-estratrien-3,17beta-diol-6-one-6-carboxymethloxime-NH-propyl-biotin] resulted in agonist internalization. These results demonstrate that E2

  6. The mechanism of opiorphin-induced experimental priapism in rats involves activation of the polyamine synthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kanika, Nirmala Devi; Tar, Moses; Tong, Yuehong; Kuppam, Dwaraka Srinivasa Rao; Melman, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Intracorporal injection of plasmids encoding opiorphins into retired breeder rats can result in animals developing a priapic-like condition. Microarray analysis demonstrated that following intracorporal gene transfer of plasmids expressing opiorphins the most significantly upregulated gene in corporal tissue was the ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC). Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of ODC, as well as other genes involved in polyamine synthesis, such as arginase-I and -II, polyamine oxidase, spermidine synthase, spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT), and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Western blot analysis demonstrated upregulation of arginase-I and -II, ODC, and SAT at the protein level. Levels of the polyamine putrescine were upregulated in animals treated with opiorphin-expressing plasmids compared with controls. A direct role for the upregulation of polyamine synthesis in the development of the priapic-like condition was supported by the observation that the ODC inhibitor 1,3-diaminopropane, when added to the drinking water of animals treated with plasmids expressing opiorphins, prevented experimental priapism. We also demonstrate that in sickle cell mice, another model of priapism, there is increased expression of the mouse opiorphin homologue in corporal tissue compared with the background strain at a life stage prior to evidence of priapism. At a life stage when there is onset of priapism, there is increased expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine synthesis (ODC and arginase-I and -II). Our results suggest that the upregulation of enzymes involved in the polyamine synthetic pathway may play a role in the development of experimental priapism and represent a target for the prevention of priapism. PMID:19657052

  7. The Haemophilus ducreyi LspA1 Protein Inhibits Phagocytosis By Using a New Mechanism Involving Activation of C-Terminal Src Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Dana A.; Worth, Randall G.; Rosen, Michael K.; Grinstein, Sergio; van Oers, Nicolai S. C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted infection. A primary means by which this pathogen causes disease involves eluding phagocytosis; however, the molecular basis for this escape mechanism has been poorly understood. Here, we report that the LspA virulence factors of H. ducreyi inhibit phagocytosis by stimulating the catalytic activity of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), which itself inhibits Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that promote phagocytosis. Inhibitory activity could be localized to a 37-kDa domain (designated YL2) of the 456-kDa LspA1 protein. The YL2 domain impaired ingestion of IgG-opsonized targets and decreased levels of active SFKs when expressed in mammalian cells. YL2 contains tyrosine residues in two EPIYG motifs that are phosphorylated in mammalian cells. These tyrosine residues were essential for YL2-based inhibition of phagocytosis. Csk was identified as the predominant mammalian protein interacting with YL2, and a dominant-negative Csk rescued phagocytosis in the presence of YL2. Purified Csk phosphorylated the tyrosines in the YL2 EPIYG motifs. Phosphorylated YL2 increased Csk catalytic activity, resulting in positive feedback, such that YL2 can be phosphorylated by the same kinase that it activates. Finally, we found that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein also inhibited phagocytosis in a Csk-dependent manner, raising the possibility that this may be a general mechanism among diverse bacteria. Harnessing Csk to subvert the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytic pathway represents a new bacterial mechanism for circumventing a crucial component of the innate immune response and may potentially affect other SFK-involved cellular pathways. PMID:24902122

  8. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  9. Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Morfini, Gerardo A; LaPointe, Nichole E; Pigino, Gustavo F; Patterson, Kristina R; Song, Yuyu; Andreadis, Athena; Fu, Yifan; Brady, Scott T; Binder, Lester I

    2011-07-01

    Aggregated filamentous forms of hyperphosphorylated tau (a microtubule-associated protein) represent pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. While axonal transport dysfunction is thought to represent a primary pathogenic factor in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, the direct molecular link between pathogenic forms of tau and deficits in axonal transport remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that filamentous, but not soluble, forms of wild-type tau inhibit anterograde, kinesin-based fast axonal transport (FAT) by activating axonal protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), independent of microtubule binding. Here, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-18 of tau, comprising a phosphatase-activating domain (PAD), are necessary and sufficient for activation of this pathway in axoplasms isolated from squid giant axons. Various pathogenic forms of tau displaying increased exposure of PAD inhibited anterograde FAT in squid axoplasm. Importantly, immunohistochemical studies using a novel PAD-specific monoclonal antibody in human postmortem tissue indicated that increased PAD exposure represents an early pathogenic event in AD that closely associates in time with AT8 immunoreactivity, an early marker of pathological tau. We propose a model of pathogenesis in which disease-associated changes in tau conformation lead to increased exposure of PAD, activation of PP1-GSK3, and inhibition of FAT. Results from these studies reveal a novel role for tau in modulating axonal phosphotransferases and provide a molecular basis for a toxic gain-of-function associated with pathogenic forms of tau.

  10. Differential long-term effects of developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls 52, 138 or 180 on motor activity and neurotransmission. Gender dependence and mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Boix, Jordi; Cauli, Omar; Leslie, Heather; Felipo, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induces motor alterations in humans by unknown mechanisms. It remains unclear whether: (a) all non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs are neurotoxic or it depends on the grade of chlorination; (b) they have different neurotoxicity mechanisms; (c) they affect differently males and females. The aims of this work were to assess: (1) whether perinatal exposure to 3 NDL-PCBs with different grades of chlorination, (PCBs 52, 138 or 180) affects differentially motor activity in adult rats; (2) whether the effects are different in males or females and (3) the mechanisms involved in impaired motor activity. Rats were exposed to PCBs from gestational day 7 to post-natal day 21. Experiments were performed when the rats were 4 months-old. PCB52 did not affect motor activity, PCB180 reduced it in males but not in females and PCB138 reduced activity both in males and females. PCB52 or 138 did not affect extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens (NAcc). PCB180 increased it both in males and females. Extracellular glutamate in NAcc was reduced by the three PCBs. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in NAcc increased extracellular dopamine in control rats and in those exposed to PCB52 and reduced dopamine in rats exposed to PCB180. In rats exposed to PCB138 activation of mGluRs increases dopamine in females and reduces it in males. The opposite changes were observed for glutamate. mGluRs activation reduced extracellular glutamate in control rats and in those exposed to PCB52 and increased glutamate in rats exposed to PCB180. In rats exposed to PCB138 activation of mGluRs reduces glutamate in females and increases it in males. The data support that different NDL-PCBs affect differently motor activity. Increased glutamate release in NAcc following activation of mGluRs would be involved in reduced dopamine release and reduced motor activity in rats exposed to PCB138 or 180.

  11. Roseotoxin B Improves Allergic Contact Dermatitis through a Unique Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involving Excessive Activation of Autophagy in Activated T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingqi; Hu, Chunhui; Wu, Xingxin; Wang, Shiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Chen, Wei; Shen, Yan; Tan, Renxiang; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    An immunosuppressant agent with negligible or acceptable toxicity may provide a better therapeutic strategy for treatment of allergic contact dermatitis. We identified a natural cyclopeptide, roseotoxin B, that effectively suppressed cell proliferation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated T cells but exhibited little naive T-cell toxicity at concentrations of 0.3-1 μmol/L. In addition, roseotoxin B inhibited the activation of AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, suppressed cell cycle-related signaling, caused G0/G1 phase arrest, reduced ribosomal protein-S3 (RPS3)-dependent NF-κB-mediated IL-2 production, and increased autophagy in activated T cells. Furthermore, picryl chloride-induced allergic contact dermatitis was significantly ameliorated by roseotoxin B in mice. The effects of roseotoxin B were inhibited in LC3-knockout mice, indicating that roseotoxin B acts in an autophagy-dependent manner in T-cell-mediated skin diseases. Overall, this study showed a mechanism for roseotoxin B-induced autophagic cell death and provided a unique perspective on autophagy-mediated down-regulation of NF-κB signaling in activated T cells. The unique anti-inflammatory mechanism of roseotoxin B against activated T lymphocytes in allergic contact dermatitis suggests that it could be a potential target for the treatment of immune-related skin diseases.

  12. Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pineda, David; Ampurdanés, Coral; Medina, Manel G; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep Maria; Saura, Josep; Planas, Anna M; Navarro, Pilar

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by glial cells play a critical role in many pathological situations related to neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other physiological and pathological events as microglial activation. Here, we found that tPA is required for Aβ-mediated microglial inflammatory response and tumor necrosis factor-α release. We further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for tPA-mediated microglial activation. We found that tPA induces a catalytic-independent rapid and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p38 signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK resulted in a strong inhibition of microglial activation, whereas Akt inhibition led to increased inflammatory response, suggesting specific functions for each signaling pathway in the regulation of microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors are involved in tPA signaling and inflammatory response in glial cells. This study provides new evidences supporting that tPA plays a cytokine-like role in glial activation by triggering receptor-mediated intracellular signaling circuits and opens new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role.

  13. The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela

    2012-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the involvement of noradrenergic system in the mechanism by which diazepam suppresses basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Methods Plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were determined in female rats treated with diazepam alone, as well as with diazepam in combination with clonidine (α2-adrenoreceptor agonist), yohimbine (α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist), alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (α-MPT, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis), or reserpine (a catecholamine depleting drug) and yohimbine. Results Diazepam administered in a dose of 2.0 mg/kg suppressed basal HPA axis activity, ie, decreased plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Pretreatment with clonidine or yohimbine failed to affect basal plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations, but abolished diazepam-induced inhibition of the HPA axis activity. Pretreatment with α-MPT, or with a combination of reserpine and yohimbine, increased plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels and prevented diazepam-induced inhibition of the HPA axis activity. Conclusion The results suggest that α2-adrenoreceptors activity, as well as intact presynaptic noradrenergic function, are required for the suppressive effect of diazepam on the HPA axis activity. PMID:22661134

  14. A novel mechanism for momordin Ic-induced HepG2 apoptosis: involvement of PI3K- and MAPK-dependent PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Wang, Chan; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2014-05-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin found in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. Momordin Ic has been previously demonstrated to induce HepG2 cell apoptosis in a ROS-mediated PI3K and MAPK pathway-dependent manner. In the present study, the underlying mechanisms of PI3K and MAPK pathway-mediated PPARγ, and PGC-1α co-regulator activation, as well as the effects of downstream proteins, COX-2 and FoxO4, on cell apoptosis were investigated. The results demonstrated that momordin Ic activated PPARγ and inhibited COX-2. PGC-1α and FoxO4 expressions were increased by the PI3K or MAPK pathways. Furthermore, PPARγ inhibition decreased p-p38 and FoxO4 expression, and restored COX-2 expression. ROS inhibition exerted little effect on PPARγ, COX-2 and FoxO4 expression but affected PGC-1α expression. These results revealed the involvement of PI3K and MAPK-dependent PPARγ activation in momordin Ic-induced apoptosis, providing more detailed information underlying the pro-apoptotic mechanism of momordin Ic in HepG2 cell apoptosis. PMID:24584198

  15. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in α-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the α-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of α-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation.

  16. The analgesic effect of dipyrone in peripheral tissue involves two different mechanisms: neuronal K(ATP) channel opening and CB(1) receptor activation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gilson Gonçalves; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Athie, Maria Carolina Pedro; Bonet, Ivan José Magayewski; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Parada, Carlos Amilcar

    2014-10-15

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is an analgesic pro-drug used to control moderate pain. It is metabolized in two major bioactive metabolites: 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of peripheral CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors activation in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of dipyrone, 4-MAA or 4-AA. PGE2 (100ng/50µL/paw) was locally administered in the hindpaw of male Wistar rats, and the mechanical nociceptive threshold was quantified by electronic von Frey test, before and 3h after its injection. Dipyrone, 4-MAA or 4-AA was administered 30min before the von Frey test. The selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, CB2 receptor antagonist AM630, cGMP inhibitor ODQ or KATP channel blocker glibenclamide were administered 30min before dipyrone, 4-MAA or 4-AA. The antisense-ODN against CB1 receptor expression was intrathecally administered once a day during four consecutive days. PGE2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was inhibited by dipyrone, 4-MAA, and 4-AA in a dose-response manner. AM251 or ODN anti-sense against neuronal CB1 receptor, but not AM630, reversed the anti-hyperalgesic effect mediated by 4-AA, but not by dipyrone or 4-MAA. On the other hand, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of dipyrone or 4-MAA was reversed by glibenclamide or ODQ. These results suggest that the activation of neuronal CB1, but not CB2 receptor, in peripheral tissue is involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of 4-aminoantipyrine. In addition, 4-methylaminoantipyrine mediates the anti-hyperalgesic effect by cGMP activation and KATP opening.

  17. Mechanisms involved in the modulation of astroglial resistance to oxidative stress induced by activated microglia: antioxidative systems, peroxide elimination, radical generation, lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Röhl, Claudia; Armbrust, Elisabeth; Herbst, Eva; Jess, Anne; Gülden, Michael; Maser, Edmund; Rimbach, Gerald; Bösch-Saadatmandi, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the cellular key players in many neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce the expression of antioxidative enzymes in astrocytes and render them more resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved with respect to the cellular action of different peroxides, the ability to detoxify peroxides, and the status of further antioxidative systems. Astrocytes were treated for 3 days with medium conditioned by purified quiescent (microglia-conditioned medium, MCM[-]) or LPS-activated (MCM[+]) microglia. MCM[+] reduced the cytotoxicity of the organic cumene hydroperoxide in addition to that of H2O2. Increased peroxide resistance was not accompanied by an improved ability of astrocytes to remove H2O2 or an increased expression/activity of peroxide eliminating antioxidative enzymes. Neither peroxide-induced radical generation nor lipid peroxidation were selectively affected in MCM[+] treated astrocytes. The glutathione content of peroxide resistant astrocytes, however, was increased and superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase were found to be upregulated. These changes are likely to contribute to the higher peroxide resistance of MCM[+] treated astrocytes by improving their ability to detoxify reactive oxygen radicals and oxidation products. For C6 astroglioma cells a protective effect of microglia-derived factors could not be observed, underlining the difference of primary cells and cell lines concerning their mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance. Our results indicate the importance of microglial-astroglial cell interactions during neuroinflammatory processes.

  18. A Mechanism of Male Germ Cell Apoptosis Induced by Bisphenol-A and Nonylphenol Involving ADAM17 and p38 MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell apoptosis regulation is pivotal in order to maintain proper daily sperm production. Several reports have shown that endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol-A (BPA) and Nonylphenol (NP) induce germ cell apoptosis along with a decrease in sperm production. Given their ubiquitous distribution in plastic products used by humans it is important to clarify their mechanism of action. TACE/ADAM17 is a widely distributed extracellular metalloprotease and participates in the physiological apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis. The aims of this work were: 1) to determine whether BPA and NP induce ADAM17 activation; and 2) to study whether ADAM17 and/or ADAM10 are involved in germ cell apoptosis induced by BPA and NP in the pubertal rat testis. A single dose of BPA or NP (50 mg/kg) induces germ cell apoptosis in 21-day-old male rats, which was prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of ADAM17, but not by an inhibitor of ADAM10. In vitro, we showed that BPA and NP, at similar concentrations to those found in human samples, induce the shedding of exogenous and endogenous (TNF-α) ADAM17 substrates in primary rat Sertoli cell cultures and TM4 cell line. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases and genetic silencing of ADAM17 prevent the shedding induced in vitro by BPA and NP. Finally, we showed that in vivo BPA and NP induced early activation (phosphorylation) of p38 MAPK and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. Interestingly, the inhibition of p38 MAPK prevents germ cell apoptosis and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. These results show for the first time that xenoestrogens can induce activation of ADAM17 at concentrations similar to those found in human samples, suggesting a mechanism by which they could imbalance para/juxtacrine cell-to-cell-communication and induce germ cell apoptosis. PMID:25474107

  19. Molecular mechanism of PdxR – a transcriptional activator involved in the regulation of vitamin B6 biosynthesis in the probiotic bacterium Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Angela; Fiascarelli, Alessio; Milano, Teresa; di Salvo, Martino L; Nogués, Isabel; Pascarella, Stefano; Contestabile, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the well-known active form of vitamin B6 , is an essential enzyme cofactor involved in a large number of metabolic processes. PLP levels need to be finely tuned in response to cell requirements; however, little is known about the regulation of PLP biosynthesis and recycling pathways. The transcriptional regulator PdxR activates transcription of the pdxST genes encoding PLP synthase. It is characterized by an N-terminal helix-turn-helix motif that binds DNA and an effector-binding C-terminal domain homologous to PLP-dependent enzymes. Although it is known that PLP acts as an anti-activator, the mechanism of action of PdxR is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the biochemical and DNA-binding properties of PdxR from the probiotic Bacillus clausii. Spectroscopic measurements showed that PLP is the only B6 vitamer that acts as an effector molecule of PdxR. Binding of PLP to PdxR determines a protein conformational change, as detected by gel filtration chromatography and limited proteolysis experiments. We showed that two direct repeats and one inverted repeat are present in the DNA promoter region and PdxR is able to bind DNA fragments containing any combination of two of them. However, when PLP binds to PdxR, it modifies the DNA-binding properties of the protein, making it selective for inverted repeats. A molecular mechanism is proposed in which the two different DNA binding modalities of PdxR determined by the presence or absence of PLP are responsible for the control of pdxST transcription. PMID:26059598

  20. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Ertuzun, Irina A; Kachaeva, Evgeniya V; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well) which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26604768

  1. Gamma Interferon Augments Macrophage Activation by Lipopolysaccharide by Two Distinct Mechanisms, at the Signal Transduction Level and via an Autocrine Mechanism Involving Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Held, Thomas K.; Weihua, Xiao; Yuan, Liang; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.; Cross, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    When given in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), otherwise nontoxic doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin) become highly lethal for mice. The mechanisms of this synergistic toxicity are not known. We considered the possibility that an interaction between the LPS-induced NF-κB and IFN-γ-induced JAK-STAT pathways at the pretranscriptional level may enhance the LPS-induced signals. To test this hypothesis, we incubated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with IFN-γ for 2 h before addition of different doses of LPS. Consistent with the synergistic induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and nitric oxide production by a combination of LPS and IFN-γ, IFN-γ strongly augmented LPS-induced NF-κB activation and accelerated the binding of NF-κB to DNA to as early as 5 min. In agreement with this, IFN-γ pretreatment promoted rapid degradation of IκB-α but not that of IκB-β. Inhibition of protein synthesis during IFN-γ treatment suppressed LPS-initiated NF-κB binding. A rapidly induced protein appeared to be involved in IFN-γ priming. Preincubation of cells with antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha or the interleukin-1 receptor partially reduced the priming effect of IFN-γ. In a complementary manner, LPS enhanced the activation of signal-transducing activator of transcription 1 by IFN-γ. These data suggest novel mechanisms for the synergy between IFN-γ and LPS by which they cross-regulate the signal-transducing molecules. Through this mechanism, IFN-γ may transform a given dose of LPS into a lethal stimulus capable of causing sepsis. It may also serve a beneficial purpose by enabling the host to respond quickly to relatively low doses of LPS and thereby activating antibacterial defenses. PMID:9864217

  2. c-Fos Protects Neurons Through a Noncanonical Mechanism Involving HDAC3 Interaction: Identification of a 21-Amino Acid Fragment with Neuroprotective Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Varun; Goux, Warren; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the AP-1 family of transcription factors are known to be involved in the regulation of neuronal viability. While strides have been made to elucidate the mechanisms of how individual members regulate cell death, much remains unknown. We find that the expression of one AP-1 member, c-Fos, is reduced in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to die by low potassium (LK) treatment. Restoration and increase of this expression protect CGNs against LK-induced death, whereas knockdown induces death of otherwise healthy neurons. Furthermore, forced expression can protect cortical neurons against homocysteic acid (HCA)-induced toxicity. Taken together, this suggests that c-Fos is necessary for neuronal survival and that elevating c-Fos expression has a neuroprotective effect. Consistent with this idea is the finding that c-Fos expression is reduced selectively in the striatum in two separate mouse models of Huntington’s disease and forced expression protects against neuronal death resulting from mutant huntingtin (mut-Htt) expression. Interestingly, neuroprotection by c-Fos does not require its DNA-binding, transcriptional, or heteromerization domains. However, this protective activity can be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl, CK-I, and MEK-ERK signaling. Additionally, expression of point mutant forms of this protein has identified that mutation of a tyrosine residue, Tyr345, can convert c-Fos from neuroprotective to neurotoxic. We show that c-Fos interacts with histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3), a protein that contributes to mut-Htt neurotoxicity and whose overexpression is sufficient to promote neuronal death. When co-expressed, c-Fos can protect against HDAC3 neurotoxicity. Finally, our study identifies a 21-amino acid region at the C-terminus of c-Fos that is sufficient to protect neurons against death induced by LK, HCA treatment, or mut-Htt expression when expressed via a plasmid transfection or as a cell-permeable peptide. This

  3. Preparation of Na+,K+-ATPase with near maximal specific activity and phosphorylation capacity: evidence that the reaction mechanism involves all of the sites.

    PubMed

    Martin, D W; Sachs, J R

    1999-06-01

    The phosphorylation capacity of Na+,K+-ATPase preparations in common use is much less than expected on the basis of the molecular weight of the enzyme deduced from cDNA sequences. This has led to the popularity of half-of-the-sites or flip-flop models for the enzyme reaction mechanism. We have prepared Na+,K+-ATPase from nasal salt glands of salt-adapted ducks which has a phosphorylation capacity and specific activity near the theoretical maxima. Preparations with specific activities of >60 micromol (mg of protein)-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C had phosphorylation capacities of >60 nmol/mg of protein, and the rate of turnover of the enzyme was 9690 min-1, within the range reported for the enzyme from other sources. The fraction of the maximal specific activity of the enzyme compared well with the fraction of the protein on SDS-PAGE which was alpha and beta chains, especially at the highest specific activity which indicates that all of the alphabeta protomers are active. The gels of the most reactive preparations contained only alpha and beta chains, but less active preparations contained a number of extraneous proteins. The major contaminant was actin. The preparation did not contain any protein which migrated in the molecular weight range of the gamma subunit. The subunit composition of the enzyme was alpha1 and beta1 only. This is the first report of a pure, homogeneous, fully active preparation of the protein. Reaction models which incorporate a half-of-the-sites or flip-flop mechanism do not apply to this enzyme.

  4. Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Peng, Ximei; Tochigi, Naobumi; Shigemura, Norihisa; Billiar, Timothy R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Hydrogen is a regulatory molecule with antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic protective effects. {yields} There is very limited information on the pathways regulated in vivo by the hydrogen. {yields} Antiapoptotic abilities of hydrogen were explained by upregulation of the antiapoptotic gene. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated antiapoptotic protein. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation associated with increase Bcl-2 may contribute to cytoprotection of hydrogen. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated the inhalation of hydrogen gas, a novel medical therapeutic gas, ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); however, the molecular mechanisms by which hydrogen ameliorates VILI remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether inhaled hydrogen gas modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B) signaling pathway. VILI was generated in male C57BL6 mice by performing a tracheostomy and placing the mice on a mechanical ventilator (tidal volume of 30 ml/kg or 10 ml/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure). The ventilator delivered either 2% nitrogen or 2% hydrogen in balanced air. NF{kappa}B activation, as indicated by NF{kappa}B DNA binding, was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hydrogen gas inhalation increased NF{kappa}B DNA binding after 1 h of ventilation and decreased NF{kappa}B DNA binding after 2 h of ventilation, as compared with controls. The early activation of NF{kappa}B during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased levels of Bax. Hydrogen inhalation increased oxygen tension, decreased lung edema, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory mediators. Chemical inhibition of early NF{kappa}B activation using SN50 reversed these protective effects. NF{kappa}B activation and an associated increase in the expression of Bcl-2 may contribute, in part, to the

  5. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SENESCENT RATS TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA (PPARA), CELL PROLIFERATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms involved in the ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY of SENESCENT Rats TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), cell proliferation and oxidative stress

    Jihan A. Youssef1, Pierre Ammann2, B...

  6. Mechanisms of involvement in calmodulin in regulation of affinity for Ca/sup 2 +/ and maximum activity of Ca pump of erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, S.N.; Pokudin, N.I.; Sitozhevskii, A.V.

    1986-06-20

    The activity of the Ca pump of inside-out vesicles of human erythrocyte membranes was studied using /sup 45/Ca and membrane filters. It was found that trifluoperazine completely inhibits the increase in the maximum activity of the Ca pump caused by the addition of calmodulin and has no effect on the calmodulin-stimulated increase in the affinity of the Ca pump for Ca/sup 2 +/. A comparison of characteristic curves of the calmodulin-stimulated components of the activity of the Ca pump, inhibited and not inhibited by trifluoperazine, and the fluorescence intensity of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine in the presence of calmodulin showed that the mechanisms of action of calmodulin on the maximum activity of the Ca pump and its affinity for Ca/sup 2 +/ differ significantly. In the first case the activation was due to the Ca-calmodulin complex and in the second to the calcium-free form of calmodulin. This conclusion is supported by data on the dependence of the activity of the Ca pump on the calmodulin concentration at low and saturating Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations as well as by the results obtained in the case of moderate treatment of the membranes with trypsin.

  7. The interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status and determine mechanisms involved in water regulation during physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stachenfeld, Nina S

    2014-05-01

    Changes in skin blood and sweating are the primary mechanisms for heat loss in humans. A hot, humid environment concomitant with dehydration limits the ability to increase skin blood flow for the purpose of transferring heat from the body core to skin surface and evaporate sweat to maintain core temperature within safe limits during exercise. Adequate hydration improves thermoregulation by maintaining blood volume to support skin blood flow and sweating. Humans rely on fluid intake to maintain total body water and blood volume, and have developed complex mechanisms to sense changes in the amount and composition of fluid in the body. This paper addresses the interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status involved in body water and temperature regulation during exercise. In the controlled setting of a research laboratory, investigators are able to investigate the contributions of volume and tonicity of fluid in the plasma to body water and temperature regulation during exercise and recovery. For example, laboratory studies have shown that tonicity in a rehydration beverage maintains the thirst mechanism (and stimulates drinking), and contributes to the ongoing stimulation of renal fluid retention hormones, ultimately leading to a more complete rehydration. Research in the field cannot control the environment precisely, but these studies provide a natural, 'real-life' setting to study fluid and temperature regulation during exercise. The conditions encountered in the field are closest to the environment during competition, and data collected in the field can have an immediate impact on performance and safety during exercise. There is an important synergy between these two methods of collecting data that support performance and protect athletes from harm during training and improve performance during competition. PMID:24791921

  8. The mechanism of μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-TRPV1 crosstalk in TRPV1 activation involves morphine anti-nociception, tolerance and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Yu, Jing; Hou, Wei; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    Initiated by the activation of various nociceptors, pain is a reaction to specific stimulus modalities. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, including morphine, remain the most potent analgesics to treat patients with moderate to severe pain. However, the utility of MOR agonists is limited by the adverse effects associated with the use of these drugs, including analgesic tolerance and physical dependence. A strong connection has been suggested between the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channel and the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. TRPV1 is important for thermal nociception induction, and is mainly expressed on sensory neurons. Recent reports suggest that opioid or TRPV1 receptor agonist exposure has contrasting consequences for anti-nociception, tolerance and dependence. Chronic morphine exposure modulates TRPV1 activation and induces the anti-nociception effects of morphine. The regulation of many downstream targets of TRPV1 plays a critical role in this process, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Additional factors also include capsaicin treatment blocking the anti-nociception effects of morphine in rats, as well as opioid modulation of TRPV1 responses through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway and MAPK signaling pathways. Here, we review new insights concerning the mechanism underlying MOR-TRPV1 crosstalk and signaling pathways and discuss the potential mechanisms of morphine-induced anti-nociception, tolerance and dependence associated with the TRPV1 signaling pathway and highlight how understanding these mechanisms might help find therapeutic targets for the treatment of morphine induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PMID:26176938

  9. CRP Is an Activator of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation that Operates via a Mechanism Involving gmhA and waaAE-coaD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Fang, Haihong; Yang, Huiying; Zhang, Yiquan; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu

    2016-01-01

    gmhA encodes a phosphoheptose isomerase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of heptose, a conserved component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GmhA plays an important role in Yersinia pestis biofilm blockage in the flea gut. waaA, waaE, and coaD constitute a three-gene operon waaAE-coaD in Y. pestis. waaA encodes a transferase that is responsible for binding lipid-A to the core oligosaccharide of LPS. WaaA is a key determinant in Y. pestis biofilm formation, and the waaA expression is positively regulated by the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ. WaaE is involved in LPS modification and is necessary for Y. pestis biofilm production. In this study, the biofilm-related phenotypic assays indicate that the global regulator CRP stimulates Y. pestis biofilm formation in vitro and on nematodes, while it has no regulatory effect on the biosynthesis of the biofilm-signaling molecular 3',5'-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate. Further gene regulation experiments disclose that CRP does not regulate the hms genes at the transcriptional level but directly promotes the gmhA transcription and indirectly activates the waaAE-coaD transcription through directly acting on phoPQ-YPO1632. Thus, it is speculated that CRP-mediated carbon catabolite regulation of Y. pestis biofilm formation depends on the CRP-dependent carbon source metabolic pathways of the biosynthesis, modification, and transportation of biofilm exopolysaccharide. PMID:27014218

  10. Mechanisms involved in increased sensitivity to adenosine A(2A) receptor activation and hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Nielsen, Berit D; Mogensen, Susie; Rembold, Christopher M; Frøbert, Ole; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-01-15

    Hypoxia-induced coronary vasorelaxation is a compensatory mechanism increasing blood flow. We hypothesized that hypoxia shares pathways with adenosine and causes vasorelaxation through the adenosine A(2A) receptor and force suppression by increasing cAMP and phosphorylated heat shock protein (HSP)20. Adenosine receptors in porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) were examined by RT-PCR and isometric tension recording in myographs. Vasorelaxation was induced by adenosine, 1% oxygen, or both in the absence or presence of ZM241385, an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist. cAMP was determined by ELISA and p-HSP20/HSP20 and p-MLC/MLC were determined by immunoblotting and densitometric analyses. In coronary arteries exposed to 1% oxygen, there was increased sensitivity to adenosine, the adenosine A2 selective agonist NECA, and the adenosine A(2A) selective receptor agonist CGS21680. ZM241385 shifted concentration-response curves for CGS21680 to the right, whereas the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX, the adenosine A2B receptor antagonist MRS1754 and the adenosine A3 receptor antagonist MRS1523 failed to reduce vasodilatation induced by CGS21680. 1% oxygen or adenosine increased cAMP accumulation and HSP20 phosphorylation without changing T850-MYPT1 and MLC phosphorylation. ZM241385 failed to change 1% oxygen-induced vasodilation, cAMP accumulation, HSP20 phosphorylation and MLC phosphorylation. The PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS significantly reduced vasorelaxation induced by 1% oxygen or CGS21680. Our findings suggest that the increased sensitivity to adenosine, NECA, and CGS21680 at 1% oxygen involves adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine and 1% oxygen induce vasorelaxation in PGF2α-contracted porcine coronary arteries partly by force suppression caused by increased cAMP and phosphorylation of HSP20.

  11. CRP Is an Activator of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation that Operates via a Mechanism Involving gmhA and waaAE-coaD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Fang, Haihong; Yang, Huiying; Zhang, Yiquan; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu

    2016-01-01

    gmhA encodes a phosphoheptose isomerase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of heptose, a conserved component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GmhA plays an important role in Yersinia pestis biofilm blockage in the flea gut. waaA, waaE, and coaD constitute a three-gene operon waaAE-coaD in Y. pestis. waaA encodes a transferase that is responsible for binding lipid-A to the core oligosaccharide of LPS. WaaA is a key determinant in Y. pestis biofilm formation, and the waaA expression is positively regulated by the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ. WaaE is involved in LPS modification and is necessary for Y. pestis biofilm production. In this study, the biofilm-related phenotypic assays indicate that the global regulator CRP stimulates Y. pestis biofilm formation in vitro and on nematodes, while it has no regulatory effect on the biosynthesis of the biofilm-signaling molecular 3′,5′-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate. Further gene regulation experiments disclose that CRP does not regulate the hms genes at the transcriptional level but directly promotes the gmhA transcription and indirectly activates the waaAE-coaD transcription through directly acting on phoPQ-YPO1632. Thus, it is speculated that CRP-mediated carbon catabolite regulation of Y. pestis biofilm formation depends on the CRP-dependent carbon source metabolic pathways of the biosynthesis, modification, and transportation of biofilm exopolysaccharide. PMID:27014218

  12. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in developmental nutritional programming

    PubMed Central

    Gabory, Anne; Attig, Linda; Junien, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    The ways in which epigenetic modifications fix the effects of early environmental events, ensuring sustained responses to transient stimuli, which result in modified gene expression patterns and phenotypes later in life, is a topic of considerable interest. This review focuses on recently discovered mechanisms and calls into question prevailing views about the dynamics, position and functions of epigenetic marks. Most epigenetic studies have addressed the long-term effects on a small number of epigenetic marks, at the global or individual gene level, of environmental stressors in humans and animal models. In parallel, increasing numbers of studies based on high-throughput technologies and focusing on humans and mice have revealed additional complexity in epigenetic processes, by highlighting the importance of crosstalk between the different epigenetic marks. A number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease and metabolic programming have identified links between early nutrition, epigenetic processes and long-term illness. The existence of a self-propagating epigenetic cycle has been demonstrated. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate an obvious sexual dimorphism both for programming trajectories and in response to the same environmental insult. Despite recent progress, we are still far from understanding how, when and where environmental stressors disturb key epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, identifying the original key marks and their changes throughout development during an individual’s lifetime or over several generations remains a challenging issue. PMID:22010058

  13. Glucan: mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; D'Alesandro, M.M.; Brook, I.; Blakely, W.F.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    It has generally been accepted that most biologically derived agents that are radioprotective in the hemopoietic-syndrome dose range (eg, endotoxin, Bacillus Calmette Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum, etc) exert their beneficial properties by enhancing hemopoietic recovery and hence, by regenerating the host's ability to resist life-threatening opportunistic infections. However, using glucan as a hemopoietic stimulant/radioprotectant, we have demonstrated that host resistance to opportunistic infection is enhanced in these mice even prior to the detection of significant hemopoietic regeneration. This early enhanced resistance to microbial invasion in glucan-treated irradiated mice could be correlated with enhanced and/or prolonged macrophage (but not granulocyte) function. These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic recovery. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that glucan can also function as an effective free-radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize and sequester glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan's scavenging ability is also suggested.

  14. Mechanisms Involved in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions. PMID:25830711

  15. Mechanisms involved in metalloid transport and tolerance acquisition.

    PubMed

    Tamás, M J; Wysocki, R

    2001-08-01

    Toxic metalloids such as arsenic and antimony have always been an integral part of the natural environment. To survive in such a hostile habitat, it is crucial to develop strategies to exclude toxic substances from the cell and to acquire tolerance. Cells remove metalloids from the cytosol either by active efflux or by sequestration in an internal organelle. Controlling the influx appears to be another way of maintaining a low intracellular metalloid content. Inside the cell, the metalloid can be reduced to a form that is recognised by the expulsion system(s). In addition, metalloid complexation and compartmentalisation contributes to enhanced cellular tolerance. Finally, the presence of metalloids activates transcription of various cellular defence genes. Metalloid-containing drugs are currently used to treat protozoan infections and promyelocytic leukaemia. Since metalloid resistance hampers efficient treatment, interest in identifying the mechanisms involved in tolerance acquisition has arisen. The possibility of using genetic approaches has made the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a compelling model system to investigate the basis of metalloid tolerance at a molecular level. This review describes the recent progress made in elucidating the mechanisms involved in metalloid transport and tolerance in yeast and other organisms.

  16. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  17. Possible involvement of membrane lipids peroxidation and oxidation of catalytically essential thiols of the cerebral transmembrane sodium pump as component mechanisms of iron-mediated oxidative stress-linked dysfunction of the pump's activity

    PubMed Central

    Omotayo, T.I.; Akinyemi, G.S.; Omololu, P.A.; Ajayi, B.O.; Akindahunsi, A.A.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Kade, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The precise molecular events defining the complex role of oxidative stress in the inactivation of the cerebral sodium pump in radical-induced neurodegenerative diseases is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein we investigated the modulation of the activity of the cerebral transmembrane electrogenic enzyme in Fe2+-mediated in vitro oxidative stress model. The results show that Fe2+ inhibited the transmembrane enzyme in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by a biphasic generation of aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation. While dithiothreitol prevented both Fe2+ inhibitory effect on the pump and lipid peroxidation, vitamin E prevented only lipid peroxidation but not inhibition of the pump. Besides, malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibited the pump by a mechanism not related to oxidation of its critical thiols. Apparently, the low activity of the pump in degenerative diseases mediated by Fe2+ may involve complex multi-component mechanisms which may partly involve an initial oxidation of the critical thiols of the enzyme directly mediated by Fe2+ and during severe progression of such diseases; aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation such as MDA may further exacerbate this inhibitory effect by a mechanism that is likely not related to the oxidation of the catalytically essential thiols of the ouabain-sensitive cerebral electrogenic pump. PMID:25618580

  18. Mechanisms Involved in the Aging-Induced Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    El Assar, Mariam; Angulo, Javier; Vallejo, Susana; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F.; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2012-01-01

    Vascular aging is a key process determining health status of aged population. Aging is an independent cardiovascular risk factor associated to an impairment of endothelial function, which is a very early and important event leading to cardiovascular disease. Vascular aging, formerly being considered an immutable and inexorable risk factor, is now viewed as a target process for intervention in order to achieve a healthier old age. A further knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the age-related vascular dysfunction is required to design an adequate therapeutic strategy to prevent or restore this impairment of vascular functionality. Among the proposed mechanisms that contribute to age-dependent endothelial dysfunction, this review is focused on the following aspects occurring into the vascular wall: (1) the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, caused by diminished NO synthesis and/or by augmented NO scavenging due to oxidative stress, leading to peroxynitrite formation (ONOO−); (2) the possible sources involved in the enhancement of oxidative stress; (3) the increased activity of vasoconstrictor factors; and (4) the development of a low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. Synergisms and interactions between all these pathways are also analyzed. Finally, a brief summary of some cellular mechanisms related to endothelial cell senescence (including telomere and telomerase, stress-induced senescence, as well as sirtuins) are implemented, as they are likely involved in the age-dependent endothelial dysfunction, as well as in the lower vascular repairing capacity observed in the elderly. Prevention or reversion of those mechanisms leading to endothelial dysfunction through life style modifications or pharmacological interventions could markedly improve cardiovascular health in older people. PMID:22783194

  19. Rhus coriaria induces senescence and autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells through a mechanism involving p38 and ERK1/2 activation

    PubMed Central

    El Hasasna, Hussain; Athamneh, Khawlah; Al Samri, Halima; Karuvantevida, Noushad; Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Hisaindee, Soleiman; Ramadan, Gaber; Al Tamimi, Nedaa; AbuQamar, Synan; Eid, Ali; Iratni, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria on three breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that Rhus coriaria ethanolic extract (RCE) inhibits the proliferation of these cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. RCE induced senescence and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. These changes were concomitant with upregulation of p21, downregulation of cyclin D1, p27, PCNA, c-myc, phospho-RB and expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. No proliferative recovery was detected after RCE removal. Annexin V staining and PARP cleavage analysis revealed a minimal induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of autophagic vacuoles in RCE-treated cells. Interestingly, blocking autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) reduced RCE-induced cell death and senescence. RCE was also found to activate p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways which coincided with induction of autophagy. Furthermore, we found that while both autophagy inhibitors abolished p38 phosphorylation, only CQ led to significant decrease in pERK1/2. Finally, RCE induced DNA damage and reduced mutant p53, two events that preceded autophagy. Our findings provide strong evidence that R. coriaria possesses strong anti-breast cancer activity through induction of senescence and autophagic cell death, making it a promising alternative or adjunct therapeutic candidate against breast cancer. PMID:26263881

  20. An evolutionarily conserved mechanism for cAMP elicited axonal regeneration involves direct activation of the dual leucine zipper kinase DLK

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Frey, Erin; Yoon, Choya; Wong, Hetty; Nestorovski, Douglas; Holzman, Lawrence B; Giger, Roman J; DiAntonio, Aaron; Collins, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    A broadly known method to stimulate the growth potential of axons is to elevate intracellular levels of cAMP, however the cellular pathway(s) that mediate this are not known. Here we identify the Dual Leucine-zipper Kinase (DLK, Wnd in Drosophila) as a critical target and effector of cAMP in injured axons. DLK/Wnd is thought to function as an injury ‘sensor’, as it becomes activated after axonal damage. Our findings in both Drosophila and mammalian neurons indicate that the cAMP effector kinase PKA is a conserved and direct upstream activator of Wnd/DLK. PKA is required for the induction of Wnd signaling in injured axons, and DLK is essential for the regenerative effects of cAMP in mammalian DRG neurons. These findings link two important mediators of responses to axonal injury, DLK/Wnd and cAMP/PKA, into a unified and evolutionarily conserved molecular pathway for stimulating the regenerative potential of injured axons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14048.001 PMID:27268300

  1. The Involvement of Mig1 from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous in Catabolic Repression: An Active Mechanism Contributing to the Regulation of Carotenoid Production.

    PubMed

    Alcaíno, Jennifer; Bravo, Natalia; Córdova, Pamela; Marcoleta, Andrés E; Contreras, Gabriela; Barahona, Salvador; Sepúlveda, Dionisia; Fernández-Lobato, María; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The red yeast X. dendrorhous is one of the few natural sources of astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture for salmonid fish pigmentation and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its antioxidant properties. Genetic control of carotenogenesis is well characterized in this yeast; however, little is known about the regulation of the carotenogenesis process. Several lines of evidence have suggested that carotenogenesis is regulated by catabolic repression, and the aim of this work was to identify and functionally characterize the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene encoding the catabolic repressor Mig1, which mediates transcriptional glucose-dependent repression in other yeasts and fungi. The identified gene encodes a protein of 863 amino acids that demonstrates the characteristic conserved features of Mig1 proteins, and binds in vitro to DNA fragments containing Mig1 boxes. Gene functionality was demonstrated by heterologous complementation in a S. cerevisiae mig1- strain; several aspects of catabolic repression were restored by the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene. Additionally, a X. dendrorhous mig1- mutant was constructed and demonstrated a higher carotenoid content than the wild-type strain. Most important, the mig1- mutation alleviated the glucose-mediated repression of carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous: the addition of glucose to mig1- and wild-type cultures promoted the growth of both strains, but carotenoid synthesis was observed only in the mutant strain. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that several genes were differentially expressed between X. dendrorhous mig1- and the wild-type strain when cultured with glucose as the sole carbon source. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that catabolic repression in X. dendrorhous is an active process in which the identified MIG1 gene product plays a central role in the regulation of several biological processes, including carotenogenesis. PMID:27622474

  2. The Involvement of Mig1 from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous in Catabolic Repression: An Active Mechanism Contributing to the Regulation of Carotenoid Production

    PubMed Central

    Córdova, Pamela; Marcoleta, Andrés E.; Contreras, Gabriela; Barahona, Salvador; Sepúlveda, Dionisia; Fernández-Lobato, María; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The red yeast X. dendrorhous is one of the few natural sources of astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture for salmonid fish pigmentation and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its antioxidant properties. Genetic control of carotenogenesis is well characterized in this yeast; however, little is known about the regulation of the carotenogenesis process. Several lines of evidence have suggested that carotenogenesis is regulated by catabolic repression, and the aim of this work was to identify and functionally characterize the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene encoding the catabolic repressor Mig1, which mediates transcriptional glucose-dependent repression in other yeasts and fungi. The identified gene encodes a protein of 863 amino acids that demonstrates the characteristic conserved features of Mig1 proteins, and binds in vitro to DNA fragments containing Mig1 boxes. Gene functionality was demonstrated by heterologous complementation in a S. cerevisiae mig1- strain; several aspects of catabolic repression were restored by the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene. Additionally, a X. dendrorhous mig1- mutant was constructed and demonstrated a higher carotenoid content than the wild-type strain. Most important, the mig1- mutation alleviated the glucose-mediated repression of carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous: the addition of glucose to mig1- and wild-type cultures promoted the growth of both strains, but carotenoid synthesis was observed only in the mutant strain. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that several genes were differentially expressed between X. dendrorhous mig1- and the wild-type strain when cultured with glucose as the sole carbon source. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that catabolic repression in X. dendrorhous is an active process in which the identified MIG1 gene product plays a central role in the regulation of several biological processes, including carotenogenesis. PMID:27622474

  3. Cellular and Humoral Mechanisms Involved in the Control of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuñiga, Joaquin; Torres-García, Diana; Santos-Mendoza, Teresa; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Granados, Julio; Yunis, Edmond J.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is a major international public health problem. One-third of the world's population is thought to have latent tuberculosis, a condition where individuals are infected by the intracellular bacteria without active disease but are at risk for reactivation, if their immune system fails. Here, we discuss the role of nonspecific inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines and chemokines induced by interaction of innate receptors expressed in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also review current information regarding the importance of several cytokines including IL-17/IL-23 in the development of protective cellular and antibody-mediated protective responses against Mtb and their influence in containment of the infection. Finally, in this paper, emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of failure of Mtb control, including the immune dysregulation induced by the treatment with biological drugs in different autoimmune diseases. Further functional studies, focused on the mechanisms involved in the early host-Mtb interactions and the interplay between host innate and acquired immunity against Mtb, may be helpful to improve the understanding of protective responses in the lung and in the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic tools in TB. PMID:22666281

  4. The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is essential in mechanisms involving the Fyn tyrosine kinase for induction and progression of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-11-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is an Src homology 2 domain-only adaptor involved in multiple immune cell functions. It has also been linked to immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we examined the role and mechanism of action of SAP in autoimmunity using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that SAP was essential for development of CIA in response to collagen immunization. It was also required for production of collagen-specific antibodies, which play a key role in disease pathogenesis. These effects required SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells. In mice immunized with a high dose of collagen, the activity of SAP was nearly independent of its ability to bind the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and correlated with the capacity of SAP to promote full differentiation of follicular T helper (TFH) cells. However, with a lower dose of collagen, the role of SAP was more dependent on Fyn binding, suggesting that additional mechanisms other than TFH cell differentiation were involved. Further studies suggested that this might be due to a role of the SAP-Fyn interaction in natural killer T cell development through the ability of SAP-Fyn to promote Vav-1 activation. We also found that removal of SAP expression during progression of CIA attenuated disease severity. However, it had no effect on disease when CIA was clinically established. Together, these results indicate that SAP plays an essential role in CIA because of Fyn-independent and Fyn-dependent effects on TFH cells and, possibly, other T cell types.

  5. Factors involved in mechanical fatigue degradation of dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, U; Belli, R; Ferracane, J L

    2013-07-01

    The design of clinical trials allows for limited insights into the fatigue processes occurring in resin composites and the factors involved therein. In vitro studies, in contrast, can fundamentally narrow study interests to focus on particular degradation mechanisms and, to date, represent the major contributors to the state of knowledge on the subject. These studies show that microstructural features are important in determining strength and fracture toughness, whereas fatigue resistance is mainly related to the susceptibility of the matrix and the filler/matrix interface to mechanical and chemical degradation. In this review, we focus on fracture mechanisms occurring during fatigue, on the methods used to assess them, and on additional phenomena involved in the degradation of initial mechanical properties of resin composites.

  6. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN MYCORRHIZAL WHEAT PROTECTION AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj; Reignault, Ph

    2014-01-01

    In France, the Ecophyto 2018 national action plan will set out to reduce the use of pesticides by 50% by 2018, if possible. To achieve this goal, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could be a potential alternative method allowing the control of crop diseases. The inoculation by AM fungi has been demonstrated to protect plants against soil-borne pathogens, but little is known about their effectiveness against aerial pathogens, such as the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) causing wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew. In the present study, wheat plants were grown in pots, under controlled conditions. Using various phosphorus (P) concentrations, the effectiveness of three AM inocula (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm)) and Solrize, a mixture of Ri and Fm) in Orvantis wheat cultivar, were tested. After 42 days of culture, mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were infected by Bgt. A satisfactory mycorrhizal rate was obtained with the phosphorus concentration P/5 (P corresponding to the dose used in wheat fields in = 62 mg/L). Our work shows, for the first time, (i) a protective effect of AM inoculation against wheat powdery mildew, reaching up to 73% with Fm inocula, and (ii) its ability to induce a systemic resistance in wheat. Thereafter, we investigated mechanisms involved in this protection. Control plants, M plants, infected plants by Bgt, and M-infected plants were compared at: (i) cytological level, our results revealed that papillae and whole-fluorescent cells presence was induced, conversely fungal haustorium formation in epidermal cells was reduced within M plants leaves (ii) enzymatic level-by assessing defense enzyme activities (lipoxygenase, peroxidase) known as defense markers were measured 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after infection (hai). The importance of these activities in the defense pathways induced in wheat by AM fungi will be discussed. PMID:26080475

  7. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN MYCORRHIZAL WHEAT PROTECTION AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj; Reignault, Ph

    2014-01-01

    In France, the Ecophyto 2018 national action plan will set out to reduce the use of pesticides by 50% by 2018, if possible. To achieve this goal, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could be a potential alternative method allowing the control of crop diseases. The inoculation by AM fungi has been demonstrated to protect plants against soil-borne pathogens, but little is known about their effectiveness against aerial pathogens, such as the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) causing wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew. In the present study, wheat plants were grown in pots, under controlled conditions. Using various phosphorus (P) concentrations, the effectiveness of three AM inocula (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm)) and Solrize, a mixture of Ri and Fm) in Orvantis wheat cultivar, were tested. After 42 days of culture, mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were infected by Bgt. A satisfactory mycorrhizal rate was obtained with the phosphorus concentration P/5 (P corresponding to the dose used in wheat fields in = 62 mg/L). Our work shows, for the first time, (i) a protective effect of AM inoculation against wheat powdery mildew, reaching up to 73% with Fm inocula, and (ii) its ability to induce a systemic resistance in wheat. Thereafter, we investigated mechanisms involved in this protection. Control plants, M plants, infected plants by Bgt, and M-infected plants were compared at: (i) cytological level, our results revealed that papillae and whole-fluorescent cells presence was induced, conversely fungal haustorium formation in epidermal cells was reduced within M plants leaves (ii) enzymatic level-by assessing defense enzyme activities (lipoxygenase, peroxidase) known as defense markers were measured 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after infection (hai). The importance of these activities in the defense pathways induced in wheat by AM fungi will be discussed.

  8. Experimental study of possible involvement of some apoptosis mechanisms in pathogenesis of the HIV infection: 2. The CD4+ T lymphocytes depletion in the HIV infection occurs through activation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Topârceanu, F; Bârnaure, F; Iucu, C T; Spulbăr, E; Pătru, C

    1999-01-01

    The present work is a part of a complex experimental study aimed at the demonstration of the two previously published hypotheses regarding the involvement of apoptosis in general in the viral infection and especially in HIV infection (1). Our researches have shown that the significant lowering of the number of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-infected children is associated with a marked increase of the soluble interleukin 2-receptor (sIL2-R)# concentration, in comparison with HIV-negative, healthy or acute infections exhibiting controls. As sIL-2R is a circulating marker of cell activation, we investigated the role of monocytes (antigen-presenting cells) in the viability of peripheral lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected children in comparison with the controls. Lymphocytes cultivation in the absence and in the presence of autologous monocytes led to the following conclusions: 1) freshly isolated lymphocytes from HIV-positive individuals undergo an accelerated spontaneous apoptosis in comparison with that of lymphocytes isolated from HIV-negative individuals: 2) the normal antiapoptotic effect of monocytes on lymphocytes diminishes gradually in the HIV infection, changing into a proapoptotic effect, corresponding to the sIL-2R augmentation to increasingly higher values. Our results show that peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in HIV infection occurs through apoptosis and the activation-induced cell death is one of the possible apoptosis mechanisms.

  9. A Review of Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khalili Fard, Javad; Jafari, Samira; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the use of nanomaterials has received much attention in industrial and medical fields. However, some reports have mentioned adverse effects of these materials on the biological systems and cellular components. There are several major mechanisms for cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) such as physicochemical properties, contamination with toxic element, fibrous structure, high surface charge and radical species generation. In this review, a brief key mechanisms involved in toxic effect of NPs are given, followed by the in vitro toxicity assays of NPs and prooxidant effects of several NPs such as carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide NPs, quantum dots, gold NPs and silver NPs. PMID:26819915

  10. Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing.

    PubMed

    Roelands, Bart; de Koning, Jos; Foster, Carl; Hettinga, Floor; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-05-01

    Fatigue during prolonged exercise is often described as an acute impairment of exercise performance that leads to an inability to produce or maintain a desired power output. In the past few decades, interest in how athletes experience fatigue during competition has grown enormously. Research has evolved from a dominant focus on peripheral causes of fatigue towards a complex interplay between peripheral and central limitations of performance. Apparently, both feedforward and feedback mechanisms, based on the principle of teleoanticipation, regulate power output (e.g., speed) during a performance. This concept is called 'pacing' and represents the use of energetic resources during exercise, in a way such that all energy stores are used before finishing a race, but not so far from the end of a race that a meaningful slowdown can occur.It is believed that the pacing selected by athletes is largely dependent on the anticipated exercise duration and on the presence of an experientially developed performance template. Most studies investigating pacing during prolonged exercise in ambient temperatures, have observed a fast start, followed by an even pace strategy in the middle of the event with an end sprint in the final minutes of the race. A reduction in pace observed at commencement of the event is often more evident during exercise in hot environmental conditions. Further, reductions in power output and muscle activation occur before critical core temperatures are reached, indicating that subjects can anticipate the exercise intensity and heat stress they will be exposed to, resulting in a tactical adjustment of the power output. Recent research has shown that not only climatic stress but also pharmacological manipulation of the central nervous system has the ability to cause changes in endurance performance. Subjects seem to adapt their strategy specifically in the early phases of an exercise task. In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly

  11. Palmitate induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism involving protein kinase C and nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mireia; Planavila, Anna; Sánchez, Rosa M; Merlos, Manuel; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for increased expression of TNF-alpha in skeletal muscle cells in diabetic states are not well understood. We examined the effects of the saturated acid palmitate on TNF-alpha expression. Exposure of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells to 0.75 mm palmitate enhanced mRNA (25-fold induction, P < 0.001) and protein (2.5-fold induction) expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. This induction was inversely correlated with a fall in GLUT4 mRNA levels (57% reduction, P < 0.001) and glucose uptake (34% reduction, P < 0.001). PD98059 and U0126, inhibitors of the ERK-MAPK cascade, partially prevented the palmitate-induced TNF-alpha expression. Palmitate increased nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and incubation of the cells with the NF-kappaB inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and parthenolide partially prevented TNF-alpha expression. Incubation of palmitate-treated cells with calphostin C, a strong and specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), abolished palmitate-induced TNF-alpha expression, and restored GLUT4 mRNA levels. Palmitate treatment enhanced the expression of phospho-PKCtheta, suggesting that this PKC isoform was involved in the changes reported, and coincubation of palmitate-treated cells with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine prevented the palmitate-induced reduction in the expression of IkappaBalpha and insulin-stimulated Akt activation. These findings suggest that enhanced TNF-alpha expression and GLUT4 down-regulation caused by palmitate are mediated through the PKC activation, confirming that this enzyme may be a target for either the prevention or the treatment of fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.

  12. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  13. Antitumor triptycene bisquinones induce a caspase-independent release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and a caspase-2-mediated activation of initiator caspase-8 and -9 in HL-60 cells by a mechanism which does not involve Fas signaling.

    PubMed

    Perchellet, Elisabeth M; Wang, Yang; Weber, Rebeka L; Lou, Kaiyan; Hua, Duy H; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre H

    2004-11-01

    mitochondria to promote Cyt c release, but caspase-2 is already maximally activated 6 h after 4 microM DAU or TT13 treatments, whereas DAU- or TT-induced caspase-8 and -9 activities peak at 9 h. Pre-treatments with 15 microM of the caspase-2 inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (z)-Val-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp (VDVAD)-fluoromethyl ketone (fmk) totally block DAU- and TT13-induced caspase-2, -8 and -9 activities, whereas pre-treatments with 15 microM of the caspase-8 inhibitor z-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp (IETD)-fmk prevent DAU and TT13 from inducing caspase-8 activities without affecting their caspase-2- and -9-inducing activities, suggesting that the induction of apical caspase-2 activity by these drugs may be a critical upstream event required for the activation of other downstream caspases, including caspase-9 and the mitochondrial amplification loop through caspase-8. However, the mechanisms by which DAU and TT13 induce the release of mitochondrial Cyt c appear to be caspase-independent since they are both insensitive to similar pre-treatments with 100 microM of these specific caspase-2 and -8 inhibitors. Moreover, pre-treatments with 10 microg/ml of the antagonistic anti-Fas DX2 and ZB4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and the neutralizing anti-Fas ligand (FasL) NOK-1 mAb are all unable to prevent DAU and TT13 from inducing Cyt c release and caspase-2, -8 and -9 activities, suggesting that the Fas-FasL signaling pathway is not involved in the mechanism by which these quinone antitumor drugs trigger apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:15514562

  14. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  15. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  16. Regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs involvement in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Muller; Ivan, Mircea; Cimmino, Amelia; Negrini, Massimo; Calin, George A

    2007-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19-24 nucleotide noncoding RNAs that regulate the translation and degradation of target mRNAs and are extensively involved in human cancers. One unexpected conclusion of the profiling and functional studies in tumourigenesis is that some miRNAs behave in cancer cells in a dual mode, resembling the 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde' story, which centers on a conception of humanity as dual in nature. The authors and others have found that onco-miRNAs and suppressor-miRNAs can represent two different looks of the same gene, behaving as oncogenes or tumour suppressors depending on tissue type and specific targets. In this review, the authors analyse the regulatory mechanisms of the main miRNA genes involved in human tumourigenesis. PMID:17665990

  17. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, James P

    2010-01-01

    Primary tumors of the liver and biliary tree are increasing in frequency and portend a miserable prognosis. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a fundamental aspect of cancer development and progression. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma involve a complex interplay of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Recent studies investigating the possible epigenetic mechanisms induced in the disease have shed new light on the molecular underpinnings of hepatobiliary cancers. In addition, epigenetic modifications of DNA in cancer and precancerous lesions offer hope and the promise of novel biomarkers for early cancer detection, prediction, prognosis and response to treatment. Furthermore, the reversal of epigenetic changes represents a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies and medication design. PMID:20556199

  18. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  19. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-12-27

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  20. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  1. [Ocular involvement in spondylarthritis--new mechanisms, new therapies].

    PubMed

    Itulescu, T C M; Alexandrescu, Cristina; Voinea, Liliana-Mary

    2014-01-01

    Spondyloarthrites (SPA) represent a group of heterogenous rheumatic diseases (ankylosing spondylitis/SA, psoriatic arthritis/PsA, reactive arthritis/ReA, spondyloarthritis in bowel inflammatory diseases/BID, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis/undif SpA) with distinct clinical features and common genetic predisposition (HLA-B27). SpA may also affect other organs, ocular involvement, represented by uveitis and conjunctivitis, being one of the most important extraskeletal manifestations. Pathogenic mechanisms of ocular involment in SpA are not entirely known; nevertheless, the inflammatory process which characterizes the main rheumatic diseases seems to be responsible for this extraskeletal manifestation. SpA treatment targeted at clinical remission has a favourable effect not only on articular but also on ocular involvement. The discovery of new pathogenic mechanisms of both rheumatic and eye disease in SpA have contributed to identification of new pathogenic therapies. The interdisciplinary team work of rheumatologists and ophtalmologists have prove essential for the management of SpA patients with ocular manifestations.

  2. Paraventricular hypothalamic regulation of trigeminovascular mechanisms involved in headaches.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Bourgeais, Laurence; Arreto, Charles-Daniel; Condes-Lara, Miguel; Noseda, Rodrigo; Jay, Thérèse; Villanueva, Luis

    2013-05-15

    While functional imaging and deep brain stimulation studies point to a pivotal role of the hypothalamus in the pathophysiology of migraine and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, the circuitry and the mechanisms underlying the modulation of medullary trigeminovascular (Sp5C) neurons have not been fully identified. We investigated the existence of a direct anatomo-functional relationship between hypothalamic excitability disturbances and modifications of the activities of Sp5C neurons in the rat. Anterograde and retrograde neuronal anatomical tracing, intrahypothalamic microinjections, extracellular single-unit recordings of Sp5C neurons, and behavioral trials were used in this study. We found that neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) send descending projections to the superior salivatory nucleus, a region that gives rise to parasympathetic outflow to cephalic and ocular/nasal structures. PVN cells project also to laminae I and outer II of the Sp5C. Microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into PVN inhibit both basal and meningeal-evoked activities of Sp5C neurons. Such inhibitions were reduced in acutely restrained stressed rats. GABAA antagonist gabazine infusions into the PVN facilitate meningeal-evoked responses of Sp5C neurons. PVN injections of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP38) enhance Sp5C basal activities, whereas the antagonist PACAP6-38 depresses all types of Sp5C activities. 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist naratriptan infusion confined to the PVN depresses both basal and meningeal-evoked Sp5C activities. Our findings suggest that paraventricular hypothalamic neurons directly control both spontaneous and evoked activities of Sp5C neurons and could act either as modulators or triggers of migraine and/or trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias by integrating nociceptive, autonomic, and stress processing mechanisms.

  3. Paraventricular hypothalamic regulation of trigeminovascular mechanisms involved in headaches.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Bourgeais, Laurence; Arreto, Charles-Daniel; Condes-Lara, Miguel; Noseda, Rodrigo; Jay, Thérèse; Villanueva, Luis

    2013-05-15

    While functional imaging and deep brain stimulation studies point to a pivotal role of the hypothalamus in the pathophysiology of migraine and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, the circuitry and the mechanisms underlying the modulation of medullary trigeminovascular (Sp5C) neurons have not been fully identified. We investigated the existence of a direct anatomo-functional relationship between hypothalamic excitability disturbances and modifications of the activities of Sp5C neurons in the rat. Anterograde and retrograde neuronal anatomical tracing, intrahypothalamic microinjections, extracellular single-unit recordings of Sp5C neurons, and behavioral trials were used in this study. We found that neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) send descending projections to the superior salivatory nucleus, a region that gives rise to parasympathetic outflow to cephalic and ocular/nasal structures. PVN cells project also to laminae I and outer II of the Sp5C. Microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into PVN inhibit both basal and meningeal-evoked activities of Sp5C neurons. Such inhibitions were reduced in acutely restrained stressed rats. GABAA antagonist gabazine infusions into the PVN facilitate meningeal-evoked responses of Sp5C neurons. PVN injections of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP38) enhance Sp5C basal activities, whereas the antagonist PACAP6-38 depresses all types of Sp5C activities. 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist naratriptan infusion confined to the PVN depresses both basal and meningeal-evoked Sp5C activities. Our findings suggest that paraventricular hypothalamic neurons directly control both spontaneous and evoked activities of Sp5C neurons and could act either as modulators or triggers of migraine and/or trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias by integrating nociceptive, autonomic, and stress processing mechanisms. PMID:23678125

  4. Young People's Perceptions of the Mathematics Involved in Everyday Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Amanda; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    English secondary students were shown pictures of everyday activities and interviewed about whether math was involved. They were aware of daily math and did not have difficulties identifying math in practical or traditionally female activities. However, they restricted math to activities involving single-solution problems and formal rather than…

  5. Motivational considerations in physical activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, R

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine movement science research on personal and social-environmental motivational influences in physical activity contexts. Motivation is defined as a process in which internal and external factors direct and energize thoughts, feelings, and actions. Motivation is described as a consequence of meaning, which is derived from a combination of personal and social factors, including personal goals or incentives, expectations of personal efficacy, movement-related perceptual and affective experiences, and social and physical features of the environment. Recent literature from sport and exercise psychology is presented on these variables, their determinants, and their consequences for choice, effort, persistence, and performance behavior in exercise and sport contexts.

  6. Active Auditory Mechanics in Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, D.; Göpfert, M. C.

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is presented that hearing in some insects is an active process. Audition in mosquitoes is used for mate-detection and is supported by antennal receivers, whose sound-induced vibrations are transduced by Johnston's organs. Each of these sensory organs contains ca. 15,000 sensory neurons. As shown by mechanical analysis, a physiologically vulnerable mechanism is at work that nonlinearly enhances the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of antennal hearing. This process of amplification correlates with the electrical activity of the auditory mechanoreceptor units in Johnston's organ.

  7. Formation mechanism for a hybrid supramolecular network involving cooperative interactions.

    PubMed

    Mura, Manuela; Silly, Fabien; Burlakov, Victor; Castell, Martin R; Briggs, G Andrew D; Kantorovich, Lev N

    2012-04-27

    A novel mechanism of hybrid assembly of molecules on surfaces is proposed stemming from interactions between molecules and on-surface metal atoms which eventually got trapped inside the network pores. Based on state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, we find that the new mechanism relies on formation of molecule-metal atom pairs which, together with molecules themselves, participate in the assembly growth. Most remarkably, the dissociation of pairs is facilitated by a cooperative interaction involving many molecules. This new mechanism is illustrated on a low coverage Melamine hexagonal network on the Au(111) surface where multiple events of gold atoms trapping via a set of so-called "gate" transitions are found by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations based on transition rates obtained using ab initio density functional theory calculations and the nudged elastic band method. Simulated STM images of gold atoms trapped in the pores of the Melamine network predict that the atoms should appear as bright spots inside Melamine hexagons. No trapping was found at large Melamine coverages, however. These predictions have been supported by preliminary STM experiments which show bright spots inside Melamine hexagons at low Melamine coverages, while empty pores are mostly observed at large coverages. Therefore, we suggest that bright spots sometimes observed in the pores of molecular assemblies on metal surfaces may be attributed to trapped substrate metal atoms. We believe that this type of mechanism could be used for delivering adatom species of desired functionality (e.g., magnetic) into the pores of hydrogen-bonded networks serving as templates for their capture. PMID:22680886

  8. Mechanism of Oligonucleotide Uptake by Cells: Involvement of Specific receptors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubov, Leonid A.; Deeva, Elena A.; Zarytova, Valentina F.; Ivanova, Eugenia M.; Ryte, Antonina S.; Yurchenko, Lyudmila V.; Vlassov, Valentin V.

    1989-09-01

    We have investigated the interaction of oligonucleotides and their alkylating derivatives with mammalian cells. In experiments with L929 mouse fibroblast and Krebs 2 ascites carcinoma cells, it was found that cellular uptake of oligodeoxynucleotide derivatives is achieved by an endocytosis mechanism. Uptake is considerably more efficient at low oligomer concentration (< 1 μ M), because at this concentration a significant percentage of the total oligomer pool is absorbed on the cell surface and internalized by a more efficient absorptive endocytosis process. Two modified proteins were detected in mouse fibroblasts that were treated with the alkylating oligonucleotide derivatives. The binding of the oligomers to the proteins is inhibited by other oligodeoxynucleotides, single- and double-stranded DNA, and RNA. The polyanions heparin and chondroitin sulfates A and B do not inhibit binding. These observations suggest the involvement of specific receptor proteins in binding of oligomers to mammalian cells.

  9. FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Involvement.

    PubMed

    Milà, Montserrat; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Matilla-Dueñas, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with the FMR1 premutation affect more than two million people worldwide. The clinical implications have only been recognized recently despite this disorder constitutes a relevant health problem. The present issue of The Cerebellum is focused on the "2(nd) International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Involvement" held in Sitges, Barcelona (Spain), from September 30th to October 2nd, 2015. The conference was attended by professionals from different countries in Europe, the USA, Chile, Israel, Australia, and Indonesia and covered the latest clinical and molecular findings resulting from FMR1 premutation studies. Although the pathologies associated with the FMR1 premutation are considered as rare diseases, seventy abstracts were presented. This reflects the relevance of this topic in the medical community and the growing interest among professionals from other disciplines. The major topics discussed included why and how the mRNA toxicity due to a gain of function and non-canonical RAN are responsible for disorders associated with the premutation. Several presentations addressed the impact of these mechanisms in FXTAS and FXPOI, two clinical presentations caused by the FMR1 premutation. Interestingly, a deterioration of the DNA repair machinery was first proposed as the pathogenicity cause of premutation alleles. Communications related to FXTAS and FXPOI animal models were also presented. These models facilitate studies aimed to understand disease progression and early treatment interventions. Finally, there were presentations related to psychiatric, psychological, neurological, and radiological aspects. Interesting discussion on intermediate alleles and their involvement in clinical and reproductive aspects was generated. In this regards, genetic counselling is improved by taking into account the AGG interruptions and including information about the FMR1 premutation associated

  10. Tissue formation and tissue engineering through host cell recruitment or a potential injectable cell-based biocomposite with replicative potential: Molecular mechanisms controlling cellular senescence and the involvement of controlled transient telomerase activation therapies.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-12-01

    Accumulated data indicate that wound-care products should have a composition equivalent to that of the skin: a combination of particular growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins endogenous to the skin, together with viable epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Strategies consisting of bioengineered dressings and cell-based products have emerged for widespread clinical use; however, their performance is not optimal because chronic wounds persist as a serious unmet medical need. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric repeats to the ends of chromosomes, is responsible for telomere maintenance, and its expression is associated with cell immortalization and, in certain cases, cancerogenesis. Telomerase contains a catalytic subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Introduction of TERT into human cells extends both their lifespan and their telomeres to lengths typical of young cells. The regulation of TERT involves transcriptional and posttranscriptional molecular biology mechanisms. The manipulation, regulation of telomerase is multifactorial in mammalian cells, involving overall telomerase gene expression, post-translational protein-protein interactions, and protein phosphorylation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in aging, apoptosis, and necrosis of cells in numerous diseases. Upon production of high levels of ROS from exogenous or endogenous generators, the redox balance is perturbed and cells are shifted into a state of oxidative stress, which subsequently leads to modifications of intracellular proteins and membrane lipid peroxidation and to direct DNA damage. When the oxidative stress is severe, survival of the cell is dependent on the repair or replacement of damaged molecules, which can result in induction of apoptosis in the injured with ROS cells. ROS-mediated oxidative stress induces the depletion of hTERT from the nucleus via export through the nuclear pores

  11. Tissue transglutaminase is involved in mechanical load-induced osteogenic differentiation of human ligamentum flavum cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Shih-Yung; Yang, Ruei-Cheng; Sun, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical load-induced osteogenic differentiation might be the key cellular event in the calcification and ossification of ligamentum flavum. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) on mechanical load-induced osteogenesis of ligamentum flavum cells. Human ligamentum flavum cells were obtained from 12 patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Osteogenic phenotypes of ligamentum flavum cells, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin red-S stain, and gene expression of osteogenic makers were evaluated following the administration of mechanical load and BMP-2 treatment. The expression of TGM2 was evaluated by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Our results showed that mechanical load in combination with BMP-2 enhanced calcium deposition and ALP activity. Mechanical load significantly increased ALP and OC gene expression on day 3, whereas BMP-2 significantly increased ALP, OPN, and Runx2 on day 7. Mechanical load significantly induced TGM2 gene expression and enzyme activity in human ligamentum flavum cells. Exogenous TGM2 increased ALP and OC gene expression; while, inhibited TG activity significantly attenuated mechanical load-induced and TGM2-induced ALP activity. In summary, mechanical load-induced TGM2 expression and enzyme activity is involved in the progression of the calcification of ligamentum flavum.

  12. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  13. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  14. Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can habituate in vivo. Thus, habituation reduces sensory feedback, so the role of the pons, and specifically the KF, for IE phase transition may increase dramatically. Pontine-mediated control of the IE phase transition is not completely understood. In the present review, we discuss existing models for ponto-medullary interaction that may be involved in the control of inspiratory duration and IE transition. We also present intracellular recordings of pontine respiratory units derived from an in situ intra-arterially perfused brainstem preparation of rats. With the absence of lung inflation, this preparation generates a normal respiratory pattern and many of the recorded pontine units demonstrated phasic respiratory-related activity. The analysis of changes in membrane potentials of pontine respiratory neurons has allowed us to propose a number of pontine-medullary interactions not considered before. The involvement of these putative interactions in pontine-mediated control of IE phase transitions is discussed. PMID:19651653

  15. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Michinao; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Okinaga, Toshinori; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and

  16. Mechanics of light-activated network polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas

    Mechanically responsive, environmentally activated polymers can undergo large, complex deformation in response to external stimuli such as thermal, luminous, and chemical changes to the environment. Light as a stimulus provides unique application potential because it allows for remote, rapid, and isothermal activation of the material with precise spatial control via existing optical technologies. While certain systems have received considerable attention, the state of the art of most light-activated polymers is limited to basic characterization and demonstrations. To make such materials available to the engineering and scientific communities, physically based theoretical and computational tools are required to guide experimental and design efforts that capitalize on their complex photo-mechanical couplings. The central objective of this thesis is to develop a multi-physics constitutive modeling framework to simulate the continuum scale, photo mechanical behavior of light-activated polymers and implement it into a finite element analysis setting. This framework is independent of specific underlying photo-stimulation mechanisms and is discussed in the context of photo-activated shape memory polymers and network rearranging polymers. Next, the framework is applied to the light-activated network rearranging polymer system, which is relaxed of stress upon irradiation with UV light, and a suite of characterization and application oriented experiments are carried out to calibrate and validate the model's predictive capabilities. The calibrated model is used to investigate several applications such as photo-activated stress relaxation of notched specimens, bending actuation, creep, the buckling of equi-biaxially deformed and irradiated films, and photomechanically formed 1D channels and ridges. Modeling creep involves additional complexity through simultaneous deformation and irradiation, and so the model framework is extended to cover such scenarios. Experiments, finite

  17. The microbicidal activity of interferon-gamma-treated macrophages against Trypanosoma cruzi involves an L-arginine-dependent, nitrogen oxide-mediated mechanism inhibitable by interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, R T; Oswald, I P; Hieny, S; James, S L; Sher, A

    1992-10-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effector mechanism of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity by interferon (IFN)-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages. A macrophage cell line (IC-21) that failed to mount an appreciable oxidative burst was nevertheless found able to control T. cruzi growth after exposure to IFN-gamma alone or IFN-gamma plus LPS. Moreover, microbicidal functions of both inflammatory macrophages and IC-21 against T. cruzi was found to be inhibited in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NGMMA), a competitive inhibitor of L-arginine. Addition of supplemental L-arginine to the culture overcame the capacity of NGMMA to block activated macrophage anti-T. cruzi functions. The ability of NGMMA to reverse both parasite growth inhibition and killing by IFN-gamma plus LPS-activated macrophages was found to correlate with the suppression of nitrite accumulation in the culture supernatants. Together, these results implicate the L-arginine-dependent production of nitric oxide in T. cruzi killing by activated macrophages. We also tested the ability of interleukin(IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, to block regulation of T. cruzi growth in this system. Both IL-10 and TGF-beta inhibited anti-parasite function by IFN-gamma-activated macrophages, with an optimal dose of 100 units/ml and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively. Moreover, when used in combination, suboptimal doses of IL-10 and TGF-beta were found to produce a synergistic inhibitory effect in the regulation of T. cruzi growth. The ability of IL-10 and TGF-beta to suppress microbicidal function was also positively correlated with inhibition of nitrite generation in macrophage culture supernatants. These results predict an in vivo role for IL-10 and TGF-beta in promoting parasite survival in the face of the host cell-mediated immune response. PMID:1396957

  18. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  19. A Profile of Latino School-Based Extracurricular Activity Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    Participation in school-based extracurricular activities influences educational success. Thus, it is important to depict a profile of school-based extracurricular activity involvement for a Latino student population that is marginalized in schools. This research uses the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 and logistic regression analyses to…

  20. Transient activation and delayed inhibition of Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport in ATP-treated C11-MDCK cells involve distinct P2Y receptor subtypes and signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Akimova, Olga A; Grygorczyk, Alexandra; Bundey, Richard A; Bourcier, Nathalie; Gekle, Michael; Insel, Paul A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2006-10-20

    In C11-MDCK cells, which resemble intercalated cells from collecting ducts of the canine kidney, P2Y agonists promote transient activation of the Na+,K+,Cl- cotransporter (NKCC), followed by its sustained inhibition. We designed this study to identify P2Y receptor subtypes involved in dual regulation of this carrier. Real time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that C11-MDCK cells express abundant P2Y1 and P2Y2 mRNA compared with that of other P2Y receptor subtypes. The rank order of potency of agents (ATP approximately UTP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP (2MeSATP); adenosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (ADPbetaS) inactive) indicated that P2Y2 rather than P2Y1 receptors mediate a 3-4-fold activation of NKCC within the first 5-10 min of nucleotide addition. NKCC activation in ATP-treated cells was abolished by the intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, calmodulin (CaM) antagonists trifluoroperazine and W-7, and KN-62, an inhibitor of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II. By contrast with the transient activation, 30-min incubation with nucleotides produced up to 4-5-fold inhibition of NKCC, and this inhibition exhibited a rank order of potency (2MeSATP > ADPbetaS > ATP > UTP) typical of P2Y1 receptors. Unlike the early response, delayed inhibition of NKCC occurred in 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-loaded cells and was completely abolished by the P2Y1 antagonists MRS2179 and MRS2500. Transient activation and delayed inhibition of NKCC in C11 cell monolayers were observed after the addition of ATP to mucosal and serosal solutions, respectively. NKCC inhibition triggered by basolateral application of ADPbetaS was abolished by MRS2500. Our results thus show that transient activation and delayed inhibition of NKCC in ATP-treated C11-MDCK cells is mediated by Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II- and Ca2+-independent signaling triggered by apical P2Y2 and basolateral P2Y1 receptors, respectively

  1. Unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of the herbicide diclofop-methyl in rice: modulation of the activity of key enzymes involved in citrate metabolism and induction of cell membrane anion channels.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Lu, Haiping; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Li, Yali; Lv, Xiaolu; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2014-11-01

    Residual soil concentrations of the herbicide diclofop-methyl (DM) can be toxic to other nontarget plant species, but the toxicity mechanisms at play are not fully understood. In the present study, we analyzed the toxic effect of DM on root growth and metabolism in the rice species Oryza sativa. The results show that a 48-h exposure to a trace level (5 μg/L) of DM inhibits rice root growth by almost 70%. A 48-h exposure to 5 μg/L DM also leads to an ≈2.5-fold increase in citrate synthase (CS) activity (and CS gene transcription) and an ≈2-fold decrease in the citrate lyase gene transcripts, which lead to an increase in the intracellular concentration of citrate and in citrate exudation rate. Addition of a specific inhibitor of cell membrane anion channel, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, decreased citrate release in the culture, suggesting that DM-induced citrate loss from the cells is mediated by a specific membrane-bound channel protein. This study brings new insights into the key biochemical mechanisms leading to DM toxicity in rice.

  2. Homing orientation in salamanders: A mechanism involving chemical cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madison, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description is given of experiments made to determine the senses and chemical cues used by salamanders for homing orientation. Sensory impairment and cue manipulative techniques were used in the investigation. All experiments were carried out at night. Results show that sense impaired animals did not home as readily as those who were blind but retained their sensory mechanism. This fact suggests that the olfactory mechanism is necessary for homing in the salamander. It was determined that after the impaired salamander regenerated its sensory mechanism it too returned home. It was concluded that homing ability in salamanders is direction independent, distant dependent, and vision independent.

  3. [Classical dengue transmission dynamics involving mechanical control and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Restrepo, Leonardo D; Vergaño-Salazar, Juan G; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever transmission dynamics were studied in an endemic region considering the use of preventative measures and mechanical control in reducing transmission of the disease. A system of ordinary differential equations was proposed, describing the dynamics and their evolution as determined by numerical simulation. Different mechanical control and prophylaxis strategies were compared to the situation without control. The basic reproduction number R₀ was determined R₀ to show that if R₀ > 1 there would be a risk of an epidemic and otherwise the disease would have low impact levels. The basic reproduction number helps determine the dynamics' future pattern and contrast the results so obtained with those obtained numerically. It was concluded that although prophylaxis and mechanical control alone provide effective results in controlling the disease, if both controls are combined then infection levels become significantly reduced. Around 60 % mechanical control and prevention levels are needed to provide suitable results in controlling dengue outbreaks.

  4. Antithrombin Regulates Matriptase Activity Involved in Plasmin Generation, Syndecan Shedding, and HGF Activation in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Xu, Zhenghong; Baksh, Adrienne N. H.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Swanson, Richard; Olson, Steve T.; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Johnson, Michael D.; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Matriptase, a membrane-associated serine protease, plays an essential role in epidermal barrier function through activation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin. The matriptase-prostasin proteolytic cascade is tightly regulated by hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 such that matriptase autoactivation and prostasin activation occur simultaneously and are followed immediately by the inhibition of both enzymes by HAI-1. However, the mechanisms whereby matriptase acts on extracellular substrates remain elusive. Here we report that some active matriptase can escape HAI-1 inhibition by being rapidly shed from the cell surface. In the pericellular environment, shed active matriptase is able to activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), accelerate plasminogen activation, and shed syndecan 1. The amount of active matriptase shed is inversely correlated with the amount of antithrombin (AT) bound to the surface of the keratinocytes. Binding of AT to the surface of keratinocytes is dependent on a functional heparin binding site, Lys-125, and that the N-glycosylation site Asn-135 be unglycosylated. This suggests that β-AT, and not α-AT, is responsible for regulation of pericellular matriptase activity in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes appear to rely on AT to regulate the level of pericellular active matriptase much more than breast and prostate epithelial cells in which AT regulation of matriptase activity occurs at much lower levels than keratinocytes. These results suggest that keratinocytes employ two distinct serine protease inhibitors to control the activation and processing of two different sets of matriptase substrates leading to different biological events: 1) HAI-1 for prostasin activation/inhibition, and 2) AT for the pericellular proteolysis involved in HGF activation, accelerating plasminogen activation, and shedding of syndecans. PMID:23675430

  5. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before. PMID:27296146

  6. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  7. Mechanisms of molecular mimicry involving the microbiota in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    The concept of molecular mimicry was established to explain commonalities of structure which developed in response to evolutionary pressures. Most examples of molecular mimicry in medicine have involved homologies of primary protein structure which cause disease. Molecular mimicry can be expanded beyond amino acid sequence to include microRNA and proteomic effects which are either pathogenic or salutogenic (beneficial) in regard to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and related disorders. Viruses of animal or plant origin may mimic nucleotide sequences of microRNAs and influence protein expression. Both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases involve the formation of transmissible self-propagating prion-like proteins. However, the initiating factors responsible for creation of these misfolded nucleating factors are unknown. Amyloid patterns of protein folding are highly conserved through evolution and are widely distributed in the world. Similarities of tertiary protein structure may be involved in the creation of these prion-like agents through molecular mimicry. Cross-seeding of amyloid misfolding, altered proteostasis, and oxidative stress may be induced by amyloid proteins residing in bacteria in our microbiota in the gut and in the diet. Pathways of molecular mimicry induced processes induced by bacterial amyloid in neurodegeneration may involve TLR 2/1, CD14, and NFκB, among others. Furthermore, priming of the innate immune system by the microbiota may enhance the inflammatory response to cerebral amyloids (such as amyloid-β and α-synuclein). This paper describes the specific molecular pathways of these cross-seeding and neuroinflammatory processes. Evolutionary conservation of proteins provides the opportunity for conserved sequences and structures to influence neurological disease through molecular mimicry.

  8. Absorption of Carotenoids and Mechanisms Involved in Their Health-Related Properties.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids participate in the normal metabolism and function of the human body. They are involved in the prevention of several diseases, especially those related to the inflammation syndrome. Their main mechanisms of action are associated to their potent antioxidant activity and capacity to regulate the expression of specific genes and proteins. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid metabolites may explain several processes where the participation of their parent carotenoids was unclear. The health benefits of carotenoids strongly depend on their absorption and transformation during gastrointestinal digestion. The estimation of the 'bioaccessibility' of carotenoids through in vitro models have made possible the evaluation of the effect of a large number of factors on key stages of carotenoid digestion and intestinal absorption. The bioaccessibility of these compounds allows us to have a clear idea of their potential bioavailability, a term that implicitly involves the biological activity of these compounds. PMID:27485232

  9. Novelty enhances retrieval: molecular mechanisms involved in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, L A; Viola, H; Barros, D M; Alonso, M; Vianna, M R; Furman, M; Levi de Stein, M; Szapiro, G; Rodrigues, C; Choi, H; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2001-04-01

    Rats exposed to a novel environment just prior to or 1-2 h, but not 4 or 6 h, before retention testing exhibited an enhanced retrieval of a one-trial inhibitory avoidance training. The bilateral intrahippocampal infusion of PD098059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), the specific upstream activator of p42 and p44 MAPKs, given 10 min before the exposure to the novel environment, blocked the enhancing effect of novelty on memory retrieval. In addition, prenovelty infusion of DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptors, produced similar effects. The exposure to the novel environment is associated with an activation of p42 and p44 MAPKs and an increase in the phosphorylation state of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). No changes were observed in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity or in alpha-CAMKII activation. Taken together, our results indicate that novelty activates hippocampal MAPKs, which are necessary, along with glutamate NMDA receptors, for the enhancing effect of novelty on retrieval.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms involved in Farnesol-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Joung Hyuck; Jetten, Anton M.

    2009-01-01

    The isoprenoid alcohol farnesol is an effective inducer of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of carcinoma cell types. In addition, farnesol has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis in several animal models suggesting that it functions as a chemopreventative and anti-tumor agent in vivo. A number of different biochemical and cellular processes have been implicated in the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of farnesol. These include regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα), the rate limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, respectively, and the generation of reactive oxygen species. In some cell types the action of farnesol is mediated through nuclear receptors, including activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Recent studies have revealed that induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play a critical role in the induction of apoptosis by farnesol in lung carcinoma cells. This induction was found to be dependent on the activation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. In addition, farnesol induces activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and a number of NF-κB target genes. Optimal activation of NF-κB was reported to depend on the phosphorylation of p65/RelA by the MEK1/2-MSK1 signaling pathway. In a number of cells farnesol-induced apoptosis was found to be linked to activation of the apoptosome. This review provides an overview of the biochemical and cellular processes regulated by farnesol in relationship to its growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-promoting, and anti-tumor effects. PMID:19520495

  11. Orosensory self-stimulation by sucrose involves brain dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L H

    1989-01-01

    The most convincing body of evidence supporting a role for brain dopaminergic mechanisms in sweet taste reward has been obtained using the sham-feeding rat. In rats prepared with a chronic gastric fistula and tested with the cannula open, intake is a direct function of the palatability of the solution offered as well as of the state of food deprivation. Because essentially none of the ingested fluid passes on to the intestine, negative postingestive feedback is eliminated. Thus, the relative orosensory/hedonic potency of the food determines and sustains the rate of sham intake; long periods of food deprivation are not required. In this way, the sham feeding of sweet solutions may be considered a form of oral self-stimulation behavior and afford a preparation through which the neurochemical and neuranatomical substrates of sweet taste reward may be identified. The results obtained in the series of experiments summarized in this paper clearly indicate that central D-1 and D-2 receptor mechanisms are critical for the orosensory self-stimulation by sucrose in the rat. In conclusion, I suggest that such investigations of the roles of brain dopaminergic mechanisms in the sucrose sham-feeding rat preparation may further our understanding of normal and aberrant attractions to sweet fluids in humans (see Cabanac, Drewnowski, and Halmi, this volume), as an innate, positive affective response of human neonates to sucrose and the sustained positive hedonic ratings for glucose when tasted but not when consumed have demonstrated. PMID:2699194

  12. Bringing Person-Centeredness and Active Involvement into Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torenholt, Rikke; Engelund, Gitte; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and applicability of cultural probes--an explorative participatory method to gain insights into a person's life and thoughts--to achieve person-centeredness and active involvement in self-management education for people with chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach: An education toolkit…

  13. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  14. Adolescent Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Influences on Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Donna; Dyk, Patricia Hyjer; Jones, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Study examined adolescents' participation in sports, school, and community extracurricular activities to assess the influence of different involvement roles and adult support on leadership skills. The study found that males and females who perceived their adult support more positively had more positive perceptions of their leadership skills.…

  15. A Novel Transcription Mechanism Activated by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinghua; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Guo, ZhongMao

    2013-01-01

    Solute carrier family 7, member 11 (Slc7a11) is a plasma membrane cystine/glutamate exchanger that provides intracellular cystine to produce glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses up-regulate Slc7a11 expression by activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and transcription factor 4. This study examined the effect of ethanol on Slc7a11 expression and the underlying mechanism involved. Treatment of mouse hepatic stellate cells with ethanol significantly increased Slc7a11 mRNA and protein levels. Deletion of a 20-bp DNA sequence between −2044 to −2024 upstream of the transcription start site significantly increased basal activity and completely abolished the ethanol-induced activity of the Slc7a11 promoter. This deletion did not affect Slc7a11 promoter activity induced by oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress. DNA sequence analysis revealed a binding motif for octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (OCT-1) in the deleted fragment. Mutation of this OCT-1 binding motif resulted in a similar effect as the deletion experiment, i.e. it increased the basal promoter activity and abolished the response to ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly inhibited OCT-1 binding to the Slc7a11 promoter region, although it did not alter OCT-1 mRNA and protein levels. OCT-1 reportedly functions as either a transcriptional enhancer or repressor, depending on the target genes. Results from this study suggest that OCT-1 functions as a repressor on the Slc7a11 promoter and that ethanol inhibits OCT-1 binding to the Slc7a11 promoter, thereby increasing Slc7a11 expression. Taken together, inhibition of the DNA binding activity of transcriptional repressor OCT-1 is a mechanism by which ethanol up-regulates Slc711 expression. PMID:23592778

  16. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneuji, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. {yields} Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. {yields} This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm{sup 2}) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt

  17. Chromosome catastrophes involve replication mechanisms generating complex genomic rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Sreenath Nagamani, Sandesh C.; Dhar, Shweta U.; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E.; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V.; Cooper, M. Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A.; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R.; McLean, Scott D.; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P. J.; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R.; Bi, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism’s life cycle. PMID:21925314

  18. Chromosome catastrophes involve replication mechanisms generating complex genomic rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Dhar, Shweta U; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Cooper, M Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Bacino, Carlos A; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R; McLean, Scott D; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P J; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R; Bi, Weimin

    2011-09-16

    Complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here, we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated, we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications, and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism's life cycle.

  19. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  20. Activities report in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    The research conducted at the Lille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFL) concerns four areas: flight mechanics, structural mechanics, aerodynamics and applied fluid mechanics. Within these four areas, these topics are discussed: characterization of the unsteady pressures on an airfoil in turbulence; adaptation of the Kalman-Rauch filtering-smoothing method to instrumented free spin tests; vulnerability of aircraft fuel tanks; water surface impact; influence of an oscillating spoiler on the surrounding aerodynamic field; gunfiring similarity theory and rules; flow around a cylinder at low Reynolds number by holographic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry; compressible turbulent flow computation; and the wake of wind turbine towers are discussed.

  1. Molecular mechanisms involved in initiation of the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J; O’Connell, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    DNA is subject to a wide variety of damage. In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells must respond to this damage by activating repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The initiating events in the DNA damage response entail recognition of the lesion and the assembly of DNA damage response complexes at the DNA. Here, we review what is known about these processes for various DNA damage pathways. PMID:27308403

  2. Involvement of the mechanoreceptors in the sensory mechanisms of manual and electrical acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiromi; Kawada, Toru; Kamiya, Atsunori; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2011-02-24

    The modalities of acupuncture can be broadly classified into manual acupuncture (MA) and electroacupuncture (EA). Although MA has been reported to cause winding of tissue around the needle and subsequent activation of the sensory mechanoreceptors and nociceptors, the sensory mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation are not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that the involvement of the mechanoreceptors in the sensory mechanism is different in MA and EA, we examined the effects of a stretch-activated channel blocker gadolinium on the hemodynamic responses to hind limb MA and EA in anesthetized rats (n = 9). Gadolinium significantly attenuated the MA-induced bradycardic response (-22 ± 5 vs. -10 ± 3 bpm, P<0.05) and tended to attenuate the MA-induced depressor response (-30 ± 5 vs. -18 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.06). On the other hand, gadolinium significantly attenuated both the EA-induced bradycardic (-22 ± 5 vs. -9 ± 4 bpm, P<0.01) and depressor responses (-32 ± 6 vs. -15 ± 5 mmHg, P<0.01). These results indicate that the mechanoreceptors are involved in the sensory mechanisms for both MA and EA.

  3. Mechanisms involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Boyette-Davis, Jessica A; Walters, Edgar T; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating and painful condition seen in patients undergoing treatment with common agents such as vincristine, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin and bortezomib. The mechanisms of this condition are diverse, and include an array of molecular and cellular contributions. Current research implicates genetic predispositions to this condition, which then may influence cellular responses to chemotherapy. Processes found to be influenced during CIPN include increased expression of inflammatory mediators, primarily cytokines, which can create cascading effects in neurons and glia. Changes in ion channels and neurotransmission, as well as changes in intracellular signaling and structures have been implicated in CIPN. This review explores these issues and suggests considerations for future research. PMID:26087973

  4. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.

    1993-12-01

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  5. Mechanisms involved in Korean mistletoe lectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Khil, Lee-Yong; Kim, Wi; Lyu, Suyun; Park, Won Bong; Yoon, Ji-Won; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-cancer mechanisms of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album coloratum agglutinin, VCA) using a human colon cancer cell line (COLO). METHODS: Cytotoxic effects of VCA on COLO cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in vitro and tumor-killing effects in vivo. To study the mechanisms involved, the expression of various pro-caspases, anti-apoptotic proteins, and death receptors was determined by western blot. To determine which death receptor is involved in VCA-induced apoptosis of COLO cells, cytotoxicity was examined by MTT assay after treatment with agonists or antagonists of death receptors. RESULTS: VCA killed COLO cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced complete regression of tumors in nude mice transplanted with COLO cells. Treatment of COLO cells with VCA activated caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9 and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic molecules including receptor interacting protein, nuclear factor-κB, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and Akt/protein kinase B. We then examined the involvement of death receptors in VCA-induced apoptosis. Only tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, among the death receptors examined, was involved in apoptosis of COLO cells, evidenced by inhibition of VCA-induced apoptosis and decreased activation of caspases, particularly caspase-8, by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 antagonizing antibody. CONCLUSION: VCA-induced apoptotic COLO cell death is due to the activation of caspases and inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins, in part through the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling pathway. PMID:17569116

  6. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-10-24

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression.

  7. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression. PMID:21964384

  8. [Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandines].

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Alina Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    Hypotensive effect to prostaglandins analogs (latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost) means to increase uveoscleral outflow by action to FP receptors who generated extracellular matrix changes and intermuscular spaces changes. Syntetic prostamides analogs (bimatoprost) have a particulary action with a receptors most and intensive studied. The bimatoprost effect is the consequences to preferated stimulations on the specific receptors who have action only the tissue with prostaglandins activity is important to specify what the bimatoprost have dual effect: to uveoscleral outflow and classic outflow by increase hidraulic conductivity.

  9. [Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandines].

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Alina Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    Hypotensive effect to prostaglandins analogs (latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost) means to increase uveoscleral outflow by action to FP receptors who generated extracellular matrix changes and intermuscular spaces changes. Syntetic prostamides analogs (bimatoprost) have a particulary action with a receptors most and intensive studied. The bimatoprost effect is the consequences to preferated stimulations on the specific receptors who have action only the tissue with prostaglandins activity is important to specify what the bimatoprost have dual effect: to uveoscleral outflow and classic outflow by increase hidraulic conductivity. PMID:19697832

  10. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants.

  11. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  12. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  13. Cellular and intracellular mechanisms involved in the cognitive impairment of cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Puighermanal, Emma; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous cannabinoids, such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as well as the modulation of endogenous cannabinoids, affect cognitive function through the activation of cannabinoid receptors. Indeed, these compounds modulate a number of signalling pathways critically implicated in the deleterious effect of cannabinoids on learning and memory. Thus, the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinases, together with their consequent regulation of cellular processes such as protein translation, play a critical role in the amnesic-like effects of cannabinoids. In this study, we summarize the cellular and molecular mechanisms reported in the modulation of cognitive function by the endocannabinoid system. PMID:23108544

  14. Analyses of the involvement of PKA regulation mechanism in meiotic incompetence of porcine growing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takanori; Fujii, Wataru; Kano, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko

    2012-09-01

    Mammalian growing oocytes (GOs) lack the ability to resume meiosis, although the molecular mechanism of this limitation is not fully understood. In the present study, we cloned cDNAs of cAMP-dependent protein-kinase (PKA) subunits from porcine oocytes and analyzed the involvement of the PKA regulation mechanism in the meiotic incompetence of GOs at the molecular level. We found a cAMP-independent high PKA activity in GOs throughout the in vitro culture using a porcine PKA assay system we established, and inhibition of the activity by injection of the antisense RNA of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) induced meiotic resumption in GOs. Then we examined the possibility that the amount of the PKA regulatory subunit (PKA-R), which can bind and inhibit PKA-C, was insufficient to suppress PKA activity in GOs because of the overexpression of two PKA-Rs, PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A. We found that neither of them affected PKA activity and induced meiotic resumption in GO although PRKAR2A could inhibit PKA activity and induce meiosis in cAMP-treated full-grown oocytes (FGOs). Finally, we analyzed the subcellular localization of PKA subunits and found that all the subunits were localized in the cytoplasm during meiotic arrest and that PKA-C and PRKAR2A, but not PRKAR1A, entered into the nucleus just before meiotic resumption in FGOs, whereas all of them remained in the cytoplasm in GOs throughout the culture period. Our findings suggest that the continuous high PKA activity is a primary cause of the meiotic incompetence of porcine GOs and that this PKA activity is not simply caused by an insufficient expression level of PKA-R, but can be attributed to more complex spatial-temporal regulation mechanisms. PMID:22674394

  15. Mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on pancreatic acinar thiamin uptake.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Said, Hamid M

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation via a carrier-mediated process that involves thiamin transporters 1 and 2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; products of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3, respectively). Chronic alcohol exposure of PAC inhibits thiamin uptake, and, on the basis of in vitro studies, this inhibition appears to be transcriptionally mediated. The aim of this study was to confirm the involvement of a transcriptional mechanism in mediating the chronic alcohol effect in in vivo settings and to delineate the molecular mechanisms involved. Using transgenic mice carrying full-length SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters, we found that chronic alcohol feeding led to a significant reduction in the activity of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters (as well as in thiamin uptake and expression of THTR-1 and -2). Similar findings were seen in 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol in vitro. In the latter studies, the alcohol inhibitory effect was found to be mediated via the minimal SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters and involved the cis-regulatory elements stimulating protein 1 (SP1)/gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor and SP1-GG-box and SP1/GC, respectively. Chronic alcohol exposure of PAC also led to a significant reduction in the expression of the SP1 transcription factor, which upon correction (via expression) led to the prevention of alcohol inhibitory effects on not only the activity of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters but also on the expression of THTR-1 and -2 mRNA and thiamin uptake. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on physiological/molecular parameters of thiamin uptake by PAC is mediated via specific cis-regulatory elements in SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 minimal promoters.

  16. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms Involved in the Hormonal Control of Male and Female Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, L M; Bentley, G E; Calandra, R S; Paredes, A H; Tesone, M; Wu, T J; Micevych, P E

    2016-07-01

    Reproduction involves the integration of hormonal signals acting across multiple systems to generate a synchronised physiological output. A critical component of reproduction is the luteinising hormone (LH) surge, which is mediated by oestradiol (E2 ) and neuroprogesterone interacting to stimulate kisspeptin release in the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle in rats. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of both classical and membrane E2 and progesterone signalling in this pathway. A metabolite of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-(1-5), has been shown to stimulate GnRH expression and secretion, and has a role in the regulation of lordosis. Additionally, gonadotrophin release-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) projects to and influences the activity of GnRH neurones in birds. Stress-induced changes in GnIH have been shown to alter breeding behaviour in birds, demonstrating another mechanism for the molecular control of reproduction. Peripherally, paracrine and autocrine actions within the gonad have been suggested as therapeutic targets for infertility in both males and females. Dysfunction of testicular prostaglandin synthesis is a possible cause of idiopathic male infertility. Indeed, local production of melatonin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone could influence spermatogenesis via immune pathways in the gonad. In females, vascular endothelial growth factor A has been implicated in an angiogenic process that mediates development of the corpus luteum and thus fertility via the Notch signalling pathway. Age-induced decreases in fertility involve ovarian kisspeptin and its regulation of ovarian sympathetic innervation. Finally, morphological changes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus influence female sexual receptivity in rats. The processes mediating these morphological changes have been shown to involve the rapid effects of E2 controlling synaptogenesis in this hypothalamic nucleus. In summary, this review highlights new

  17. Transcription factor abundance controlled by an auto-regulatory mechanism involving a transcription start site switch

    PubMed Central

    Ngondo, Richard Patryk; Carbon, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A transcriptional feedback loop is the simplest and most direct means for a transcription factor to provide an increased stability of gene expression. In this work performed in human cells, we reveal a new negative auto-regulatory mechanism involving an alternative transcription start site (TSS) usage. Using the activating transcription factor ZNF143 as a model, we show that the ZNF143 low-affinity binding sites, located downstream of its canonical TSS, play the role of protein sensors to induce the up- or down-regulation of ZNF143 gene expression. We uncovered that the TSS switch that mediates this regulation implies the differential expression of two transcripts with an opposite protein production ability due to their different 5′ untranslated regions. Moreover, our analysis of the ENCODE data suggests that this mechanism could be used by other transcription factors to rapidly respond to their own aberrant expression level. PMID:24234445

  18. Review of endocrine disorders associated with environmental toxicants and possible involved mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Bahadar, Haji; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are released into environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDC have major risks for human by targeting different organs and systems in the body. Multiple mechanisms are involved in targeting the normal system, through estrogen receptors, nuclear receptors and steroidal receptors activation. In this review, different methods by which xenobiotics stimulate signaling pathways and genetic mutation or DNA methylation have been discussed. These methods help to understand the results of xenobiotic action on the endocrine system. Endocrine disturbances in the human body result in breast cancer, ovarian problems, thyroid eruptions, testicular carcinoma, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, nerve damage and obesity. EDC characterize a wide class of compounds such as organochlorinated pesticides, industrial wastes, plastics and plasticizers, fuels and numerous other elements that exist in the environment or are in high use during daily life. The interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems, especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to reproductive problems, diabetes, and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers should be deeply investigated. There should also be a focus on public awareness of these EDC risks and their use in routine life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize all evidence regarding different physiological disruptions in the body and possible involved mechanisms, to prove the association between endocrine disruptions and human diseases. PMID:26497928

  19. Review of endocrine disorders associated with environmental toxicants and possible involved mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Bahadar, Haji; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are released into environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDC have major risks for human by targeting different organs and systems in the body. Multiple mechanisms are involved in targeting the normal system, through estrogen receptors, nuclear receptors and steroidal receptors activation. In this review, different methods by which xenobiotics stimulate signaling pathways and genetic mutation or DNA methylation have been discussed. These methods help to understand the results of xenobiotic action on the endocrine system. Endocrine disturbances in the human body result in breast cancer, ovarian problems, thyroid eruptions, testicular carcinoma, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, nerve damage and obesity. EDC characterize a wide class of compounds such as organochlorinated pesticides, industrial wastes, plastics and plasticizers, fuels and numerous other elements that exist in the environment or are in high use during daily life. The interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems, especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to reproductive problems, diabetes, and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers should be deeply investigated. There should also be a focus on public awareness of these EDC risks and their use in routine life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize all evidence regarding different physiological disruptions in the body and possible involved mechanisms, to prove the association between endocrine disruptions and human diseases.

  20. Target dependency of brain mechanism involved in dispositional inference: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Gotoh, Ryoi; Okada, Ken; Yamaguchi, Keiichiroh; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2004-04-01

    The cognitive mechanism for inference of personal dispositions, such as personality traits and abilities, is postulated to be dependent on the amount of episodic memory concerning target persons. To examine whether there is such target dependency in the brain mechanism during dispositional inference, we measured brain activity of normal volunteers while they were performing seven dispositional inference tasks, each for a target person in different categories, using positron emission tomography (PET). Effect of the target-person category on activation was significant in the posterodorsal, polar, and ventral subdivisions of medial prefrontal cortex, right orbitoinsular junction, left temporal pole and superior temporal sulcus, cerebellum, and thalamus, suggesting the existence of target dependency in activation during dispositional inference. The amount of episodic memory concerning a target person measured using the self-evaluative questionnaire was positively correlated with the activation in the polar subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex, and negatively with that in a region in the left superior temporal sulcus. Together with the available knowledge on the functional roles of these regions and the proposed cognitive model in social psychology, our results suggest that these two regions play roles supplementary to each other in dispositional inference; a region in the superior temporal sulcus is involved in the processing of relevant episodic exemplar and the polar subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex in the processing of summarized value information about the target person. PMID:15050563

  1. Engaging in activities involving information technology: dimensions, modes, and flow.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Henry; Sharafi, Parvaneh; Hedman, Leif R

    2004-01-01

    An engagement mode involves a subject (e.g., a user of information technology, or IT) who is engaged in an activity with an object in a certain manner (the mode). The purpose of this study is to develop a general model of engagement modes that may be used for understanding how IT-related activities are shaped by properties of the user and the IT object. A questionnaire involving items on IT engagement and the experience of flow was administered to 300 participants. The results supported an engagement mode (EM) model involving 5 different engagement modes (enjoying/acceptance, ambition/curiosity, avoidance/hesitation, frustration/ anxiety, and efficiency/productivity) characterized on 3 dimensions (evaluation of object, locus of control between subject and object, and intrinsic or extrinsic focus of motivation). The flow experience follows from a balance between enjoying/ acceptance and efficiency/productivity propelled by ambition/curiosity. The EM model could provide a platform for considering how IT users, IT applications, and IT environments should work together to yield both enjoyment and efficiency. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing IT training programs on different levels of specificity. PMID:15359681

  2. Novel molecular mechanisms involved in hormonal regulation of lactate production in Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Regueira, Mariana; Artagaveytia, Silvana Lucía; Galardo, María Noel; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Meroni, Silvina Beatriz; Riera, María Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze molecular mechanisms involved in FSH and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulation of lactate production in rat Sertoli cells. The regulation of the availability of pyruvate, which is converted to lactate, could be a mechanism utilized by hormones to ensure lactate supply to germ cells. On one hand, the regulation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB) expression could result in increased glycolysis, while an increase in pyruvate availability may also result from a lower conversion to acetyl-CoA by negative regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity by phosphorylation. Sertoli cell cultures obtained from 20-day-old rats were used. Stimulation of the cultures with FSH or bFGF showed that FSH increases Pfkfb1 and Pfkfb3 expression while bFGF increases Pfkfb1 mRNA levels. Additionally, we observed that FSH-stimulated lactate production was inhibited in the presence of a PFKFB3 inhibitor, revealing the physiological relevance of this mechanism. As for the regulation of PDC, analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (Pdk) expression showed that FSH increases Pdk3 and decreases Pdk4 mRNA levels while bFGF increases the expression of all Pdks. In addition, we showed that bFGF increases phosphorylated PDC levels and that bFGF-stimulated lactate production is partially inhibited in the presence of a PDK inhibitor. Altogether, these results add new information regarding novel molecular mechanisms involved in hormonal regulation of lactate production in Sertoli cells. Considering that lactate is essential for the production of energy in spermatocytes and spermatids, these mechanisms might be relevant in maintaining spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:26224098

  3. Afferent control mechanisms involved in the development of soleus fiber alterations in simulated hypogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenkman, B. S.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.; Shapovalova, K. B.; Podlubnaya, Z. A.; Vikhliantsev, I. M.; Moukhina, A. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-02-01

    It was recently established that support withdrawal (withdrawal of support reaction force) in microgravity provokes a sequence of functional shifts in the activity of motor units (inactivation of slow ones) and peripheral muscle apparatus which lead to the decline of postural muscle contractility and alterations in fiber characteristics. However, mechanisms involved in inactivation of the slow motor units and appropriate slow-twitch muscle fiber disuse under the supportless conditions remained unknown. We show here that artificial inactivation of muscles-antagonists (which are known to be hyperactive during unloading) counteracts some of the unloading-induced events in the rat soleus (fiber size reduction, slow-to-fast fiber-type transition and decline of titin and nebulin content). It was also demonstrated that direct activation of the muscarinic receptors of the neostriatum neurons prevented slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation in soleus of hindlimb suspended rats.

  4. Understanding the neural mechanisms involved in sensory control of voice production.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Amy L; Flagmeier, Sabina G; Manes, Jordan L; Larson, Charles R; Rogers, Bill; Robin, Donald A

    2012-05-15

    Auditory feedback is important for the control of voice fundamental frequency (F0). In the present study we used neuroimaging to identify regions of the brain responsible for sensory control of the voice. We used a pitch-shift paradigm where subjects respond to an alteration, or shift, of voice pitch auditory feedback with a reflexive change in F0. To determine the neural substrates involved in these audio-vocal responses, subjects underwent fMRI scanning while vocalizing with or without pitch-shifted feedback. The comparison of shifted and unshifted vocalization revealed activation bilaterally in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in response to the pitch shifted feedback. We hypothesize that the STG activity is related to error detection by auditory error cells located in the superior temporal cortex and efference copy mechanisms whereby this region is responsible for the coding of a mismatch between actual and predicted voice F0. PMID:22406500

  5. Gamma Band Activity in the RAS-intracellular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Kezunovic, N.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Hyde, J.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the intrinsic membrane properties behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms involve high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels or sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. We address three necessary next steps resulting from these discoveries, an intracellular mechanism responsible for maintaining gamma band activity based on persistent G-protein activation, separate intracellular pathways that differentiate between gamma band activity during waking vs during REM sleep, and an intracellular mechanism responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in schizophrenia. These findings open several promising research avenues that have not been thoroughly explored. What are the effects of sleep or REM sleep deprivation on these RAS mechanisms? Are these mechanisms involved in memory processing during waking and/or during REM sleep? Does gamma band processing differ during waking vs REM sleep after sleep or REM sleep deprivation? PMID:24309750

  6. Neuroprotective effects of mGluR II and III activators against staurosporine- and doxorubicin-induced cellular injury in SH-SY5Y cells: New evidence for a mechanism involving inhibition of AIF translocation.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Greda, A; Leskiewicz, M; Grygier, B; Pilc, A; Lason, W

    2015-09-01

    There are several experimental data sets demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of activation of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II/III), however, their effect on neuronal apoptotic processes has yet to be fully recognized. Thus, the comparison of the neuroprotective potency of the mGluR II agonist LY354740, mGluR III agonist ACPT-I, mGluR4 PAM VU0361737, mGluR8 PAM AZ12216052 and allosteric mGluR7 agonist AMN082 against staurosporine (St-) and doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cell death has been performed in undifferentiated (UN-) and retinoic acid differentiated (RA-) human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The highest neuroprotection in UN-SH-SY5Y cells was noted for AZ12216052 (0.01-1 µM) and VU0361737 (1-10 µM), with both agents partially attenuating the St- and Dox-evoked cell death. LY354740 (0.01-10 µM) and ACPT-I (10 µM) were protective only against the St-evoked cell damage, whereas AMN082 (0.001-0.01 µM) attenuated only the Dox-induced cell death. In RA-SH-SY5Y, a moderate neuroprotective response of mGluR II/III activators was observed for LY354740 (10 µM) and AZ12216052 (0.01 and 10 µM), which afforded protection only against the St-induced cell damage. The protection mediated by mGluR II/III activators against the St- and Dox-evoked cell death in UN-SH-SY5Y cells was not related to attenuation of caspase-3 activity, however, a decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei was found. Moreover, mGluR II/III activators attenuated the cytosolic level of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), which was increased after St and Dox exposure. Our data point to differential neuroprotective efficacy of various mGluR II/III activators in attenuating St- and Dox-evoked cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells, and dependence of the effects on the cellular differentiation state, as well on the type of the pro-apoptotic agent that is employed. Moreover, the neuroprotection mediated by mGluR II/III activators is accompanied by inhibition of

  7. Ion channels and transporters involved in cell volume regulation and sensor mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasunobu

    2004-01-01

    All animal cell types have an appropriate volume. Even under physiological conditions of constant extracellular osmolarity, cells must regulate their volume. Cell volume is subjected to alterations because of persistent physicochemical osmotic load resulting from Donnan-type colloid osmotic pressure and of cell activity-associated changes in intracellular osmolarity resulting from osmolyte transport and metabolism. The strategy adopted by animal cells for coping with volume regulation on osmotic perturbation is to activate transport pathways, including channels and transporters, mainly for inorganic osmolytes to drive water flow. Under normotonic conditions, cells undergo volume regulation by pump-mediated mechanisms. Under anisotonic conditions, volume regulation occurs by additional channel/transporter-mediated mechanisms. Cell volume regulation is also attained through adjustment of intracellular levels not only of inorganic but also of organic osmolytes with changing the expression of their transporters or regulation of metabolism. In cell volume regulation mechanism, several "volume sensors" are thought to be involved. A volume-sensitive Cl- channel has lately attracted considerable attention in this regard. PMID:15475611

  8. Localization of mechanisms involved in hydropassive and hydroactive stomatal responses of Sambucus nigra to dry air.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Hartmut; Legner, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    The response of stomata to a reduction of air humidity is composed of a hydropassive opening followed by active closure. Whereas the mechanisms behind the hydropassive opening are largely understood, the location and physiological basis of the sensing mechanisms leading to active closure are not yet known. This study attempts to evaluate the importance of a single pore's transpiration on its own response and that of adjacent pores. Selected stomata on attached intact leaves of Sambucus nigra were sealed with mineral oil and the response to a reduction of humidity was continuously observed in situ. Blocking a pore's transpiration had no appreciable effect on hydropassive opening and subsequent stomatal closure. If the adjacent stomata were additionally sealed, the closing response was reduced, but not the hydropassive opening. On the other hand, sealing the entire leaf surface, except a small area including the observed stomata, also reduced stomatal closure. These results indicate that strictly local processes triggered by a pore's own transpiration are not required to induce stomatal closure. To describe the effect of one pore's transpiration on the hydropassive and hydroactive responses of neighboring stomata, a simple spatial model was constructed. It suggests that 90% of the closing effect covers an area of approximately 0.5 mm2, whereas the effect on hydropassive opening affects an area of approximately 1 mm2. This divergence may suggest mechanisms other than or in addition to those involving changes of local leaf water potential. PMID:17158586

  9. Transduction mechanism(s) of Na-saccharin in the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae: evidence for potassium and calcium conductance involvement.

    PubMed

    Masala, Carla; Solari, Paolo; Sollai, Giorgia; Crnjar, Roberto; Liscia, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The study on transduction mechanisms underlying bitter stimuli is a particularly intriguing challenge for taste researchers. The present study investigates, in the labellar chemosensilla of the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae, the transduction mechanism by which saccharin evokes the response of the "deterrent" cell, with particular attention to the contribution of K(+) and Ca(2+) current and the role of cyclic nucleotides, since second messengers modulate Ca(2+), Cl(-) and K(+) currents to different extents. As assessed by extracellular single-sensillum recordings, our results show that the addition of a Ca(2+) chelator such as EGTA or the Ca(2+) current blockers SK&F-96365, Mibefradil, Nifedipine and W-7 decrease the response of the "deterrent" cell to saccharin. A similar decreasing effect was also obtained following the addition of 4-aminopyridine, a K(+) current blocker. On the contrary, the membrane-permeable cyclic nucleotide 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cGMP) activates this cell and shows an additive effect when presented mixed with saccharin. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in the labellar chemosensilla of the blowfly both Ca(2+) and K(+) ions are involved in the transduction mechanism of the "deterrent" cell in response to saccharin. Our results also suggest a possible pathway common to saccharin and 8Br-cGMP.

  10. Brain structures and mechanisms involved in the generation of REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando; de Andrés, Isabel; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L.; Garzón, Miguel

    2001-02-01

    This article reviews the central nervous mechanisms involved in the broad network that generates and maintains REM sleep. Experimental investigations have identified the pontine tegmentum as the critical substrate for REM sleep mechanisms. Several pontine structures are involved in the generation of each particular polygraphic event that characterizes REM sleep: desynchronization in the electroencephalogram, theta rhythm in the hippocampus, muscle atonia, pontogeniculooccipital waves and rapid eye movements. The pontine tegmentum also holds the region where cholinergic stimulation can trigger all the behavioural and bioelectric signs of REM sleep. The exact location has been investigated and amply discussed over the last few years. Studies in the authors> laboratory, mapping the pontine tegmentum with small volume carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) microinjections, have demonstrated that the executive neurons for REM sleep generation are neither located in the dorsal part of the pontine tegmentum, nor diffusely spread through the medial pontine reticular formation: they are concentrated in a discrete area in the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO). In turn, the vRPO has connections with structures involved in the generation of the other states of the sleep-wake cycle as well as with structures responsible for the generation of each of the different events characterizing REM sleep. This allows us to propose the vRPO as the crucial region for REM sleep generation. Related research, with invivo and invitro experiments, into the actions of different neurotransmitters on vRPO neurones indicates that not only acetylcholine but other neurotransmitters have an active key role in vRPO REM sleep generation mechanisms.

  11. Inflammatory mechanisms involved in brain injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, YANXIAO; ZHAO, HUA; WANG, JIALI; ZHANG, LUETAO; LIU, ANCHANG; CHEN, YUGUO

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of fatality and long-term disability worldwide. Recent advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have improved survival rates; however, the survivors are prone to severe neurological injury subsequent to successful CPR following CA. Effective therapeutic options to protect the brain from CA remain limited, due to the complexities of the injury cascades caused by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although the precise mechanisms of neurological impairment following CA-initiated I/R injury require further clarification, evidence supports that one of the key cellular pathways of cerebral injury is inflammation. The inflammatory response is orchestrated by activated glial cells in response to I/R injury. Increased release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules and cellular dysfunction in activated microglia and astrocytes contribute to ischemia-induced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory cytokines generation, and ultimately to delayed death of neurons. Furthermore, cytokines and adhesion molecules generated within activated microglia, as well as astrocytes, are involved in the innate immune response; modulate influx of peripheral immune and inflammatory cells into the brain, resulting in neurological injury. The present review discusses the molecular aspects of immune and inflammatory mechanisms in global cerebral I/R injury following CA and CPR, and the potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. PMID:27330748

  12. Photosynthesis Is Not Involved in the Mechanism of Action of Acifluorfen in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Kenyon, William H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of photosynthesis in the mechanism of action of the herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate; AF) was examined. The sensitivity to AF of cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) which had been grown under far red light (FR) and white light were compared. FR grown tissues which were photosynthetically imcompetent were hypersensitive to AF under white light and had approximately the same relative response to AF under blue and red light as green, white-light-grown tissues. Ultrastructural damage was apparent in FR-grown, AF-treated tissues within an hour after exposure to white light, with cytoplasmic and plastidic disorganization occurring simultaneously. In cucumber cotyledon tissue which had been greening for various time periods, there was no correlation between photosynthetic capacity and herbicidal efficacy of AF. PSII inhibitors (atrazine and DCMU) and the photophosphorylation inhibitor, tentoxin, had no effect on AF activity. Atrazine did not reduce AF activity at any concentration or light intensity tested, indicating that there is no second, photosynthetic-dependent mechanism of action operating at low AF concentrations or low fluence rates. Carbon dioxide-dependent O2 evolution of intact chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) had an AF I50 of 125 micromolar compared to 1000 micromolar for cucumber, whereas AF was much more herbicidally active in tissues of cucumber than of spinach. Differences in activity could not be accounted for by differences in uptake of AF. Our results indicate that there is no photosynthetic involvement in the mechanism of action of AF in cucumber. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664919

  13. Photosynthesis Is Not Involved in the Mechanism of Action of Acifluorfen in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Duke, S O; Kenyon, W H

    1986-07-01

    The possible role of photosynthesis in the mechanism of action of the herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate; AF) was examined. The sensitivity to AF of cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) which had been grown under far red light (FR) and white light were compared. FR grown tissues which were photosynthetically imcompetent were hypersensitive to AF under white light and had approximately the same relative response to AF under blue and red light as green, white-light-grown tissues. Ultrastructural damage was apparent in FR-grown, AF-treated tissues within an hour after exposure to white light, with cytoplasmic and plastidic disorganization occurring simultaneously. In cucumber cotyledon tissue which had been greening for various time periods, there was no correlation between photosynthetic capacity and herbicidal efficacy of AF. PSII inhibitors (atrazine and DCMU) and the photophosphorylation inhibitor, tentoxin, had no effect on AF activity. Atrazine did not reduce AF activity at any concentration or light intensity tested, indicating that there is no second, photosynthetic-dependent mechanism of action operating at low AF concentrations or low fluence rates. Carbon dioxide-dependent O(2) evolution of intact chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) had an AF I(50) of 125 micromolar compared to 1000 micromolar for cucumber, whereas AF was much more herbicidally active in tissues of cucumber than of spinach. Differences in activity could not be accounted for by differences in uptake of AF. Our results indicate that there is no photosynthetic involvement in the mechanism of action of AF in cucumber.

  14. Labdane diterpenes protect against anoxia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes: involvement of AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, I; Fernández-Velasco, M; Boscá, L; de las Heras, B

    2011-01-01

    Several labdane diterpenes exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions; therefore, we have investigated whether these molecules protect cardiomyocytes in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model, establishing the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. The cardioprotective activity of three diterpenes (T1, T2 and T3) was studied in the H9c2 cell line and in isolated rat cardiomyocyte subjected to A/R injury. In both cases, treatment with diterpenes T1 and T2 protected from A/R-induced apoptosis, as deduced by a decrease in the percentage of apoptotic and caspase-3 active positive cells, a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Analysis of cell survival signaling pathways showed that diterpenes T1 and T2 added after A/R increased phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK 1/2 levels. These cardioprotective effects were lost when AKT activity was pharmacologically inhibited. Moreover, the labdane-induced cardioprotection involves activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for energy homeostasis in their mechanism of action. Labdane diterpenes (T1 and T2) also exerted cardioprotective effects against A/R-induced injury in isolated cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involved activation of specific survival signals (PI3K/AKT pathways, ERK1/2 and AMPK) and inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22071634

  15. Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the Trypanosoma cruzi/host cell interplay.

    PubMed

    Romano, Patricia Silvia; Cueto, Juan Agustín; Casassa, Ana Florencia; Vanrell, María Cristina; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Colombo, María Isabel

    2012-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex biological cycle that involves vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In mammals, the infective trypomastigote form of this parasite can invade several cell types by exploiting phagocytic-like or nonphagocytic mechanisms depending on the class of cell involved. Morphological studies showed that when trypomastigotes contact macrophages, they induce the formation of plasma membrane protrusions that differ from the canonical phagocytosis that occurs in the case of noninfective epimastigotes. In contrast, when trypomastigotes infect epithelial or muscle cells, the cell surface is minimally modified, suggesting the induction of a different class of process. Lysosomal-dependent or -independent T. cruzi invasion of host cells are two different models that describe the molecular and cellular events activated during parasite entry into nonphagocytic cells. In this context, we have previously shown that induction of autophagy in host cells before infection favors T. cruzi invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that autophagosomes and the autophagosomal protein LC3 are recruited to the T. cruzi entry sites and that the newly formed T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole has characteristics of an autophagolysosome. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of T. cruzi invasion in nonphagocytic cells. Based on our findings, we propose a new model in which T. cruzi takes advantage of the upregulation of autophagy during starvation to increase its successful colonization of host cells.

  16. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in the Trypanosoma cruzi/Host Cell Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Patricia Silvia; Cueto, Juan Agustín; Casassa, Ana Florencia; Vanrell, María Cristina; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Colombo, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Summary The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex bi-ological cycle that involves vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In mammals, the infective trypomastigote form of this parasite can invade several cell types by exploiting phagocytic-like or non-phagocytic mechanisms depending on the class of cell involved. Morphological studies showed that when trypomastigotes contact macrophages, they induce the formation of plasma membrane protrusions that differ from the canonical phagocytosis that occurs in the case of noninfective epimastigotes. In contrast, when trypomastigotes infect epithelial or muscle cells, the cell surface is minimally modified, suggesting the induction of a different class of process. Lysosomal-dependent or -independent T. cruzi invasion of host cells are two different models that describe the molecular and cellular events activated during parasite entry into nonphagocytic cells. In this context, we have previously shown that induction of autophagy in host cells before infection favors T. cruzi invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that autophagosomes and the autophagosomal protein LC3 are recruited to the T. cruzi entry sites and that the newly formed T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole has characteristics of an autophagolysosome. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of T. cruzi invasion in nonphagocytic cells. Based on our findings, we propose a new model in which T. cruzi takes advantage of the up-regulation of autophagy during starvation to increase its successful colonization of host cells. PMID:22454195

  17. Dietary restriction involves NAD⁺ -dependent mechanisms and a shift toward oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Natalie; Carmona, Juan J; Anderson, Edward; Hart, Anne C; Sinclair, David A; Blackwell, T Keith

    2014-12-01

    Interventions that slow aging and prevent chronic disease may come from an understanding of how dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan. Mechanisms proposed to mediate DR longevity include reduced mTOR signaling, activation of the NAD⁺ -dependent deacylases known as sirtuins, and increases in NAD⁺ that derive from higher levels of respiration. Here, we explored these hypotheses in Caenorhabditis elegans using a new liquid feeding protocol. DR lifespan extension depended upon a group of regulators that are involved in stress responses and mTOR signaling, and have been implicated in DR by some other regimens [DAF-16 (FOXO), SKN-1 (Nrf1/2/3), PHA-4 (FOXA), AAK-2 (AMPK)]. Complete DR lifespan extension required the sirtuin SIR-2.1 (SIRT1), the involvement of which in DR has been debated. The nicotinamidase PNC-1, a key NAD⁺ salvage pathway component, was largely required for DR to increase lifespan but not two healthspan indicators: movement and stress resistance. Independently of pnc-1, DR increased the proportion of respiration that is coupled to ATP production but, surprisingly, reduced overall oxygen consumption. We conclude that stress response and NAD⁺ -dependent mechanisms are each critical for DR lifespan extension, although some healthspan benefits do not require NAD⁺ salvage. Under DR conditions, NAD⁺ -dependent processes may be supported by a DR-induced shift toward oxidative metabolism rather than an increase in total respiration.

  18. Mechanisms and neuronal networks involved in reactive and proactive cognitive control of interference in working memory.

    PubMed

    Irlbacher, Kerstin; Kraft, Antje; Kehrer, Stefanie; Brandt, Stephan A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control can be reactive or proactive in nature. Reactive control mechanisms, which support the resolution of interference, start after its onset. Conversely, proactive control involves the anticipation and prevention of interference prior to its occurrence. The interrelation of both types of cognitive control is currently under debate: Are they mediated by different neuronal networks? Or are there neuronal structures that have the potential to act in a proactive as well as in a reactive manner? This review illustrates the way in which integrating knowledge gathered from behavioral studies, functional imaging, and human electroencephalography proves useful in answering these questions. We focus on studies that investigate interference resolution at the level of working memory representations. In summary, different mechanisms are instrumental in supporting reactive and proactive control. Distinct neuronal networks are involved, though some brain regions, especially pre-SMA, possess functions that are relevant to both control modes. Therefore, activation of these brain areas could be observed in reactive, as well as proactive control, but at different times during information processing.

  19. Estradiol decreases cortical reactive astrogliosis after brain injury by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    López Rodríguez, Ana Belén; Mateos Vicente, Beatriz; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Noé; Bellini, María José; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Viveros, María-Paz

    2011-09-01

    The neuroactive steroid estradiol reduces reactive astroglia after brain injury by mechanisms similar to those involved in the regulation of reactive gliosis by endocannabinoids. In this study, we have explored whether cannabinoid receptors are involved in the effects of estradiol on reactive astroglia. To test this hypothesis, the effects of estradiol, the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251, and the cannabinoid CB2 antagonist/inverse agonist AM630 were assessed in the cerebral cortex of male rats after a stab wound brain injury. Estradiol reduced the number of vimentin immunoreactive astrocytes and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes in the proximity of the wound. The effect of estradiol was significantly inhibited by the administration of either CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists. The effect of estradiol may be in part mediated by alterations in endocannabinoid signaling because the hormone increased in the injured cerebral cortex the messenger RNA levels of CB2 receptors and of some of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids. These findings suggest that estradiol may decrease reactive astroglia in the injured brain by regulating the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

  20. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. I. Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Masia-Perez, J; Garcia-Molina, F; García-Moreno, M; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinases zymogens involving a uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous activation route and a reversible inhibition step, the time course equation of the zymogen, inhibitor and activated enzyme concentrations have been derived. Likewise, expressions for the time required for any reaction progress and the corresponding mean activation rates as well as the half-life of the global zymogen activation have been derived. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed.

  1. Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the α1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 μL/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 μL/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase

  2. A dp53-Dependent Mechanism Involved in Coordinating Tissue Growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Milán, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of growth between and within organs contributes to the generation of well-proportioned organs and functionally integrated adults. The mechanisms that help to coordinate the growth between different organs start to be unravelled. However, whether an organ is able to respond in a coordinated manner to local variations in growth caused by developmental or environmental stress and the nature of the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to generating well-proportioned adult organs under these circumstances remain largely unknown. By reducing the growth rates of defined territories in the developing wing primordium of Drosophila, we present evidence that the tissue responds as a whole and the adjacent cell populations decrease their growth and proliferation rates. This non-autonomous response occurs independently of where growth is affected, and it is functional all throughout development and contributes to generate well-proportioned adult structures. Strikingly, we underscore a central role of Drosophila p53 (dp53) and the apoptotic machinery in these processes. While activation of dp53 in the growth-depleted territory mediates the non-autonomous regulation of growth and proliferation rates, effector caspases have a unique role, downstream of dp53, in reducing proliferation rates in adjacent cell populations. These new findings indicate the existence of a stress response mechanism involved in the coordination of tissue growth between adjacent cell populations and that tissue size and cell cycle proliferation can be uncoupled and are independently and non-autonomously regulated by dp53. PMID:21179433

  3. Mechanism of microglia neuroprotection: Involvement of P2X7, TNFα, and valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Masuch, Annette; Shieh, Chu-Hsin; van Rooijen, Nico; van Calker, Dietrich; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that ramified microglia are neuroprotective in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). The present study aimed to elucidate the underlying neuron-glia communication mechanism. It is shown here that pretreatment of OHSC with high concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) reduced NMDA-induced neuronal death only in presence of microglia. Specific agonists and antagonists identified the P2X7 receptor as neuroprotective receptor which was confirmed by absence of ATP-dependent neuroprotection in P2X7-deficient OHSC. Microglia replenished chimeric OHSC consisting of wild-type tissue replenished with P2X7-deficient microglia confirmed the involvement of microglial P2X7 receptor in neuroprotection. Stimulation of P2X7 in primary microglia induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) release and blocking TNFα by a neutralizing antibody in OHSC abolished neuroprotection by ATP. OHSC from TNFα-deficient mice show increased exicitoxicity and activation of P2X7 did not rescue neuronal survival in the absence of TNFα. The neuroprotective effect of valproic acid (VPA) was strictly dependent on the presence of microglia and was mediated by upregulation of P2X7 in the cells. The present study demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroprotection depends on ATP-activated purine receptor P2X7 and induction of TNFα release. This neuroprotective pathway was strengthened by VPA elucidating a novel mechanism for the neuroprotective function of VPA.

  4. [Molecular mechanisms regulating the activity of macrophages].

    PubMed

    Onoprienko, L V

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews modern concepts of the most common types of macrophage activation: classical, alternative, and type II. Molecular mechanisms of induction and regulation of these three types of activation are discussed. Any population of macrophages was shown to change its properties depending on its microenvironment and concrete biological situation (the "functional plasticity of macrophages"). Many intermediate states of macrophages were described along with the most pronounced and well-known activation types (classical activation, alternative activation, and type II activation). These intermediate states are characterized by a variety of combinations of their biological properties, including elements of the three afore mentioned types of activation. Macrophage activity is regulated by a complex network of interrelated cascade mechanisms.

  5. Mechanisms Involved in the Nociception Triggered by the Venom of the Armed Spider Phoneutria nigriventer

    PubMed Central

    Gewehr, Camila; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Trevisan, Gabriela; Dalmolin, Gerusa Duarte; Rigo, Flávia Karine; de Castro Júnior, Célio José; Cordeiro, Marta Nascimento; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V.

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of accidental spider bites in Brazil is growing, and poisoning due to bites from the spider genus Phoneutria nigriventer is the second most frequent source of such accidents. Intense local pain is the major symptom reported after bites of P. nigriventer, although the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms involved in nociception triggered by the venom of Phoneutria nigriventer (PNV). Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty microliters of PNV or PBS was injected into the mouse paw (intraplantar, i.pl.). The time spent licking the injected paw was considered indicative of the level of nociception. I.pl. injection of PNV produced spontaneous nociception, which was reduced by arachnid antivenin (ArAv), local anaesthetics, opioids, acetaminophen and dipyrone, but not indomethacin. Boiling or dialysing the venom reduced the nociception induced by the venom. PNV-induced nociception is not dependent on glutamate or histamine receptors or on mast cell degranulation, but it is mediated by the stimulation of sensory fibres that contain serotonin 4 (5-HT4) and vanilloid receptors (TRPV1). We detected a kallikrein-like kinin-generating enzyme activity in tissue treated with PNV, which also contributes to nociception. Inhibition of enzymatic activity or administration of a receptor antagonist for kinin B2 was able to inhibit the nociception induced by PNV. PNV nociception was also reduced by the blockade of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, acid-sensitive ion channels (ASIC) and TRPV1 receptors. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that both low- and high-molecular-weight toxins of PNV produce spontaneous nociception through direct or indirect action of kinin B2, TRPV1, 5-HT4 or ASIC receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels present in sensory neurons but not in mast cells. Understanding the mechanisms involved in nociception caused by PNV are of interest not only for

  6. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  7. Enzymatic Mechanisms Involved in Phenanthrene Degradation by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    The enzymatic mechanisms involved in the degradation of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Phase I metabolism (cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and epoxide hydrolase) and phase II conjugation (glutathione S-transferase, aryl sulfotransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and UDP-glucosyltransferase) enzyme activities were determined for mycelial extracts of P. ostreatus. Cytochrome P-450 was detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions at 0.16 and 0.38 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup1), respectively. Both fractions oxidized [9,10-(sup14)C]phenanthrene to phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole (0.1 mM), SKF-525A (proadifen, 0.1 mM), and carbon monoxide inhibited the cytosolic and microsomal P-450s differently. Cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolase activities, with phenanthrene 9,10-oxide as the substrate, were similar, with specific activities of 0.50 and 0.41 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1), respectively. The epoxide hydrolase inhibitor cyclohexene oxide (5 mM) significantly inhibited the formation of phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol in both fractions. The phase II enzyme 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene glutathione S-transferase was detected in the cytosolic fraction (4.16 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1)), whereas aryl adenosine-3(prm1)-phosphate-5(prm1)-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase (aryl PAPS sulfotransferase) UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and UDP-glucosyltransferase had microsomal activities of 2.14, 4.25, and 4.21 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1), respectively, with low activity in the cytosolic fraction. However, when P. ostreatus culture broth incubated with phenanthrene was screened for phase II metabolites, no sulfate, glutathione, glucoside, or glucuronide conjugates of phenanthrene metabolites were detected. These experiments indicate the involvement of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and epoxide hydrolase in the initial phase I oxidation of

  8. Hydrogen peroxide is involved in collagen-induced platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, P; Pulcinelli, F M; Lenti, L; Gazzaniga, P P; Violi, F

    1998-01-15

    In this study, we investigated whether (1) collagen-induced platelet aggregation is associated with a burst of H2O2, (2) this oxidant species is involved in the activation of platelets, and (3) the pathways of platelet activation are stimulated by H2O2. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was associated with production of H2O2, which was abolished by catalase, an enzyme that destroys H2O2. H2O2 production was not observed when ADP or thrombin were used as agonists. Catalase inhibited dose-dependently thromboxane A2 production, release of arachidonic acid from platelet membrane, and Inositol 1,4,5P3 (IP3) formation. In aspirin-treated platelets stimulated with high concentrations of collagen, catalase inhibited platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, and IP3 production. This study suggests that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is associated with a burst of H2O2 that acts as a second messenger by stimulating the arachidonic acid metabolism and phospholipase C pathway.

  9. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati; Said, Hamid M

    2014-11-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5'-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na(+) dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms.

  10. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S → N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed.

  11. Mechanisms of Action Involved in Ozone Therapy: Is healing induced via a mild oxidative stress?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The potential mechanisms of action of ozone therapy are reviewed in this paper. The therapeutic efficacy of ozone therapy may be partly due the controlled and moderate oxidative stress produced by the reactions of ozone with several biological components. The line between effectiveness and toxicity of ozone may be dependent on the strength of the oxidative stress. As with exercise, it is well known that moderate exercise is good for health, whereas excessive exercise is not. Severe oxidative stress activates nuclear transcriptional factor kappa B (NFκB), resulting in an inflammatory response and tissue injury via the production of COX2, PGE2, and cytokines. However, moderate oxidative stress activates another nuclear transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 then induces the transcription of antioxidant response elements (ARE). Transcription of ARE results in the production of numerous antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, GPx, glutathione-s-transferase(GSTr), catalase (CAT), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADPH-quinone-oxidoreductase (NQO-1), phase II enzymes of drug metabolism and heat shock proteins (HSP). Both free antioxidants and anti-oxidative enzymes not only protect cells from oxidation and inflammation but they may be able to reverse the chronic oxidative stress. Based on these observations, ozone therapy may also activate Nrf2 via moderate oxidative stress, and suppress NFκB and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, activation of Nrf2 results in protection against neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Mild immune responses are induced via other nuclear transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activated protein-1 (AP-1). Additionally, the effectiveness of ozone therapy in vascular diseases may also be explained by the activation of another nuclear transcriptional factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1a), which is also induced via moderate

  12. Mechanisms involved in the swelling of erythrocytes caused by Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Boydron-Le Garrec, Raphaële; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lewis, Richard L; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Molgó, Jordi; Laurent, Dominique; Benoit, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the swelling of frog red blood cells (RBC), induced by Pacific (P-CTX-1) and Caribbean (C-CTX-1) ciguatoxins (CTXs), were investigated by measuring the length, width and surface of their elliptic shape. P-CTX-1 (0.5 to 5 nM) and C-CTX-1 (1 nM) induced RBC swelling within 60 min. The CTXs-induced RBC swelling was blocked by apamin (1 microM) and by Sr(2+) (1 mM). P-CTX-1-induced RBC swelling was prevented and inhibited by H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (27 microM), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and NOS blockade by NG methyl-l-arginine (l-NMA; 10 microM). Cytochalasin D (cytD, 10 microM) increased RBC surface and mimicked CTX effect but did not prevent the P-CTX-1-induced l-NMA-sensitive extra increase. Calculations revealed that P-CTX-1 and cytD increase RBC total surface envelop and volume. These data strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying CTXs-induced RBC swelling involve the NO pathway by an activation of the inducible NOS, leading to sGC activation which modulates intracellular cGMP and regulates L-type Ca(2+) channels. The resulting increase in intracellular Ca(2+) content, in turn, disrupts the actin cytoskeleton, which causes a water influx and triggers a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current through SK2 isoform channels. PMID:16364667

  13. Potential fluid mechanic pathways of platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Shadden, Shawn C.; Hendabadi, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which plays leading roles in many vascular complications and causes of death. Platelets can be activated by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Mechanically, platelet activation has been shown to be a function of elevated shear stress and exposure time. These contributions can be combined by considering the cumulative stress or strain on a platelet as it is transported. Here we develop a framework for computing a hemodynamic-based activation potential that is derived from a Lagrangian integral of strain rate magnitude. We demonstrate that such a measure is generally maximized along, and near to, distinguished material surfaces in the flow. The connections between activation potential and these structures are illustrated through stenotic flow computations. We uncover two distinct structures that may explain observed thrombus formation at the apex and downstream of stenoses. More broadly, these findings suggest fundamental relationships may exist between potential fluid mechanic pathways for mechanical platelet activation and the mechanisms governing their transport. PMID:22782543

  14. Diosgenin Mitigates Streptozotocin Diabetes-induced Vascular Dysfunction of the Rat Aorta: The Involved Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Roghani-Dehkordi, Farshad; Roghani, Mehrdad; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht

    2015-12-01

    Chronic diabetes mellitus finally leads to serious vascular dysfunction. Diosgenin is a natural steroidal saponin with potential cardiovascular protective effect. In this study, the protective effect of diosgenin was checked on the aorta from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats received diosgenin (40 mg·kg·d) for 7 weeks starting 1 week after intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Aortic reactivity of endothelium-intact and -denuded rings to potassium chloride, phenylephrine, acetylcholine, and isosorbide dinitrate were measured and some involved mechanisms were explored. The results showed that diosgenin has a hypoglycemic effect and attenuates maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact and -denuded rings to PE. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was greater in diosgenin-treated diabetics with no significant change for endothelium-independent relaxation to isosorbide dinitrate and addition of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, as a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor eliminated this beneficial effect. Furthermore, diosgenin significantly attenuated aortic DNA fragmentation as an index of apoptosis and malondialdehyde content, lowered the aortic expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and raised expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with no significant effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase. Taken together, our study provides insight into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of diosgenin as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate vascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26309100

  15. Application of flexure structures to active and adaptive opto-mechanical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zago, Lorenzo; Genequand, Pierre M.; Kjelberg, Ivar; Morschel, Joseph

    1997-03-01

    Active and adaptive structures, also commonly called 'smart' structures, combine in one integrated system various functions such as load carrying and structural function, mechanical (cinematic) functions, sensing, control and actuating. Originally developed for high accuracy opto-mechanical applications, CSEM's technology of flexure structures and flexible mechanisms is particularly suited to solve many structural and mechanical issues found in such active/adaptive mechanisms. The paper illustrates some recent flexure structures developments at CSEM and outlines the comprehensive know-how involved in this technology. This comprises in particular the elaboration of optimal design guidelines, related to the geometry, kinematics and dynamics issues (for instance, the minimization of spurious high frequency effects), the evaluation and predictability of all performance quantities relevant to the utilization of flexure structures in space (reliability, fatigue, static and dynamic modeling, etc.). material issues and manufacturing procedures.

  16. Mechanisms Involved in Governing Adherence of Vibrio cholerae to Granular Starch▿

    PubMed Central

    Niderman-Meyer, Orly; Zeidman, Tal; Shimoni, Eyal; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to adhere to cornstarch granules. The present work explored the mechanisms involved in this adhesion and the possibility of its occurrence in vivo. The findings suggest that both specific and nonspecific interactions are involved in the adhesion. Nonspecific hydrophobic interactions may play a role, since both V. cholerae and cornstarch granules exhibited hydrophobic properties when they were tested using a xylene-water system. In addition, the presence of bile acids reduced the adhesion. The adhesion also involves some specific carbohydrate-binding moieties on the cell surface, as reflected by reduced adhesion following pretreatment of the bacteria with proteinase K and sodium m-periodate. Further investigations supported these observations and showed that media containing low-molecular-weight carbohydrates had a significant inhibitory effect. Binding cell lysate to starch granules and removing the adhered proteins using either glucose or bile acids led to identification (by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis) of several candidate V. cholerae outer membrane-associated starch-binding proteins. Different sets of proteins were isolated by removal in a glucose solution or bile acids. When the upper gastrointestinal tract conditions were simulated in vitro, both bile salts and the amylolytic activity of the pancreatic juices were found to have an inhibitory effect on the adherence of V. cholerae to starch. However, during acute diarrhea, this inhibitory effect may be significantly reduced due to dilution, suggesting that adhesion does occur in vivo. Such adhesion may contribute to the beneficial effects observed following administration of granular starch-based oral rehydration solutions to cholera patients. PMID:20023099

  17. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  18. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    DOEpatents

    Munir, Zuhair A.; Woolman, Joseph N.; Petrovic, John J.

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  19. The involvement of dual mechanisms of photoinactivation of photosystem II in Capsicum annuum L. Plants.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Riichi; Terashima, Ichiro; Chow, Wah Soon

    2009-10-01

    For plants, light is an indispensable resource. However, it also causes a loss of photosynthetic activity associated with photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII). In studies of the mechanism of this photoinactivation, there are two conflicting hypotheses at present. One is that excess energy received by leaves, being neither utilized by photosynthesis nor dissipated safely in non-photochemical quenching, causes the photoinactivation. The other involves a two-step mechanism in which excitation of Mn by photons is the primary cause. In the former hypothesis, photoinactivation of PSII should not occur in low light that provides little excess energy, but in the latter hypothesis it should. Therefore, we tested these two hypotheses in different irradiances. We used a system that can measure the fraction of functional PSII complexes under natural conditions and over a long period in intact leaves, which were attached to a plant treated with lincomycin taken up via the roots. The leaves were photoinactivated in low, medium or high light (30, 60 or 950 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) with white, blue, green or red light-emitting diode arrays. Our results showed that the extent of photoinactivation per photon exposure was higher in high light than in low light, consistent with the abundance of excess energy. However, photoinactivation did occur in low light with little excess energy, and blue light caused the greatest extent of photoinactivation followed by white, green and red light in this order, an order that can be predicted from the Mn absorbance spectrum. These results suggest that both mechanisms occur in the photoinactivation process.

  20. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  1. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects.

  2. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca2+) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  3. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  4. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  5. Involving Hispanic Parents in Educational Activities through Collaborative Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    1997-01-01

    A literature review of effective strategies for involving Hispanic families explores some basic misunderstandings; discusses logistical, attitudinal, and expectations barriers to involving Hispanic parents, particularly those who are migrants or immigrants; and presents strategies that resulted in successful experiences with these parents.…

  6. Cues to Parent Involvement in Drug Prevention and School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Guided by the Health Belief Model, focus groups identified strategies to promote parent involvement with their children's substance abuse education. Low-income parents and school personnel identified cues to action and necessary requirements (child care, transportation, incentives) as important in promoting parent involvement. Children's…

  7. [THE ROLE OF MATERNAL DIET IN METABOLIC AND BEHAVIOURAL PROGRAMMING: REVIEW OF BIOLOGIC MECHANISMS INVOLVED].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez Berrios, Mariam; Arco González, Rocío; Blanco Velilla, Rosario Noemí; Decara Del Olmo, Juan; Suárez Pérez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2015-12-01

    Over the last few years, a considerable amount of studies have focused on the effect of undernutrition and overnutrition during critical periods of offspring development and their risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Additionally, inadequate maternal diets have been involved in the malprogramming of brain functions and some behaviours. Several mechanisms have been associated with the process of malprogramming such as epigenetics modifications, excessive oxidative stress or hypothalamic alterations. This evidence supports the idea that nutritional prevention strategies must be considered for offspring during early development stages that include the preconceptional period. Additionally, studying involved mechanisms could be particularly useful in the search of efficient therapies against malprogramming.

  8. Involvement of histaminergic receptor mechanisms in the stimulation of NT-3 synthesis in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jurič, Damijana M; Mele, Tina; Carman-Kržan, Marija

    2011-06-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is produced by astrocytes, in addition to neurons, and monoamine neurotransmitters play a role in controlling NT-3 synthesis. The impact of histamine (HA) on the regulation of NT-3 synthesis in cultured astrocytes has not been studied. We evaluated the involvement of histamine receptors and intracellular mechanisms in the regulation of NT-3 production by HA. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Pharmacological tools, selective for the H₁, H₂ and H₃ receptors and intracellular systems, were utilized to confirm functional properties of HA receptors in histaminergic up-regulation of astrocytic NT-3 synthesis. HA potently and transiently elevated NT-3 expression and protein levels by more than twofold. In addition to H₁ and H₂ receptors, cultured astrocytes also express H₃ receptors, which activate G(i/o) proteins to inhibit adenylyl cyclase and modulate MAP kinase activity. Histaminergic stimulation was partly inhibited by selective H₁, H₂, and H₃ antagonists whereas selective H₁, H₂, and H₃ agonists or mediators of the intracellular histaminergic pathways increased NT-3 levels. Inhibitors of PKA, PKC, and CaMK II significantly reduced the HA-induced increase in NT-3 cellular levels whereas the MAP kinase cascade inhibitor completely blocked the stimulatory action of HA and all selective agonists. In conclusion, the synthesis of astrocytic NT-3 stimulated by HA is a receptor-mediated process, which is fine-tuned via subtle modulation of parallel histaminergic H₁, H₂, and H₃ pathways that converge at the level of MAP kinase activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  9. Mechanisms involved in p53 downregulation by leptin in trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Toro, Ayelén Rayen; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Corrales Gutiérrez, Isabel; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Varone, Cecilia Laura

    2015-11-01

    Leptin, a 16-kDa polypeptide hormone, is produced by the adipocyte and can also be synthesized by placenta. We previously demonstrated that leptin promotes proliferation and survival in placenta, in part mediated by the p53 pathway. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in leptin down-regulation of p53 level. The human first trimester cytotrophoblastic Swan-71 cell line and human placental explants at term were used. In order to study the late phase of apoptosis, triggered by serum deprivation, experiments of DNA fragmentation were carried out. Exogenous leptin added to human placental explants, showed a decrease on DNA ladder formation and MAPK pathway is involved in this leptin effect. We also found that under serum deprivation condition, leptin decreases p53 levels and the inhibitory leptin effect is lost when cells were pretreated with 50 μM PD98059 or 10 μM LY29004; or were transfected with dominant negative mutants of intermediates of these pathways, suggesting that MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways are necessaries for leptin action. Additionally, leptin diminished Ser-46 p53 phosphorylation and this effect in placental explants was mediated by the activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways. Finally, in order to assess leptin effect on p53 half-life experiments with cycloheximide were performed and MDM-2 expression was analyzed. Leptin diminished p53 half-life and up-regulated MDM-2 expression. In summary, we provided evidence suggesting that leptin anti-apoptotic effect is mediated by MAPK and PI3K pathways.

  10. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturated Fatty acids to the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Demmelmair, Hans; Parrilla, J J; Koletzko, Berthold; Larqué, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during gestation and development of cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is the maternal circulation. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labeled fatty acids have shown preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts, and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized for lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA-synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes involved in lipolysis, modifying the rate of placental transfer, and metabolism. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge of the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process. PMID:22303352

  11. Molecular mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Min; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1β. Among various inflammasome complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome is best characterized and has been linked with various human autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Thus, the NLRP3 inflammasome may be a promising target for anti-inflammatory therapies. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in the cytosol. We also describe the binding partners of NLRP3 inflammasome complexes activating or inhibiting the inflammasome assembly. Our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and how these influence inflammatory responses offers further insight into potential therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory diseases associated with dysregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:26549800

  12. Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

  13. Memory improving actions of gabapentin in mice: possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Baratti, C M

    2001-10-01

    Male CF-1 mice were tested 48 h after training on a one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately post-training, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the antiepileptic gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid) (GBP, 10 mg/kg) enhanced retention performance. The effect was prevented by atropine, a central muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered after training but 10 min prior to GBP treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training GBP on retention performance. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administered immediately after training, and GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.), given 10 min after training, significantly enhanced retention performance. The effects of GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Considered together, these findings suggest a disinhibitory action of GBP on the activity of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are involved in memory consolidation. PMID:11578817

  14. Mechanisms involved in spinal cord central synapse loss in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tarabal, Olga; Caraballo-Miralles, Víctor; Cardona-Rossinyol, Andrea; Correa, Francisco J; Olmos, Gabriel; Lladó, Jerònia; Esquerda, Josep E; Calderó, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Motoneuron (MN) cell death is the histopathologic hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), although MN loss seems to be a late event. Conversely, disruption of afferent synapses on MNs has been shown to occur early in SMA. Using a mouse model of severe SMA (SMNΔ7), we examined the mechanisms involved in impairment of central synapses. We found that MNs underwent progressive degeneration in the course of SMA, with MN loss still occurring at late stages. Loss of afferent inputs to SMA MNs was detected at embryonic stages, long before MN death. Reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis were present in the spinal cord of diseased animals after the onset of MN loss. Ultrastructural observations indicate that dendrites and microglia phagocytose adjacent degenerating presynaptic terminals. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase was upregulated in SMNΔ7 MNs, and there was an increase in phosphorylated myosin light chain expression in synaptic afferents on MNs; these observations implicate nitric oxide in MN deafferentation and suggest that the RhoA/ROCK pathway is activated. Together, our observations suggest that the earliest change occurring in SMNΔ7 mice is the loss of excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs to MNs; reduced excitability may enhance their vulnerability to degeneration and death.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Pathogenesis of Alphavirus-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Assunção-Miranda, Iranaia; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2013-01-01

    Arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV), cause incapacitating and long lasting articular disease/myalgia. Outbreaks of viral arthritis and the global distribution of these diseases point to the emergence of arthritogenic alphaviruses as an important public health problem. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms involved in alphavirus-induced arthritis, exploring the recent data obtained with in vitro systems and in vivo studies using animal models and samples from patients. The factors associated to the extension and persistence of symptoms are highlighted, focusing on (a) virus replication in target cells, and tissues, including macrophages and muscle cells; (b) the inflammatory and immune responses with recruitment and activation of macrophage, NK cells and T lymphocytes to the lesion focus and the increase of inflammatory mediators levels; and (c) the persistence of virus or viral products in joint and muscle tissues. We also discuss the importance of the establishment of novel animal models to test new molecular targets and to develop more efficient and selective drugs to treat these diseases. PMID:24069610

  16. Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2002-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric neoplasia. The key determinants of these outcomes are the severity and distribution of the H. pylori-induced inflammation. Antral-type gastritis is associated with excessive acid secretion and a high risk of duodenal ulcer. In contrast, gastritis that involves the acid-secreting corpus region leads to hypochlorhydria, progressive gastric atrophy, and an increased risk of gastric cancer. The key pathophysiological event in H. pylori infection is initiation and continuance of an inflammatory response. Bacteria or their products trigger this inflammatory process and the main mediators are cytokines. Identification of both host- and bacterial-factors that mediate is an intense area of interest in current researches. Recent data indicates that the cag pathogenicity island plays a crucial role in H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation via the activation of gene transcription. It has been demonstrated that oxidative and nitrosative stress associated with inflammation plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis as a mediator of carcinogenic compound formation, DNA damage, and cell proliferation. Genetic information regulating such stress would be one of the host factors determining the outcome--particularly when the outcome is gastric cancer--of H. pylori infection, and the compound that attenuates such stress may be a candidate for use in chemoprevention. This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation following infection with H. pylori.

  17. Memory improving actions of gabapentin in mice: possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Baratti, C M

    2001-10-01

    Male CF-1 mice were tested 48 h after training on a one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately post-training, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the antiepileptic gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid) (GBP, 10 mg/kg) enhanced retention performance. The effect was prevented by atropine, a central muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered after training but 10 min prior to GBP treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training GBP on retention performance. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administered immediately after training, and GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.), given 10 min after training, significantly enhanced retention performance. The effects of GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Considered together, these findings suggest a disinhibitory action of GBP on the activity of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are involved in memory consolidation.

  18. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  19. Neural Correlates of Successful and Unsuccessful Strategical Mechanisms Involved in Uncertain Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Giustiniani, Julie; Gabriel, Damien; Nicolier, Magali; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop successful long-term strategies in uncertain situations relies on complex neural mechanisms. Although lesion studies have shown some of the mechanisms involved, it is still unknown why some healthy subjects are able to make the right decision whereas others are not. The aim of our study was to investigate neurophysiological differences underlying this ability to develop a successful strategy in a group of healthy subjects playing a monetary card game called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In this task, subjects have to win and earn money by choosing between four decks of cards, two were advantageous in the long term and two disadvantageous. Twenty healthy right-handed subjects performed the IGT while their cerebral activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Based on their behavioral performances, two groups of subjects could clearly be distinguished: one who selected the good decks and thus succeeded in developing a Favorable strategy (9 subjects) and one who remained Undecided (11 subjects). No neural difference was found between each group before the selection of a deck, but in both groups a greater negativity was found emerging from the right superior frontal gyrus 600 ms before a disadvantageous selection. During the processing of the feedback, an attenuation of the P200 and P300 waveforms was found for the Undecided group, and a P300 originating from the medial frontal gyrus was found in response to a loss only in the Favorable group. Our results suggest that undecided subjects are hyposensitive to the valence of the cards during gambling, which affects the feedback processing. PMID:26086196

  20. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation.

  1. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Mănăilescu, C.

    2015-02-24

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei.

  2. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth

    PubMed Central

    Commandeur, Arno E.; Styer, Aaron K.; Teixeira, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    in vivo, human syndrome, rodent xenograft, naturally mutant, and genetically modified models used to study possible molecular mechanisms of leiomyoma development and growth are described. Particular emphasis is placed on known links to fibrosis, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia and genes that are potentially important in these processes. CONCLUSIONS Menstrual cycle-related injury and repair and coinciding hormonal cycling appears to affect myometrial stem cells that, at a certain stage of fibroid development, often obtain cytogenetic aberrations and mutations of Mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12). Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of proliferation, is activated in many of these tumors, possibly by mechanisms that are similar to some human fibrosis syndromes and/or by mutation of upstream tumor suppressor genes. Animal models of the disease support some of these dysregulated pathways in fibroid etiology or pathogenesis, but none are definitive. All of this suggests that there are likely several key mechanisms involved in the disease that, in addition to increasing the complexity of uterine fibroid pathobiology, offer possible approaches for patient-specific therapies. A final model that incorporates many of these reported mechanisms is presented with a discussion of their implications for leiomyoma clinical practice. PMID:26141720

  3. Two Mechanisms Involved in Trigeminal CGRP Release: Implications for Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Paul L.; Masterson, Caleb G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to better understand the cellular mechanisms involved in proton stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) secretion from cultured trigeminal neurons by investigating the effects of two anti-migraine therapies, onabotulinumtoxin A and rizatriptan. Background Stimulated CGRP release from peripheral and central terminating processes of trigeminal ganglia neurons is implicated in migraine pathology by promoting inflammation and nociception. Based on models of migraine pathology, several inflammatory molecules including protons are thought to facilitate sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptive neurons and stimulate CGRP secretion. Despite the reported efficacy of triptans and onabotulinumtoxinA to treat acute and chronic migraine, respectively, a substantial number of migraneurs do not get adequate relief with these therapies. A possible explanation is that triptans and onabutulinumtoxinA are not able to block proton mediated CGRP secretion. Methods CGRP secretion from cultured primary trigeminal ganglia neurons was quantitated by radioimmunoassay while intracellular calcium and sodium levels were measured in neurons via live cell imaging using Fura2-AM and SBFI-AM, respectively. The expression of ASIC3 was determined by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, the involvement of ASICs in mediating proton stimulation of CGRP was investigated using the potent and selective ASIC3 inhibitor APETx2. Results While KCl caused a significant increase in CGRP secretion that was significantly repressed by treatment with EGTA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and rizatriptan, the stimulatory effect of protons (pH 5.5) was not suppressed by EGTA, onabotulinumtoxinA, or rizatriptan. In addition, while KCl caused a transient increase in intracellular calcium levels that was blocked by EGTA, no appreciable change in calcium levels was observed with proton treatment. However, protons did significantly increase the

  4. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  5. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. (a) A debtor whose indebtedness involves criminal activity such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, or...

  6. Seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement by prostate cancer: putative mechanism and clinicopathological significance.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kosuke; Kristiansen, Anna; Egevad, Lars; Pina-Oviedo, Sergio; Divatia, Mukul K; Shen, Steven S; Miles, Brian J; Ayala, Alberto G; Park, Yong Wook; Ro, Jae Y

    2014-09-01

    We have recently shown seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement of prostate cancer in cases with seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b). Based on the manner of seminal vesicle invasion, there could be 2 possible mechanisms of seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement: direct intraepithelial invasion from prostate carcinoma in the muscular wall of seminal vesicles or intraepithelial involvement of cancer from the invaginated extraprostatic space (IES)/ejaculatory duct system to extraprostatic seminal vesicle. We aimed to clarify the manner and clinicopathological significance of seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement. Of 1629 consecutive radical prostatectomies, 109 cases (6.7%) showed seminal vesicle invasion in whole-mounted radical prostatectomy specimens. In these pT3b cases, 18 (17%) showed seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement by prostate cancer. Stromal invasion of the IES/ejaculatory duct system and ejaculatory duct intraepithelial invasion by prostate cancer were identified in 62 and 5 of 109 pT3b cases, respectively. However, the presence/absence of IES/ejaculatory duct system involvement by prostate cancer does not predict seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement. No statistically significant correlation was observed between all pathologic parameters/biochemical recurrence and the presence/absence of seminal vesicle intra-epithelial involvement in the pT3b cases. These findings suggest that seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement is more likely due to direct invasion of carcinoma from the muscular wall of seminal vesicles rather than intraepithelial extension from the ejaculatory duct system in the IES. Further studies with a substantially greater case number are needed to clarify the clinicopathological significance of seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement in a better manner.

  7. 101 Activities for Building More Effective School-Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Dorothy; Mattox, Beverly

    This booklet contains a collection of more than 100 activities designed to promote school-home and school-community relations. Activities are organized into seven categories: (1) communicating word from home to school, (2) people to people, (3) educational events, (4) volunteers--hands on in the classroom, (5) utilizing community resources, (6)…

  8. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  9. Extracurricular Activity Involvement and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Structured extracurricular activity participation has been linked to self-esteem and other indicators of positive youth development. This article describes the theoretical basis for this relationship, centering on extracurricular activities as a location for identity development. A summary of the empirical evidence points to the importance of…

  10. Topological mechanics: from metamaterials to active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures with unusual properties, such as negative Poisson ratio, bistability or tunable acoustic response, which originate in the geometry of their unit cell. At the heart of such unusual behavior is often a mechanism: a motion that does not significantly stretch or compress the links between constituent elements. When activated by motors or external fields, these soft motions become the building blocks of robots and smart materials. In this talk, we discuss topological mechanisms that possess two key properties: (i) their existence cannot be traced to a local imbalance between degrees of freedom and constraints (ii) they are robust against a wide range of structural deformations or changes in material parameters. The continuum elasticity of these mechanical structures is captured by non-linear field theories with a topological boundary term similar to topological insulators and quantum Hall systems. We present several applications of these concepts to the design and experimental realization of 2D and 3D topological structures based on linkages, origami, buckling meta-materials and lastly active media that break time-reversal symmetry.

  11. Cell resistance to the Cytolethal Distending Toxin involves an association of DNA repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bezine, Elisabeth; Malaisé, Yann; Loeuillet, Aurore; Chevalier, Marianne; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Salles, Bernard; Mirey, Gladys; Vignard, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT), produced by many bacteria, has been associated with various diseases including cancer. CDT induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), leading to cell death or mutagenesis if misrepaired. At low doses of CDT, other DNA lesions precede replication-dependent DSB formation, implying that non-DSB repair mechanisms may contribute to CDT cell resistance. To address this question, we developed a proliferation assay using human cell lines specifically depleted in each of the main DNA repair pathways. Here, we validate the involvement of the two major DSB repair mechanisms, Homologous Recombination and Non Homologous End Joining, in the management of CDT-induced lesions. We show that impairment of single-strand break repair (SSBR), but not nucleotide excision repair, sensitizes cells to CDT, and we explore the interplay of SSBR with the DSB repair mechanisms. Finally, we document the role of the replicative stress response and demonstrate the involvement of the Fanconi Anemia repair pathway in response to CDT. In conclusion, our work indicates that cellular survival to CDT-induced DNA damage involves different repair pathways, in particular SSBR. This reinforces a model where CDT-related genotoxicity primarily involves SSBs rather than DSBs, underlining the importance of cell proliferation during CDT intoxication and pathogenicity. PMID:27775089

  12. Involvement of lignin and hormones in the response of woody poplar taproots to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Trupiano, Dalila; Di Iorio, Antonino; Montagnoli, Antonio; Lasserre, Bruno; Rocco, Mariapina; Grosso, Alessandro; Scaloni, Andrea; Marra, Mauro; Chiatante, Donato; Scippa, Gabriella S

    2012-09-01

    Mechanical stress is a widespread condition caused by numerous environmental factors that severely affect plant stability. In response to mechanical stress, plants have evolved complex response pathways able to detect mechanical perturbations and inducing a suite of modifications in order to improve anchorage. The response of woody roots to mechanical stresses has been studied mainly at the morphological and biomechanical level, whereas investigations on the factors triggering these important alterations are still at the initial stage. Populus has been widely used to study the response of stem to different mechanical stresses and, since it has the first forest tree genome to be decoded, represents a model woody plant for addressing questions on the mechanisms controlling adaptation of woody roots to changing environments. In this study, a morphological and physiological analysis was used to investigate factors controlling modifications in Populus nigra woody taproots subjected to mechanical stress. An experimental model analyzing spatial and temporal mechanical force distribution along the woody taproot axis enabled us to compare the events occurring in its above-, central- and below-bending sectors. Different morphogenetic responses and local variations of lignin and plant hormones content have been observed, and a relation with the distribution of the mechanical forces along the stressed woody taproots is hypothesized. We investigated the differences of the response to mechanical stress induction during the time; in this regard, we present data referring to the effect of mechanical stress on plant transition from its condition of winter dormancy to that of full vegetative activity.

  13. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  14. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  15. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology.

  16. Viral evasion mechanisms of early antiviral responses involving regulation of ubiquitin pathways.

    PubMed

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2013-08-01

    Early innate and cell-intrinsic responses are essential to protect host cells against pathogens. In turn, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to establish productive infections by counteracting host innate immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that these antiviral factors may have a dual role by directly inhibiting viral replication as well as by sensing and transmitting signals to induce antiviral cytokines. Recent studies have pointed at new, unappreciated mechanisms of viral evasion of host innate protective responses including manipulating the host ubiquitin (Ub) system. Virus-mediated inhibition of antiviral factors by Ub-dependent degradation is emerging as a crucial mechanism for evading the antiviral response. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new mechanisms by which virus-encoded proteins inhibit Ub and Ub-like (Ubl) modification of host proteins involved in innate immune signaling pathways. Here we discuss recent findings and novel strategies that viruses have developed to counteract these early innate antiviral defenses.

  17. Dormancy activation mechanism of tracheal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Xu, Jing-xian; Jia, Xin-Shan; Li, Wen-ya; Han, Yi-chen; Wang, En-hua; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate markers and molecular mechanisms of stem cell dormancy and activation are poorly understood. In this study, the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil, was used to selectively kill proliferating cells of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. This method can enrich and purify stem cell population. The dormant versus active status of stem cells was determined by phosphorylation of RNAp II Ser2. The surviving stem cells were cultured to form stem cell spheres expressing stem cell markers and transplanted into nude mice to form a teratoma. The results demonstrated the properties of stem cells and potential for multi-directional differentiation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter by 5-FU resulted in Sox2 expression in the dormant stem cells. This study shows that the dormancy and activation of HBE stem cells is closely related to epigenetic modification. PMID:27009861

  18. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  19. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:26350733

  20. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  1. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions.

  2. Neural Mechanisms Involved in Hypersensitive Hearing: Helping Children with ASD Who Are Overly Sensitive to Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucker, Jay R.; Doman, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Professionals working with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may find that these children are overly sensitive to sounds. These professionals are often concerned as to why children may have auditory hypersensitivities. This review article discusses the neural mechanisms identified underlying hypersensitive hearing in people. The authors focus on brain research to support the idea of the nonclassical auditory pathways being involved in connecting the auditory system with the emotional system of the brain. The authors also discuss brain mechanisms felt to be involved in auditory hypersensitivity. The authors conclude with a discussion of some treatments for hypersensitive hearing. These treatments include desensitization training and the use of listening therapies such as The Listening Program. PMID:26823983

  3. Memory-improving actions of glucose: involvement of a central cholinergic muscarinic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1994-11-01

    Post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) facilitated 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. Glucose did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The effect of glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to glucose treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training glucose on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of glucose (10 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the memory facilitation induced by post-training administration of glucose could result from an enhancement of brain acetylcholine synthesis and/or its release that, in turn, might modulate the activity of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are critically involved in memory storage. PMID:7857246

  4. Memory-improving actions of glucose: involvement of a central cholinergic muscarinic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1994-11-01

    Post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) facilitated 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. Glucose did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The effect of glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to glucose treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training glucose on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of glucose (10 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the memory facilitation induced by post-training administration of glucose could result from an enhancement of brain acetylcholine synthesis and/or its release that, in turn, might modulate the activity of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are critically involved in memory storage.

  5. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to

  6. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor

  7. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  8. A centrosomal mechanism involving CDK5RAP2 and CENPJ controls brain size.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jacquelyn; Roberts, Emma; Springell, Kelly; Lizarraga, Sofia B; Lizarraga, Sophia; Scott, Sheila; Higgins, Julie; Hampshire, Daniel J; Morrison, Ewan E; Leal, Gabriella F; Silva, Elias O; Costa, Suzana M R; Baralle, Diana; Raponi, Michela; Karbani, Gulshan; Rashid, Yasmin; Jafri, Hussain; Bennett, Christopher; Corry, Peter; Walsh, Christopher A; Woods, C Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly is a potential model in which to research genes involved in human brain growth. We show that two forms of the disorder result from homozygous mutations in the genes CDK5RAP2 and CENPJ. We found neuroepithelial expression of the genes during prenatal neurogenesis and protein localization to the spindle poles of mitotic cells, suggesting that a centrosomal mechanism controls neuron number in the developing mammalian brain. PMID:15793586

  9. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  10. Getting Students Involved: Classroom Activities Which Promote Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, G. Ronald; And Others

    Three essays concerning second language classroom activities that promote learning of communication skills are presented. In "From Manipulation to Communication" (Renate A. Schulz), the importance of establishing minimal communicative objectives for classroom instruction skills is discussed, specifying situations in which students have to…

  11. Model-based choices involve prospective neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Bradley B.; Duncan, Katherine D.; Simon, Dylan A.; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions may arise via “model-free” repetition of previously reinforced actions, or by “model-based” evaluation, which is widely thought to follow from prospective anticipation of action consequences using a learned map or model. While choices and neural correlates of decision variables sometimes reflect knowledge of their consequences, it remains unclear whether this actually arises from prospective evaluation. Using functional MRI and a sequential reward-learning task in which paths contained decodable object categories, we found that humans’ model-based choices were associated with neural signatures of future paths observed at decision time, suggesting a prospective mechanism for choice. Prospection also covaried with the degree of model-based influences on neural correlates of decision variables, and was inversely related to prediction error signals thought to underlie model-free learning. These results dissociate separate mechanisms underlying model-based and model-free evaluation and support the hypothesis that model-based influences on choices and neural decision variables result from prospection. PMID:25799041

  12. Activities of the Institute for Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IME) is part of Canada's National Research Council. Its mission is to undertake, support, promote, and disseminate research and development in the mechanical engineering aspects of three vital sectors of the Canadian economy: transportation, resource industries, and manufacturing. The IME achieves its mission by performing research and development in its own facilities; by developing, providing, and transferring expertise and knowledge; by making its research facilities available to collaborators and clients; and by participating in international liaison and collaborative research activities. Six research programs are conducted in the IME: Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Coastal Zone Engineering; Cold Regions Engineering; Combustion and Fluids Engineering; Ground Transportation Technology; and Machinery and Engine Technology. The rationale and major research thrusts of each program are described, and specific achievements in 1991-92 are reviewed. Lists of technical reports and papers presented by IME personnel are also included.

  13. Plasmin is involved in inflammation via protease-activated receptor-1 activation in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Naoto; Hashizume, Hideki; Nakao, Sumi; Matsushima, Kiyoshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2008-05-15

    Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme produced from plasminogen by plasminogen activators. We investigated the function of plasmin in human dental pulp fibroblast-like cells. Plasmin induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mRNA for protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was detected, and the PAR-1 activating peptide SFLLRN induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. The plasmin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. Plasmin stimulated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release, which are involved in inflammation. These effects of plasmin on expression of IL-8 mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release were inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. These results suggest that plasmin activates PAR-1 and is involved in inflammation in human dental pulp. PMID:18384756

  14. Serotonergic involvement in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity: a detailed pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Steed, Emily; Jones, Caitlin A; McCreary, Andrew C

    2011-06-20

    The mechanism by which the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) increases locomotor activity may be attributable to indirect activation of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) receptors. In the present study, the ability of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists WAY100635, GR127935, M100907 and SB242084, and the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists WAY163909 and Ro 60-0175 or the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) to alter METH-induced hyperactivity was analysed. Further, for comparative purposes, the involvement of the DA D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists SCH23390 and haloperidol, D(2) partial agonists terguride, (-)3PPP and aripiprazole and finally clozapine were assessed. Doses of pCPA that attenuated 5-HT levels reduced METH activity. The 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR127935 had no effect on METH-induced locomotor activity but blocked that induced by MDMA. The 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY100635 reduced activity but this did not reach significance. In contrast, M100907 (minimal effective dose; MED=0.125 mg/kg), WAY163909 (MED=3mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (MED=3mg/kg), haloperidol (MED=0.1mg/kg), clozapine (MED=5mg/kg), aripiprazole (MED=1mg/kg), (-)3PPP (MED=3mg/kg), terguride (MED=0.2mg/kg) and SCH23390 (MED=0.001325 mg/kg) attenuated METH-induced locomotor activity. Administration of 20mg/kg fluvoxamine attenuated, while SB242084 (MED=0.25mg/kg) potentiated METH-induced activity. These results contribute significantly to the understanding of the mechanism of action of this psychostimulant and suggest for the first time, that METH-induced locomotor stimulation is modulated by 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, but demonstrate that 5-HT(1B) receptors are not directly involved. The involvement of the dopaminergic system was also demonstrated.

  15. Insights into the Thiamine Diphosphate Enzyme Activation Mechanism: Computational Model for Transketolase Using a Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Method.

    PubMed

    Nauton, Lionel; Hélaine, Virgil; Théry, Vincent; Hecquet, Laurence

    2016-04-12

    We propose the first computational model for transketolase (TK), a thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme, using a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method on the basis of crystallographic TK structures from yeast and Escherichia coli, together with experimental kinetic data reported in the literature with wild-type and mutant TK. This model allowed us to define a new route for ThDP activation in the enzyme environment. We evidenced a strong interaction between ThDP and Glu418B of the TK active site, itself stabilized by Glu162A. The crucial point highlighted here is that deprotonation of ThDP C2 is not performed by ThDP N4' as reported in the literature, but by His481B, involving a HOH688A molecule bridge. Thus, ThDP N4' is converted from an amino form to an iminium form, ensuring the stabilization of the C2 carbanion or carbene. Finally, ThDP activation proceeds via an intermolecular process and not by an intramolecular one as reported in the literature. More generally, this proposed ThDP activation mechanism can be applied to some other ThDP-dependent enzymes and used to define the entire TK mechanism with donor and acceptor substrates more accurately.

  16. Involvement of cannabinoid receptor-1 activation in mitochondrial depolarizing effect of lipopolysaccharide in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Costanzo, M; Battista, N; Maccarrone, M; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F

    2014-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria frequently involved in urogenital tract infections release the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS); its receptor, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), has been recently identified in human spermatozoa, and its direct activation has been suggested in mediating adverse effects of LPS on human spermatozoa. However, the underlying signal transduction remains to be clarified. In other cell types, LPS induces the generation of endocannabinoids, which are involved in mediating endotoxin effects. In human spermatozoa, which exhibit a completely functional endocannabinoid system, the activation of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) inhibited sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a contribution of CB1 activation by sperm-generated endocannabinoids in the adverse effects exerted by LPS on human spermatozoa. The exposure of motile sperm suspensions to E. coli LPS produced a significant decrease in sperm ΔΨm, assessed at flow cytometry with JC-1, similar to that induced by Metanandamide (Met-AEA), a non-hydrolyzable analogue of the endocannabinoid AEA. The LPS-induced inhibition of ΔΨm was prevented by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716. However, the inhibition of ΔΨm induced by either LPS or Met-AEA did not affect sperm motility. Consistent with this finding, the CB1-mediated inhibition of ΔΨm was neither associated to mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species as evaluated by flow cytometry with MytoSox Red nor to apoptosis pathway activation as evaluated with cytoflorimetric assay for activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Any oxidative genomic damage was also ruled out with the cytoflorimetric quantification of the oxidized base adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In conclusion, E. coli LPS inhibited sperm ΔΨm through the activation of CB1, but this effect was not accompanied to the activation of mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptotic/oxidative mechanisms, which could

  17. Nox family NADPH oxidases: Molecular mechanisms of activation.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Ralf P; Weissmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2014-11-01

    NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Numerous homologue-specific mechanisms control the activity of this enzyme family involving calcium, free fatty acids, protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, and posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation. After a brief review on the classic pathways of Nox activation, this article will focus on novel mechanisms of homologue-specific activity control and on cell-specific aspects which govern Nox activity. From these findings of the recent years it must be concluded that the activity control of Nox enzymes is much more complex than anticipated. Moreover, depending on the cellular activity state, Nox enzymes are selectively activated or inactivated. The complex upstream signaling aspects of these events make the development of "intelligent" Nox inhibitors plausible, which selectively attenuate disease-related Nox-mediated ROS formation without altering physiological signaling ROS. This approach might be of relevance for Nox-mediated tissue injury in ischemia-reperfusion and inflammation and also for chronic Nox overactivation as present in cancer initiation and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Involvement of protein kinase C in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in a human colonic carcinoma cell line, COLO-205

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dyuti Datta; Saha, Subhrajit; Chakrabarti, Manoj K. . E-mail: mkc_niced@yahoo.co.in

    2005-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the involvement of calcium-protein kinase C pathway in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) apart from STa-induced activation of guanylate cyclase in human colonic carcinoma cell line COLO-205, which was used as a model cultured cell line to study the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. In response to E. coli STa, protein kinase C (PKC) activity was increased in a time-dependent manner with its physical translocation from cytosol to membrane. Inhibition of the PKC activity in membrane fraction and inhibition of its physical translocation in response to IP{sub 3}-mediated calcium release inhibitor dantrolene suggested the involvement of intracellular store depletion in the regulation of PKC activity. Among different PKC isoforms, predominant involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC{alpha}) was specified using isotype-specific pseudosubstrate, which showed pronounce enzyme activity. Inhibition of enzyme activity by PKC{alpha}-specific inhibitor Goe6976 and immunoblott study employing isotype-specific antibody further demonstrated the involvement of calcium-dependent isoform of PKC in the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. Moreover, inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity by PKC{alpha}-specific inhibitor Goe6976 suggested the involvement of PKC{alpha} in the regulation of guanylate cyclase activity.

  19. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active.

    PubMed

    Schönitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2011-12-01

    Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA(-) cell lines are shown.

  20. Reflex hypertensive response induced by capsaicin involves endothelin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, a nociceptive agent produces triphasic pressure response in rats. The mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced pressure responses are not clear. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms involved in capsaicin - induced pressure responses. The trachea, jugular vein and femoral artery were cannulated in anaesthetized rats. Capsaicin (10 µg/kg; i.v) - induced reflex changes in the blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded before/after vagotomy in the absence/presence of antagonists. Capsaicin produced the triphasic pressure response characterized by immediate fall, recovery (intermediate phase) and delayed progressive fall. After vagotomy, the immediate hypotension was abolished and the intermediate pressure response was potentiated as a hypertensive response while the delayed hypotensive response persisted. The time-matched heart rate changes (bradycardia) and respiratory changes (tachypnea in delayed phase) were abolished after vagotomy. Pretreatment with endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan; 10 mg/kg) blocked the capsiaicn-induced intermediate hypertensive response in vagotomised animals but not the delayed hypotension. Pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME; 30 pg/kg), prostaglandin synthase inhibitor (indomethacin; 10 mg/kg) and kinin synthase inhibitor (aprotinin; 6000 KIU) did not block the delayed hypotensive response. These results demonstrate that capsaicin-induced intermediate hypertensive response involves endothelin-dependent mechanisms and the delayed hypotensive response is independent of nitrergic, prostaglandinergic or kininergic mechanisms.

  1. Identification of genes involved in regulatory mechanism of pigments in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tarique, T M; Yang, S; Mohsina, Z; Qiu, J; Yan, Z; Chen, G; Chen, A

    2014-01-01

    Chicken is an important model organism that unites the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provide major source of protein from meat and eggs for all over the world population. However, specific genes underlying the regulatory mechanism of broiler pigmentation have not yet been determined. In order to better understand the genes involved in the mechanism of pigmentation in the muscle tissues of broilers, the Affymetrix microarray hybridization experiment platform was used to identify gene expression profiles at 7 weeks of age. Broilers fed canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII pigments (100 mg/kg) were used to explore gene expression profiles). Our data showed that the 7th week of age was a very important phase with regard to gene expression profiles. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes; in canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII, there were 54 (32 upregulated and 22 downregulated), 23 (15 upregulated and 8 downregulated), and 7 (5 upregulated and 2 downregulated) known genes, respectively. Our data indicate that the numbers of differentially expressed genes were more upregulated than downregulated, and several genes showed conserved signaling to previously known functions. Thus, functional characterization of differentially expressed genes revealed several categories that are involved in important biological processes, including pigmentation, growth, molecular mechanisms, fat metabolism, cell proliferation, immune response, lipid metabolism, and protein synthesis and degradation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the genes associated with canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII are key regulatory genes that control the regulatory mechanisms of pigmentation.

  2. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  3. Tissue factor trafficking in fibroblasts: involvement of protease-activated receptor–mediated cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Samir K.; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the cellular receptor for clotting factor VIIa (FVIIa), and the formation of TF-FVIIa complexes on cell surfaces triggers the activation of the coagulation cascade and the cell signaling. Our recent studies have shown that a majority of TF resides in various intracellular compartments, predominantly in the Golgi, and that FVIIa binding to cell surface TF induces TF endocytosis and mobilizes the Golgi TF pool to translocate it to the cell surface. This present study is aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in TF endocytosis and its mobilization from the Golgi. Activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 by specific peptide agonists and proteases, independent of FVIIa, mobilized TF from the Golgi store and increased the cell surface expression of TF. Blocking PAR2 activation, but not PAR1, with neutralizing antibodies fully attenuated the FVIIa-induced TF mobilization. Consistent with these data, silencing the PAR2 receptor, and not PAR1, abrogated the FVIIa-mediated TF mobilization. In contrast to their effect on TF mobilization, PAR1 and PAR2 activation, in the absence of FVIIa, had no effect on TF endocytosis. However, PAR2 activation is found to be critical for the FVIIa-induced TF endocytosis. Overall the data herein provide novel insights into the role of PARs in regulating cell surface TF expression. PMID:17384202

  4. Mechanism and active variety of allelochemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, S.-L.; Wen, J.; Guo, Q.-F.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes allelochemicals' active variety, its potential causes and function mechanisms. Allelochemicals' activity varies with temperature, photoperiod, water and soils during natural processes, with its initial concentration, compound structure and mixed degree during functional processes, with plant accessions, tissues and maturity within-species, and with research techniques and operation processes. The prospective developmental aspects of allelopathy studies in the future are discussed. Future research should focus on: (1) to identify and purify allelochemicals more effectively, especially for agriculture, (2) the functions of allelopathy at the molecular structure level, (3) using allelopathy to explain plant species interactions, (4) allelopathy as a driving force of succession, and (5) the significance of allelopathy in the evolutionary processes.

  5. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    PubMed

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  6. Pathophysiology of major depressive disorder: mechanisms involved in etiology are not associated with clinical progression.

    PubMed

    Verduijn, J; Milaneschi, Y; Schoevers, R A; van Hemert, A M; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-09-29

    Meta-analyses support the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms (inflammation, hypothalamic-pituitary (HPA)-axis, neurotrophic growth and vitamin D) in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unknown whether dysregulations in these mechanisms are more pronounced when MDD progresses toward multiple episodes and/or chronicity. We hypothesized that four central pathophysiological mechanisms of MDD are not only involved in etiology, but also associated with clinical disease progression. Therefore, we expected to find increasingly more dysregulation across consecutive stages of MDD progression. The sample from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (18-65 years) consisted of 230 controls and 2333 participants assigned to a clinical staging model categorizing MDD in eight stages (0, 1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4), from familial risk at MDD (stage 0) to chronic MDD (stage 4). Analyses of covariance examined whether pathophysiological mechanism markers (interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vitamin D) showed a linear trend across controls, those at risk for MDD (stages 0, 1A and 1B), and those with full-threshold MDD (stages 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4). Subsequently, pathophysiological differences across separate stages within those at risk and with full-threshold MDD were examined. A linear increase of inflammatory markers (CRP P=0.026; IL-6 P=0.090), cortisol (P=0.025) and decrease of vitamin D (P<0.001) was found across the entire sample (for example, from controls to those at risk and those with full-threshold MDD). Significant trends of dysregulations across stages were present in analyses focusing on at-risk individuals (IL-6 P=0.050; cortisol P=0.008; vitamin D P<0.001); however, no linear trends were found in dysregulations for any of the mechanisms across more progressive stages of full-threshold MDD. Our results support that the examined pathophysiological mechanisms are

  7. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents

    PubMed Central

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed. PMID:24055928

  8. [Molecular mechanism at the presynaptic active zone].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Toshihisa

    2011-07-01

    Our higher brain functions such as learning and memory, emotion, and consciousness depend on the precise regulation of complicated neural networks in the brain. Neurons communicate with each other through the synapse, which comprise 3 regions: the presynapse, synaptic cleft, and postsynapse. The active zone (AZ) beneath the presynaptic membrane is the principal site for Ca2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release: AZ is involved in determining the site for docking and synaptic vesicle fusion. Presently, the full molecular composition of AZ is unclear, but it is known to contain several AZ-specific proteins, including cytomatrix of the active zone-associated protein (CAST)/ERC2, ELKS, RIM1, Munc13-1, Piccolo/Aczonin, and Bassoon. CAST and ELKS are novel active zone proteins that directly bind to Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs), Bassoon, and Piccolo, and are thought to play a role in neurotransmitter release by binding these to AZ proteins. In this review, current advances in studies on AZ structure and function have been summarized, and the focus is mainly on protein-protein interactions among the AZ proteins.

  9. Organized activity involvement, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment in adolescents: ethnicity and socioeconomic status as moderators.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M

    2009-10-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.

  10. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    PubMed

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  11. Potent Cardioprotective Effect of the 4-Anilinoquinazoline Derivative PD153035: Involvement of Mitochondrial KATP Channel Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Silvana A.; Cerqueira, Fernanda M.; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C.; Rittner, Roberto; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Vercesi, Anibal E.; Franchini, Kleber G.; Castilho, Roger F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion and mitochondrial function. Methodology/Principal Findings Perfused rat hearts and cardiac HL-1 cells were used to determine cardioprotective effects of PD153035. Isolated rat heart mitochondria were studied to uncover mechanisms of cardioprotection. Nanomolar doses of PD153035 strongly protect against heart and cardiomyocyte damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and cyanide/aglycemia. PD153035 did not alter oxidative phosphorylation, nor directly prevent Ca2+ induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. The protective effect of PD153035 on HL-1 cells was also independent of AKT phosphorylation state. Interestingly, PD153035 activated K+ transport in isolated mitochondria, in a manner prevented by ATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate, inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels (mitoKATP). 5-Hydroxydecanoate also inhibited the cardioprotective effect of PD153035 in cardiac HL-1 cells, demonstrating that this protection is dependent on mitoKATP activation. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PD153035 is a potent cardioprotective compound and acts in a mechanism involving mitoKATP activation. PMID:20498724

  12. A proposed biochemical mechanism involving hemoglobin for blast overpressure-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M; Gorbunov, N V; Kagan, V E

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) is the abrupt, rapid, rise in atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation, firing of large-caliber weapons, and accidental occupational explosions. Exposure to incident BOP waves causes internal injuries, mostly to the hollow organs, particularly the ears, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. BOP-induced injury used to be considered of military concern because it occurred mostly in military environments during military actions or training, and to a lesser extent during civilian occupational accidents. However, in recent years with the proliferation of indiscriminate terrorist bombings worldwide involving civilians, blast injury has become a societal concern, and the need to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and to find new and effective methods for treatment gained importance. In general, past BOP research has focused on the physiological and pathological manifestations of incapacitation, thresholds of safety, and on predictive modeling. However, we have been studying the molecular mechanism of BOP-induced injury, and recently began to have an insight into that mechanism, and recognize the role of hemoglobin released during hemorrhage in catalyzing free radical reactions leading to oxidative stress. In this report we discuss the biochemical changes observed after BOP exposure in rat blood and lung tissue, and propose a biochemical mechanism for free radical-induced oxidative stress that can potentially complicate the injury. Moreover, we observed that some antioxidants can interact with Hb oxidation products (oxy-, met- and oxoferrylHb) and act as prooxidants that can increase the damage rather than decrease it.

  13. A proposed biochemical mechanism involving hemoglobin for blast overpressure-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M; Gorbunov, N V; Kagan, V E

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) is the abrupt, rapid, rise in atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation, firing of large-caliber weapons, and accidental occupational explosions. Exposure to incident BOP waves causes internal injuries, mostly to the hollow organs, particularly the ears, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. BOP-induced injury used to be considered of military concern because it occurred mostly in military environments during military actions or training, and to a lesser extent during civilian occupational accidents. However, in recent years with the proliferation of indiscriminate terrorist bombings worldwide involving civilians, blast injury has become a societal concern, and the need to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and to find new and effective methods for treatment gained importance. In general, past BOP research has focused on the physiological and pathological manifestations of incapacitation, thresholds of safety, and on predictive modeling. However, we have been studying the molecular mechanism of BOP-induced injury, and recently began to have an insight into that mechanism, and recognize the role of hemoglobin released during hemorrhage in catalyzing free radical reactions leading to oxidative stress. In this report we discuss the biochemical changes observed after BOP exposure in rat blood and lung tissue, and propose a biochemical mechanism for free radical-induced oxidative stress that can potentially complicate the injury. Moreover, we observed that some antioxidants can interact with Hb oxidation products (oxy-, met- and oxoferrylHb) and act as prooxidants that can increase the damage rather than decrease it. PMID:9217317

  14. Nerolidol exhibits antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity: involvement of the GABAergic system and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; de Carvalho, Fabíola L; Salvadori, Mirian Graciela S S; Penha, Antônia Rosângela S; Leite, Fagner C; Borges, Clóvis José S; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Sousa, Damião P; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-02-01

    Nerolidol, an acyclic sesquiterpene found as a major constituent of several essential oils, has several pharmacological activities, but its action in pain processes has never been studied. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of nerolidol, as well as possible mechanisms of action, in experimental mouse models of pain. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the formalin test, and the hot-plate test. The nerolidol-treated group showed lesser acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions than the control group in all of the three doses tested (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). The formalin test doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg p.o. inhibited licking time, in both the first phase and the second phase. In the hot-plate test, nerolidol did not alter latency at any of the observed time points. Motor coordination, evaluated through the rotarod test, was not hindered in animals treated with nerolidol. Regarding the mechanism of action, the antinociceptive activity of nerolidol is related to the GABAergic system, and not to the opioidergic or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Treatment with nerolidol reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis, nerolidol decreased the influx of polymorphonuclear cells and also reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in peritoneal lavage. Nerolidol reduced production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated, peritoneal macrophages. Thus, these results showed that nerolidol has antinociceptive activity with possible involvement of the GABAergic system, and anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  16. Differential gene expression in seasonal sympatry: mechanisms involved in diverging life histories.

    PubMed

    Fudickar, Adam M; Peterson, Mark P; Greives, Timothy J; Atwell, Jonathan W; Bridge, Eli S; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2016-03-01

    In an era of climate change, understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying flexibility in phenology and life history has gained greater importance. These mechanisms can be elucidated by comparing closely related populations that differ in key behavioural and physiological traits such as migration and timing of reproduction. We compared gene expression in two recently diverged dark-eyed Junco ( Junco hyemalis) subspecies that live in seasonal sympatry during winter and early spring, but that differ in behaviour and physiology, despite exposure to identical environmental cues. We identified 547 genes differentially expressed in blood and pectoral muscle. Genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism were highly expressed in migrant juncos, while genes involved in reproductive processes were highly expressed in resident breeders. Seasonal differences in gene expression in closely related populations residing in the same environment provide significant insights into mechanisms underlying variation in phenology and life history, and have potential implications for the role of seasonal timing differences in gene flow and reproductive isolation. PMID:26979563

  17. BimL involvement in Bax activation during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Miaojuan; Xing, Da . E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Chen, Tongsheng; Zhang, Lan

    2007-06-29

    Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but translocates to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors in response to apoptotic stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of Bax activation is not fully understood. We show here the role of BimL in Bax activation during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, GFP-BimL plasmid was constructed. The dynamic interaction between BimL and Bax during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis was observed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Our experimental results showed that BimL translocation to mitochondria occurred before Bax translocation, and that BimL activated Bax indirectly. Moreover, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation blocked BimL translocation, delayed and attenuated Bax translocation and subsequent apoptosis. These results demonstrate that BimL is involved in UV irradiation-induced apoptosis by indirectly activating Bax.

  18. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Bocci, Velio; Acquaviva, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Gardi, Concetta; Virgili, Fabio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  19. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  20. Thymus involvement in myasthenia gravis: Epidemiological and clinical impacts of different self-tolerance breakdown mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Karni, Arnon; Asmail, Ali; Drory, Vivian E; Kolb, Hadar; Kesler, Anat

    2016-09-15

    The reasons for the abrogation of self-immunological tolerance in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may be different between those with concomitant thymic hyperplasia or thymoma, and those with no evidence of thymic involvement. We conducted a retrospective observational case series study to investigate the epidemiology as well as the clinical, serologic, and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of individuals diagnosed as having MG. We found that the average age at MG onset of patients with either thymic hyperplasia or thymoma was much younger (by ~20years) than that of MG patients without thymic involvement. Thymic hyperplasia was more common in females than males. There were no differences in the rates of ocular MG vs. generalized MG among those three study groups. There were also no group differences in the rates of neuromuscular junction disfunction, as observed on EMG or by the results of serology tests for acetyl choline receptor antibody. Interestingly, only patients without thymic involvement had other autoimmune diseases, and most of them were females. The patients with other coexisting autoimmune disease had a similar age at MG onset as the other patients with no thymic involvement. These results shed light on the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors that result from different mechanisms of self-immunological tolerance breakdown that occurs in MG. PMID:27609276

  1. Thymus involvement in myasthenia gravis: Epidemiological and clinical impacts of different self-tolerance breakdown mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Karni, Arnon; Asmail, Ali; Drory, Vivian E; Kolb, Hadar; Kesler, Anat

    2016-09-15

    The reasons for the abrogation of self-immunological tolerance in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may be different between those with concomitant thymic hyperplasia or thymoma, and those with no evidence of thymic involvement. We conducted a retrospective observational case series study to investigate the epidemiology as well as the clinical, serologic, and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of individuals diagnosed as having MG. We found that the average age at MG onset of patients with either thymic hyperplasia or thymoma was much younger (by ~20years) than that of MG patients without thymic involvement. Thymic hyperplasia was more common in females than males. There were no differences in the rates of ocular MG vs. generalized MG among those three study groups. There were also no group differences in the rates of neuromuscular junction disfunction, as observed on EMG or by the results of serology tests for acetyl choline receptor antibody. Interestingly, only patients without thymic involvement had other autoimmune diseases, and most of them were females. The patients with other coexisting autoimmune disease had a similar age at MG onset as the other patients with no thymic involvement. These results shed light on the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors that result from different mechanisms of self-immunological tolerance breakdown that occurs in MG.

  2. Unifying mechanism for anticancer agents involving electron transfer and oxidative stress: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence supports involvement of electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) in the mechanism of many anticancer drugs. The common ET functionalities, usually present in the drug metabolites, are quinones (or precursors), metal complexes (or complexors), aromatic nitro compounds (or reduced hydroxylamine and nitroso derivatives), and conjugated imines (or iminium species). The ET agents function catalytically in redox cycling with formation of ROS from oxygen. Electrochemical data add support to the mechanistic viewpoint. The generated metabolites generally possess reduction potentials amenable to ET in vivo, thus giving rise to ROS. The resulting OS is a participant in destruction of the cancer cell. It is important to recognize that drug action is often multipronged. The various modes of action are summarized. Most research has been devoted to development of new and improved chemotherapeutic agents. The need for more attention to measures for cancer prevention is addressed. One of the most promising involves use of antioxidants.

  3. Mechanisms Involved in the Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Melatonin in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Martín, Vanesa; Herrera, Federico; García-Santos, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Casado-Zapico, Sara; Sánchez-Sánchez, Ana María; Suárez, Santos; Puente-Moncada, Noelia; Anítua, María José; Antolín, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that melatonin exerts antitumoral effects in many cancer types, mostly decreasing cell proliferation at low concentrations. On the other hand, induction of apoptosis by melatonin has been described in the last few years in some particular cancer types. The cytotoxic effect occurs after its administration at high concentrations, and the molecular pathways involved have been only partially determined. Moreover, a synergistic effect has been found in several cancer types when it is administered in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In the present review, we will summarize published work on the pro-apoptotic effect of melatonin in cancer cells and the reported mechanisms involved in such action. We will also construct a hypothesis on how different cell signaling pathways may relate each other on account for such effect. PMID:23528889

  4. Zebrafish reporter lines reveal in vivo signaling pathway activities involved in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Marco; Rampazzo, Elena; Casari, Alessandro; Battilana, Giusy; Persano, Luca; Moro, Enrico; Liu, Shu; Leach, Steve D; Tiso, Natascia; Argenton, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, one of the worst malignancies of the exocrine pancreas, is a solid tumor with increasing incidence and mortality in industrialized countries. This condition is usually driven by oncogenic KRAS point mutations and evolves into a highly aggressive metastatic carcinoma due to secondary gene mutations and unbalanced expression of genes involved in the specific signaling pathways. To examine in vivo the effects of KRAS(G12D) during pancreatic cancer progression and time correlation with cancer signaling pathway activities, we have generated a zebrafish model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in which eGFP-KRAS(G12D) expression was specifically driven to the pancreatic tissue by using the GAL4/UAS conditional expression system. Outcrossing the inducible oncogenic KRAS(G12D) line with transgenic zebrafish reporters, harboring specific signaling responsive elements of transcriptional effectors, we were able to follow TGFβ, Notch, Bmp and Shh activities during tumor development. Zebrafish transgenic lines expressing eGFP-KRAS(G12D) showed normal exocrine pancreas development until 3 weeks post fertilization (wpf). From 4 to 24 wpf we observed several degrees of acinar lesions, characterized by an increase in mesenchymal cells and mixed acinar/ductal features, followed by progressive bowel and liver infiltrations and, finally, highly aggressive carcinoma. Moreover, live imaging analysis of the exocrine pancreatic tissue revealed an increasing number of KRAS-positive cells and progressive activation of TGFβ and Notch pathways. Increase in TGFβ, following KRAS(G12D) activation, was confirmed in a concomitant model of medulloblastoma (MDB). Notch and Shh signaling activities during tumor onset were different between MDB and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, indicating a tissue-specific regulation of cell signaling pathways. Moreover, our results show that a living model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma joined with cell signaling reporters is a suitable tool for

  5. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  6. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  7. Na+/K+ATPase Regulates Sperm Capacitation Through a Mechanism Involving Kinases and Redistribution of Its Testis-Specific Isoform

    PubMed Central

    NEWTON, LARISSA D.; KRISHNAKUMAR, SULOCHANA; MENON, AJITKUMAR GOPINADHA; KASTELIC, JOHN P.; VAN DER HOORN, FRANS A.; THUNDATHIL, JACOB C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Incubation of bovine sperm with ouabain, an endogenous cardiac glycoside that inhibits both the ubiquitous (ATP1A1) and testis-specific α4 (ATP1A4) isoforms of Na+/K+ATPase, induces tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) fertilizing ability of bovine sperm capacitated by incubating with ouabain; (2) involvement of ATP1A4 in this process; and (3) signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of sperm capacitation induced by inhibition of Na+/K+ATPase activity. Fresh sperm capacitated by incubating with ouabain (inhibits both ATP1A1 and ATP1A4) or with anti-ATP1A4 immunoserum fertilized bovine oocytes in vitro. Capacitation was associated with relocalization of ATP1A4 from the entire sperm head to the post-acrosomal region. To investigate signaling mechanisms involved in oubain-induced regulation of sperm capacitation, sperm preparations were pre-incubated with inhibitors of specific signaling molecules, followed by incubation with ouabain. The phosphotyrosine content of sperm preparations was determined by immunoblotting, and capacitation status of these sperm preparations were evaluated through an acrosome reaction assay. We inferred that Na+/K+ATPase was involved in the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm proteins through receptor tyrosine kinase, nonreceptor type protein kinase, and protein kinases A and C. In conclusion, inhibition of Na+/K+ATPase induced tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation through multiple signal transduction pathways, imparting fertilizing ability in bovine sperm. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting both the involvement of ATP1A4 in the regulation of bovine sperm capacitation and that fresh bovine sperm capacitated by the inhibition of Na+/K+ATPase can fertilize oocytes in vitro. PMID:19834983

  8. Involvement of Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Regulation of Secreted Phospholipase A2 Expressions in Jurkat Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Kostka, Heike; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic changes provide a frequent mechanism for transcriptional silencing of genes in cancer cells. We previously established that epigenetic mechanisms are important for control of group IIA phospholipase A2 (PLA2G2A) gene transcription in human DU-145 prostate cells. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of such mechanisms in the regulation of five sPLA2 isozymes and the M-type receptor of sPLA2 (sPLA2-R) in human leukemic Jurkat cells. These cells constitutively expressed sPLA2-IB, sPLA2-III, sPLA2-X, and sPLA2-R but not sPLA2-IIA and sPLA2-V. Transcription of sPLA2-IIA and sPLA2-V was, however, detected after exposure of cells to the DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). Expression of sPLA2-IIA was further enhanced by additional exposure to interferon-γ and blocked by inhibitors of specificity protein 1, nuclear factor κB, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-dependent pathways. Sequence analysis and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA revealed two 5′-CpG sites (-111 and -82) in the sPLA2-IIA proximal promoter that were demethylated after 5-aza-dC treatment. These sites may be involved in the DNA binding of specificity protein 1 and other transcription factors. Similar findings after treatment of human U937 leukemia cells with 5-aza-dC indicate that this mechanism of PLA2G2A gene silencing is not restricted to Jurkat and DU-145 cells. These data establish that regulation of sPLA2-IIA and sPLA2-V in Jurkat and other cells involves epigenetic silencing by DNA hypermethylation. PMID:18953428

  9. Involvement of Microglia Activation in the Lead Induced Long-Term Potentiation Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Shen, Xue-Feng; Che, Hong-Lei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Luo, Wen-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Lead (Pb), a known neurotoxicant, can impair spatial learning and memory probably via impairing the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as hippocampal neuronal injury. Activation of hippocampal microglia also impairs spatial learning and memory. Thus, we raised the hypothesis that activation of microglia is involved in the Pb exposure induced hippocampal LTP impairment and neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis and clarify its underlying mechanisms, we investigated the Pb-exposure on the microglia activation, cytokine release, hippocampal LTP level as well as neuronal injury in in vivo or in vitro model. The changes of these parameters were also observed after pretreatment with minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor. Long-term low dose Pb exposure (100 ppm for 8 weeks) caused significant reduction of LTP in acute slice preparations, meanwhile, such treatment also significantly increased hippocampal microglia activation as well as neuronal injury. In vitro Pb-exposure also induced significantly increase of microglia activation, up-regulate the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia culture alone as well as neuronal injury in the co-culture with hippocampal neurons. Inhibiting the microglia activation with minocycline significantly reversed the above-mentioned Pb-exposure induced changes. Our results showed that Pb can cause microglia activation, which can up-regulate the level of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, these proinflammatory factors may cause hippocampal neuronal injury as well as LTP deficits. PMID:22952811

  10. Thermodynamic and mechanical timescales involved in foam film rupture and liquid foam coalescence.

    PubMed

    Rio, Emmanuelle; Biance, Anne-Laure

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the coalescence in liquid foams are reviewed, with a special focus on the multiscale structure of foams. Studies concerning the stability of isolated foam films, on the one hand, and the coalescence process in macroscopic foams, on the other hand, are not always in good agreement. This discrepancy reveals that two routes can induce coalescence in a foam. The first route is thermodynamic and shows that coalescence is governed by a stochastic rupture of foam films. The second route relies on a mechanically induced rupture of the films, due to the spontaneous evolution of foams. From a literature review, the evaluation of the different timescales involved in these mechanisms allows defining the limiting parameters of foam coalescence.

  11. Novel Mechanism for Scavenging of Hypochlorite Involving a Periplasmic Methionine-Rich Peptide and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and a putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. PMID:25968643

  12. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis.

  13. Some Novel Thought Experiments Involving Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Omid

    2004-02-01

    In this thesis, we have proposed some novel thought experiments involving foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory, using quantum entanglement property. Concerning foundations of quantum mechanics, we have suggested some typical systems including two correlated particles which can distinguish between the two famous theories of quantum mechanics, i.e. the standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics, at the individual level of pair of particles. Meantime, the two theories present the same predictions at the ensemble level of particles. Regarding quantum information theory, two theoretical quantum communication schemes including quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation schemes have been proposed by using entangled spatial states of two EPR particles shared between two parties. It is shown that the rate of classical information gain in our dense coding scheme is greater than some previously proposed multi-qubit protocols by a logarithmic factor dependent on the dimension of Hilbert space. The proposed teleportation scheme can provide a complete wave function teleportation of an object having other degrees of freedom in our three-dimensional space, for the first time. All required unitary operators which are necessary in our state preparation and Bell state measurement processes are designed using symmetric normalized Hadamard matrix, some basic gates and one typical conditional gate, which are introduced here for the first time.

  14. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  15. Soil biochar amendment as a climate change mitigation tool: Key parameters and mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrick; Godbout, Stéphane; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2016-10-01

    Biochar, a solid porous material obtained from the carbonization of biomass under low or no oxygen conditions, has been proposed as a climate change mitigation tool because it is expected to sequester carbon (C) for centuries and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. This review aimed to identify key biochar properties and production parameters that have an effect on these specific applications of the biochar. Moreover, mechanisms involved in interactions between biochar and soils were highlighted. Following a compilation and comparison of the characteristics of 76 biochars from 40 research studies, biochars with a lower N content, and consequently a higher C/N ratio (>30), were found to be more suitable for mitigation of N2O emissions from soils. Moreover, biochars produced at a higher pyrolysis temperature, and with O/C ratio <0.2, H/Corg ratio <0.4 and volatile matter below 80% may have high C sequestration potential. Based on these observations, biochar production and application to the field can be used as a tool to mitigate climate change. However, it is important to determine the pyrolysis conditions and feedstock needed to produce a biochar with the desired properties for a specific application. More research studies are needed to identify the exact mechanisms involved following biochar amendment to soil.

  16. The Possible Mechanisms Involved in Degradation of Patulin by Pichia caribbica

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangfeng; Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Apaliya, Maurice Tibiru

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examined the mechanisms involved in the degradation of patulin by Pichia caribbica. Our results indicate that cell-free filtrate of P. caribbica reduced patutlin content. The heat-killed cells could not degrade patulin. However, the live cells significantly reduced the concentration of the patulin. In furtherance to this, it was observed that patulin was not detected in the broken yeast cells and cell wall. The addition of cycloheximide to the P. caribbica cells decreased the capacity of degradation of patulin. Proteomics analyses revealed that patulin treatment resulted in an upregulated protein which was involved in metabolism and stress response processes. Our results suggested that the mechanism of degradation of patulin by P. caribbica was not absorption; the presence of patulin can induce P. caribbica to produce associated intracellular and extracellular enzymes, both of which have the ability to degrade patulin. The result provides a new possible method that used the enzymes produced by yeast to detoxify patulin in food and feed. PMID:27735830

  17. Soil biochar amendment as a climate change mitigation tool: Key parameters and mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrick; Godbout, Stéphane; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2016-10-01

    Biochar, a solid porous material obtained from the carbonization of biomass under low or no oxygen conditions, has been proposed as a climate change mitigation tool because it is expected to sequester carbon (C) for centuries and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. This review aimed to identify key biochar properties and production parameters that have an effect on these specific applications of the biochar. Moreover, mechanisms involved in interactions between biochar and soils were highlighted. Following a compilation and comparison of the characteristics of 76 biochars from 40 research studies, biochars with a lower N content, and consequently a higher C/N ratio (>30), were found to be more suitable for mitigation of N2O emissions from soils. Moreover, biochars produced at a higher pyrolysis temperature, and with O/C ratio <0.2, H/Corg ratio <0.4 and volatile matter below 80% may have high C sequestration potential. Based on these observations, biochar production and application to the field can be used as a tool to mitigate climate change. However, it is important to determine the pyrolysis conditions and feedstock needed to produce a biochar with the desired properties for a specific application. More research studies are needed to identify the exact mechanisms involved following biochar amendment to soil. PMID:27420171

  18. Astrocytes are involved in trigeminal dynamic mechanical allodynia: potential role of D-serine.

    PubMed

    Dieb, W; Hafidi, A

    2013-09-01

    Trigeminal neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide. Despite decades of study on the neuronal processing of pain, mechanisms underlying enhanced pain states after injury remain unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent changes play a critical role in triggering central sensitization in neuropathic pain. These receptors are regulated at the glycine site through a mandatory endogenous co-agonist D-serine, which is synthesized by astrocytes. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine whether astrocytes are involved, through D-serine secretion, in dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) obtained after chronic constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) in rats. Two weeks after CCI-IoN, an important reaction of astrocytes was present in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as revealed by an up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in allodynic rats. In parallel, an increase in D-serine synthesis, which co-localized with its synthesis enzyme serine racemase, was strictly observed in astrocytes. Blocking astrocyte metabolism by intracisternal delivery of fluorocitrate alleviated DMA. Furthermore, the administration of D-amino-acid oxidase (DAAO), a D-serine-degrading enzyme, or that of L-serine O-sulfate (LSOS), a serine racemase inhibitor, significantly decreased pain behavior in allodynic rats. These results demonstrate that astrocytes are involved in the modulation of orofacial post-traumatic neuropathic pain via the release of the gliotransmitter D-serine.

  19. Are serotonergic neurons involved in the control of anxiety and in the anxiolytic activity of benzodiazepines?

    PubMed

    Thiebot, M H

    1986-05-01

    Several studies have shown that, like benzodiazepines (BZP), treatments able to reduce or block the activity of CNS serotonergic (5-HT) neurons released punished behavior. Therefore, 5-HT mechanisms have been tentatively implicated in the anti-punishment (anxiolytic?) activity of BZP. Numerous data, however, are not in keeping with this hypothesis. Since not responding enables the animals to avoid punishment but also delays the receipt of food-reward, one of these factors could be an alteration of waiting capacities. Indeed, we have shown that diazepam released behavioral suppression in conflict schedules only when the duration of the punished periods exceeded 1 minute. Moreover, in rats allowed to choose in a T-maze between immediate-but-small vs. delayed-but-large reward, BZP significantly decreased the frequency with which the delayed reward was chosen, with 5-HT uptake blockers producing opposite effects. Therefore, one can hypothesize that BZP render the animals less prone than controls to tolerate delay of reward and that 5-HT mechanisms may be involved in this phenomenon. An altered tolerance to delay of reward should be taken into account when interpreting the BZP-induced release of behavioral inhibition in classical conflict procedures. PMID:2873593

  20. Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds by ligninolytic fungi: mechanisms involved in the degradation.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Without any doubt, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) represent an environmental risk for wildlife and human beings. Endocrine-disrupting effects were found for many chemicals in products for personal use, industrial compounds and even in classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In order to understand the fate of EDCs in the environment, it is highly important to identify and to clarify the biodegradation mechanisms that can lead to their decomposition. Ligninolytic fungi (LF) are interesting microorganisms that are capable of participating in a variety of versatile decomposition mechanisms. The microorganisms represent a useful model group and, moreover, LF or their enzymes can be actively used for decontamination. Potential optimization of the decontamination process provides another important reason why it is necessary for understanding the mechanisms of EDC transformation. This minireview summarizes current knowledge about the LF biodegradation mechanisms of the most important micropollutants (xenoestrogens), including nonylphenols, bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol and polychlorinated biphenyls as POPs with endocrine-disrupting potency. Generally, LF exhibit the ability to either polymerize the target pollutants or to substantially decompose the original structure using ligninolytic enzymes and cytochrome P-450. Moreover, most of the transformation processes are accompanied by reduction of the endocrine-disrupting activity or ecotoxicity. PMID:24650234

  1. Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds by ligninolytic fungi: mechanisms involved in the degradation.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Without any doubt, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) represent an environmental risk for wildlife and human beings. Endocrine-disrupting effects were found for many chemicals in products for personal use, industrial compounds and even in classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In order to understand the fate of EDCs in the environment, it is highly important to identify and to clarify the biodegradation mechanisms that can lead to their decomposition. Ligninolytic fungi (LF) are interesting microorganisms that are capable of participating in a variety of versatile decomposition mechanisms. The microorganisms represent a useful model group and, moreover, LF or their enzymes can be actively used for decontamination. Potential optimization of the decontamination process provides another important reason why it is necessary for understanding the mechanisms of EDC transformation. This minireview summarizes current knowledge about the LF biodegradation mechanisms of the most important micropollutants (xenoestrogens), including nonylphenols, bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol and polychlorinated biphenyls as POPs with endocrine-disrupting potency. Generally, LF exhibit the ability to either polymerize the target pollutants or to substantially decompose the original structure using ligninolytic enzymes and cytochrome P-450. Moreover, most of the transformation processes are accompanied by reduction of the endocrine-disrupting activity or ecotoxicity.

  2. Mechanisms of a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy involving atmospheric pressure plasma-mediated apoptosis and DNA strand break formation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed for a variety of biomedical applications due to its chemically reactive components. Recently, the plasma has emerged as a promising novel cancer therapy based on its ability to selectively ablate cancer cells while leaving normal cells essentially unaffected. The therapeutic effect of plasma is attributed to intracellular generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and to activation of the DNA damage checkpoint signaling pathway via severe DNA strand break formation. However, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for appropriate activation of these physiological events and which pathway is more crucial for plasma-mediated cytotoxicity have not been clarified. Understanding the molecular link between ROS/RNS-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage-involved chromosome instability is critical for the development of more efficacious therapeutic strategies for selective killing of diverse cancer cells.

  3. Involvement of a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism in the nitrergic neurotransmission of the pig intravesical ureter

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores; Orensanz, Luis M; Barahona, María Victoria; Jiménez-Cidre, Miguel; Rivera, Luis; García-Sacristán, Albino; Simonsen, Ulf

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether potassium (K+) channels are involved in the relaxations to nitric oxide (NO) of pig intravesical ureteral preparations suspended in organ baths for isometric tension recordings. In ureteral strips treated with guanethidine (10−5 M) and atropine (10−7 M) to block adrenergic neurotransmission and muscarinic receptors, respectively, NO was either released from nitrergic nerves by electrical field stimulation (EFS, 0.5–10 Hz, 1 ms duration, 20 s trains), or exogenously-applied as an acidified solution of sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 10−6–10−3 M).Incubation with an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase activation by NO, methylene blue (10−5 M) did not change the basal tension of intravesical ureteral strips but inhibited the relaxation induced by EFS or exogenous NO on ureteral preparations contracted with the thromboxane analogue U46619 (10−7 M).Incubation with charybdotoxin (3×10−8 M) and apamin (5×10−7 M), which are inhibitors of large and small conductance calcium (Ca2+)-activated K+ channels, respectively, did not modify basal tension or the relaxations induced by EFS and exogenous NO. Treatment with charybdotoxin or apamin plus methylene blue (10−5 M) significantly reduced the relaxations to EFS and exogenous NO. However, in both cases the reductions were similar to the inhibition evoked by methylene blue alone. The combined addition of charybdotoxin plus apamin did not change the relaxations to EFS or exogenously added NO of the porcine intravesical ureter.Cromakalim (10−8–3×10−6 M), an opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, evoked a dose-dependent relaxation with a pD2 of 7.3±0.2 and maximum relaxant effect of a 71.8±4.2% of the contraction induced by U46619 in the pig intravesical ureter. The blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, glibenclamide (10−6 M), inhibited markedly the relaxations to cromakalim.Glibenclamide (10−6 M) had no effect on the basal tone of

  4. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The...

  5. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The...

  6. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The Administrator will refer cases of...

  7. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  8. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  9. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  10. Cortical mechanisms involved in the processing of verbs: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Miyamoto, Tadao; Riera, Jorge; Kim, Jungho; Akitsuki, Yuko; Iwata, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Kei; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we investigated two aspects of verb processing: first, whether verbs are processed differently from nouns; and second, how verbal morphology is processed. For this purpose, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare three types of lexical processing in Japanese: the processing of nouns, unmarked active verbs, and inflected passive verbs. Twenty-eight healthy subjects were shown a lexical item and asked to judge whether the presented item was a legal word. Although all three conditions activated the bilateral inferior frontal, occipital, the left middle, and inferior temporal cortices, we found differences in the degree of activation for each condition. Verbs elicited greater activation in the left middle temporal gyrus than nouns, and inflected verbs showed greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus than unmarked verbs. This study demonstrates that although verbs are basically processed in the same cortical network as nouns, nouns and verbs elicit different degrees of activation due to the cognitive demands involved in lexical semantic processing. Furthermore, this study also shows that the left inferior frontal cortex is related to the processing of verbal inflectional morphology.

  11. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  12. Mechanosensitive channels are activated by stress in the actin stress fibres, and could be involved in gravity sensing in plants.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, H; Furuichi, T; Nakano, M; Toyota, M; Hayakawa, K; Sokabe, M; Iida, H

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) channels are expressed in a variety of cells. The molecular and biophysical mechanism involved in the regulation of MS channel activities is a central interest in basic biology. MS channels are thought to play crucial roles in gravity sensing in plant cells. To date, two mechanisms have been proposed for MS channel activation. One is that tension development in the lipid bilayer directly activates MS channels. The second mechanism proposes that the cytoskeleton is involved in the channel activation, because MS channel activities are modulated by pharmacological treatments that affect the cytoskeleton. We tested whether tension in the cytoskeleton activates MS channels. Mammalian endothelial cells were microinjected with phalloidin-conjugated beads, which bound to stress fibres, and a traction force to the actin cytoskeleton was applied by dragging the beads with optical tweezers. MS channels were activated when the force was applied, demonstrating that a sub-pN force to the actin filaments activates a single MS channel. Plants may use a similar molecular mechanism in gravity sensing, since the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration increase induced by changes in the gravity vector was attenuated by potential MS channel inhibitors, and by actin-disrupting drugs. These results support the idea that the tension increase in actin filaments by gravity-dependent sedimentation of amyloplasts activates MS Ca(2+) -permeable channels, which can be the molecular mechanism of a Ca(2+) concentration increase through gravistimulation. We review recent progress in the study of tension sensing by actin filaments and MS channels using advanced biophysical methods, and discuss their possible roles in gravisensing.

  13. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the mechanisms associated with cervical cancer specific treatment.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, S; Anghel, R; Gruia, M I; Beuran, M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer represents a genuine health issue in Romania.The courses of treatment applied are complex, and the accompanying biochemical mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. Thus, radiotherapy, which induces reactive oxygen species, can lead to failure of treatment in hypoxic tissues,tissues which are difficult to identify due to the small quantity in which these cytotoxic species are produced. As a result, the aim of this paper is to identify the production and role of reactive oxygen species, as well as the manner of activation of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms in cervical cancer patients admitted to the Oncologic Institute of Bucharest. To this purpose the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were identified in 30 patients with cervical tumour localization, prior to surgery. The results obtained have showed that a production of reactive oxygen species is identifiable in these patients, having lipids as a primary target and leading to their peroxidation. The extension of protein oxidative degradation takes place at a much lower value, as well as the activation of endogenous antioxidant defence systems, comparing to our expectations. To conclude,we consider that when the production of active oxygen metabolites takes place in small concentrations, associated with hypoxia, the signals transmitted are towards modifying the phenotype under anaerobic conditions into one activating neo vascularization, angiogenesis initiation, new cell growth and proliferation. The moment that this phase is overcome anew oxidative stress is installed, one potentially destructive for biomolecules essential to life, but also useful for further treatment, such as radiotherapy.

  14. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities), Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities), Vtmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P < 0.0001), Vsucc (−65%; P < 0.0001), and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  15. Involvement of prolactin and somatostatin in depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Faron-Górecka, Agata; Kuśmider, Maciej; Solich, Joanna; Kolasa, Magdalena; Szafran, Kinga; Zurawek, Dariusz; Pabian, Paulina; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of stress responses and therefore may play an important role in the pathogenesis of affective disorders such as Major Depression Disorder (MDD). The data presented in this mini-review demonstrate the role of prolactin (PRL) and somatostatin (STT) in the pathology and pharmacotherapy of MDD, focusing particularly on the response to antidepressant treatment, and compare the available data with the results obtained in our laboratory using the well-validated chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of MDD. Despite the availability of many pharmacological therapies for depression, ca. 35% patients remain treatment resistant. This clinical situation is also true for rats subjected to CMS; some animals do not respond to antidepressant therapy and are considered treatment resistant. The most interesting results presented in this mini-review concern the changes in PRL and SST receptors in the brains of rats subjected to the full CMS procedure and IMI treatment and demonstrate the role of these receptors in the mechanisms of antidepressant action. The possible interaction between SST and PRL, the involvement of the D2 dopamine receptor, and their direct protein-protein interactions are also discussed, with the conclusion that these two neurohormones play an important role in the mechanism of resilience after stress as well as in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs.

  16. Unique Residues Involved in Activation of the Multitasking Protease/Chaperone HtrA from Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Wilhelmina M.; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Lott, William B.; Stansfield, Scott H.; Timms, Peter

    2011-01-01

    DegP, a member of the HtrA family of proteins, conducts critical bacterial protein quality control by both chaperone and proteolysis activities. The regulatory mechanisms controlling these two distinct activities, however, are unknown. DegP activation is known to involve a unique mechanism of allosteric binding, conformational changes and oligomer formation. We have uncovered a novel role for the residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation specifically for chaperone substrates of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA (DegP homolog). We have demonstrated that CtHtrA proteolysis could be activated by allosteric binding and oligomer formation. The PDZ1 activator cleft was required for the activation and oligomer formation. However, unique to CtHtrA was the critical role for residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation when the activator was an in vitro chaperone substrate. Furthermore, a potential in vivo chaperone substrate, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) from Chlamydia, was able to activate CtHtrA and induce oligomer formation. Therefore, we have revealed novel residues involved in the activation of CtHtrA which are likely to have important in vivo implications for outer membrane protein assembly. PMID:21931748

  17. Unique residues involved in activation of the multitasking protease/chaperone HtrA from Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Huston, Wilhelmina M; Tyndall, Joel D A; Lott, William B; Stansfield, Scott H; Timms, Peter

    2011-01-01

    DegP, a member of the HtrA family of proteins, conducts critical bacterial protein quality control by both chaperone and proteolysis activities. The regulatory mechanisms controlling these two distinct activities, however, are unknown. DegP activation is known to involve a unique mechanism of allosteric binding, conformational changes and oligomer formation. We have uncovered a novel role for the residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation specifically for chaperone substrates of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA (DegP homolog). We have demonstrated that CtHtrA proteolysis could be activated by allosteric binding and oligomer formation. The PDZ1 activator cleft was required for the activation and oligomer formation. However, unique to CtHtrA was the critical role for residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation when the activator was an in vitro chaperone substrate. Furthermore, a potential in vivo chaperone substrate, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) from Chlamydia, was able to activate CtHtrA and induce oligomer formation. Therefore, we have revealed novel residues involved in the activation of CtHtrA which are likely to have important in vivo implications for outer membrane protein assembly.

  18. Mechanism of action of peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase B involves a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Patrick J; Clarke, Anthony J

    2014-10-01

    The O-acetylation of the essential cell wall polymer peptidoglycan is essential in many bacteria for their integrity and survival, and it is catalyzed by peptidoglycan O-acetlytransferase B (PatB). Using PatB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae as the model, we have shown previously that the enzyme has specificity for polymeric muropeptides that possess tri- and tetrapeptide stems and that rates of reaction increase with increasing degrees of polymerization. Here, we present the catalytic mechanism of action of PatB, the first to be described for an O-acetyltransferase of any bacterial exopolysaccharide. The influence of pH on PatB activity was investigated, and pKa values of 6.4-6.45 and 6.25-6.35 for the enzyme-substrate complex (kcat vs pH) and the free enzyme (kcat·KM(-1) vs pH), respectively, were determined for the respective cosubstrates. The enzyme is partially inactivated by sulfonyl fluorides but not by EDTA, suggesting the participation of a serine residue in its catalytic mechanism. Alignment of the known and hypothetical PatB amino acid sequences identified Ser133, Asp302, and His305 as three invariant amino acid residues that could potentially serve as a catalytic triad. Replacement of Asp302 with Ala resulted in an enzyme with less than 20% residual activity, whereas activity was barely detectable with (His305 → Ala)PatB and (Ser133 → Ala)PatB was totally inactive. The reaction intermediate of the transferase reaction involving acetyl- and propionyl-acyl donors was trapped on both the wild-type and (Asp302 → Ala) enzymes and LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides identified Ser133 as the catalytic nucleophile. A transacetylase mechanism is proposed based on the mechanism of action of serine esterases. PMID:25215566

  19. A novel mechanism involving four-and-a-half LIM domain protein-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 regulates titin phosphorylation and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Anna; Lange, Stephan; Banares, Katherine; Lyon, Robert C; Zieseniss, Anke; Lee, Leonard K; Yamazaki, Katrina G; Granzier, Henk L; Gregorio, Carol C; McCulloch, Andrew D; Omens, Jeffrey H; Sheikh, Farah

    2012-08-24

    Understanding mechanisms underlying titin regulation in cardiac muscle function is of critical importance given recent compelling evidence that highlight titin mutations as major determinants of human cardiomyopathy. We previously identified a cardiac biomechanical stress-regulated complex at the cardiac-specific N2B region of titin that includes four-and-a-half LIM domain protein-1 (Fhl1) and components of the mitogen-activated protein signaling cascade, which impacted muscle compliance in Fhl1 knock-out cardiac muscle. However, direct regulation of these molecular components in mediating titin N2B function remained unresolved. Here we identify Fhl1 as a novel negative regulator of titin N2B levels and phosphorylation-mediated mechanics. We specifically identify titin N2B as a novel substrate of extracellular signal regulated-kinase-2 (Erk2) and demonstrate that Fhl1 directly interferes with Erk2-mediated titin-N2B phosphorylation. We highlight the critical region in titin-N2B that interacts with Fhl1 and residues that are dependent on Erk2-mediated phosphorylation in situ. We also propose a potential mechanism for a known titin-N2B cardiomyopathy-causing mutation that involves this regulatory complex. These studies shed light on a novel mechanism regulating titin-N2B mechano-signaling as well as suggest that dysfunction of these pathways could be important in cardiac disease states affecting muscle compliance.

  20. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  1. Novel mechanism for scavenging of hypochlorite involving a periplasmic methionine-rich peptide and methionine sulfoxide reductase

    DOE PAGES

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Lavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Coates, John D.

    2015-05-12

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and amore » putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. In addition, bacteria are often stressed in the environment by reactive chlorine species (RCS) of

  2. Novel mechanism for scavenging of hypochlorite involving a periplasmic methionine-rich peptide and methionine sulfoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Lavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Coates, John D.

    2015-05-12

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and a putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. In addition, bacteria are often

  3. Mechanisms of Specificity for Hox Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zandvakili, Arya; Gebelein, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Metazoans encode clusters of paralogous Hox genes that are critical for proper development of the body plan. However, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding how paralogous Hox factors achieve specificity to control distinct cell fates. First, how do Hox paralogs, which have very similar DNA binding preferences in vitro, drive different transcriptional programs in vivo? Second, the number of potential Hox binding sites within the genome is vast compared to the number of sites bound. Hence, what determines where in the genome Hox factors bind? Third, what determines whether a Hox factor will activate or repress a specific target gene? Here, we review the current evidence that is beginning to shed light onto these questions. In particular, we highlight how cooperative interactions with other transcription factors (especially PBC and HMP proteins) and the sequences of cis-regulatory modules provide a basis for the mechanisms of Hox specificity. We conclude by integrating a number of the concepts described throughout the review in a case study of a highly interrogated Drosophila cis-regulatory module named “The Distal-less Conserved Regulatory Element” (DCRE). PMID:27583210

  4. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Roger, Emmanuel; Foure, Laurent; Duval, David; Mone, Yves; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Tambutte, Eric; Tambutte, Sylvie; Zoccola, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Mitta, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C). The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching) and the non stressed states (control) were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function) were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin) contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich). Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress. Conclusion Under thermal

  5. Molecular mechanisms involved in secretory vesicle recruitment to the plasma membrane in beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Varadi, Aniko; Ainscow, E K; Allan, V J; Rutter, G A

    2002-04-01

    Glucose stimulates the release of insulin in part by activating the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface. While this movement is known to be microtubule-dependent, the molecular motors involved are undefined. Active kinesin was found to be essential for vesicle translocation in live beta-cells, since microinjection of cDNA encoding dominant-negative KHC(mut) (motor domain of kinesin heavy chain containing a Thr(93)-->Asn point mutation) blocked vesicular movements. Moreover, expression of KHC(mut) strongly inhibited the sustained, but not acute, stimulation of secretion by glucose. Thus, vesicles released during the first phase of insulin secretion exist largely within a translocation-independent pool. Kinesin-driven anterograde movement of vesicles is then necessary for the sustained (second phase) of insulin release. Kinesin may, therefore, represent a novel target for increases in intracellular ATP concentrations in response to elevated extracellular glucose and may be involved in the ATP-sensitive K+channel-independent stimulation of secretion by the sugar.

  6. Cardioproteomics: advancing the discovery of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ziyou; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V

    2011-01-01

    Cardioproteomics (Cardiovascular proteomics) is fast becoming an indispensible technique in deciphering changes in signaling pathways that occur in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The quality and availability of the instruments and bioinformatics software used for cardioproteomics continues to improve, and these techniques are now available to most cardiovascular researchers either directly or indirectly via university core centers. The heart and aorta are specialized tissues which present unique challenges to investigate. Currently, the diverse range of proteomic techniques available for cardiovascular research makes the choice of the best method or best combination of methods for the disease parameter(s) being investigated as important as the equipment used. This review focuses on proteomic techniques and their applications which have advanced our understanding of the signaling mechanisms involved in CVDs at the levels of protein complex/protein-protein interaction, post-translational modifications and signaling induced protein changes. PMID:22254205

  7. Recognition of mechanisms involved in bile resistance important to halting antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Han; Wu, Sih-Ru; Lee, Hao-Yuan; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2012-08-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a global public health problem that complicates antimicrobial therapy. As an enteric pathogen, Salmonella must endure the presence of bile in the intestinal tract during the course of infection. In this study, we sought to identify Salmonella genes necessary for bile resistance and to investigate their association with antimicrobial resistance. Four genes related to bile resistance were identified, namely rfaP, rfbK, dam and tolC. The first three genes are involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and tolC is associated with an efflux pump. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed increased susceptibility to polymyxin B and ciprofloxacin in rfaP and tolC mutants of Salmonella, respectively. Genetic analysis of 45 clinical isolates of NTS revealed that all isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.125 mg/L) were associated with point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and parC genes. The efflux pump also played a role, as evidenced by the reduction in fluoroquinolone resistance when the TolC efflux pump was inhibited by Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, a competitive efflux pump inhibitor. Based on these results, we conclude that an intact membrane structure and the efflux pump system provide mechanisms enabling NTS to resist bile. Caution should be taken when using ciprofloxacin and polymyxin B to treat Salmonella enteric infection, as resistance to these agents involves the same mechanisms. Addition of an efflux pump inhibitor to fluoroquinolones may be an effective strategy to deal with the increasing resistance in NTS.

  8. GABAB receptors modulate catecholamine secretion in chromaffin cells by a mechanism involving cyclic AMP formation.

    PubMed Central

    Oset-Gasque, M. J.; Parramón, M.; González, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The function of gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptors in modulation of catecholamine secretion by chromaffin cells and the possible mechanism involved in this action have been examined. 2. The GABAB agonists (-)-baclofen and 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (3-APPA) were found to induce a dose-dependent increase of basal catecholamine secretion. The EC50s were 151 +/- 35 microM and 225 +/- 58 microM for baclofen and 3-APPA, respectively. This stimulatory effect was specific since it could be blocked by 0.5 mM of the specific GABAB antagonist CGP-35348. 3. In contrast, preincubation of chromaffin cells with the GABAB agonists was found to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the catecholamine secretion evoked by 10 microM nicotine and 200 microM muscimol. 4. The effects of GABAB agonists on both basal and evoked catecholamine secretion were found to be accompanied by parallel changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). GABAB agonists produced a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i which was partially blocked by CGP 35348, but they produced a strong inhibition of the [Ca2+]i increase induced by nicotine and muscimol. 5. The GABAB agonists also produced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular cyclic AMP levels, there being a direct correlation between both increase in catecholamine secretion and in intracellular cyclic AMP levels. 6. The pretreatment of chromaffin cells with pertussis toxin doubled the catecholamine secretion and increased by four times the intracellular cyclic AMP levels evoked by GABAB agonists. 7. The possible involvement of adenylate cyclase in the mechanism of GABAA receptor modulation of catecholamine secretion is discussed. PMID:8306105

  9. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  10. Rejection Triggers Liver Transplant Tolerance: Involvements of Mesenchyme-Mediated Immune Control Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Miwa; Joyce, Daniel; Miller, Charles; Fung, John J.; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang

    2015-01-01

    Liver tolerance was initially recognized by the spontaneous acceptance of liver allograft in many species. The underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We have been inspired by an unexpected phenomenon that the liver transplant tolerance absolutely requires interferon (IFN)-γ, a rejection-associated inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we investigate the rejection of liver allografts deficient in IFN-γ receptor and reveal that the liver graft is equipped with machineries capable of counterattacking the host immune response through a mesenchyme-mediated immune control (MMIC) mechanism. MMIC is triggered by T effectors (Tef) cell-derived IFN-γ to drive the expression of B7-H1 on graft mesenchymal cells leading to Tef cell apoptosis. We describe the negative feedback loop between graft mesenchymal and Tef cells that ultimately results in liver transplant tolerance. Comparable elevations of T regulatory cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are seen in both rejection and tolerance groups, and are not dependent on IFN-γ stimulation, suggesting a critical role of Tef cell elimination in tolerance induction. We identify potent MMIC activity in hepatic stellate cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. MMIC is unlikely exclusive to the liver, as spontaneous acceptance of kidney allografts has been reported, although less commonly, probably reflecting variance in MMIC activity. MMCI may represent an important homeostatic mechanism that supports peripheral tolerance, and could be a target for the prevention and treatment of transplant rejection. This study highlights that the graft is actively participant in the equipoise between tolerance and rejection and warrants more attention in the search for tolerance biomarkers. PMID:25998530

  11. Key diffusion mechanisms involved in regulating bidirectional water permeation across E. coli outer membrane lectin.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Kolimi, Narendar; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are major bacterial virulent determinants that facilitate host immune evasion. E. coli group1 K30CPS is noncovalently attached to bacterial surface by Wzi, a lectin. Intriguingly, structure based phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wzi falls into porin superfamily. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further shed light on dual role of Wzi as it also functions as a bidirectional passive water specific porin. Such a functional role of Wzi was not realized earlier, due to the occluded pore. While five water specific entry points distributed across extracellular &periplasmic faces regulate the water diffusion involving different mechanisms, a luminal hydrophobic plug governs water permeation across the channel. Coincidently, MD observed open state structure of "YQF" triad is seen in sugar-binding site of sodium-galactose cotransporters, implicating its involvement in K30CPS surface anchorage. Importance of Loop 5 (L5) in membrane insertion is yet another highlight. Change in water diffusion pattern of periplasmic substitution mutants suggests Wzi's role in osmoregulation by aiding in K30CPS hydration, corroborating earlier functional studies. Water molecules located inside β-barrel of Wzi crystal structure further strengthens the role of Wzi in osmoregulation. Thus, interrupting water diffusion or L5 insertion may reduce bacterial virulence.

  12. Post-ictal analgesia: involvement of opioid, serotoninergic and cholinergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, N C; Castro-Souza, C; Segato, E N; Nora, J E; Herrero, C F; Tedeschi-Filho, W; Garcia-Cairasco, N

    2001-01-12

    The neural mechanisms involved in post-ictal analgesia remain to be elucidated. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) is used experimentally to induce seizure in animal subjects. This non-competitive antagonist blocks GABA-mediated Cl(-) flux. The aim of this work is to study the neurochemical basis of the antinociception induced by convulsions elicited by peripheral administration of PTZ (64 mg/kg). The analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test, in eight rats per group. Convulsions were followed by significant increase in the tail-flick latencies (TFL), at least for 30 min of the post-ictal period. Peripheral administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg), atropine (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg), methysergide (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and ketanserine (1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the TFL in seizing animals, as compared to controls. However, while naloxone antagonized analgesia 15 and 25 min post convulsions, the other drugs caused a blockade of the post-ictal analgesia in a relatively greater period of time. These results indicate that endogenous opioids, serotonin and acetylcholine may be involved in post-ictal analgesia.

  13. Evolution of oropharyngeal patterning mechanisms involving Dlx and endothelins in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Takio, Yoko; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    In jawed vertebrates, the Dlx code, or nested expression patterns of Dlx genes, specify the dorsoventral polarity of pharyngeal arches, downstream of endothelin-1 (Edn-1) and its effectors, Bapx1 (Nkx3.2) and dHand (Hand2). To elucidate the evolution of the specification mechanism of the oropharyngeal skeletal system, lamprey homologs of Dlx, Edn, endothelin receptor (Ednr), Bapx1, and dHand were identified. Our analysis suggested that the Edn gene family emerged at the advent of vertebrates, and that gene duplications leading to the different Edn gnathostome subtypes (Edn1-3) occurred before the cyclostome-gnathostome split. This timing of gene duplications, giving rise to multiple subtypes, was also implied for Dlx, Ednr, Hand, and Bapx. In lamprey embryos, nested expressions of Dlx genes were not observed in pharyngeal arches, nor was any focal expression of Bapx1, known in gnathostomes to specify the jaw joint. The dHand homolog, however, was expressed more intensively ventrally, as in gnathostomes. Lamprey homologs of Edn-1 and EdnrA were also shown to be expressed as described in mice, indicating involvement of this signaling pathway in the craniofacial patterning early in vertebrate evolution. These results suggest that the last common ancestor of all the extant vertebrates would have possessed basic gene repertoires involved in oropharyngeal patterning in gnathostomes, but the elaborate genetic program leading to the Dlx code is likely to have been acquired uniquely in gnathostomes. PMID:20171204

  14. Key diffusion mechanisms involved in regulating bidirectional water permeation across E. coli outer membrane lectin

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Kolimi, Narendar; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are major bacterial virulent determinants that facilitate host immune evasion. E. coli group1 K30CPS is noncovalently attached to bacterial surface by Wzi, a lectin. Intriguingly, structure based phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wzi falls into porin superfamily. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further shed light on dual role of Wzi as it also functions as a bidirectional passive water specific porin. Such a functional role of Wzi was not realized earlier, due to the occluded pore. While five water specific entry points distributed across extracellular & periplasmic faces regulate the water diffusion involving different mechanisms, a luminal hydrophobic plug governs water permeation across the channel. Coincidently, MD observed open state structure of “YQF” triad is seen in sugar-binding site of sodium-galactose cotransporters, implicating its involvement in K30CPS surface anchorage. Importance of Loop 5 (L5) in membrane insertion is yet another highlight. Change in water diffusion pattern of periplasmic substitution mutants suggests Wzi’s role in osmoregulation by aiding in K30CPS hydration, corroborating earlier functional studies. Water molecules located inside β-barrel of Wzi crystal structure further strengthens the role of Wzi in osmoregulation. Thus, interrupting water diffusion or L5 insertion may reduce bacterial virulence. PMID:27320406

  15. Bacillus subtilis polynucleotide phosphorylase 3'-to-5' DNase activity is involved in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Paula P; Carrasco, Begoña; Sanchez, Humberto; Deikus, Gintaras; Bechhofer, David H; Alonso, Juan C

    2009-07-01

    In the presence of Mn(2+), an activity in a preparation of purified Bacillus subtilis RecN degrades single-stranded (ss) DNA with a 3' --> 5' polarity. This activity is not associated with RecN itself, because RecN purified from cells lacking polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) does not show the exonuclease activity. We show here that, in the presence of Mn(2+) and low-level inorganic phosphate (P(i)), PNPase degrades ssDNA. The limited end-processing of DNA is regulated by ATP and is inactive in the presence of Mg(2+) or high-level P(i). In contrast, the RNase activity of PNPase requires Mg(2+) and P(i), suggesting that PNPase degradation of RNA and ssDNA occur by mutually exclusive mechanisms. A null pnpA mutation (DeltapnpA) is not epistatic with Delta recA, but is epistatic with DeltarecN and Delta ku, which by themselves are non-epistatic. The addA5, Delta recO, Delta recQ (Delta recJ), Delta recU and Delta recG mutations (representative of different epistatic groups), in the context of DeltapnpA, demonstrate gain- or loss-of-function by inactivation of repair-by-recombination, depending on acute or chronic exposure to the damaging agent and the nature of the DNA lesion. Our data suggest that PNPase is involved in various nucleic acid metabolic pathways, and its limited ssDNA exonuclease activity plays an important role in RecA-dependent and RecA-independent repair pathways. PMID:19433509

  16. Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: Youtube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrenya, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Active-learning exercises appropriate for a course in undergraduate fluid mechanics are presented. The first exercise involves an experiment in gravity-driven tube flow, with small groups of students partaking in a contest to predict the experimental flow rates using the mechanical energy balance. The second exercise takes the form of an…

  17. A cascade of recently discovered molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance of plants.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Dahab, Abdel hafiz Adam; Wangzhen, Guo; Tianzhen, Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Today, agriculture is facing a tremendous threat from the climate change menace. As human survival is dependent on a constant supply of food from plants as the primary producers, we must aware of the underlying molecular mechanisms that plants have acquired as a result of molecular evolution to cope this rapidly changing environment. This understanding will help us in designing programs aimed at developing crop plant cultivars best suited to our needs of a sustainable agriculture. The field of systems biology is rapidly progressing, and new insight is coming out about the molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance. There is a cascade of changes in transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of plants during these stress responses. We have tried to cover most pronounced recent developments in the field of "omics" related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. These changes are very coordinated, and often there is crosstalk between different components of stress tolerance. The functions of various molecular entities are becoming more clear and being associated with more precise biological phenomenon.

  18. Damage mechanism involved in the solid particle erosion of CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Alun R.; Field, John E.

    2001-09-01

    Sophisticated electro-optic sensors are employed on aircraft and missiles, and it is essential to protect them from relatively high-speed impacts with airborne dust particles. A loss in transmission caused by such an event can impair guidance, and catastrophic failure may occur. Protection is afforded by the installation of a hard cover that is transparent in the relevant regime. Diamond is potentially by far the most attractive window material due to excellent optical and mechanical properties, but it is difficult to shape. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond is a polycrystalline synthetic with properties that approach those of single crystal diamond, and it can be more easily shaped. The aims of the present research were to quantify the erosion and transmission losses, and to understand the material removal mechanisms involved. Steady-state erosion rates were obtained for CVD diamond of different grain sizes, using 300-600 micrometers quartz erodent at velocities between 60 and 140 m/s. Images of CVD diamond at various stages of erosion, obtained using an optical microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), reveal that erosion initially occurs at grain boundaries and that so-called micro-features also have some influence on erosion.

  19. Protein Machineries Involved in the Attachment of Heme to Cytochrome c: Protein Structures and Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Travaglini-Allocatelli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes c (Cyt c) are ubiquitous heme-containing proteins, mainly involved in electron transfer processes, whose structure and functions have been and still are intensely studied. Surprisingly, our understanding of the molecular mechanism whereby the heme group is covalently attached to the apoprotein (apoCyt) in the cell is still largely unknown. This posttranslational process, known as Cyt c biogenesis or Cyt c maturation, ensures the stereospecific formation of the thioether bonds between the heme vinyl groups and the cysteine thiols of the apoCyt heme binding motif. To accomplish this task, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have evolved distinctive protein machineries composed of different proteins. In this review, the structural and functional properties of the main maturation apparatuses found in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells will be presented, dissecting the Cyt c maturation process into three functional steps: (i) heme translocation and delivery, (ii) apoCyt thioreductive pathway, and (iii) apoCyt chaperoning and heme ligation. Moreover, current hypotheses and open questions about the molecular mechanisms of each of the three steps will be discussed, with special attention to System I, the maturation apparatus found in gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24455431

  20. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    PubMed Central

    López-Canales, J.S.; Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C.; López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect. PMID:25831200

  1. A spectroscopic method to determine the activity of the restriction endonuclease EcoRV that involves a single reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Quiñones, Edwin

    2016-03-15

    A one-step protocol is presented to determine the activity of EcoRV as a model of restriction enzymes. The protocol involved a molecular beacon as DNA substrate, with the target sequence recognized by EcoRV in the stem. EcoRV cleaved the stem forming two fragments, one of which contained the fluorophore and quencher, initially bound by 3 bp. This shorter fragment rapidly dissociated at 37 °C, causing an increase of fluorescence intensity that was used to gauge the reaction kinetics. The reaction can be described using the Michaelis-Menten mechanism, and the kinetic parameters obtained were compared with literature values involving other protocols.

  2. Crosstalk of Signaling Mechanisms Involved in Host Defense and Symbiosis Against Microorganisms in Rice.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Akira; Shimamoto, Ko; Kawano, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops, feeding about half population in the world. Rice pathogens cause enormous damage to rice production worldwide. In plant immunity research, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity. Using genome sequencing and molecular techniques, a number of new MAMPs and their receptors have been identified in the past two decades. Notably, the mechanisms for chitin perception via the lysine motif (LysM) domain-containing receptor OsCERK1, as well as the mechanisms for bacterial MAMP (e.g. flg22, elf18) perception via the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain-containing receptors FLS2 and EFR, have been clarified in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. In chitin signaling in rice, two direct substrates of OsCERK1, Rac/ROP GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor OsRacGEF1 and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase OsRLCK185, have been identified as components of the OsCERK1 complex and are rapidly phosphorylated by OsCERK1 in response to chitin. Interestingly, OsCERK1 also participates in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in rice and plays a role in the recognition of short-chitin molecules (CO4/5), which are symbiotic signatures included in AMF germinated spore exudates and induced by synthetic strigolactone. Thus, OsCERK1 contributes to both immunity and symbiotic responses. In this review, we describe recent studies on pathways involved in rice immunity and symbiotic signaling triggered by interactions with microorganisms. In addition, we describe recent advances in genetic engineering by using plant immune receptors and symbiotic microorganisms to enhance disease resistance of rice. PMID:27499679

  3. A common mechanism underlies stretch activation and receptor activation of TRPC6 channels

    PubMed Central

    Spassova, Maria A.; Hewavitharana, Thamara; Xu, Wen; Soboloff, Jonathan; Gill, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The TRP family of ion channels transduce an extensive range of chemical and physical signals. TRPC6 is a receptor-activated nonselective cation channel expressed widely in vascular smooth muscle and other cell types. We report here that TRPC6 is also a sensor of mechanically and osmotically induced membrane stretch. Pressure-induced activation of TRPC6 was independent of phospholipase C. The stretch responses were blocked by the tarantula peptide, GsMTx-4, known to specifically inhibit mechanosensitive channels by modifying the external lipid-channel boundary. The GsMTx-4 peptide also blocked the activation of TRPC6 channels by either receptor-induced PLC activation or by direct application of diacylglycerol. The effects of the peptide on both stretch- and diacylglycerol-mediated TRPC6 activation indicate that the mechanical and chemical lipid sensing by the channel has a common molecular mechanism that may involve lateral-lipid tension. The mechanosensing properties of TRPC6 channels highly expressed in smooth muscle cells are likely to play a key role in regulating myogenic tone in vascular tissue. PMID:17056714

  4. Dynamin-2 regulates fusion pore expansion and quantal release through a mechanism that involves actin dynamics in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    González-Jamett, Arlek M; Momboisse, Fanny; Guerra, María José; Ory, Stéphane; Báez-Matus, Ximena; Barraza, Natalia; Calco, Valerie; Houy, Sébastien; Couve, Eduardo; Neely, Alan; Martínez, Agustín D; Gasman, Stéphane; Cárdenas, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, dynamin has been implicated in tuning the amount and nature of transmitter released during exocytosis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, we investigated whether this mechanism rely on dynamin's ability to remodel actin cytoskeleton. According to this idea, inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity suppressed the calcium-dependent de novo cortical actin and altered the cortical actin network. Similarly, expression of a small interfering RNA directed against dynamin-2, an isoform highly expressed in chromaffin cells, changed the cortical actin network pattern. Disruption of dynamin-2 function, as well as the pharmacological inhibition of actin polymerization with cytochalasine-D, slowed down fusion pore expansion and increased the quantal size of individual exocytotic events. The effects of cytochalasine-D and dynamin-2 disruption were not additive indicating that dynamin-2 and F-actin regulate the late steps of exocytosis by a common mechanism. Together our data support a model in which dynamin-2 directs actin polymerization at the exocytosis site where both, in concert, adjust the hormone quantal release to efficiently respond to physiological demands.

  5. Evidence for the involvement of descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms in the antinociceptive effect of hecogenin acetate.

    PubMed

    Gama, Kelly Barbosa; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santana, Wagno Alcântara; Branco, Alexsandro; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Villarreal, Cristiane Flora

    2013-04-26

    Hecogenin is a sapogenin present in the leaves of species from the Agave genus, with a wide spectrum of reported pharmacological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether hecogenin acetate (1) has antinociceptive properties and to determine its mechanism of action. The nociceptive threshold was evaluated using the tail flick test in mice. Mice motor performance was evaluated in a Rotarod test. By using Fos expression as a marker of neural activation, the involvement of the periaqueductal gray in 1-induced antinociception was evaluated. Intraperitoneal administration of 1 (5-40 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent increase in the tail flick latency time compared to vehicle-treated group (p < 0.01). Mice treated with 1 (40 mg/kg) did not show motor performance alterations. The antinociception of 1 (40 mg/kg) was prevented by naloxone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist; 5 mg/kg), CTOP (μ-opioid receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg), nor-BNI (κ-opioid receptor antagonist; 0.5 mg/kg), naltrindole (δ-opioid receptor antagonist; 3 mg/kg), or glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker; 2 mg/kg). Systemic administration of 1 (5-40 mg/kg) increased the number of Fos positive cells in the periaqueductal gray. The present study has demonstrated for the first time that 1 produces consistent antinociception mediated by opioid receptors and endogenous analgesic mechanisms. PMID:23437926

  6. Involvement of BimL activation in apoptosis induced by lysosomal photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xianwang; Li, Hui

    2008-12-01

    Lysosomal photosensitizers have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Combination of such photosensitizers and light causes lysosomal photodamage, inducing cell death. The lysosomal disruption can lead to apoptosis but its signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we selected N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), an effective photosensitizer which preferentially accumulates in lysosomes, to study the mechanism of apoptosis caused by lysosomal photodamage. Apoptosis in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells treated by NPe6-PDT was studied using real-time single-cell analysis. Confocal imaging of cells transfected with BimL-GFP demonstrated that BimL translocated to mitochondria after NPe6-PDT treatment for about 150 min, and then sequestered into clusters associated with the mitochondira within 30 min. The activation of BimL proved to be an important event in the apoptotic machinery, as demonstrated by the significant protection of cell death in samples suppressed the expression level of endogenous BimL. This study demonstrates that BimL activation was involved in the cell death induced by PDT with lysosomal photosensitizer.

  7. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  8. Involvement of RVM-expressed P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain: mechanism of descending facilitation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhang Xiang; Lu, Zhi Jie; Ma, Wei Qing; Wu, Fei Xiang; Zhang, Yu Qiu; Yu, Wei-Feng; Zhao, Zhi Qi

    2014-04-01

    Patients with bone cancer commonly experience bone pain that is severe, intolerable, and difficult to manage. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) plays an important role in the development of chronic pain via descending facilitation of spinal nociception. The compelling evidence shows that glial P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is involved in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain syndromes. The present study explored the mechanism of glial activation and P2X7R expression underlying the induction of bone cancer pain. The results demonstrated that microglia and astrocytes in the RVM were markedly activated in bone cancer rats, and the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated. Injection of Brilliant Blue G (BBG), an inhibitor of P2X7R, into the RVM significantly alleviated pain behaviors of cancer rats, which was supported by intra-RVM injection of RNA interference targeting the P2X7R in the RVM. It is suggested that activation of microglia-expressed P2X7R in the RVM contributes to bone cancer pain. Given that 5-HT in the RVM is involved in modulating spinal nociception, changes in 5-HT and Fos expression were addressed in the spinal cord. Inhibition of P2X7R by BBG or small-interference RNA targeting P2X7 in the RVM markedly reduced 5-HT level and Fos expression in the spinal cord. The data clearly suggest that the activation of microglial P2X7R in the RVM contributes to the development of bone cancer pain via upregulation of spinal 5HT levels by the descending pain facilitatory system.

  9. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  11. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  12. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests....101(b)(2) continues to apply, unmodified by 34 CFR 97.401(b), to— (i) Educational tests; and (ii... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a)...

  13. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests....101(b)(2) continues to apply, unmodified by 34 CFR 97.401(b), to— (i) Educational tests; and (ii... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... That office has the responsibility for investigating or referring the matter, where appropriate, to the... activities which should be referred are matters involving fraud, anti-trust violations, embezzlement,...

  15. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... That office has the responsibility for investigating or referring the matter, where appropriate, to the... activities which should be referred are matters involving fraud, anti-trust violations, embezzlement,...

  16. Insights into Reference Point Indentation Involving Human Cortical Bone: Sensitivity to Tissue Anisotropy and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granke, Mathilde; Coulmier, Aurélie; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-01-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) is a microindentation technique involving 20 cycles of loading in “force-control” that can directly assess a patient’s bone tissue properties. Even though preliminary clinical studies indicate a capability for fracture discrimination, little is known about what mechanical behavior the various RPI properties characterize and how these properties relate to traditional mechanical properties of bone. To address this, the present study investigated the sensitivity of RPI properties to anatomical location and tissue organization as well as examined to what extent RPI measurements explain the intrinsic mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Multiple indents with a target force of 10 N were done in 2 orthogonal directions (longitudinal and transverse) per quadrant (anterior, medial, posterior, and lateral) of the femoral mid-shaft acquired from 26 donors (25–101 years old). Additional RPI measurements were acquired for 3 orthogonal directions (medial only). Independent of age, most RPI properties did not vary among these locations, but they did exhibit transverse isotropy such that resistance to indentation is greater in the longitudinal (axial) direction than in the transverse direction (radial or circumferential). Next, beam specimens (~ 2 mm × 5 mm × 40 mm) were extracted from the medial cortex of femoral mid-shafts, acquired from 34 donors (21–99 years old). After monotonically loading the specimens in three-point bending to failure, RPI properties were acquired from an adjacent region outside the span. Indent direction was orthogonal to the bending axis. A significant inverse relationship was found between resistance to indentation and the apparent-level mechanical properties. Indentation distance increase (IDI) and a linear combination of IDI and the loading slope, averaged over cycles 3 through 20, provided the best explanation of the variance in ultimate stress (r2=0.25, p=0.003) and toughness (r2=0.35, p=0

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammasome Activation during Microbial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Petr; Monack, Denise M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The innate immune system plays a crucial role in the rapid recognition and elimination of invading microbes. Detection of microbes relies on germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize essential bacterial molecules, so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A subset of PRRs, belonging to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) and the PYHIN protein families, detects viral and bacterial pathogens in the cytosol of host cells and induces the assembly of a multi-protein signaling platform called the inflammasome. The inflammasome serves as an activation platform for the mammalian cysteine protease caspase-1, a central mediator of innate immunity. Active caspase-1 promotes the maturation and release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 as well as protein involved in cytoprotection and tissue repair. In addition, caspase-1 initiates a novel form of cell death called pyroptosis. Here we discuss latest advances and our insights on inflammasome stimulation by two model intracellular pathogens, Francisella tularensis and Salmonella typhimurium. Recent studies on these pathogens have significantly shaped our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation and how microbes can evade or manipulate inflammasome activity. In addition, we review the role of the inflammasome adapter ASC in the caspase-1 autoproteolysis and new insights into the structure of the inflammasome complex. PMID:21884176

  18. Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Anderson, Erling A.; Johnson, Alan Kim; Mark, Allyn L.

    1996-01-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of arterial hypertension. Although insulin may elevate arterial pressure, in part, through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the sites and mechanisms of insulin-induced sympathetic excitation remain uncertain. While sympathoexcitation during insulin may be mediated by the baroreflex, or by modulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve endings, it has been shown repeatedly that insulin increases sympathetic outflow by actions on the central nervous system. Previous studies employing norepinephrine turnover have suggested that insulin causes sympathoexcitation by acting in the hypothalamus. Recent experiments from our laboratory involving direct measurements of regional sympathetic nerve activity have provided further evidence that insulin acts in the central nervous system. For example, administration of insulin into the third cerebralventricle increased lumbar but not renal or adrenal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive rats. Interestingly, this pattern of regional sympathetic nerve responses to central neural administration of insulin is similar to that seen with systemic administration of insulin. Further, lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle hypothalamic (AV3V) region abolished increases in sympathetic activity to systemic administration of insulin with euglycemic clamp, suggesting that AV3V-related structures are critical for insulin-induced elevations in sympathetic outflow.

  19. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  20. The mechanism of copper activation of sphalerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerson, Andrea R.; Lange, Angela G.; Prince, Kathryn E.; Smart, Roger St. C.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of recent SIMS and XAFS measurements in conjunction with already published XPS results, a mechanism for the adsorption/absorption of Cu onto sphalerite is proposed. Under conditions of high pH and high nominal surface coverage of the sphalerite by the Cu, Cu(OH) 2 colloidal particles are observed on the sphalerite surfaces using SIMS. Under other conditions, SIMS measurements have indicated that adsorption of the Cu is essentially uniform over the sphalerite surface and is not related to low coordination sites on the surface of the sphalerite. Depth profiling of sphalerite surfaces with Cu adsorbed under conditions that do not result in Cu(OH) 2 colloidal particles show that the Cu adsorbed/absorbed on the sphalerite surface is largely in the first few atomic layers. XAFS analysis of Cu activated sphalerite has indicated that the Cu occupies a distorted trigonal planar geometry, coordinated to three S atoms, in both surface and bulk sites. In addition Cu(1s), absorption edges in XAFS show that both bulk and surface adsorbed copper have an oxidation state less than +1 with the surface Cu being slightly more oxidised than the bulk absorbed Cu. On the basis of the combined XPS, SIMS, XAFS and solution studies, a model is proposed that, on surface adsorption of Cu, the surface Zn(II) atoms are replaced by Cu(II) atoms which are then reduced in situ to Cu(I). This reduction is accompanied by the oxidation of the three neighbouring S atoms to an oxidation state of approximately -1.5. On bulk absorption of Cu atoms into the sphalerite lattice a distorted trigonal planar configuration is achieved through the breakage of a formerly tetrahedral Zn-S bond. The breakage of this bond results in a 3-fold coordinated Cu plus one S 3-fold coordinated to Zn atoms. The breakage of this bond leads to a greater reduction of the Cu than on surface absorption and also oxidation of the 3-fold coordinated S atom to an approximately -0.5 oxidation state. This model does not

  1. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  2. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  3. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  4. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  5. Triskelion Structure of the Gli521 Protein, Involved in the Gliding Mechanism of Mycoplasma mobile▿

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Takahiro; Adan-Kubo, Jun; Miyata, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma mobile binds to solid surfaces and glides smoothly and continuously by a unique mechanism. A huge protein, Gli521 (521 kDa), is involved in the gliding machinery, and it is localized in the cell neck, the base of the membrane protrusion. This protein is thought to have the role of force transmission. In this study, the Gli521 protein was purified from M. mobile cells, and its molecular shape was studied. Gel filtration analysis showed that the isolated Gli521 protein forms mainly a monomer in Tween 80-containing buffer and oligomers in Triton X-100-containing buffer. Rotary shadowing electron microscopy showed that the Gli521 monomer consisted of three parts: an oval, a rod, and a hook. The oval was 15 nm long by 11 nm wide, and the filamentous part composed of the rod and the hook was 106 nm long and 3 nm in diameter. The Gli521 molecules form a trimer, producing a “triskelion” reminiscent of eukaryotic clathrin, through association at the hook end. Image averaging of the central part of the triskelion suggested that there are stable and rigid structures. The binding site of a previously isolated monoclonal antibody on Gli521 images showed that the hook end and oval correspond to the C- and N-terminal regions, respectively. Partial digestion of Gli521 showed that the molecule could be divided into three domains, which we assigned to the oval, rod, and hook of the molecular image. The Gli521 molecule's role in the gliding mechanism is discussed. PMID:19915029

  6. Glutamate activation of Oct-2 in cultured chick Bergmann glia cells: involvement of NFkappaB.

    PubMed

    Méndez, J Alfredo; López-Bayghen, Esther; Ortega, Arturo

    2005-07-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is critically involved in gene expression regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels. Its activity through ionotropic as well as metabotropic receptors modifies the protein repertoire in neurons and glial cells. In avian cerebellar Bergmann glia cells, glutamate receptors trigger a diverse array of signaling cascades that include activity-dependent transcription factors such as the activator protein-1, the cAMP response-element binding protein, and Oct-2. We analyze the upstream regulatory elements involved in Oct-2 activation. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ influx, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Src, and nuclear factor (NF)kappaB are involved in this signaling pathway. Our findings link alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor activation to a negative phase of chkbp gene regulation, controlled by NFkappaB.

  7. Structure-function analyses involving palindromic analogs of tritrypticin suggest autonomy of anti-endotoxin and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kanwal J; Sarkar, Pampi; Nagpal, Sushma; Khan, Tarique; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-03-01

    Neutralization of invading pathogens by gene-encoded peptide antibiotics has been suggested to manifest in a variety of different modes. Some of these modes require internalization of the peptide through a pathway that involves LPS-mediated uptake of the peptide antibiotics. Many proline/tryptophan-rich cationic peptides for which this mode has been invoked do, indeed, show LPS (endotoxin) binding. If the mechanism of antibiotic action involves the LPS-mediated pathway, a positive correlation ought to manifest between the binding to LPS, its neutralization, and the bacterial killing. No such correlation was evident based on our studies involving minimal active analogs of tritrypticin. The anti-endotoxin activities of these analogs appear not to relate directly to their antibiotic potential. The two palindromic analogs of tritrypticin, NT7 (RRFPWWW) and CT7 (WWWPFRR), showed comparable antibacterial activities. However, while NT7 exhibited anti-endotoxin activity, CT7 did not. The LPS binding of two tritrypticin analogs correlated with their corresponding structures, but the antibacterial activities did not. Further structure-function analysis indicated specific structural implications of the antibacterial activity at the molecular level. Studies involving designed analogs of NT7 incorporating either rigid or flexible linkers between the specifically distanced hydrophobic and cationic clusters modulate the LPS binding. On the other hand, not knowing the target receptor for antibacterial activity is a drawback since the precise epitope for antibacterial activity is not definable. It is apparent that the anti-endotoxin and antibacterial activities represent two independent functions of tritrypticin, consistent with the emerging multifunctionality in the nature of cathelicidins.

  8. Successful retrieval of competing spatial environments in humans involves hippocampal pattern separation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Colin T; Stokes, Jared D; Lieberman, Jennifer S; Hassan, Abdul S; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2015-01-01

    The rodent hippocampus represents different spatial environments distinctly via changes in the pattern of "place cell" firing. It remains unclear, though, how spatial remapping in rodents relates more generally to human memory. Here participants retrieved four virtual reality environments with repeating or novel landmarks and configurations during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both neural decoding performance and neural pattern similarity measures revealed environment-specific hippocampal neural codes. Conversely, an interfering spatial environment did not elicit neural codes specific to that environment, with neural activity patterns instead resembling those of competing environments, an effect linked to lower retrieval performance. We find that orthogonalized neural patterns accompany successful disambiguation of spatial environments while erroneous reinstatement of competing patterns characterized interference errors. These results provide the first evidence for environment-specific neural codes in the human hippocampus, suggesting that pattern separation/completion mechanisms play an important role in how we successfully retrieve memories. PMID:26613414

  9. Facilitation of memory processing by posttrial morphine: possible involvement of reinforcement mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Mondadori, C; Waser, P G

    1979-06-21

    Posttrial administration of 40 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, but not of 1 mg/kg, of morphine hydrochloride facilitates learning of a one-trial passive avoidance task in drug-naive mice. The effect does not depend on the punishing properties of the morphine injection, since in injection of LiCl (a strong punisher) fails to enhance learning in a similar way. After the establishment of tolerance by several morphone administrations, the 100 mg/kg, but not the 40 mg/kg, dose level resulted in memory facilitation. The data are discussed in connection with the hypothesis that morphine acts directly on reinforcement mechanisms by activating the opiate receptor. PMID:113818

  10. Critical review on the physical and mechanical factors involved in tissue engineering of cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Carrie; Sugaya, Kiminobu

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects often progress to osteoarthritis, which negatively impacts quality of life for millions of people worldwide and leads to high healthcare expenditures. Tissue engineering approaches to osteoarthritis have concentrated on proliferation and differentiation of stem cells by activation and suppression of signaling pathways, and by using a variety of scaffolding techniques. Recent studies indicate a key role of environmental factors in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to mature cartilage-producing chondrocytes. Therapeutic approaches that consider environmental regulation could optimize chondrogenesis protocols for regeneration of articular cartilage. This review focuses on the effect of scaffold structure and composition, mechanical stress and hypoxia in modulating mesenchymal stem cell fate and the current use of these environmental factors in tissue engineering research.

  11. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-03-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by 60{sup o}. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a seesaw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston-like motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery-stroke by using principal component analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large-amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the seesaw motion of the relay helix dominates in the dynamics of the pre-recovery stroke structure, but not in the dynamics of the post-recovery stroke structure, and vice versa for the piston motion of the SH1 helix. This is consistent with the order of the proposed two-phase model for the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke. Molecular movies of these principal motions are available at http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/biocomp/fischer.

  12. Visfatin is involved in promotion of colorectal carcinoma malignancy through an inducing EMT mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Song, Haixing; Wu, Mingbo; Li, Jingyi; Yong, Ziyi; Jiang, Sheng; Kuang, Xi; Zhang, Tao

    2016-05-31

    Increasing evidences suggested visfatin, a newly discovered obesity-induced adipocytokine, is involved in promotion of cancer malignancy and correlated with worse clinical prognosis. While its effects and mechanisms on progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Our clinical data show that visfatin protein is over expressed, positive associated with lymph node metastasis, high-grade tumor, and poor prognosis in 87 CRC patients. The levels of plasma visfatin are significantly upregulated in Stage IV colon cancer. Visfatin can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of CRC cells via induction epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). It can increase the expression and nuclear translocation of Snail, a key transcription factor in regulating EMT. While silencing of Snail attenuates visfatin induced EMT. Further studies reveal visfatin can inhibit the association of Snail with GSK-3β and subsequently suppress ubiquitylation of Snail. In addition, visfatin can increase the expression and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, elevate its binding with Snail promoter, and then increase the transcription of Snail. While inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, LY294002, abolishes visfatin induced up regulation of Snail, Vimentin (Vim), β-catenin, and phosphorylated GSK-3β. In summary, our data suggest that increased expression of visfatin are associated with a more aggressive phenotype of CRC patients. It can trigger the EMT of CRC cells via Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signals.

  13. Identification of plant genetic loci involved in a posttranscriptional mechanism for meiotically reversible transgene silencing.

    PubMed Central

    Dehio, C; Schell, J

    1994-01-01

    Numerous reports describe phenomena of transgene silencing in plants, yet the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We observed that regeneration of Arabidopsis thaliana plants transgenic for the rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes results in a selection for transgene silencing. Transgene silencing could be monitored in this system by reversion of the visible RolB phenotype. We report a phenotypic, molecular, and genetic characterization of a meiotically reversible transgene silencing phenomenon observed in a rolB transgenic line. In this line, the rolB gene is expressed strongly and uniformly in seedlings, but in the course of further development, the rolB gene is silenced erratically at a frequency that depends on the dosage of rolB. The silenced state is mitotically stable, while complete resetting of rolB gene expression occurs in seedlings of the following generation. The silencing of rolB correlates with a dramatic reduction of steady-state rolB transcripts, while rolB nuclear run-off transcripts are only moderately reduced. Therefore, rolB gene silencing seems to act predominantly at the posttranscriptional level. The process of rolB gene silencing was found to be affected by two extragenic modifier loci that influence both the frequency and the timing of rolB gene silencing during plant development. These genetic data demonstrate a direct involvement of defined plant genes in this form of gene silencing. Images PMID:8202523

  14. Molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting in cancer and ageing: cachexia versus sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Argilés, Josep M; Busquets, Sílvia; Felipe, Antonio; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize and evaluate the different mechanisms and catabolic mediators involved in cancer cachexia and ageing sarcopenia since they may represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. In fact, many patients who die with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, at the clinical level, cachexia is not treated until the patient suffers from a considerable weight loss and wasting. At this point, the cachectic syndrome is almost irreversible. The cachectic state is often associated with the presence and growth of the tumour and leads to a malnutrition status due to the induction of anorexia. In recent years, age-related diseases and disabilities have become of major health interest and importance. This holds particularly for muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, that decreases the quality of life of the geriatric population, increasing morbidity and decreasing life expectancy. The cachectic factors (associated with both depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue) can be divided into two categories: of tumour origin and humoural factors. In conclusion, more research should be devoted to the understanding of muscle wasting mediators, both in cancer and ageing, in particular the identification of common mediators may prove as a good therapeutic strategies for both prevention and treatment of wasting both in disease and during healthy ageing.

  15. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yidan; Zhao, Guang; Tu, Shen; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females) in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed.

  16. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yidan; Zhao, Guang; Tu, Shen; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females) in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed. PMID:26309232

  17. A Cell-Regulatory Mechanism Involving Feedback between Contraction and Tissue Formation Guides Wound Healing Progression

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Clara; Javierre, Etelvina; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Gómez-Benito, María José

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a process driven by cells. The ability of cells to sense mechanical stimuli from the extracellular matrix that surrounds them is used to regulate the forces that cells exert on the tissue. Stresses exerted by cells play a central role in wound contraction and have been broadly modelled. Traditionally, these stresses are assumed to be dependent on variables such as the extracellular matrix and cell or collagen densities. However, we postulate that cells are able to regulate the healing process through a mechanosensing mechanism regulated by the contraction that they exert. We propose that cells adjust the contraction level to determine the tissue functions regulating all main activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and matrix production. Hence, a closed-regulatory feedback loop is proposed between contraction and tissue formation. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations that simulates the evolution of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor, as well as the deformation of the extracellular matrix. This model is able to predict the wound healing outcome without requiring the addition of phenomenological laws to describe the time-dependent contraction evolution. We have reproduced two in vivo experiments to evaluate the predictive capacity of the model, and we conclude that there is feedback between the level of cell contraction and the tissue regenerated in the wound. PMID:24681636

  18. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by {approx}60 degrees. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin's ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a see-saw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston/seesaw motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery stroke by using Principal Component Analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions.

  19. Getting Involved: Exploring Latino GBT Volunteerism and Activism in AIDS and LGBT Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Vázquez, Raquel; Benjamin, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons (GBT) in two areas: AIDS/GLBT and other general causes. Drawing from volunteering and identity theories, we explore: Who is likely to get involved? What factors affect variation in the levels of involvement? Where do Latino GBT participate and what do they do? Data come from a cross-sectional sample (N=643) of Latino GBT in Chicago and San Francisco. We find high levels of involvement, but primarily focused on AIDS/GLBT. Involvement appears to be driven by income, early involvement, role modeling, and childhood stigmatization of gender nonconformity. PMID:26451081

  20. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, R.J.; Thrall, B.D.; Sasser, L.B.; Miller, J.H.; Schultz, I.R.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop critical data for changing risk-based clean-up standards for trichloroethylene (TCE). The project is organized around two interrelated tasks: Task 1 addresses the tumorigenic and dosimetry issues for the metabolites of TCE that produce liver cancer in mice, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). Early work had suggested that TCA was primarily responsible for TCE-induced liver tumors, but several, more mechanistic observations suggest that DCA may play a prominent role. This task is aimed at determining the basis for the selection hypothesis and seeks to prove that this mode of action is responsible for TCE-induced tumors. This project will supply the basic dose-response data from which low-dose extrapolations would be made. Task 2 seeks specific evidence that TCA and DCA are capable of promoting the growth of spontaneously initiated cells from mouse liver, in vitro. The data provide the clearest evidence that both metabolites act by a mechanism of selection rather than mutation. These data are necessary to select between a linear (i.e. no threshold) and non-linear low-dose extrapolation model. As of May of 1998, this research has identified two plausible modes of action by which TCE produces liver tumors in mice. These modes of action do not require the compounds to be mutagenic. The bulk of the experimental evidence suggests that neither TCE nor the two hepatocarcinogenic metabolites of TCE are mutagenic. The results from the colony formation assay clearly establish that both of these metabolites cause colony growth from initiated cells that occur spontaneously in the liver of B 6 C 3 F 1 mice, although the phenotypes of the colonies differ in the same manner as tumors differ, in vivo. In the case of DCA, a second mechanism may occur at a lower dose involving the release of insulin. This observation is timely as it was recently reported that occupational exposures to trichloroethylene results in 2 to 4-fold

  1. Cytotoxic cell involvement in human cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessments in active disease, under therapy and after clinical cure.

    PubMed

    Cunha, C F; Ferraz, R; Pimentel, M I F; Lyra, M R; Schubach, A O; Da-Cruz, A M; Bertho, A L

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health issue worldwide. The control of Leishmania infection depends on cellular immune mechanisms, and the inflammatory response may contribute to pathogenesis. A beneficial role of CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been proposed; nevertheless, other studies suggest a cytotoxic role of CD8(+) T lymphocytes involved in tissue damage, showing controversial role of these cells. The goal of the current study was to understand the immunopathology of CL and determine the profile of cytotoxic cells--such as CD4(+) T, natural killer and natural killer T cells--that might be involved in triggering immunological mechanisms, and may lead to cure or disease progression. The frequencies of cytotoxic cell populations in peripheral blood, obtained from patients with active disease, during treatment and after clinical healing, were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity could not be related to a deleterious role in Leishmania braziliensis infection, as patients with active CL showed similar percentages of degranulation to healthy individuals (HI). Cured patients exhibited a lower percentage of degranulating cells, which may be due to a downregulation of the immune response. The understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms involved in CL and the commitment of cytotoxic cells enables improvements in therapeutic strategies.

  2. Mechanisms of Prescription Drug Diversion Among Drug-Involved Club- and Street-Based Populations

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Cicero, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion involves the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace, and can occur along all points in the drug delivery process, from the original manufacturing site to the wholesale distributor, the physician's office, the retail pharmacy, or the patient. However, empirical data on diversion are limited. Method In an attempt to develop a better understanding of how specific drug-using populations are diverting prescription opioids and other medications, or obtaining controlled drugs that have already been diverted, qualitative interviews and focus group data were collected on four separate populations of prescription drug abusers in Miami, Florida—club drug users, street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and HIV positive individuals who abuse and/or divert drugs. Results Sources of abused prescription drugs cited by focus group participants were extremely diverse, including their physicians and pharmacists; parents and relatives; “doctor shopping”; leftover supplies following an illness or injury; personal visits to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean; prescriptions intended for the treatment of mental illness; direct sales on the street and in nightclubs; pharmacy and hospital theft; through friends or acquaintances; under-the-door apartment flyers advertising telephone numbers to call; and “stealing from grandma's medicine cabinet.” Conclusion While doctor shoppers, physicians and the Internet receive much of the attention regarding diversion, the data reported in this paper suggest that there are numerous active street markets involving patients, Medicaid recipients and pharmacies as well. In addition, there are other data which suggest that the contributions of residential burglaries, pharmacy robberies and thefts, and “sneak thefts” to the diversion problem may be understated. PMID:17305688

  3. Reversible oxidation of vicinal-thiols motif in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulatory proteins is involved in muscle fatigue mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Pável; Tirado-Cortés, Aldo; Álvarez, Rocío; Ronjat, Michel; Amaya, Araceli; Ortega, Alicia

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism underlying fatigue in skeletal muscle (SM) related to the redox-potential hypothesis, ranges from a direct effect of oxygen reactive species, to a number of other free radical intermediates targeting specific amino acids in the Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In the present study, we investigate the selective oxidation/reduction of the protein motif Cys-(Xn=2-6)-Cys, known as a vicinal thiol group (VTG), present in the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and in the Ca(2+)-channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) which are modified during muscle fatigue in SM. Selective oxidation of VTG with phenyl arsine oxide (PAO) increases fatigue in rat isolated SM and fatigue is prevented when muscle is previously incubated with a VTG selective reducing agent, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (British anti-Lewisite (BAL)). In isolated SR membranes, PAO [<0.1mM] modifies SERCA conformation and inhibits ATPase activity but does not affect Ca(2+)-release. However, PAO at [>0.1mM] inhibits SERCA and RyR activities in a reversible manner by selectively reducing them. Interestingly, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry, the conformation of SERCA from fatigued muscle changed in a similar manner as when SERCA VTG where oxidized. The addition of BAL to fatigued muscle restored the structural conformation and activity of SERCA with full recovery of muscle force production after fatigue. We conclude that VTG reversible oxidation of SR Ca(2+) regulatory proteins are involved in muscle contraction/relaxation and are a molecular mechanism to be considered for muscle fatigue.

  4. Kindling-induced learning deficiency and possible cellular and molecular involved mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sherafat, Mohammad Amin; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Nejadhoseynian, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Hosseini, Arman; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2013-06-01

    Hippocampus learning disturbance is a major symptom of patients with seizure, hence hippocampal dysfunction has essential role in worsening the disease. Hippocampal formation includes neurons and myelinated fibers that are necessary for acquisition and consolidation of memory, long-term potentiation and learning activity. The exact mechanism by which seizure can decrease memory and learning activity of hippocampus remains unknown. In the present study, electrical kindling-induced learning deficit in rats was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. The hippocampus was removed and changes in neurons and myelin sheaths around hippocampal fibers were investigated using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Demyelination was assessed by luxol fast blue staining, and immunohistological staining of myelin-binding protein (MBP). The TUNEL assay was used for evaluation of neuronal apoptosis and the glial fibriliary acetic protein (GFAP) was used for assessment of inflammatory reaction. The results indicated that electrical kindling of hippocampus could induce deficiency in spatial learning and memory as compared to control group. In addition, electrical kindling caused damage to the myelin sheath around hippocampal fibers and produced vast demyelination. Furthermore, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in hippocampal slices was observed. In addition, inflammatory response was higher in kindled animals as compared to the control group. The results suggested that the decrease in learning and memory in kindled animals is likely due to demyelination and augmentation in apoptosis rate accompanied by inflammatory reaction in hippocampal neurons of kindled rats.

  5. Effects of nitric oxide on magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus involve multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silva, M P da; Cedraz-Mercez, P L; Varanda, W A

    2014-02-01

    Physiological evidence indicates that the supraoptic nucleus (SON) is an important region for integrating information related to homeostasis of body fluids. Located bilaterally to the optic chiasm, this nucleus is composed of magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) responsible for the synthesis and release of vasopressin and oxytocin to the neurohypophysis. At the cellular level, the control of vasopressin and oxytocin release is directly linked to the firing frequency of MNCs. In general, we can say that the excitability of these cells can be controlled via two distinct mechanisms: 1) the intrinsic membrane properties of the MNCs themselves and 2) synaptic input from circumventricular organs that contain osmosensitive neurons. It has also been demonstrated that MNCs are sensitive to osmotic stimuli in the physiological range. Therefore, the study of their intrinsic membrane properties became imperative to explain the osmosensitivity of MNCs. In addition to this, the discovery that several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can modulate their electrical activity greatly increased our knowledge about the role played by the MNCs in fluid homeostasis. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) may be an important player in fluid balance homeostasis, because it has been demonstrated that the enzyme responsible for its production has an increased activity following a hypertonic stimulation of the system. At the cellular level, NO has been shown to change the electrical excitability of MNCs. Therefore, in this review, we focus on some important points concerning nitrergic modulation of the neuroendocrine system, particularly the effects of NO on the SON.

  6. Effects of nitric oxide on magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus involve multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, M.P.; Cedraz-Mercez, P.L.; Varanda, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological evidence indicates that the supraoptic nucleus (SON) is an important region for integrating information related to homeostasis of body fluids. Located bilaterally to the optic chiasm, this nucleus is composed of magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) responsible for the synthesis and release of vasopressin and oxytocin to the neurohypophysis. At the cellular level, the control of vasopressin and oxytocin release is directly linked to the firing frequency of MNCs. In general, we can say that the excitability of these cells can be controlled via two distinct mechanisms: 1) the intrinsic membrane properties of the MNCs themselves and 2) synaptic input from circumventricular organs that contain osmosensitive neurons. It has also been demonstrated that MNCs are sensitive to osmotic stimuli in the physiological range. Therefore, the study of their intrinsic membrane properties became imperative to explain the osmosensitivity of MNCs. In addition to this, the discovery that several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can modulate their electrical activity greatly increased our knowledge about the role played by the MNCs in fluid homeostasis. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) may be an important player in fluid balance homeostasis, because it has been demonstrated that the enzyme responsible for its production has an increased activity following a hypertonic stimulation of the system. At the cellular level, NO has been shown to change the electrical excitability of MNCs. Therefore, in this review, we focus on some important points concerning nitrergic modulation of the neuroendocrine system, particularly the effects of NO on the SON. PMID:24519124

  7. Molecular mechanisms involving sigma receptor-mediated induction of MCP-1: implication for increased monocyte transmigration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Honghong; Yang, Yanjing; Kim, Kee Jun; Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Gong, Nan; Funa, Keiko; Gendelman, Howard E; Su, Tsung-Ping; Wang, John Q; Buch, Shilpa

    2010-06-10

    Cocaine abuse hastens the neurodegeneration often associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. The mechanisms, in part, revolve around the neuroinflammatory processes mediated by the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). Understanding factors that modulate MCP-1 and, in turn, facilitate monocyte extravasation in the brain is thus of paramount importance. We now demonstrate that cocaine induces MCP-1 in rodent microglia through translocation of the sigma receptor to the lipid raft microdomains of the plasma membrane. Sequential activation of Src, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathways resulted in increased MCP-1 expression. Furthermore, conditioned media from cocaine-exposed microglia increased monocyte transmigration, and thus was blocked by antagonists for CCR2 or sigma receptor. These findings were corroborated by demonstrating increased monocyte transmigration in mice exposed to cocaine, which was attenuated by pretreatment of mice with the sigma receptor antagonist. Interestingly, cocaine-mediated transmigratory effects were not observed in CCR2 knockout mice. We conclude that cocaine-mediated induction of MCP-1 accelerates monocyte extravasation across the endothelium. Understanding the regulation of MCP-1 expression and functional changes by cocaine/sigma receptor system may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:20354174

  8. Understanding Threshold Effects of Organized Activity Involvement in Adolescents: Sex and Family Income as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Edin T.; Bohnert, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the curvilinear links between involvement in organized activities (OA) and sport activities specifically and various indicators of psychological and social development. Participants included 150 9th and 10th graders (57% females) from an urban, selective-enrollment high school. Eligibility for admission is based on city…

  9. Intracellular mechanisms of lymphoid cell activation.

    PubMed

    Fresa, K; Hameed, M; Cohen, S

    1989-01-01

    Activation of lymphocytes for proliferation is associated with the appearance of an intracellular factor (ADR) that can induce DNA synthesis in isolated quiescent nuclei. ADR plays a role in the sequence of intracellular events leading to activation for IL-2-mediated proliferation. Because of the nature of the defining assay, the locus of ADR action appears to be near the terminal end of the transduction pathway. Interestingly, although lymphocytes from aged individuals respond poorly to proliferative stimuli, they appear to produce normal to above-normal levels of ADR. In contrast, their nuclei are only poorly responsive to stimulation by ADR. Preparations rich in ADR activity have proteolytic activity as well. In addition, aprotinin, as well as a variety of other protease inhibitors, suppresses ADR-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. ADR activity can be removed from active extracts by absorption with aprotinin-conjugated agarose beads, and can be removed from the beads by elution at pH 5.0. This latter suggests that ADR itself is a protease. However, its endogenous substrate is not yet known. We have also detected an inhibitor of ADR activity in the cytoplasm of resting lymphocytes. This is a heat-stable protein of approximately 60,000 Da. In addition to suppressing the interaction of ADR with quiescent nuclei, the inhibitor can suppress DNA synthetic activity of replicative nuclei isolated from mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Interestingly, these preparations had little or no activity on replicative nuclei derived from several neoplastic cell lines. The resistance of tumor cell nuclei to spontaneously occurring cytoplasmic inhibitory factors such as the one described here may provide one explanation for the loss of growth control in neoplastic cells. PMID:2642767

  10. The Ang II-induced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells involves a phospholipase D-mediated signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, E J

    2000-02-15

    Angiotensin (Ang) II acts as a mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipase C, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, increasing evidence supports signal-activated phospholipases A(2) and D (PLD) as additional mechanisms. Stimulation of PLD results in phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, and PA has been linked to cell growth. However, the direct involvement of PA or its metabolite diacylglycerol (DAG) in Ang II-induced growth is unclear. PLD activity was measured in cultured rat VSMC prelabeled with [(3)H]oleic acid, while the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to monitor growth. We have previously reported the Ang II-dependent, AT(1)-coupled stimulation of PLD and growth in VSMC. Here, we show that Ang II (100 nM) and exogenous PLD (0.1-100 units/mL; Streptomyces chromofuscus) stimulated thymidine incorporation (43-208% above control). PA (100 nM-1 microM) also increased thymidine incorporation to 135% of control. Propranolol (100 nM-10 microM), which inhibits PA phosphohydrolase, blocked the growth stimulated by Ang II, PLD, or PA by as much as 95%, an effect not shared by other beta-adrenergic antagonists. Propranolol also increased the production of PA in the presence of Ang II by 320% and reduced DAG and arachidonic acid (AA) accumulation. The DAG lipase inhibitor RHC-80267 (1-10 microM) increased Ang II-induced DAG production, while attenuating thymidine incorporation and release of AA. Thus, it appears that activation of PLD, formation of PA, conversion of PA to DAG, and metabolism of DAG comprise an important signaling cascade in Ang II-induced growth of VSMC.

  11. Insights into Mechanism of Glucokinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenping; Ammirati, Mark J.; Song, Xi; Knafels, John D.; Zhang, Jeff; Greasley, Samantha E.; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Qiu, Xiayang

    2012-01-01

    Human glucokinase (GK) is a principal regulating sensor of plasma glucose levels. Mutations that inactivate GK are linked to diabetes, and mutations that activate it are associated with hypoglycemia. Unique kinetic properties equip GK for its regulatory role: although it has weak basal affinity for glucose, positive cooperativity in its binding of glucose causes a rapid increase in catalytic activity when plasma glucose concentrations rise above euglycemic levels. In clinical trials, small molecule GK activators (GKAs) have been efficacious in lowering plasma glucose and enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but they carry a risk of overly activating GK and causing hypoglycemia. The theoretical models proposed to date attribute the positive cooperativity of GK to the existence of distinct protein conformations that interconvert slowly and exhibit different affinities for glucose. Here we report the respective crystal structures of the catalytic complex of GK and of a GK-glucose complex in a wide open conformation. To assess conformations of GK in solution, we also carried out small angle x-ray scattering experiments. The results showed that glucose dose-dependently converts GK from an apo conformation to an active open conformation. Compared with wild type GK, activating mutants required notably lower concentrations of glucose to be converted to the active open conformation. GKAs decreased the level of glucose required for GK activation, and different compounds demonstrated distinct activation profiles. These results lead us to propose a modified mnemonic model to explain cooperativity in GK. Our findings may offer new approaches for designing GKAs with reduced hypoglycemic risk. PMID:22298776

  12. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: mechanisms involved for lead.

    PubMed

    Schreck, E; Foucault, Y; Sarret, G; Sobanska, S; Cécillon, L; Castrec-Rouelle, M; Uzu, G; Dumat, C

    2012-06-15

    Fine and ultrafine metallic particulate matters (PMs) are emitted from metallurgic activities in peri-urban zones into the atmosphere and can be deposited in terrestrial ecosystems. The foliar transfer of metals and metalloids and their fate in plant leaves remain unclear, although this way of penetration may be a major contributor to the transfer of metals into plants. This study focused on the foliar uptake of various metals and metalloids from enriched PM (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, As, and especially lead (Pb)) resulting from the emissions of a battery-recycling factory. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various vegetable species, exhibiting different morphologies, use (food or fodder) and life-cycle (lettuce, parsley and rye-grass) were studied. The mechanisms involved in foliar metal transfer from atmospheric particulate matter fallout, using lead (Pb) as a model element was also investigated. Several complementary techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the localization and the speciation of lead in their edible parts, i.e. leaves. The results showed lead-enriched PM on the surface of plant leaves. Biogeochemical transformations occurred on the leaf surfaces with the formation of lead secondary species (PbCO(3) and organic Pb). Some compounds were internalized in their primary form (PbSO(4)) underneath an organic layer. Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter. PMID:22560244

  13. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: mechanisms involved for lead.

    PubMed

    Schreck, E; Foucault, Y; Sarret, G; Sobanska, S; Cécillon, L; Castrec-Rouelle, M; Uzu, G; Dumat, C

    2012-06-15

    Fine and ultrafine metallic particulate matters (PMs) are emitted from metallurgic activities in peri-urban zones into the atmosphere and can be deposited in terrestrial ecosystems. The foliar transfer of metals and metalloids and their fate in plant leaves remain unclear, although this way of penetration may be a major contributor to the transfer of metals into plants. This study focused on the foliar uptake of various metals and metalloids from enriched PM (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, As, and especially lead (Pb)) resulting from the emissions of a battery-recycling factory. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various vegetable species, exhibiting different morphologies, use (food or fodder) and life-cycle (lettuce, parsley and rye-grass) were studied. The mechanisms involved in foliar metal transfer from atmospheric particulate matter fallout, using lead (Pb) as a model element was also investigated. Several complementary techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the localization and the speciation of lead in their edible parts, i.e. leaves. The results showed lead-enriched PM on the surface of plant leaves. Biogeochemical transformations occurred on the leaf surfaces with the formation of lead secondary species (PbCO(3) and organic Pb). Some compounds were internalized in their primary form (PbSO(4)) underneath an organic layer. Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter.

  14. Activation of neutral sphingomyelinase is involved in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Frazziano, Giovanna; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Menendez, Carmen; Castañeda, Javier; González, Constancio; Villamor, Eduardo; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Aims The mechanisms involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) are not yet fully defined. The aim of the study was to determine the role of protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) and neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) in HPV. Methods and results Ceramide content was measured by immunocytochemistry and voltage-gated potassium channel (KV) currents were recorded by the patch clamp technique in isolated rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Contractile responses were analysed in rat pulmonary arteries mounted in a wire myograph. Pulmonary pressure was recorded in anesthetized open-chest rats. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blot and RT–PCR, respectively. We found that hypoxia increased ceramide content in PASMC which was abrogated by inhibition of nSMase, but not acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase). The hypoxia-induced vasoconstrictor response in isolated pulmonary arteries and the inhibition of KV currents were strongly reduced by inhibition of PKCζ or nSMase but not aSMase. The nSMase inhibitor GW4869 prevented HPV in vivo. The vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia was mimicked by exogenous addition of bacterial Smase and ceramide. nSMase2 mRNA expression was ∼10-fold higher in pulmonary compared with mesenteric arteries. In mesenteric arteries, hypoxia failed to increase ceramide but exogenous SMase induced a contractile response. Conclusion nSMase-derived ceramide production and the activation of PKCζ are early and necessary events in the signalling cascade of acute HPV. PMID:19088082

  15. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca and sitiens and their near-isogenic wild-type parental lines were used. Growth, stomatal conductance, shoot hormone concentration, competition assay for colonization of tomato root tips, and root expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by ABA and PGPR were examined. Results Contrary to the wild-type plants in which PGPR stimulated growth rates, PGPR caused growth inhibition in ABA-deficient mutant plants. PGPR also triggered an over accumulation of ethylene in ABA-deficient plants which correlated with a higher expression of the pathogenesis-related gene Sl-PR1b. Conclusions Positive correlation between over-accumulation of ethylene and a higher expression of Sl-PR1b in ABA-deficient mutant plants could indicate that maintenance of normal plant endogenous ABA content may be essential for the growth promoting action of B. megaterium by keeping low levels of ethylene production. PMID:24460926

  16. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (responsive to desiccation 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles' heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  17. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles’ heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  18. Sex differences in cerebellar mechanisms involved in pain-related safety learning.

    PubMed

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Thürling, Markus; Schlamann, Marc; Forsting, Michael; Timmann, Dagmar; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum contributes to the central processing of pain, including pain-related learning and memory processes. As a complex experience with multiple emotional and cognitive facets, the response to pain and its underlying neural correlates differ between men and women. However, it remains poorly understood whether and to what extent sex differences exist in the cerebellar contribution to pain-related associative learning processes. In the present conditioning study with experimental abdominal pain as unconditioned stimuli (US), we assessed sex-dependent differences in behavioral and neural responses to conditioned warning and safety cues in healthy volunteers. The results revealed that in response to visual stimuli signaling safety from abdominal pain (CS(-)), women showed enhanced cerebellar activation in lobules I-IV, V, VI, VIIIa, IX and X as well as Crus II and the dentate nucleus, which are mostly representative of somatomotor networks. On the other hand, men showed enhanced neural activation in lobules I-IV, VI, VIIb, VIIIb, IX as well as Crus I and II in response to CS(-), which are representative of frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. No sex differences were observed in response to pain-predictive warning signals (CS(+)). Similarly, men and women did not differ in behavioral measures of conditioning, including conditioned changes in CS valence and contingency awareness. Together, we could demonstrate that the cerebellum is involved in associative learning processes of conditioned anticipatory safety from pain and mediates sex differences in the underlying neural processes. Given the high prevalence of chronic pain conditions in women, these results may contribute to improve our understanding of the acquisition and manifestation of chronic abdominal pain syndromes. PMID:26004678

  19. Universal allosteric mechanism for Gα activation by GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Tilman; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Kayikci, Melis; Tate, Christopher G.; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.; Babu, M. Madan

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) allosterically activate heterotrimeric G proteins and trigger GDP release. Given that there are ~800 human GPCRs and 16 different Gα proteins, does a universal allosteric mechanism govern Gα activation? Here we show that different GPCRs interact and activate Gα proteins through a highly conserved mechanism. Comparison of Gα with the small G protein Ras reveals how the evolution of short segments that can undergo disorder-order transitions decouple regions important for allosteric activation from receptor binding specificity. This might explain how the GPCR-Gα system diversified rapidly, whilst conserving the allosteric activation mechanism. PMID:26147082

  20. Universal allosteric mechanism for Gα activation by GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Flock, Tilman; Ravarani, Charles N J; Sun, Dawei; Venkatakrishnan, A J; Kayikci, Melis; Tate, Christopher G; Veprintsev, Dmitry B; Babu, M Madan

    2015-08-13

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) allosterically activate heterotrimeric G proteins and trigger GDP release. Given that there are ∼800 human GPCRs and 16 different Gα genes, this raises the question of whether a universal allosteric mechanism governs Gα activation. Here we show that different GPCRs interact with and activate Gα proteins through a highly conserved mechanism. Comparison of Gα with the small G protein Ras reveals how the evolution of short segments that undergo disorder-to-order transitions can decouple regions important for allosteric activation from receptor binding specificity. This might explain how the GPCR-Gα system diversified rapidly, while conserving the allosteric activation mechanism. PMID:26147082

  1. Molecular mechanisms of hormone-mediated Müllerian duct regression: involvement of beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Allard, S; Adin, P; Gouédard, L; di Clemente, N; Josso, N; Orgebin-Crist, M C; Picard, J Y; Xavier, F

    2000-08-01

    Regression of the Müllerian duct in the male embryo is one unequivocal effect of anti-Müllerian hormone, a glycoprotein secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testis. This hormone induces ductal epithelial regression through a paracrine mechanism originating in periductal mesenchyme. To probe the mechanisms of action of anti-Müllerian hormone, we have studied the sequence of cellular and molecular events involved in duct regression. Studies were performed in male rat embryos and in transgenic mice overexpressing or lacking anti-Müllerian hormone, both in vivo and in vitro. Anti-Müllerian hormone causes regression of the cranial part of the Müllerian duct whereas it continues to grow caudally. Our work shows that this pattern of regression is correlated with a cranial to caudal gradient of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor protein, followed by a wave of apoptosis spreading along the Müllerian duct as its progresses caudally. Apoptosis is also induced by AMH in female Müllerian duct in vitro. Furthermore, apoptotic indexes are increased in Müllerian epithelium of transgenic mice of both sexes overexpressing the human anti-Müllerian hormone gene, exhibiting a positive correlation with serum hormone concentration. Inversely, apoptosis is reduced in male anti-Müllerian hormone-deficient mice. We also show that apoptosis is a decisive but not sufficient process, and that epitheliomesenchymal transformation is an important event of Müllerian regression. The most striking result of this study is that anti-Müllerian hormone action in peri-Müllerian mesenchyme leads in vivo and in vitro to an accumulation of cytoplasmic beta-catenin. The co-localization of beta-catenin with lymphoid enhancer factor 1 in the nucleus of peri-Müllerian mesenchymal cells, demonstrated in primary culture, suggests that overexpressed beta-catenin in association with lymphoid enhancer factor 1 may alter transcription of target genes and may lead to changes in mesenchymal gene expression

  2. Involvement of spinal cord opioid mechanisms in the acute antinociceptive effect of hyperbaric oxygen in mice.

    PubMed

    Heeman, Jacqueline H; Zhang, Yangmiao; Shirachi, Donald Y; Quock, Raymond M

    2013-12-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) can elicit an antinociceptive response in models of acute pain. We have demonstrated that this antinociceptive effect is centrally-mediated and is dependent on opioid receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of endogenous opioid peptides and opioid receptors specifically in the spinal cord in the acute antinociceptive effect of HBO2 in mice. Male NIH Swiss mice were exposed to HBO2 (100% oxygen at 3.5atm absolute) for 11min and their antinociceptive responsiveness was determined using the glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. HBO2-induced antinociception was sensitive to antagonism by intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with the κ- and μ-selective opioid antagonists norbinaltorphimine and β-funaltrexamine, respectively, but not the δ-selective antagonist naltrindole. The antinociceptive effect of HBO2 was also significantly attenuated by i.t. pretreatment with a rabbit antiserum against rat dynorphin1-13 but not antisera against β-endorphin or methionine-enkephalin. Based on these experimental findings, the acute antinociceptive effect of HBO2 appears to involve neuronal release of dynorphin and activation of κ- and μ-opioid receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:24113418

  3. β-adrenergic antagonists influence abdominal aorta contractility by mechanisms not involving β-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hauzer, Willy; Bujok, Jolanta; Czerski, Albert; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Pecka, Ewa; Gnus, Jan; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are widely distributed in the cardiovascular system, where they considerably contribute to the control of its functions. β-blockers are commonly used in the treatment of disorders of the circulatory system. They act primarily by inhibiting cardiac β-receptors. However, there are also reports of pleiotropic action of β-blockers as well as of new compounds created to study β3 adrenergic receptors. The study aimed to investigate additional mechanisms of action of β-AR inhibitors in the rabbit abdominal aorta with emphasis on their action on α-adrenergic receptors and calcium influx. Responses to propranolol, betaxolol, metoprolol and SR59230A were evaluated in phenylephrine and PGF(2alpha) precontracted aortic rings. The effect of propranolol on the phenylephrine concentration-contraction curve was examined. Propranolol (≥ 10 μM) and SR59230A (≥ 0.1 μM) induced relaxations in phenylephrine-precontracted rings, while betaxolol and metoprolol had little effect. The β-AR inhibitors produced further contraction of tissues preincubated with PGF(2alpha), excluding SR59230A, which after initial contraction, elicited marked relaxation at a concentration above 1 ĕM. 100 μM of propranolol caused a significant rightward shift of the concentration-contraction curve to phenylephrine with no reduction in the maximum response. Incubation of aortic rings in phentolamine reduced the maximal contraction to propranolol; verapamil pretreatment by contrast enhanced contractile response. In conclusion, SR59230A and propranolol most probably act as α1-AR competitive antagonists in the presence of phenylephrine in rabbit abdominal aortic rings. After α-ARs blockade, propranolol exerts a weak relaxing activity connected with Ca2+ channel inactivation. SR59230A at a high concentration acts on the rabbit aorta by an additional mechanism needing further investigation.

  4. Involvement of Glutathione as a Mechanism of Indirect Protection against Spontaneous Ex Vivo Apoptosis Associated with Bovine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Teresa Sanchez; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Reichert, Michal; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Viruses have developed strategies to counteract the apoptotic response of the infected host cells. Modulation of apoptosis is also thought to be a major component of viral persistence and progression to leukemia induced by retroviruses like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Here, we analyzed the mechanism of ex vivo apoptosis occurring after isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BLV-infected sheep. We show that spontaneous apoptosis of ovine B lymphocytes requires at least in part a caspase 8-dependent pathway regardless of viral infection. Cell death is independent of cytotoxic response and does not involve the tumor necrosis factor alpha/NF-κB/nitric oxide synthase/cyclooxygenase pathway. In contrast, pharmaceutical depletion of reduced glutathione (namely, γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine [GSH]) by using ethacrynic acid or 1-pyrrolidinecarbodithioic acid specifically reverts inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis conferred indirectly by protective BLV-conditioned media; inversely, exogenously provided membrane-permeable GSH-monoethyl ester restores cell viability in B lymphocytes of BLV-infected sheep. Most importantly, intracellular GSH levels correlate with virus-associated protection against apoptosis but not with general inhibition of cell death induced by polyclonal activators, such as phorbol esters and ionomycin. Finally, inhibition of apoptosis does not correlate with the activities of GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase. In summary, our data fit into a model in which modulation of the glutathione system is a key event involved in indirect inhibition of apoptosis associated with BLV. These observations could have decisive effects during therapeutic treatment of δ-retroviral pathogenesis. PMID:15163711

  5. Insulin-mimetic signaling by the sulfonylurea glimepiride and phosphoinositolglycans involves distinct mechanisms for redistribution of lipid raft components.

    PubMed

    Müller, G; Jung, C; Wied, S; Welte, S; Frick, W

    2001-12-01

    The insulin signal transduction cascade provides a number of sites downstream of the insulin receptor (IR) for cross-talk from other signaling pathways. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR substrates IRS-1/2 and metabolic insulin-mimetic activity in insulin-responsive cells can be provoked by soluble phosphoinositolglycans (PIG), which trigger redistribution from detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (DIGs) to other areas of the plasma membrane and thereby activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTK) [Müller, G., Jung, C., Wied, S., Welte, S., Jordan, H., and Frick, W. (2001) Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 4553-4567]. Here we describe that stimulation of glucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes by a different stimulus, the sulfonylurea glimepiride, is also based on IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream insulin-mimetic signaling involving activation of the NRTK, pp59(Lyn), and pp125(Fak), as well as tyrosine phosphoryation of the DIGs component caveolin. As is the case for PIG 41, glimepiride causes the concentration-dependent dissociation of pp59(Lyn) from caveolin and release of this NRTK and the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins, Gce1 and 5'-nucleotidase, from total and anti-caveolin-immunoisolated DIGs. This results in their movement to detergent-insoluble raft domains of higher buoyant density (non-DIGs areas). IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose transport activation by both glimepiride and PIG are blocked by introduction into adipocytes of the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide which mimicks the negative effect of caveolin on pp59(Lyn) activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NRTK, IRS-1/2, and caveolin as well as release of the NRTK and GPI proteins from DIGs and their redistribution into non-DIGs areas in response to PIG is also inhibited by treatment of intact adipocytes with either trypsin plus salt or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In contrast, the putative trypsin/salt/NEM-sensitive cell surface component

  6. Involvement of Ral GTPase in v-Src-induced phospholipase D activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Luo, J Q; Urano, T; Frankel, P; Lu, Z; Foster, D A; Feig, L A

    1995-11-23

    An early response to the tyrosine kinase activity of v-Src is an increase in phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which leads to the generation of biologically active lipid second messengers, including phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. We have recently demonstrated that v-Src-induced PLD activity is mediated by Ras, although Ras involvement was indirect, requiring a cytosolic factor for PLD activation. Ras interacts with and activates Ral-GDS, the exchange factor responsible for the activation of Ral GTPases. Here we report that this newly identified Ras/Ral signalling pathway mediates PLD activation by v-Src. PLD activity could be precipitated from v-Src-transformed cell lysates with immobilized RalA protein and with an anti-Ral antibody. A mutation to the region of RalA analogous to the 'effector domain' of Ras did not reduce the ability of RalA to complex with PLD, although deletion of a Ral-specific amino-terminal region did. Overexpression of RalA potentiated PLD activation by v-Src, and expression of dominant negative RalA mutants inhibited both v-Src- and v-Ras-induced PLD activity. Thus RalA is involved in the tyrosine kinase activation of PLD through its unique N terminus, and that PLD is a downstream target of a Ras/Ral GTPase cascade.

  7. Activities involving aeronautical, space science, and technology support for minority institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report addressed the activities with which the Interracial Council for Business Opportunity (ICBO) was involved over the past 12 months. ICBO was involved in the design and development of a CARES Student Tracking System Software (CARES). Cares is intended to provide an effective means of maintaining relevant current and historical information on NASA-funded students through a range of educational program initiatives. ICBP was extensively involved in the formation of a minority university consortium amd implementation of collaborative research activities by the consortium as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System. ICBO was involved in the formation of an HBCU/MI Consortium to facilitate technology transfer efforts to the small and minority business community in their respective regions.

  8. Lack of Involvement of CEP Adducts in TLR Activation and in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gounarides, John; Cobb, Jennifer S.; Zhou, Jing; Cook, Frank; Yang, Xuemei; Yin, Hong; Meredith, Erik; Rao, Chang; Huang, Qian; Xu, YongYao; Anderson, Karen; De Erkenez, Andrea; Liao, Sha-Mei; Crowley, Maura; Buchanan, Natasha; Poor, Stephen; Qiu, Yubin; Fassbender, Elizabeth; Shen, Siyuan; Woolfenden, Amber; Jensen, Amy; Cepeda, Rosemarie; Etemad-Gilbertson, Bijan; Giza, Shelby; Mogi, Muneto; Jaffee, Bruce; Azarian, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an in vivo TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. In vivo, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, in vivo inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others. PMID:25343517

  9. Cooperative mechanisms involved in chronic antidiuretic response to bendroflumethiazide in rats with lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, S M S; Karimi, Z

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of central diabetes insipidus suggested that thiazides acutely exerted a paradoxical antidiuresis by either indirectly activating volume-homeostatic reflexes to decrease distal fluid-delivery, or directly stimulating distal water-reabsorption. This study investigated whether the direct and indirect actions of bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ) simultaneously cooperated and also whether the renal nerves were involved in inducing long-term antidiuresis in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). BFTZ or vehicle was gavaged into bilateral renal denervated and innervated rats with lithium-induced NDI for 10 days, constituting four groups. At one day before (D0) and one, five and ten days after starting administration of BFTZ or vehicle, rats were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine for 6 hours. BFTZ-treatment in both renal innervated and denervated rats caused equivalent reductions in urine-flow, creatinine clearance, lithium clearance and free-water clearance, but rises in urine-osmolality, fractional proximal reabsorption and fractional distal reabsorption at all days compared to D0, as well as to those of their relevant vehicle-received group. Therefore, the chronic antidiuretic response to BFTZ in conscious NDI rats was exerted through a concomitant cooperation of its direct distal effect of stimulating water-reabsorption and its indirect effect of reducing distal fluid-delivery by activating volume-homeostatic mechanisms, which appeared independent of the renal nerves.

  10. Activation Mechanisms in Ion-Implanted Gallium -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Neil

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Rapid Thermal Annealing has been used to study the electrical activation of a range of donor and acceptor species in ion-implanted GaAs. By varying the time and temperature of the post implant anneal, it was found that the activation processes for most implants can be characterised in terms of two distinct regions. The first of these occurs at short annealing times, where the electrical activity is seen to follow a time-dependent behaviour. At longer annealing times, however, a time-independent saturation value is reached, this value being dependent on the annealing temperature. By analysing the data from Be, Mg, S and Se implants in GaAs, a comprehensive model has been evolved for the time and temperature dependence of the sheet electrical properties. Application of this model to each of the ions studied suggests that the activation processes may be dominated by the extent to which ions form impurity-vacancy complexes. An analysis of the time-dependent regime also shows that, at short annealing times, the mobile species is more likely to be the substrate atoms (or vacancies) rather than the implanted impurities. In the time-dependent region, the values of diffusion energy were found to be between 2.3 to 3.0 eV for all ions, these values corresponding to a diffusion of Ga or As vacancies (or atoms). In the saturation region, activation energies of 0.3 to 0.4 eV and 1.0 to 1.2 eV were obtained for the activation processes of interstitial or complexed impurities respectively.

  11. Abnormally high thromboxane biosynthesis in homozygous homocystinuria. Evidence for platelet involvement and probucol-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, G; Davì, G; Margaglione, M; Cirillo, F; Grandone, E; Ciabattoni, G; Catalano, I; Strisciuglio, P; Andria, G; Patrono, C

    1993-01-01

    Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation. PMID:8376592

  12. Obesity Weighs down Memory through a Mechanism Involving the Neuroepigenetic Dysregulation of Sirt1

    PubMed Central

    Heyward, Frankie D.; Gilliam, Daniel; Coleman, Mark A.; Gavin, Cristin F.; Wang, Jing; Kaas, Garrett; Trieu, Richard; Lewis, John; Moulden, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant gene expression within the hippocampus has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced memory impairment. Whether a dysregulation of epigenetic modifications mediates this disruption in gene transcription has yet to be established. Here we report evidence of obesity-induced alterations in DNA methylation of memory-associated genes, including Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), within the hippocampus, and thus offer a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 expression within the hippocampus is suppressed during obesity. Forebrain neuron-specific Sirt1 knock-out closely recapitulated the memory deficits exhibited by obese mice, consistent with the hypothesis that the high-fat diet-mediated reduction of hippocampal SIRT1 could be responsible for obesity-linked memory impairment. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with the SIRT1-activating molecule resveratrol exhibited increased hippocampal SIRT1 activity and preserved hippocampus-dependent memory, further strengthening this conclusion. Thus, our findings suggest that the memory-impairing effects of diet-induced obesity may potentially be mediated by neuroepigenetic dysregulation of SIRT1 within the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have implicated transcriptional dysregulation within the hippocampus as being a relevant pathological concomitant of obesity-induced memory impairment, yet a deeper understanding of the basis for, and etiological significance of, transcriptional dysregulation in this context is lacking. Here we present the first evidence of epigenetic dysregulation (i.e., altered DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation) of memory-related genes, including Sirt1, within the hippocampus of obese mice. Furthermore, experiments using transgenic and pharmacological approaches strongly implicate reduced hippocampal SIRT1 as being a principal pathogenic mediator of obesity-induced memory impairment. This paper offers a novel working model that may serve as a conceptual basis for the

  13. Pomegranate-mediated chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis involves Nrf2-regulated antioxidant mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bishayee, Anupam; Bhatia, Deepak; Thoppil, Roslin J.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers, has shown an alarming rise in the USA. Without effective therapy for HCC, novel chemopreventive strategies may effectively circumvent the current morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress predisposes to hepatocarcinogenesis and is the major driving force of HCC. Pomegranate, an ancient fruit, is gaining tremendous attention due to its powerful antioxidant properties. Here, we examined mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against dietary carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis that mimics human HCC. PE treatment (1 or 10 g/kg), started 4 weeks prior to the DENA challenge and continued for 18 weeks thereafter, showed striking chemopreventive activity demonstrated by reduced incidence, number, multiplicity, size and volume of hepatic nodules, precursors of HCC. Both doses of PE significantly attenuated the number and area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive hepatic foci compared with the DENA control. PE also attenuated DENA-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Mechanistic studies revealed that PE elevated gene expression of an array of hepatic antioxidant and carcinogen detoxifying enzymes in DENA-exposed animals. PE elevated protein and messenger RNA expression of the hepatic nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Our results provide substantial evidence, for the first time, that pomegranate constituents afford chemoprevention of hepatocarcinogenesis possibly through potent antioxidant activity achieved by upregulation of several housekeeping genes under the control of Nrf2 without toxicity. The outcome of this study strongly supports the development of pomegranate-derived products in the prevention and treatment of human HCC, which remains a devastating disease. PMID:21389260

  14. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: involvement of glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Daiane; de Liz Oliveira Cavalli, Vera Lúcia; Heinz Rieg, Carla Elise; Domingues, Juliana Tonietto; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla Inês; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the mechanism of glyphosate-induced neurotoxic effects needs to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Roundup(®) (a glyphosate-based herbicide) leads to neurotoxicity in hippocampus of immature rats following acute (30min) and chronic (pregnancy and lactation) pesticide exposure. Maternal exposure to pesticide was undertaken by treating dams orally with 1% Roundup(®) (0.38% glyphosate) during pregnancy and lactation (till 15-day-old). Hippocampal slices from 15 day old rats were acutely exposed to Roundup(®) (0.00005-0.1%) during 30min and experiments were carried out to determine whether glyphosate affects (45)Ca(2+) influx and cell viability. Moreover, we investigated the pesticide effects on oxidative stress parameters, (14)C-α-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ((14)C-MeAIB) accumulation, as well as glutamate uptake, release and metabolism. Results showed that acute exposure to Roundup(®) (30min) increases (45)Ca(2+) influx by activating NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, leading to oxidative stress and neural cell death. The mechanisms underlying Roundup(®)-induced neurotoxicity also involve the activation of CaMKII and ERK. Moreover, acute exposure to Roundup(®) increased (3)H-glutamate released into the synaptic cleft, decreased GSH content and increased the lipoperoxidation, characterizing excitotoxicity and oxidative damage. We also observed that both acute and chronic exposure to Roundup(®) decreased (3)H-glutamate uptake and metabolism, while induced (45)Ca(2+) uptake and (14)C-MeAIB accumulation in immature rat hippocampus. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Roundup(®) might lead to excessive extracellular glutamate levels and consequently to glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat hippocampus.

  15. What Do Effective Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis Tell Us about the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Buzzard, Katherine A.; Broadley, Simon A.; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a potentially debilitating disease of the central nervous system. A concerted program of research by many centers around the world has consistently demonstrated the importance of the immune system in its pathogenesis. This knowledge has led to the formal testing of a number of therapeutic agents in both animal models and humans. These clinical trials have shed yet further light on the pathogenesis of MS through their sometimes unexpected effects and by their differential effects in terms of impact on relapses, progression of the disease, paraclinical parameters (MRI) and the adverse events that are experienced. Here we review the currently approved medications for the commonest form of multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting) and the emerging therapies for which preliminary results from phase II/III clinical trials are available. A detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of these medications in multiple sclerosis indicates that blockade or modulation of both T- and B-cell activation and migration pathways in the periphery or CNS can lead to amelioration of the disease. It is hoped that further therapeutic trials will better delineate the pathogenesis of MS, ultimately leading to even better treatments with fewer adverse effects. PMID:23202920

  16. Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium difficile Detoxify Methylglyoxal by a Novel Mechanism Involving Glycerol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Hemachandra; Kashket, Shelby; Young, Michael; Kashket, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to gram-negative bacteria, little is known about the mechanisms by which gram-positive bacteria degrade the toxic metabolic intermediate methylglyoxal (MG). Clostridium beijerinckii BR54, a Tn1545 insertion mutant of the NCIMB 8052 strain, formed cultures that contained significantly more (free) MG than wild-type cultures. Moreover, BR54 was more sensitive to growth inhibition by added MG than the wild type, suggesting that it has a reduced ability to degrade MG. The single copy of Tn1545 in this strain lies just downstream from gldA, encoding glycerol dehydrogenase. As a result of antisense RNA production, cell extracts of BR54 possess significantly less glycerol dehydrogenase activity than wild-type cell extracts (H. Liyanage, M. Young, and E. R. Kashket, J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2:87–93, 2000). Inactivation of gldA in both C. beijerinckii and Clostridium difficile gave rise to pinpoint colonies that could not be subcultured, indicating that glycerol dehydrogenase performs an essential function in both organisms. We propose that this role is detoxification of MG. To our knowledge, this is the first report of targeted gene disruption in the C. difficile chromosome. PMID:11319074

  17. Involvement of a joker mutation in a polymerase-independent lethal mutagenesis escape mechanism.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rubén; de la Higuera, Ignacio; Arias, Armando; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-07-01

    We previously characterized a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with three amino acid replacements in its polymerase (3D) that conferred resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. Here we show that passage of this mutant in the presence of high ribavirin concentrations resulted in selection of viruses with the additional replacement I248T in 2C. This 2C substitution alone (even in the absence of replacements in 3D) increased FMDV fitness mainly in the presence of ribavirin, prevented an incorporation bias in favor of A and U associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, and conferred the ATPase activity of 2C decreased sensitivity to ribavirin-triphosphate. Since in previous studies we described that 2C with I248T was selected under different selective pressures, this replacement qualifies as a joker substitution in FMDV evolution. The results have identified a role of 2C in nucleotide incorporation, and have unveiled a new polymerase-independent mechanism of virus escape to lethal mutagenesis. PMID:27136067

  18. Immune enhancement of yellow fever virus neurovirulence for mice: studies of mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Gould, E A; Buckley, A; Groeger, B K; Cane, P A; Doenhoff, M

    1987-12-01

    Enhancement of yellow fever virus neurovirulence for mice by specific antibody was studied with the French neurotropic vaccine strain. Experimental conditions for enhancement required mice between 14 and 40 days old and intraperitoneal administration of a selected monoclonal antibody 24 h before or up to 72 h after intracerebral virus challenge. Virus infectivity titrations were similar in brains of antibody-treated and untreated mice. Virus recovered from brains of mice with enhanced viral infections was neither qualitatively nor quantitatively different from standard virus. Humoral immune responses in enhanced infections were normal, macrophages did not become infected and viraemia was not significant. Both hydrocortisone treatment and complement depletion with cobra venom resulted in prolongation of mouse survival times but virulence enhancement persisted. Antithymocyte serum had no effect on enhancement although it reduced the humoral immune response. It is proposed that virulence enhancement is due to the combined effects of virus-specific antibody on infected cells, complement-mediated cytolysis and resultant host anti-cellular activity. There is no analogy between mechanisms effecting increased arbovirus growth in vitro in the presence of specific antibody and increased yellow fever virus neurovirulence in vivo after parenteral administration of antibody.

  19. Involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of cadmium-induced toxicity on rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Nasiadek, Marzenna; Skrzypińska-Gawrysiak, Małgorzata; Daragó, Adam; Zwierzyńska, Ewa; Kilanowicz, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to explore whether cadmium bioaccumulation can induce oxidative stress in the uterus of rats. Cadmium (0.09, 0.9, 1.8 or 4.5mgCd/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage for 28 days. The animals were dissected on the first day and then after 90 days post exposure (second group of animals). The results show that cadmium accumulates in the uterus in a dose-dependent manner. The uterine Cd concentrations were almost the same in both groups, which is indicative of its long half-life in this organ. The accumulated cadmium caused significant changes in catalase (CAT) activity and lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels at concentrations from 0.09 to 0.35μgCd/g wet uterine tissue. In summary our results show that the induction of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the uterus may play important roles in the mechanism of toxicity in this organ and may have a negative impact on reproductive processes.

  20. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  1. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  2. Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple…

  3. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammasome pathway in molecular mechanisms of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Robert, Sacha; Gicquel, Thomas; Victoni, Tatiana; Valença, Samuel; Barreto, Emiliano; Bailly-Maître, Béatrice; Boichot, Elisabeth; Lagente, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Fibrosis is a basic connective tissue lesion defined by the increase in the fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components in tissue or organ. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a major group of proteases known to regulate the turn-over of ECM and so they are suggested to be important in tissue remodelling observed during fibrogenic process associated with chronic inflammation. Tissue remodelling is the result of an imbalance in the equilibrium of the normal processes of synthesis and degradation of ECM components markedly controlled by the MMPs/TIMP imbalance. We previously showed an association of the differences in collagen deposition in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice with a reduced molar pro-MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. Using the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) preclinical model of liver fibrosis in mice, we observed a significant increase in collagen deposition with increased expression and release of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 both at 24 h and 3 weeks later. This suggests an early altered regulation of matrix turnover involved in the development of fibrosis. We also demonstrated an activation of NLRP3-inflammasome pathway associated with the IL-1R/MyD88 signalling in the development of experimental fibrosis both in lung and liver. This was also associated with an increased expression of purinergic receptors mainly P2X7 Finally, these observations emphasize those effective therapies for these disorders must be given early in the natural history of the disease, prior to the development of tissue remodelling and fibrosis.

  4. Mechanism of cancer drug resistance and the involvement of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongping; Hui, Kam M

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major reasons for the failure of cancer therapies. Although our understanding of resistance to targeted cancer drugs remains incomplete, new and more creative approaches are being exploited to intercept this phenomenon. Considerable advances have been made in our understanding that cancer drug resistance can be caused by alterations of drug efflux, increases in drug metabolism, mutations of drug targets, alterations in DNA repair and cell cycle, changes in cell apoptosis and autophagy, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Furthermore, intracellular signalling pathways have been shown to play key physiological roles and the abnormal activation of signalling pathways may be correlated with drug resistance. Recently, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and alternative splicing, which provides cells with yet another mode to greatly increase regulatory complexity and fine-tune their transcriptome and can rapidly adjust their proteome in response to stimuli. Consequently, a wide variety of biological functions have been shown to depend on the coordinated interactions between noncoding RNAs and cellular signalling networks to achieve a concerted desired physiological outcome, whereas mutations and dysregulation of ncRNAs have been linked to diverse human diseases, including cancer drug resistance. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on the multiple molecular roles of regulatory ncRNAs on the signalling pathways involved in cancer drug resistance and the therapeutic potential of reverse drug resistance.

  5. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammasome pathway in molecular mechanisms of fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Sacha; Gicquel, Thomas; Victoni, Tatiana; Valença, Samuel; Barreto, Emiliano; Bailly-Maître, Béatrice; Boichot, Elisabeth; Lagente, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is a basic connective tissue lesion defined by the increase in the fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components in tissue or organ. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a major group of proteases known to regulate the turn-over of ECM and so they are suggested to be important in tissue remodelling observed during fibrogenic process associated with chronic inflammation. Tissue remodelling is the result of an imbalance in the equilibrium of the normal processes of synthesis and degradation of ECM components markedly controlled by the MMPs/TIMP imbalance. We previously showed an association of the differences in collagen deposition in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice with a reduced molar pro-MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. Using the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) preclinical model of liver fibrosis in mice, we observed a significant increase in collagen deposition with increased expression and release of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 both at 24 h and 3 weeks later. This suggests an early altered regulation of matrix turnover involved in the development of fibrosis. We also demonstrated an activation of NLRP3-inflammasome pathway associated with the IL-1R/MyD88 signalling in the development of experimental fibrosis both in lung and liver. This was also associated with an increased expression of purinergic receptors mainly P2X7. Finally, these observations emphasize those effective therapies for these disorders must be given early in the natural history of the disease, prior to the development of tissue remodelling and fibrosis. PMID:27247426

  6. Mechanisms of physical activity limitation in chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Zakynthinos, George; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lung diseases physical activity limitation is multifactorial involving respiratory, hemodynamic, and peripheral muscle abnormalities. The mechanisms of limitation discussed in this paper relate to (i) the imbalance between ventilatory capacity and demand, (ii) the imbalance between energy demand and supply to working respiratory and peripheral muscles, and (iii) the factors that induce peripheral muscle dysfunction. In practice, intolerable exertional symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and/or leg discomfort are the main symptoms that limit physical performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Furthermore, the reduced capacity for physical work and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, in an attempt to avoid breathlessness upon physical exertion, cause profound muscle deconditioning which in turn leads to disability and loss of functional independence. Accordingly, physical inactivity is an important component of worsening the patients' quality of life and contributes importantly to poor prognosis. Identifying the factors which prevent a patient with lung disease to easily carry out activities of daily living provides a unique as well as important perspective for the choice of the appropriate therapeutic strategy.

  7. Induction of nerve growth factor expression and release by mechanical and inflammatory stimuli in chondrocytes: possible involvement in osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nerve growth factor (NGF) level is increased in osteoarthritis (OA) joints and is involved in pain associated with OA. Stimuli responsible for NGF stimulation in chondrocytes are unknown. We investigated whether mechanical stress and proinflammatory cytokines may influence NGF synthesis by chondrocytes. Methods Primary cultures of human OA chondrocytes, newborn mouse articular chondrocytes or cartilage explants were stimulated by increasing amounts of IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) or by cyclic mechanical compression (0.5 Hz, 1 MPa). Before stimulation, chondrocytes were pretreated with indomethacin, Apo866, a specific inhibitor of NAMPT enzymatic activity, or transfected by siRNA targeting visfatin/NAMPT. mRNA NGF levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and NGF released into media was determined by ELISA. Results Unstimulated human and mouse articular chondrocytes expressed low levels of NGF (19.2 ± 8.7 pg/mL, 13.5 ± 1.0 pg/mL and 4.4 ± 0.8 pg/mL/mg tissue for human and mouse articular chondrocytes and costal explants, respectively). Mechanical stress induced NGF release in conditioned media. When stimulated by IL-1β or visfatin/NAMPT, a proinflammatory adipokine produced by chondocytes in response to IL-1β, a dose-dependent increase in NGF mRNA expression and NGF release in both human and mouse chondrocyte conditioned media was observed. Visfatin/NAMPT is also an intracellular enzyme acting as the rate-limiting enzyme of the generation of NAD. The expression of NGF induced by visfatin/NAMPT was inhibited by Apo866, whereas IL-1β-mediated NGF expression was not modified by siRNA targeting visfatin/NAMPT. Interestingly, PGE2, which is produced by chondrocytes in response to IL-1β and visfatin/NAMPT, did not stimulate NGF production. Consistently, indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not counteract IL-1β-induced NGF production. Conclusions These

  8. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2015-09-29

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  9. Another look at the mechanism involving trimeric dUTPases in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island induction involves novel players in the party

    PubMed Central

    Maiques, Elisa; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Donderis, Jorge; Ciges-Tomas, J. Rafael; Alite, Christian; Bowring, Janine Z.; Humphrey, Suzanne; Penadés, José R.; Marina, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We have recently proposed that the trimeric staphylococcal phage encoded dUTPases (Duts) are signaling molecules that act analogously to eukaryotic G-proteins, using dUTP as a second messenger. To perform this regulatory role, the Duts require their characteristic extra motif VI, present in all the staphylococcal phage coded trimeric Duts, as well as the strongly conserved Dut motif V. Recently, however, an alternative model involving Duts in the transfer of the staphylococcal islands (SaPIs) has been suggested, questioning the implication of motifs V and VI. Here, using state-of the-art techniques, we have revisited the proposed models. Our results confirm that the mechanism by which the Duts derepress the SaPI cycle depends on dUTP and involves both motifs V and VI, as we have previously proposed. Surprisingly, the conserved Dut motif IV is also implicated in SaPI derepression. However, and in agreement with the proposed alternative model, the dUTP inhibits rather than inducing the process, as we had initially proposed. In summary, our results clarify, validate and establish the mechanism by which the Duts perform regulatory functions. PMID:27112567

  10. Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.

    PubMed

    Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-11-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein.

  11. Endocannabinoids are Involved in Male Vertebrate Reproduction: Regulatory Mechanisms at Central and Gonadal Level.

    PubMed

    Bovolin, Patrizia; Cottone, Erika; Pomatto, Valentina; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are natural lipids regulating a large array of physiological functions and behaviors in vertebrates. The eCB system is highly conserved in evolution and comprises several specific receptors (type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors), their endogenous ligands (e.g., anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), and a number of biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. In the last few years, eCBs have been described as critical signals in the control of male and female reproduction at multiple levels: centrally, by targeting hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-secreting neurons and pituitary, and locally, with direct effects on the gonads. These functions are supported by the extensive localization of cannabinoid receptors and eCB metabolic enzymes at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals, as well as bonyfish and amphibians. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that eCBs centrally regulate gonadal functions by modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-gonadotropin-steroid network through direct and indirect mechanisms. Several proofs of local eCB regulation have been found in the testis and male genital tracts, since eCBs control Sertoli and Leydig cells activity, germ cell progression, as well as the acquisition of sperm functions. A comparative approach usually is a key step in the study of physiological events leading to the building of a general model. Thus, in this review, we summarize the action of eCBs at different levels of the male reproductive axis, with special emphasis, where appropriate, on data from non-mammalian vertebrates.

  12. The mechanism involved in the loss of PTEN expression in NSCLC tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Jingfeng; Peng, Xianjing; Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Chen, Yuxiang

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation stimulates PTEN reexpression in NSCLC independent of p53 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN reexpression is mediated by miR-29b overexpression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-29b regulates Dnmts expression in NSCLC tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target therapy could be established by overexpressing miR-29b expression. -- Abstract: Loss of PTEN expression is observed in most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). However, the mechanism by which PTEN expression is regulated in NSCLC has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts), microRNA-29b (miR-29b), and anti-miR-29b inhibitor in PTEN promoter methylation and PTEN gene expression in H358 NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. PTEN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. PTEN and Dnmts protein levels were measured by Western blot. miR-29b expression was detected by Northern blot. A xenograft H358 tumor mouse model was established by subcutaneously inoculating H358 cells into the right hind limbs of nude mice. We found that radiation induced cell apoptosis and hypomethylation in PTEN promoter, PTEN and miR-29b expression, and downregulation of Dnmt1, 3a and 3b expression in H358 tumor cells. The effect of radiation on gene expression and apoptosis was blocked by anti-miR-29b inhibitor. In the xenograft H358 tumor model, anti-miR-29b inhibitor reversed radiation-induced tumor growth delay, PTEN reexpression and downregulation of Dnmts expression. Our study suggested that miR-29b is an upstream molecule of PTEN. miR-29b regulates PTEN gene expression through downregulating Dnmts expression and subsequently induces hypomethylation in PTEN promoter. Targeting therapy could be established in NSCLC by upregulating miR-29b expression.

  13. Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.

    PubMed

    Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-11-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein. PMID:23108613

  14. Mechanisms Involved in the Association between Periodontitis and Complications in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Marcela Yang Hui; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2015-01-01

    The association between periodontitis and some of the problems with pregnancy such as premature delivery, low weight at birth, and preeclampsia (PE) has been suggested. Nevertheless, epidemiological data have shown contradictory data, mainly due to differences in clinical parameters of periodontitis assessment. Furthermore, differences in microbial composition and immune response between aggressive and chronic periodontitis are not addressed by these epidemiological studies. We aimed to review the current data on the association between some of these problems with pregnancy and periodontitis, and the mechanisms underlying this association. Shifts in the microbial composition of the subgingival biofilm may occur during pregnancy, leading to a potentially more hazardous microbial community. Pregnancy is characterized by physiological immune tolerance. However, the infection leads to a shift in maternal immune response to a pathogenic pro-inflammatory response, with production of inflammatory cytokines and toxic products. In women with periodontitis, the infected periodontal tissues may act as reservoirs of bacteria and their products that can disseminate to the fetus-placenta unit. In severe periodontitis patients, the infection agents and their products are able to activate inflammatory signaling pathways locally and in extra-oral sites, including the placenta-fetal unit, which may not only induce preterm labor but also lead to PE and restrict intrauterine growth. Despite these evidences, the effectiveness of periodontal treatment in preventing gestational complications was still not established since it may be influenced by several factors such as severity of disease, composition of microbial community, treatment strategy, and period of treatment throughout pregnancy. This lack of scientific evidence does not exclude the need to control infection and inflammation in periodontitis patients during pregnancy, and treatment protocols should be validated. PMID:25688342

  15. Endocannabinoids are Involved in Male Vertebrate Reproduction: Regulatory Mechanisms at Central and Gonadal Level

    PubMed Central

    Bovolin, Patrizia; Cottone, Erika; Pomatto, Valentina; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are natural lipids regulating a large array of physiological functions and behaviors in vertebrates. The eCB system is highly conserved in evolution and comprises several specific receptors (type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors), their endogenous ligands (e.g., anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), and a number of biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. In the last few years, eCBs have been described as critical signals in the control of male and female reproduction at multiple levels: centrally, by targeting hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-secreting neurons and pituitary, and locally, with direct effects on the gonads. These functions are supported by the extensive localization of cannabinoid receptors and eCB metabolic enzymes at different levels of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in mammals, as well as bonyfish and amphibians. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that eCBs centrally regulate gonadal functions by modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone–gonadotropin–steroid network through direct and indirect mechanisms. Several proofs of local eCB regulation have been found in the testis and male genital tracts, since eCBs control Sertoli and Leydig cells activity, germ cell progression, as well as the acquisition of sperm functions. A comparative approach usually is a key step in the study of physiological events leading to the building of a general model. Thus, in this review, we summarize the action of eCBs at different levels of the male reproductive axis, with special emphasis, where appropriate, on data from non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:24782832

  16. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2014-04-01

    In a previous communication, we reported a new method of synthesis of stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), which had high potency for bacterial cell filamentation and cell killing. The present study deals with the mechanism of filament formation and antibacterial roles of Cu-NPs in E. coli cells. Our results demonstrate that NP-mediated dissipation of cell membrane potential was the probable reason for the formation of cell filaments. On the other hand, Cu-NPs were found to cause multiple toxic effects such as generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA degradation in E. coli cells. In vitro interaction between plasmid pUC19 DNA and Cu-NPs showed that the degradation of DNA was highly inhibited in the presence of the divalent metal ion chelator EDTA, which indicated a positive role of Cu2+ ions in the degradation process. Moreover, the fast destabilization, i.e. the reduction in size, of NPs in the presence of EDTA led us to propose that the nascent Cu ions liberated from the NP surface were responsible for higher reactivity of the Cu-NPs than the equivalent amount of its precursor CuCl2; the nascent ions were generated from the oxidation of metallic NPs when they were in the vicinity of agents, namely cells, biomolecules or medium components, to be reduced simultaneously.

  17. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2014-04-01

    In a previous communication, we reported a new method of synthesis of stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), which had high potency for bacterial cell filamentation and cell killing. The present study deals with the mechanism of filament formation and antibacterial roles of Cu-NPs in E. coli cells. Our results demonstrate that NP-mediated dissipation of cell membrane potential was the probable reason for the formation of cell filaments. On the other hand, Cu-NPs were found to cause multiple toxic effects such as generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA degradation in E. coli cells. In vitro interaction between plasmid pUC19 DNA and Cu-NPs showed that the degradation of DNA was highly inhibited in the presence of the divalent metal ion chelator EDTA, which indicated a positive role of Cu(2+) ions in the degradation process. Moreover, the fast destabilization, i.e. the reduction in size, of NPs in the presence of EDTA led us to propose that the nascent Cu ions liberated from the NP surface were responsible for higher reactivity of the Cu-NPs than the equivalent amount of its precursor CuCl2; the nascent ions were generated from the oxidation of metallic NPs when they were in the vicinity of agents, namely cells, biomolecules or medium components, to be reduced simultaneously. PMID:24584282

  18. Oncogenic activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase fusion protein, Tpr-Met, involves exclusion from the endocytic degradative pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, H H L; Peschard, P; Lin, T; Naujokas, M A; Zuo, D; Park, M

    2007-11-01

    Multiple mechanisms of dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are observed in human cancers. In addition to gain-of-function, loss of negative regulation also contributes to oncogenic activation of RTKs. Negative regulation of many RTKs involves their internalization and degradation in the lysosome, a process regulated through ubiquitination. RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation, are no longer transmembrane proteins, and are predicted to escape lysosomal degradation. To test this, we used the Tpr-Met oncogene, generated following chromosomal translocation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met). Unlike Met, Tpr-Met is localized in the cytoplasm and also lacks the binding site for Cbl ubiquitin ligases. We determined whether subcellular localization of Tpr-Met, and/or loss of its Cbl-binding site, is important for oncogenic activity. Presence of a Cbl-binding site and ubiquitination of cytosolic Tpr-Met oncoproteins does not alter their transforming activity. In contrast, plasma membrane targeting allows Tpr-Met to enter the endocytic pathway, and Tpr-Met transforming activity as well as protein stability are decreased in a Cbl-dependent manner. We show that transformation by Tpr-Met is in part dependent on its ability to escape normal downregulatory mechanisms. This provides a paradigm for many RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation.

  19. Curcumin-induced recovery from hepatic injury involves induction of apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Priya, S; Sudhakaran, P R

    2008-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo activation and transdifferentiation to myofibroblast like cells in liver injury, leading to liver fibrosis. During recovery from injury, activated HSCs may either revert back to quiescent state or undergo apoptosis or both. In the present study, we have examined whether recovery from hepatic injury involves apoptosis of activated HSCs and tested whether curcumin (the yellow pigment from Curcuma longa Linn.) promotes recovery from hepatic injury by inducing apoptosis of these cells. Hepatic injury was induced by CCl4 and apoptosis was studied in HSCs isolated from liver by MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, and DAPI and annexin staining. Hepatic recovery was assessed by measuring hepatic marker activities, such as serum GOT, GPT and protein. Hepatic recovery occurred within 4 weeks after inducing injury in untreated control, whereas curcumin treatment caused hepatic recovery within 2 weeks, as evidenced by the reduction of hepatic marker activities to near normal levels. HSCs isolated from liver of animals treated with curcumin showed maximum apoptotic marker activities in 2nd week, whereas in HSCs from untreated control recovering from injury, maximum apoptosis was observed in 4th week. Induction of apoptosis in vivo during hepatic recovery was also suggested by increase in caspase-3 activity. Treatment of isolated HSCs in culture with curcumin caused apoptosis during later stages confirming that curcumin induced apoptosis of activated HSCs and not in unactivated quiescent HSCs. These results suggested that hepatoprotective effect of curcumin causing recovery from injury involved apoptosis of activated HSCs. PMID:19069843

  20. Insulin activates glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis) through a phospholipid-derived mediator. Apparent involvement of Gi alpha and activation of a phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Vila, M C; Milligan, G; Standaert, M L; Farese, R V

    1990-09-18

    We studied the mechanism whereby insulin activates de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis in BC3H-1 myocytes. Insulin rapidly activated glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT) in intact and cell-free preparations of myocytes in a dose-related manner. The apparent Km of the enzyme was decreased by treatment with insulin, whereas the Vmax was unaffected. No activation was found by ACTH, insulin-like growth factor-I, angiotensin II, or phenylephrine, but epidermal growth factor, which, like insulin, is known to activate de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis in intact myocytes, also stimulated G3PAT activity. In homogenates or membrane fractions, the effect of insulin on G3PAT was fully mimicked by nonspecific or phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC). An antiserum raised against PI-glycan-PLC completely blocked the effect of insulin on G3PAT. Although the above findings suggested involvement of a PLC in insulin-induced activation of G3PAT, neither diacylglycerol nor protein kinase C activation appeared to be involved. On the other hand, insulin stimulated the release of a cytosolic factor, which activated membrane-associated G3PAT. This cytosolic factor had a molecular weight of less than 5K as determined by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. NaF, a phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the activation of G3PAT by insulin, suggesting involvement of a phosphatase. Insulin-induced activation of G3PAT was also blocked by pretreatment of intact myocytes with pertussis toxin and by prior addition, to homogenates, of an antiserum that recognizes the C-terminal decapeptide of Gi alpha.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  3. Collective Synthesis of Phenanthridinone through C-H Activation Involving a Pd-Catalyzed Aryne Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Minghao; Tang, Bingqing; Xu, Hong-Xi; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    A palladium-catalyzed multicomponent reaction (MCR) involving aryne, CO, and aniline is established for straightforward assembly of a phenanthridinone scaffold through C-H bond activation. Free combination with multiple kinds of readily available anilines and arynes is facilely achieved for phenanthridinone construction without prefunctionalization. Representative natural products were subsequently synthesized through this MCR strategy highly efficiently. Control experiments and interval NMR tracking revealed the mechanism, particularly the key role of CuF2 in determining the aryne-releasing rate from the precursor in this transformation. PMID:27529796

  4. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... that is not exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b) and 97.401(b). (b) If ED determines that proposed...

  5. Student Activism -- and Involvement in the Educational Program. Federation AdHoc Committee Report, January, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Federation of District Boards of Education, Trenton.

    This report notes that (1) activism is preferable to apathy, (2) larger problems loom for schools that fail to involve parents and community, (3) board member and administrator rigidity can cause conflict, and (4) black and Spanish-speaking students have special problems. Recommendations for school administrators and teachers emphasize sincerity…

  6. Structural Model of Employee Involvement in Skill Development Activity: The Role of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…

  7. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a collaborative parent-involvement project for inner-city Hispanic primary students sponsored by the Chicago Community Trust. A university professor, two graduate assistants, the principal, and the school community representative designed a summer program featuring hospitality and support activities, free books, and hands-on science and…

  8. Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

  9. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... the development of voluntary standards (43 FR 19216 (May 4, 1978)). Acknowledging the contribution... Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities. 54 FR 6646 (Feb. 14, 1989). In 2006, the Commission amended several provisions of part 1031. 71 FR 38754 (July 10, 2006). Among other things, the...

  10. Beyond Participation: The Association between School Extracurricular Activities and Involvement in Violence across Generations of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study…

  11. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  12. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  13. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  14. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests... Sciences confidentiality statute, 20 U.S.C. 9573, are exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b)(3)(ii). (d) Children...

  15. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests... Sciences confidentiality statute, 20 U.S.C. 9573, are exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b)(3)(ii). (d) Children...

  16. Beyond the Classroom: Involving Students with Disabilities in Extracurricular Activities at Levy Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam; And Others

    Six students in a special education classroom at Levy Middle School (Syracuse, New York) became involved in a variety of after-school activities with nondisabled students. The students participated in the school computer club, cross-country skiing, volleyball, stage crew, intramural basketball, the Spanish Club, and after-school programs at two…

  17. INVOLVEMENT OF MICRORNAS IN EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION AS SHOWN BY DICER EXPRESSION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most maternal transcripts including many housekeeping genes are degraded at or around embryonic genome activation as evidenced by our initial studies. This degradation appears to be global but highly regulated. MicroRNAs are naturally occurring small (19-24bp) RNAs that are shown to be involved in m...

  18. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  19. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  20. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  1. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  2. Involving Your Child or Teen with ASD in Integrated Community Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Participating in outside activities and community-based endeavors can be tricky for people with special needs, like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Families meet more than a few obstacles attempting to integrate their children or teens who have special needs like ASD. Most typical children are highly involved in sports, clubs and camps. If a…

  3. Enzyme activity alteration by cadmium administration to rats: the possibility of iron involvement in lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Casalino, E; Sblano, C; Landriscina, C

    1997-10-15

    The specific activities of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) are reduced in the liver and kidney of rats intoxicated with 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt and sacrificed after 24 h; conversely ketone-body concentration is strongly increased in both of these organs and blood. In the same animals a great stimulation of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase occurs. The prooxidant state induced by cadmium in liver mitochondria and microsomes is unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase, or mannitol, whereas it is completely blocked by vitamin E thus excluding the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this process. The mechanism by which cadmium induces lipid peroxidation has been investigated by measuring the effect of this metal on liposomes. Ninety-minute treatment of liposomes with CdCl2 does not induce any lipid peroxidation. In contrast, Fe2+ ions under the same conditions cause strong liposome peroxidation. It has also been observed that cadmium promotes a time-dependent iron release from biological membranes. When lipid peroxidation is induced by a low concentration (5 microM) of FeCl2, in place of CdCl2, the characteristics of this process and the sensitivity to the various antioxidants used are similar to those observed with Cd. From these results we conclude that the prooxidative effect of cadmium is an indirect one since it is mediated by iron. With regard to the inhibitory effect on BDH and GDH following cadmium intoxication, it does not appear to be imputable to lipid peroxidation since in vitro investigations indicate that the presence of vitamin E does not remove the inhibition at all. PMID:9343363

  4. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    PubMed

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  5. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in soft-shelled turtle iridovirus-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Ye, Fuzhou; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-06-01

    Iridoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates, and result in significant economic losses in aquaculture production, and drastic declines in amphibian populations. Soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in farm-raised soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinensis). In the present study, the mechanisms of STIV-induced cell death and the roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were investigated. STIV infection evoked typical apoptosis in fish cells, as demonstrated by the formation of apoptotic bodies, positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nicked-end labeling, and caspase-3 activation. The translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and caspase-9 activation suggested that a mitochondria-mediated pathway was involved in STIV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MAPK pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK signaling were activated during STIV infection. Using specific inhibitors, we found that MAPK signaling molecules, including ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK, were important for virus release, whereas, only ERK and p38 MAPK were involved in STIV-induced apoptosis by modulating caspase-3 activity. Taken together, our findings shed light on the roles of the MAPK signaling pathway in iridovirus-induced apoptosis and virus replication, which provides new insights into understanding iridovirus-host interaction.

  6. The Prothrombotic Tendency in Metabolic Syndrome: Focus on the Potential Mechanisms Involved in Impaired Haemostasis and Fibrinolytic Balance

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by impairment of glucose metabolism, increased arterial blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. The presence of these clinical features exposes patients to a high risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular events. The pathogenesis of atherothrombosis in the metabolic syndrome is multifactorial, requiring a close relationship among the main components of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, alterations of glycaemic and lipid pattern, haemodynamic impairment, and early appearance of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, haemostatic alterations involving coagulation balance, fibrinolysis, and platelet function play a relevant role both in the progression of the arterial wall damage and in acute vascular events. The mechanisms linking abdominal obesity with prothrombotic changes in the metabolic syndrome have been identified and partially elucidated on the basis of alterations of each haemostatic variable and defined through the evidence of peculiar dysfunctions in the endocrine activity of adipose tissue responsible of vascular impairment, prothrombotic tendency, and low-grade chronic inflammation. This paper will focus on the direct role of adipose tissue on prothrombotic tendency in patients affected by metabolic syndrome, with adipocytes being able to produce and/or release cytokines and adipokines which deeply influence haemostatic/fibrinolytic balance, platelet function, and proinflammatory state. PMID:24278711

  7. Plant-Plant-Microbe Mechanisms Involved in Soil-Borne Disease Suppression on a Maize and Pepper Intercropping System

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xinyue; Liao, Jingjing; Ding, Xupo; Deng, Weiping; Fan, Limin; He, Xiahong; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Li, Chengyun; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Intercropping systems could increase crop diversity and avoid vulnerability to biotic stresses. Most studies have shown that intercropping can provide relief to crops against wind-dispersed pathogens. However, there was limited data on how the practice of intercropping help crops against soil-borne Phytophthora disease. Principal Findings Compared to pepper monoculture, a large scale intercropping study of maize grown between pepper rows reduced disease levels of the soil-borne pepper Phytophthora blight. These reduced disease levels of Phytophthora in the intercropping system were correlated with the ability of maize plants to form a “root wall” that restricted the movement of Phytophthora capsici across rows. Experimentally, it was found that maize roots attracted the zoospores of P. capsici and then inhibited their growth. When maize plants were grown in close proximity to each other, the roots produced and secreted larger quantities of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA). Furthermore, MBOA, benzothiazole (BZO), and 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (MBZO) were identified in root exudates of maize and showed antimicrobial activity against P. capsici. Conclusions Maize could form a “root wall” to restrict the spread of P. capsici across rows in maize and pepper intercropping systems. Antimicrobe compounds secreted by maize root were one of the factors that resulted in the inhibition of P. capsici. These results provide new insights into plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in intercropping systems. PMID:25551554

  8. Oral Efficacy of Apigenin against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Autophagy as a Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Silva, Fernanda; Inacio, Job D. F.; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment for leishmaniasis is currently based on pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B; however, these drugs result in numerous adverse side effects. The lack of affordable therapy has necessitated the urgent development of new drugs that are efficacious, safe, and more accessible to patients. Natural products are a major source for the discovery of new and selective molecules for neglected diseases. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of apigenin on Leishmania amazonensis in vitro and in vivo and described the mechanism of action against intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis. Methodology/Principal Finding Apigenin reduced the infection index in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 4.3 μM and a selectivity index of 18.2. Apigenin induced ROS production in the L. amazonensis-infected macrophage, and the effects were reversed by NAC and GSH. Additionally, apigenin induced an increase in the number of macrophages autophagosomes after the infection, surrounding the parasitophorous vacuole, suggestive of the involvement of host autophagy probably due to ROS generation induced by apigenin. Furthermore, apigenin treatment was also effective in vivo, demonstrating oral bioavailability and reduced parasitic loads without altering serological toxicity markers. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, our study suggests that apigenin exhibits leishmanicidal effects against L. amazonensis-infected macrophages. ROS production, as part of the mechanism of action, could occur through the increase in host autophagy and thereby promoting parasite death. Furthermore, our data suggest that apigenin is effective in the treatment of L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice by oral administration, without altering serological toxicity markers. The selective in vitro activity of apigenin, together with excellent theoretical predictions of oral availability, clear decreases in parasite load and lesion size, and no observed compromises to the overall health

  9. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens to thousands flying males. Yet little information is known about mosquito swarming mechanism. Discovering chemical cues involved in mosquito biology leads to better adaptation of disease control interventions. In this study, we aimed ...

  10. The involvement of the opioidergic system in the antinociceptive mechanism of action of antidepressant compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gray, A M; Spencer, P S J; Sewell, R D E

    1998-01-01

    Debate exists as to the nature of antidepressant-induced antinociception. It is unclear whether antidepressants are inherently antinociceptive, are able to potentiate opioid antinociception or both. We have used the acetic acid induced abdominal constriction assay in mice to investigate antidepressant-induced antinociception.All the antidepressants tested (s.c.) produced dose-dependent protection against acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction. Similarly, morphine and aspirin were also effective antinociceptive agents in this nociceptive assay.Opioid antagonists, naloxone (0.5 mg kg−1, s.c.) and naltrindole (1 mg kg−1, s.c.), shifted the dose-response relationships to the right for each of the antidepressant agents (dothiepin, amitriptyline, sibutramine, (+)-oxaprotiline and paroxetine). In this context the naloxone dose-ratios were 1.95, 3.90, 2.32, 4.50 and 2.65, with naltrindole dose-ratios of 4.36, 17.00, 4.28, 11.48 and 2.65 were obtained, respectively. Naloxone also shifted the morphine dose-response relationship to the right, by a factor of 2.62, whilst naltrindole had no effect upon morphine antinociception. Aspirin antinociception remained unaffected by both opioid antagonists.The enkephalin catabolism inhibitor acetorphan, by itself, produced no activity in this test at a dose of 10 mg kg−1 (s.c.). However, at higher doses, acetorphan produced a linear dose-response relationship against acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction.When acetorphan was administered before either the antidepressants or morphine, there was a clear potentiation of the antidepressant- or morphine-induced antinociception. However, acetorphan had no effect on aspirin antinociception.Since neither of the opioid antagonists were able to attenuate, nor was acetorphan able to potentiate, aspirin antinociception, we concluded that the mechanism of antidepressant-induced antinociception is different from that of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.These data

  11. Amino acid residues involved in the catalytic mechanism of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, F; Ferrer, J; Camacho, M; Pire, C; LLorca, F; Bonete, M J

    1999-02-01

    The pH dependence of kinetic parameters for a competitive inhibitor (glutarate) was determined in order to obtain information on the chemical mechanism for NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum. The maximum velocity is pH dependent, decreasing at low pHs giving a pK value of 7.19+/-0.13, while the V/K for l-glutamate at 30 degrees C decreases at low and high pHs, yielding pK values of 7.9+/-0.2 and 9.8+/-0.2, respectively. The glutarate pKis profile decreases at high pHs, yielding a pK of 9. 59+/-0.09 at 30 degrees C. The values of ionization heat calculated from the change in pK with temperature are: 1.19 x 10(4), 5.7 x 10(3), 7 x 10(3), 6.6 x 10(3) cal mol-1, for the residues involved. All these data suggest that the groups required for catalysis and/or binding are lysine, histidine and tyrosine. The enzyme shows a time-dependent loss in glutamate oxidation activity when incubated with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Inactivation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with a second-order rate constant of 53 M-1min-1. The pKa of the titratable group was pK1=6.6+/-0.6. Inactivation with ethyl acetimidate also shows pseudo-first-order kinetics as well as inactivation with TNM yielding second-order constants of 1.2 M-1min-1 and 2.8 M-1min-1, and pKas of 8.36 and 9.0, respectively. The proposed mechanism involves hydrogen binding of each of the two carboxylic groups to tyrosyl residues; histidine interacts with one of the N-hydrogens of the l-glutamate amino group. We also corroborate the presence of a conservative lysine that has a remarkable ability to coordinate a water molecule that would act as general base.

  12. Constitutive active/androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, and cytotoxicity are involved in oxadiazon-induced liver tumor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Inoue, Kaoru; Ichimura, Ryohei; Takahashi, Miwa; Kodama, Yukio; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-02-01

    Oxadiazon (OX) is a protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicide that induces porphyria and liver tumors in rodents. Although porphyria is generally considered to be a risk factor for liver tumor development, the mechanisms through which OX mediates tumor development are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms of tumor development by focusing on constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), which is essential for the development of tumors in response to several chemicals. After 1, 4, or 13 weeks of dietary treatment with 1000 ppm OX, hepatic Cyp2b10 expression was induced in wild-type (WT) mice. However, this effect was blocked in CAR-knockout (CARKO) mice. Hepatic Cyp4a10 expression, indicative of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation, and cytotoxic changes in hepatocytes were also observed in both groups of mice. After initiation by diethylnitrosamine, 26-week treatment with OX resulted in an increase in proliferative lesions, including foci and adenomas, in both genotypes, and the incidence and multiplicity of proliferative lesions in CARKO mice were higher than those in control mice but lower than those in WT mice. These results suggested that CAR, PPARα activation, and cytotoxicity were involved in the development of liver tumors. Moreover, porphyrin was not apparently involved in OX-induced tumor development.

  13. A Mechanism for Land-Atmosphere Feedback Involving Planetary Wave Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Chang, Yehui; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2014-01-01

    While the ability of land surface conditions to influence the atmosphere has been demonstrated in various modeling and observational studies, the precise mechanisms by which land-atmosphere feedback occurs are still largely unknown particularly the mechanisms that allow land moisture state in one region to affect atmospheric conditions in another. Such remote impacts are examined here in the context of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations, leading to the identification of one potential mechanism: the phase-locking and amplification of a planetary wave through the imposition of a spatial pattern of soil moisture at the land surface. This mechanism, shown here to be relevant in the AGCM, apparently also operates in nature, as suggested by supporting evidence found in reanalysis data.

  14. Dexamethasone enhances necrosis-like neuronal death in ischemic rat hippocampus involving μ-calpain activation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2014-11-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) leads to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell death which is aggravated by glucocorticoids (GC). It is unknown how GC affect apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the co-localization of activated caspase-3 (casp-3) with apoptosis- and necrosis-like cell death morphologies in CA1 of rats treated with dexamethasone prior to TFI (DPTI). In addition, apoptosis- (casp-9, casp-3, casp-3-cleaved PARP and cleaved α-spectrin 145/150 and 120kDa) and necrosis-related (calpain-specific casp-9 cleavage, μ-calpain upregulation and cleaved α-spectrin 145/150kDa) cell death mechanisms were investigated by Western blot analysis. DPTI expedited CA1 neuronal death from day 4 to day 1 and increased the magnitude of CA1 neuronal death from 66.2% to 91.3% at day 7. Furthermore, DPTI decreased the overall (days 1-7) percentage of dying neurons displaying apoptosis-like morphology from 4.7% to 0.3% and, conversely, increased the percentage of neurons with necrosis-like morphology from 95.3% to 99.7%. In animals subjected to TFI without dexamethasone (ischemia-only), 7.4% of all dying CA1 neurons were casp-3-immunoreactive (IR), of which 3.1% co-localized with apoptosis-like and 4.3% with necrosis-like changes. By contrast, DPTI decreased the percentage of dying neurons with casp-3 IR to 1.4%, of which 0.3% co-localized with apoptosis-like changes and 1.1% with necrosis-like changes. Western blot analysis from DPTI animals showed a significant elevation of μ-calpain, a calpain-produced necrosis-related casp-9 fragment (25kDa) and cleavage of α-spectrin into 145/150kDa fragments at day 4, whereas in ischemia-only animals a significant increase of casp-3-cleaved PARP, cleavage of α-spectrin into 145/150 and 120kDa fragments was detected at day 7. We conclude that DPTI, in addition to augmenting and expediting CA1 neuronal death, causes a shift from apoptosis-like cell death to necrosis involving μ-calpain activation.

  15. Mechanisms involved in carbachol-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements in rat proximal and distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tadayoshi; Kushida, Masahiko; Hirayama, Nobue; Kitayama, Muneyoshi; Fujita, Akikazu; Hata, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements induced by the activation of muscarinic receptors in membrane-permeabilized preparations of the rat proximal and distal colon were studied. In α-toxin-permeabilized preparations from the rat proximal and distal colon, Ca2+ induced a rapid phasic and subsequent tonic component. After Ca2+-induced contraction reached a plateau, guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) and carbachol (CCh) in the presence of GTP further contracted preparations of both the proximal and distal colon (Ca2+ sensitization). Y-27632, a rho-kinase inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization more significantly in the proximal colon than in the distal colon. Y-27632 at 10 μM had no effect on Ca2+-induced contraction or slightly inhibited phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-induced Ca2+ sensitization in either proximal or distal colon. Chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. The component of Ca2+ sensitization that persisted after the chelerythrine treatment was completely inhibited by Y-27632. In β-escin-permeabilized preparations of the proximal colon, C3 exoenzyme completely inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization, but PKC(19–31) did not. In the distal colon, C3 exoenzyme abolished GTP-induced Ca2+ sensitization. It inhibited CCh-induced sensitization by 50 % and the remaining component was inhibited by PKC(19–31). These results suggest that both protein kinase C and rho pathways in parallel mediate the Ca2+ sensitization coupled to activation of muscarinic receptors in the rat distal colon, whereas the rho pathway alone mediates this action in the proximal colon. PMID:15159278

  16. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  17. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  18. Sensitizing Children to the Social and Emotional Mechanisms Involved in Racism: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triliva, Sofia; Anagnostopoulou, Tanya; Vleioras, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the results of an intervention aiming to sensitize children to the social and emotional processes involved in racism. The intervention was applied and evaluated in 10 Greek elementary schools. The goals and the intervention methods of the program modules are briefly outlined and the results of the program…

  19. Cumulative asbestos exposure for US automobile mechanics involved in brake repair (circa 1950s-2000).

    PubMed

    Finley, Brent L; Richter, Richard O; Mowat, Fionna S; Mlynarek, Steve; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Warmerdam, John M; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2007-11-01

    We analyzed cumulative lifetime exposure to chrysotile asbestos experienced by brake mechanics in the US during the period 1950-2000. Using Monte Carlo methods, cumulative exposures were calculated using the distribution of 8-h time-weighted average exposure concentrations for brake mechanics and the distribution of job tenure data for automobile mechanics. The median estimated cumulative exposures for these mechanics, as predicted by three probabilistic models, ranged from 0.16 to 0.41 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm(3)) year for facilities with no dust-control procedures (1970s), and from 0.010 to 0.012 f/cm(3) year for those employing engineering controls (1980s). Upper-bound (95%) estimates for the 1970s and 1980s were 1.96 to 2.79 and 0.07-0.10 f/cm(3) year, respectively. These estimates for US brake mechanics are consistent with, but generally slightly lower than, those reported for European mechanics. The values are all substantially lower than the cumulative exposure of 4.5 f/cm(3) year associated with occupational exposure to 0.1 f/cm(3) of asbestos for 45 years that is currently permitted under the current occupational exposure limits in the US. Cumulative exposures were usually about 100- to 1,000-fold less than those of other occupational groups with asbestos exposure for similar time periods. The cumulative lifetime exposure estimates presented here, combined with the negative epidemiology data for brake mechanics, could be used to refine the risk assessments for chrysotile-exposed populations.

  20. Activation Mechanism of the Bacteroides fragilis Cysteine Peptidase, Fragipain.

    PubMed

    Herrou, Julien; Choi, Vivian M; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Crosson, Sean

    2016-07-26

    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis produces a secreted metalloprotease known as B. fragilis toxin (BFT), which contributes to anaerobic sepsis, colitis, and colonic malignancy in mouse models of disease. A C11 family cysteine protease, fragipain (Fpn), directly activates BFT in the B. fragilis cell by removing the BFT prodomain. Fpn is itself a proenzyme and is autoactivated upon cleavage at an arginine residue in its activation loop. We have defined the proteolytic active site of Fpn, demonstrated that Fpn autoactivation can occur by an in trans loop cleavage mechanism, and characterized structural features of the Fpn activation loop that control peptidase activity against several substrates, including BFT. An arginine residue at the autocleavage site determines the fast activation kinetics of Fpn relative to the homologous C11 protease, PmC11, which is cleaved at lysine. Arginine to alanine substitution at the cleavage site ablated peptidase activity, as did partial truncation of the Fpn activation loop. However, complete truncation of the activation loop yielded an uncleaved, pro form of Fpn that was active as a peptidase against both Fpn and BFT substrates. Thus, Fpn can be transformed into an active peptidase in the absence of activation loop cleavage. This study provides insight into the mechanism of fragipain activation and, more generally, defines the role of the C11 activation loop in the control of peptidase activity and substrate specificity.

  1. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.

  2. Different brain mechanisms between stereotype activation and application: evidence from an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Dickter, Cheryl L; Luo, Junlong; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Qun; Lei, Ming; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-01-01

    Stereotyping involves two processes in which first, social stereotypes are activated (stereotype activation), and then, stereotypes are applied to given targets (stereotype application). Previous behavioral studies have suggested that these two processes are independent of each other and may have different mechanisms. As few psychophysiological studies have given an integrated account of these stages in stereotyping so far, this study utilized a trait categorization task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to explore the brain mechanisms associated with the processes of stereotype activation and its application. The behavioral (reaction time) and electrophysiological data showed that stereotype activation and application were elicited respectively in an affective valence identification subtask and in a semantic content judgment subtask. The electrophysiological results indicated that the categorization processes involved in stereotype activation to quickly identify stereotypic and nonstereotypic information were quite different from those involved in the application. During the process of stereotype activation, a P2 and N2 effect was observed, indicating that stereotype activation might be facilitated by an early attentional bias. Also, a late positive potential (LPP) was elicited, suggesting that social expectancy violation might be involved. During the process of the stereotype application, electrophysiological data showed a P2 and P3 effect, indicating that stereotype application might be related to the rapid social knowledge identification in semantic representation and thus may be associated with an updating of existing stereotypic contents or a motivation to resolve the inconsistent information. This research strongly suggested that different mechanisms are involved in the stereotype activation and application processes.

  3. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 gene silencing inhibits cardiomyocytes apoptosis, improves heart function of streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats and the molecular mechanism involved

    PubMed Central

    Zhenzhong, Zheng; Yafa, Yu; Jin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl2) is involved in apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammatory response. Diabetes is closely associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and coagulation. So it allowed us to assume that Fgl2 plays an important role during the process of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). In the present study, we test that the feasibility of Fgl2 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of DCM and its possible molecular mechanism involved. We found that Fgl2 gene silencing inhibits apoptosis and improves heart function of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats, the possible mechanism maybe that Fgl2 gene silencing reduces the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)±levels, decreases the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2), bcl-2-associated X (bax), toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, Fgl2 is a potent target to treat DCM. PMID:26182381

  4. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle increases prostaglandin F2(alpha) synthesis and cyclooxygenase activity by a pertussis toxin sensitive mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Shansky, Janet; Solerssi, Rosa; Chromiak, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of differentiated skeletal muscle in tissue culture increases the production of prostaglandin F(sub 2(alpha)), an anabolic stimulator of myofiber growth. Within 4 h of initiating mechanical activity, the activity of cyclooxygenase, a regulatory enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis, was increased 82% (P is less than .005), and this increase was maintained for at least 24 h. Kinetic analysis of the stretch-activated cyclooxygenase indicated a two to three-fold decrease in the enzyme's K(sub m) with no change in V(sub max). The stretch-induced increase in enzymatic activity was not inhibited by cycloheximide, was independent of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin-insensitive), but was prevented by the G protein inhibitor pertussis toxin. Pertussis toxin also inhibited the stretch-induced increases in PGF(sub 2(alpha)) production, and cell growth. It is concluded that stretch of skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of the anabolic modulator PGF(sub 2(alpha)) by a G protein-dependent process which involves activation of cyclooxygenase by a posttranslational mechanism.

  5. Isolation of genes (nif/hup cosmids) involved in hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Hom, S S; Graham, L A; Maier, R J

    1985-03-01

    Recombinant cosmids containing a Rhizobium japonicum gene involved in both hydrogenase (Hup) and nitrogenase (Nif) activities were isolated. An R. japonicum gene bank utilizing broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR1 was conjugated into Hup- Nif- R. japonicum strain SR139. Transconjugants containing the nif/hup cosmid were identified by their resistance to tetracycline (Tcr) and ability to grow chemoautotrophically (Aut+) with hydrogen. All Tcr Aut+ transconjugants possessed high levels of H2 uptake activity, as determined amperometrically. Moreover, all Hup+ transconjugants tested possessed the ability to reduce acetylene (Nif+) in soybean nodules. Cosmid DNAs from 19 Hup+ transconjugants were transferred to Escherichia coli by transformation. When the cosmids were restricted with EcoRI, 15 of the 19 cosmids had a restriction pattern with 13.2-, 4.0-, 3.0-, and 2.5-kilobase DNA fragments. Six E. coli transformants containing the nif/hup cosmids were conjugated with strain SR139. All strain SR139 transconjugants were Hup+ Nif+. Moreover, one nif/hup cosmid was transferred to 15 other R. japonicum Hup- mutants. Hup+ transconjugants of six of the Hup- mutants appeared at a frequency of 1.0, whereas the transconjugants of the other nine mutants remained Hup-. These results indicate that the nif/hup gene cosmids contain a gene involved in both nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities and at least one and perhaps other hup genes which are exclusively involved in H2 uptake activity.

  6. Difficulty with daily activities involving the lower extremities in people with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Brandenstein, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of lower extremity impairments in motion and strength in people with systemic sclerosis and the relationships of the impairments to limitations in activities of daily living primarily involving the lower extremities. Participants were 69 persons with SSc who received evaluations of lower extremity joint motion (Keitel function test), strength (timed-stands test), and basic mobility (timed up and go test) and completed a demographic questionnaire regarding symptoms in the lower extremities. Activity limitations were measured by the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) which examines functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The participants had difficulty with items requiring external rotation of the hips and lower extremity strength. There were moderate correlations between the impairment measures of joint motion, strength, mobility, and activity limitations. Fair correlations were found between the skin scores and the RAOS sections except for pain. The results of this study show that lower extremity involvement is present in persons with SSc. The findings, regarding strength, mobility, and joint motion are related to the ability to perform everyday activities involving the lower extremities, suggest that these areas should be targeted for intervention in persons with SSc.

  7. A Ca2+-induced Ca2+ Release Mechanism Involved in Asynchronous Exocytosis at Frog Motor Nerve Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Narita, K.; Akita, T.; Osanai, M.; Shirasaki, T.; Kijima, H.; Kuba, K.

    1998-01-01

    The extent to which Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) affects transmitter release is unknown. Continuous nerve stimulation (20–50 Hz) caused slow transient increases in miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency (MEPP-hump) and intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in presynaptic terminals (Ca2+-hump) in frog skeletal muscles over a period of minutes in a low Ca2+, high Mg2+ solution. Mn2+ quenched Indo-1 and Fura-2 fluorescence, thus indicating that stimulation was accompanied by opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. MEPP-hump depended on extracellular Ca2+ (0.05–0.2 mM) and stimulation frequency. Both the Ca2+- and MEPP-humps were blocked by 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8), ryanodine, and thapsigargin, but enhanced by CN−. Thus, Ca2+-hump is generated by the activation of CICR via ryanodine receptors by Ca2+ entry, producing MEPP-hump. A short interruption of tetanus (<1 min) during MEPP-hump quickly reduced MEPP frequency to a level attained under the effect of TMB-8 or thapsigargin, while resuming tetanus swiftly raised MEPP frequency to the previous or higher level. Thus, the steady/equilibrium condition balancing CICR and Ca2+ clearance occurs in nerve terminals with slow changes toward a greater activation of CICR (priming) during the rising phase of MEPP-hump and toward a smaller activation during the decay phase. A short pause applied after the end of MEPP- or Ca2+-hump affected little MEPP frequency or [Ca2+]i, but caused a quick increase (faster than MEPP- or Ca2+-hump) after the pause, whose magnitude increased with an increase in pause duration (<1 min), suggesting that Ca2+ entry-dependent inactivation, but not depriming process, explains the decay of the humps. The depriming process was seen by giving a much longer pause (>1 min). Thus, ryanodine receptors in frog motor nerve terminals are endowed with Ca2+ entry-dependent slow priming and fast inactivation mechanisms, as well as Ca2+ entry

  8. Immune complexes activate human endothelium involving the cell-signaling HMGB1-RAGE axis in the pathogenesis of lupus vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenping; Jiao, Yulian; Cui, Bin; Gao, Xuejun; Xia, Yu; Zhao, Yueran

    2013-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the formation of immune complexes (ICs), which contain a complex mixture of autoantigens nucleic acids, nucleic acids-associated proteins and corresponding autoantibodies. In SLE, ICs are deposited in multiple organs. Vasculopathy and vasculitis in SLE are typical complications and are associated with deposition of ICs on endothelium, endothelial activation and inflammatory cell infiltration. However, the effects of ICs on endothelial cells and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that ICs upregulated cell surface expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), increased the secretion of the chemokines interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), the proinflammatoy cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and promoted the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB p65 in human endothelial cells (P<0.05). ICs also increased transendothelial migration of monocytes (P<0.05). One of the mechanisms underlying these activating effects of ICs on human endothelial cells involves cell signaling by high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-RAGE axis, as these effects can be partially blocked by HMGB1 A-box, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), SB203580, PD98059, Bay 117082 (P<0.05) and co-treatment with these agents (P<0.05). In conclusion, ICs elicit proinflammatory responses in human endothelial cells and alter their function involving cellular signaling via the HMGB1-RAGE axis in the pathogenesis of SLE vasculitis. PMID:23628898

  9. Immune complexes activate human endothelium involving the cell-signaling HMGB1-RAGE axis in the pathogenesis of lupus vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenping; Jiao, Yulian; Cui, Bin; Gao, Xuejun; Xia, Yu; Zhao, Yueran

    2013-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the formation of immune complexes (ICs), which contain a complex mixture of autoantigens nucleic acids, nucleic acids-associated proteins and corresponding autoantibodies. In SLE, ICs are deposited in multiple organs. Vasculopathy and vasculitis in SLE are typical complications and are associated with deposition of ICs on endothelium, endothelial activation and inflammatory cell infiltration. However, the effects of ICs on endothelial cells and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that ICs upregulated cell surface expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), increased the secretion of the chemokines interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), the proinflammatoy cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and promoted the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB p65 in human endothelial cells (P<0.05). ICs also increased transendothelial migration of monocytes (P<0.05). One of the mechanisms underlying these activating effects of ICs on human endothelial cells involves cell signaling by high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-RAGE axis, as these effects can be partially blocked by HMGB1 A-box, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), SB203580, PD98059, Bay 117082 (P<0.05) and co-treatment with these agents (P<0.05). In conclusion, ICs elicit proinflammatory responses in human endothelial cells and alter their function involving cellular signaling via the HMGB1-RAGE axis in the pathogenesis of SLE vasculitis.

  10. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2016-03-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity.

  11. Increased aerobic glycolysis through beta2 stimulation is a common mechanism involved in lactate formation during shock states.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruno; Desebbe, Olivier; Montemont, Chantal; Gibot, Sebastien

    2008-10-01

    During septic shock, muscle produces lactate by way of an exaggerated NaK-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)-stimulated aerobic glycolysis associated with epinephrine stimulation possibly through beta2 adrenoreceptor involvement. It therefore seems logical that a proportion of hyperlactatemia in low cardiac output states would be also related to this mechanism. Thus, in low-flow and normal-to-high-flow models of shock, we investigate (1) whether muscle produces lactate and (2) whether muscle lactate production is linked to beta2 adrenergic stimulation and Na+K+-ATPase. We locally modulated the adrenergic pathway and Na+K+-ATPase activity in male Wistar rats' skeletal muscle using microdialysis with nonselective and selective beta blockers and ouabain in different models of rodent shock (endotoxin, peritonitis, and hemorrhage). Blood flow at the probe site was evaluated by ethanol clearance. We measured the difference between muscle lactate and blood lactate concentration, with a positive gradient indicating muscle lactate or pyruvate production. Epinephrine levels were elevated in all shock groups. All models were associated with hypotension and marked hyperlactatemia. Muscle lactate concentrations were consistently higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 2.5+/-0.3 in endotoxic shock, 2.1+/-0.2 mM in peritonitis group, and 0.9+/-0.2 mM in hemorrhagic shock (P<0.05 for all groups). Muscle pyruvate concentrations were also always higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 260+/-40 microM in endotoxic shock, 210+/-30 microM in peritonitis group, and 90+/-10 microM in hemorrhagic shock (P<0.05 for all groups). Despite a decrease in blood flow, lactate formation was decreased by all the pharmacological agents studied irrespective of shock mechanism. This demonstrates that lactate production during shock states is related, at least in part, to increased NaK-ATPase activity under beta2 stimulation. In shock state associated with a reduced or

  12. Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage*

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhao-liang; Wu, Xiao-kang; Xu, Jian-rong; Li, Xi

    2010-01-01

    the first 3 d, had increased by Day 4. The content of sIL-2r peaked 7.53 ng/ml on Day 7 and then reduced gradually. Conclusions: (1) Basic HLA-DR expression is present in arachnoid cells. (2) After stimulation by bloody CSF, arachnoid cells have the potential to serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the ability to activate T-lymphocytes, indicating that arachnoid cells are involved in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after SAH. PMID:20593517

  13. Glutathione transferase classes alpha, pi, and mu: GSH activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Daniel F A R; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

    2010-10-14

    Since the early 1960s, glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been described as detoxification enzymes. In fact, GSTs are the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of electrophilic xenobiotic/endobiotic compounds. These enzymes are able to catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione (GSH) sulfur thiolate to a wide range of electrophilic substrates, building up a less toxic and more soluble compound. Cytosolic classes alpha, pi, and mu are the most extensively studied GSTs. However, many of the catalytic events are still poorly understood. In the present work, we have resorted to density functional theory (DFT) and to potential of mean force (PMF) calculations to determine the GSH activation mechanism of GSTP1-1 and GSTM1-1 isoenzymes. For the GSTP1-1 enzyme, we have demonstrated that a water molecule, after an initial conformational rearrangement of GSH, can assist a proton transfer between the GSH cysteine thiol (GSH-SH) and the GSH glutamate alpha carboxylate (GSH-COO(-)) groups. The energy barrier associated with the proton transfer is 11.36 kcal·mol(-1). The GSTM1-1 enzyme shows a completely different behavior from the previous isoenzyme. In this case, two water molecules, positioned between the GSH-SH and the ξ N atom of His107, working like a bridge, are able to promote the proton transfer between these two active groups with an energy barrier of 7.98 kcal·mol(-1). All our results are consistent with all the enzymes kinetics and mutagenesis experimental studies.

  14. Differential involvement of amygdala and cortical NMDA receptors activation upon encoding in odor fear memory.

    PubMed

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guillaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the BLA and olfactory cortex at discrete moments of an odor fear conditioning session. We showed that NMDA receptors in BLA are critically involved in odor fear acquisition during the first association but not during the next ones. In the cortex, NMDA receptor activation at encoding is not necessary for recent odor fear memory while its role in remote memory storage needs further investigation.

  15. Differential inv