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Sample records for activation parameters obtained

  1. Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Angın, Dilek; Altintig, Esra; Köse, Tijen Ennil

    2013-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from biochar obtained through pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake by chemical activation with zinc chloride. The influences of process variables such as the activation temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated. Also, the adsorptive properties of activated carbons were tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 128.21 mg g(-1) and carbon content 76.29%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume corresponded to 801.5m(2)g(-1) and 0.393 cm(3)g(-1), respectively. This study demonstrated that high surface area activated carbons can be prepared from the chemical activation of biochar with zinc chloride as activating agents.

  2. Improving the quality of parameter estimates obtained from slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; McElwee, C.D.; Liu, W.

    1996-01-01

    The slug test is one of the most commonly used field methods for obtaining in situ estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Despite its prevalence, this method has received criticism from many quarters in the ground-water community. This criticism emphasizes the poor quality of the estimated parameters, a condition that is primarily a product of the somewhat casual approach that is often employed in slug tests. Recently, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) has pursued research directed it improving methods for the performance and analysis of slug tests. Based on extensive theoretical and field research, a series of guidelines have been proposed that should enable the quality of parameter estimates to be improved. The most significant of these guidelines are: (1) three or more slug tests should be performed at each well during a given test period; (2) two or more different initial displacements (Ho) should be used at each well during a test period; (3) the method used to initiate a test should enable the slug to be introduced in a near-instantaneous manner and should allow a good estimate of Ho to be obtained; (4) data-acquisition equipment that enables a large quantity of high quality data to be collected should be employed; (5) if an estimate of the storage parameter is needed, an observation well other than the test well should be employed; (6) the method chosen for analysis of the slug-test data should be appropriate for site conditions; (7) use of pre- and post-analysis plots should be an integral component of the analysis procedure, and (8) appropriate well construction parameters should be employed. Data from slug tests performed at a number of KGS field sites demonstrate the importance of these guidelines.

  3. An analytical approach to obtaining JWL parameters from cylinder tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, B. D.; Ferguson, J. W.; Hodgson, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for determining parameters for the JWL Equation of State from cylinder test data is described. This method is applied to four datasets obtained from two 20.3 mm diameter EDC37 cylinder tests. The calculated pressure-relative volume (p-Vr) curves agree with those produced by hydro-code modelling. The average calculated Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) pressure is 38.6 GPa, compared to the model value of 38.3 GPa; the CJ relative volume is 0.729 for both. The analytical pressure-relative volume curves produced agree with the one used in the model out to the commonly reported expansion of 7 relative volumes, as do the predicted energies generated by integrating under the p-Vr curve. The calculated energy is within 1.6% of that predicted by the model.

  4. Targeted estimation of nuisance parameters to obtain valid statistical inference.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete results, we focus on estimation of the treatment specific mean, controlling for all measured baseline covariates, based on observing independent and identically distributed copies of a random variable consisting of baseline covariates, a subsequently assigned binary treatment, and a final outcome. The statistical model only assumes possible restrictions on the conditional distribution of treatment, given the covariates, the so-called propensity score. Estimators of the treatment specific mean involve estimation of the propensity score and/or estimation of the conditional mean of the outcome, given the treatment and covariates. In order to make these estimators asymptotically unbiased at any data distribution in the statistical model, it is essential to use data-adaptive estimators of these nuisance parameters such as ensemble learning, and specifically super-learning. Because such estimators involve optimal trade-off of bias and variance w.r.t. the infinite dimensional nuisance parameter itself, they result in a sub-optimal bias/variance trade-off for the resulting real-valued estimator of the estimand. We demonstrate that additional targeting of the estimators of these nuisance parameters guarantees that this bias for the estimand is second order and thereby allows us to prove theorems that establish asymptotic linearity of the estimator of the treatment specific mean under regularity conditions. These insights result in novel targeted minimum loss-based estimators (TMLEs) that use ensemble learning with additional targeted bias reduction to construct estimators of the nuisance parameters. In particular, we construct collaborative TMLEs (C-TMLEs) with known influence curve allowing for statistical inference, even though these C-TMLEs involve variable selection for the propensity score based on a criterion that measures how effective the resulting fit of the propensity score is in removing bias for the estimand. As a particular special

  5. Obtaining and estimating kinetic parameters from the literature.

    PubMed

    Neves, Susana R

    2011-09-13

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a lecture on strategies for the development of mathematical models. Many biological processes can be represented mathematically as systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Simulations with these mathematical models can provide mechanistic insight into the underlying biology of the system. A prerequisite for running simulations, however, is the identification of kinetic parameters that correspond closely with the biological reality. This lecture presents an overview of the steps required for the development of kinetic ODE models and describes experimental methods that can yield kinetic parameters and concentrations of reactants, which are essential for the development of kinetic models. Strategies are provided to extract necessary parameters from published data. The homework assignment requires students to find parameters appropriate for a well-studied biological regulatory system, convert these parameters into appropriate units, and interpret how different values of these parameters may lead to different biological behaviors.

  6. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  7. Comparison of Methods to Obtain Force-Field Parameters for Metal Sites.

    PubMed

    Hu, LiHong; Ryde, Ulf

    2011-08-09

    We have critically examined and compared various ways to obtain standard harmonic molecular mechanics (MM) force-field parameters for metal sites in proteins, using the 12 most common Zn(2+) sites as test cases. We show that the parametrization of metal sites is hard to treat with automatic methods. The choice of method is a compromise between speed and accuracy and therefore depends on the intended use of the parameters. If the metal site is not of central interest in the investigation, for example, a structural metal far from the active site, a simple and fast parametrization is normally enough, using either a nonbonded model with restraints or a bonded parametrization based on the method of Seminario. On the other hand, if the metal site is of central interest in the investigation, a more accurate method is needed to give quantitative results, for example, the method by Norrby and Liljefors. The former methods are semiautomatic and can be performed in seconds, once a quantum mechanical (QM) geometry optimization and frequency calculation has been performed, whereas the latter method typically takes several days and requires significant human intervention. All approaches require a careful selection of the atom types used. For a nonbonded model, standard atom types can be used, whereas for a bonded model, it is normally wise to use special atom types for each metal ligand. For accurate results, new atom types for all atoms in the metal site can be used. Atomic charges should also be considered. Typically, QM restrained electrostatic potential charges are accurate and easy to obtain once the QM calculation is performed, and they allow for charge transfer within the complex. For negatively charged complexes, it should be checked that hydrogen atoms of the ligands get proper charges. Finally, water ligands pose severe problems for bonded models in force fields that ignore nonbonded interactions for atoms separated by two bonds. Complexes with a single water ligand

  8. Reproducibility of physiologic parameters obtained using functional computed tomography in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Stantz, Keith M.; Steinmetz, Rosemary; Hutchins, Gary D.; Liang, Yun

    2004-04-01

    High-speed X-ray computed tomography (CT) has the potential to observe the transport of iodinated radio-opaque contrast agent (CA) through tissue enabling the quantification of tissue physiology in organs and tumors. The concentration of Iodine in the tissue and in the left ventricle is extracted as a function of time and is fit to a compartmental model for physiologic parameter estimation. The reproducibility of the physiologic parameters depend on the (1) The image-sampling rate. According to our simulations 5-second sampling is required for CA injection rates of 1.0ml/min (2) the compartmental model should reflect the real tissue function to give meaning results. In order to verify these limits a functional CT study was carried out in a group of 3 mice. Dynamic CT scans were performed on all the mice with 0.5ml/min, 1ml/min and 2ml/min CA injection rates. The physiologic parameters were extracted using 4 parameter and 6 parameter two compartmental models (2CM). Single factor ANOVA did not indicate a significant difference in the perfusion, in the kidneys for the different injection rates. The physiologic parameter obtained using the 6-parameter 2CM model was in line with literature values and the 6-parameter significantly improves chi-square goodness of fits for two cases.

  9. A Procedure for Obtaining Initial Values of Parameters in the RAM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.; Hartmann, Wolfgang M.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for obtaining initial values for the minimization process in covariance structure analysis is developed that is more generally applicable for computing parameters connected to latent variables than the currently existing ones. The algorithm is formulated in terms of the RAM model but can be extended. (SLD)

  10. Determination of parameters of transit exoplanets, using data obtained at the small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushevska, V.; Kuznyetsova, Yu.; Matsiaka, O.; Andreev, M.; Romanyuk, Ya.; Vidmachenko, A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of CCD-photometry data processing of some stars with transiting extrasolar planets. Observations were carried out using such small telescopes: a 38-cm Cassegrain telescope K-380 (CrAO, Ukraine), a 60-cm Zeiss-600 (Terskol, Russia), a Celestron-14″ (Lesniki & MAO NASU, Ukraine). The main physical and orbital parameters for specified exoplanetary systems were calculated by the Monte-Carlo method. Using obtained best-fit parameters the light curve modeling was simulated. Calculations and light curve simulation were realized using an IDL programming environment. A light curve analysis includes simulation of a transit curve shape using the analytic theory of the light curve and experimentally obtained data. A comparison of the results obtained in each of the above mentioned telescopes is presented.

  11. Identifying mechanical property parameters of planetary soil using in-situ data obtained from exploration rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Liang; Gao, Haibo; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan; Liu, Guangjun

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the mechanical property parameters of planetary soil based on terramechanics models using in-situ data obtained from autonomous planetary exploration rovers is both an important scientific goal and essential for control strategy optimization and high-fidelity simulations of rovers. However, identifying all the terrain parameters is a challenging task because of the nonlinear and coupling nature of the involved functions. Three parameter identification methods are presented in this paper to serve different purposes based on an improved terramechanics model that takes into account the effects of slip, wheel lugs, etc. Parameter sensitivity and coupling of the equations are analyzed, and the parameters are grouped according to their sensitivity to the normal force, resistance moment and drawbar pull. An iterative identification method using the original integral model is developed first. In order to realize real-time identification, the model is then simplified by linearizing the normal and shearing stresses to derive decoupled closed-form analytical equations. Each equation contains one or two groups of soil parameters, making step-by-step identification of all the unknowns feasible. Experiments were performed using six different types of single-wheels as well as a four-wheeled rover moving on planetary soil simulant. All the unknown model parameters were identified using the measured data and compared with the values obtained by conventional experiments. It is verified that the proposed iterative identification method provides improved accuracy, making it suitable for scientific studies of soil properties, whereas the step-by-step identification methods based on simplified models require less calculation time, making them more suitable for real-time applications. The models have less than 10% margin of error comparing with the measured results when predicting the interaction forces and moments using the corresponding identified parameters.

  12. Obtaining parsimonious hydraulic conductivity fields using head and transport observations: A bayesian geostatistical parameter estimation approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, M.; Hunt, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Clemo, T.

    2009-01-01

    Flow path delineation is a valuable tool for interpreting the subsurface hydrogeochemical environment. Different types of data, such as groundwater flow and transport, inform different aspects of hydrogeologie parameter values (hydraulic conductivity in this case) which, in turn, determine flow paths. This work combines flow and transport information to estimate a unified set of hydrogeologic parameters using the Bayesian geostatistical inverse approach. Parameter flexibility is allowed by using a highly parameterized approach with the level of complexity informed by the data. Despite the effort to adhere to the ideal of minimal a priori structure imposed on the problem, extreme contrasts in parameters can result in the need to censor correlation across hydrostratigraphic bounding surfaces. These partitions segregate parameters into faci??s associations. With an iterative approach in which partitions are based on inspection of initial estimates, flow path interpretation is progressively refined through the inclusion of more types of data. Head observations, stable oxygen isotopes (18O/16O) ratios), and tritium are all used to progressively refine flow path delineation on an isthmus between two lakes in the Trout Lake watershed, northern Wisconsin, United States. Despite allowing significant parameter freedom by estimating many distributed parameter values, a smooth field is obtained. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Adequacy of transport parameters obtained in soil column experiments for selected chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Nikolskii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Landeros-Sanchez, C.

    2012-07-01

    The transport parameters were determined for the 18O isotope (in the form of H2 18O), the Br- ion, and atrazine in intact columns of allophanic Andosol (Mexico State, Mexico). A one-dimensional model for the convective-dispersive transport of chemicals with account for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption (HYDRUS-1D), which is widely applied for assessing the risk of the chemical and bacterial contamination of natural waters, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope, the Br- ion, and atrazine in intact soil columns at a fixed filtration velocity. The hydrodynamic dispersion parameters determined for the 18O and Br- ions in one column were of the same order of magnitude, and those for atrazine were higher by 3-4 times. The obtained parameters were used to calculate the transport of these substances in another column with different values of the water content and filtration velocity. The transport process was adequately described only for the 18O isotope. In the case of the Br- ion, the model significantly underestimated the transport velocity; for atrazine, its peak concentration in the column was overestimated. The column study of the transport of the three chemical compounds showed that transport parameters could not be reliably predicted from the results of a single experiment, even when several compounds were used in this experiment.

  14. Method of Hoogenstraaten as a tool for obtaining the trap parameters of general-order thermoluminescence glow peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheedy, M. S.

    2005-09-01

    The Hoogenstraaten method is a technique that uses various heating rates for obtaining the activation energy E (eV) in the case of first-order thermoluminescence glow peaks. This method can also be used for obtaining E (eV) for all types of glow peaks regardless of their kinetics order (b). The present work shows that the intercept of the Hoogenstraaten relation, which is usually used for obtaining the frequency factor S (s(-1)) of the first-order glow peak, can be used as a very good approximation to obtain the pre-exponential factor S''(s(-1)) in the case of general-order glow peaks, when one uses Hoogenstraatens method to obtain E (eV). In addition, the present work suggests a numerical method for obtaining the kinetics order of the general-order glow peak. The method depends on the activation energy E (eV) obtained by the Hoogenstraaten method and the above-mentioned approximation for obtaining the pre-exponential factor S''(s(-1)). An independent evaluation of the suggested methods for obtaining the trap parameters, the activation energy E (eV), the pre-exponential factor S''(s(-1)) and the kinetics order (b) is illustrated here by taking a numerically computed glow peak and applying a one-trap and one-recombination-center model.

  15. UK audit and analysis of quantitative parameters obtained from gamma camera renography.

    PubMed

    Houston, A S; Whalley, D R; Skrypniuk, J V; Jarritt, P H; Fleming, J S; Cosgriff, P S

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform an audit of quantitative values obtained from gamma camera renography in the UK. Ten patient image sequences representing normal and pathological renal function were obtained from archived studies and distributed to hospitals in the UK. Hospitals were asked to measure five parameters: relative function, renogram time-to-peak (left and right), and whole kidney mean transit time (left and right). Details of methodology, software used and operator experience were requested. This allowed the influence of operational factors on variations in reported values to be examined. A total of 180 responses from 81 hospitals were received. Values reported for the parameters, together with other details supplied, were entered into Excel and SPSS for statistical analysis. Histograms representing the distribution of values were produced for each parameter. The largest variations were found for mean transit time and occasionally for time-to-peak. The effect of factors was assessed using nonparametric statistical tests applied independently to each renogram. For all the parameters, the hospital, UK region, supplier, computer and software version influenced variations in the reported values. Algorithm and site of background region were influencing factors for relative function, the background subtraction method influenced time-to-peak, and curve smoothing influenced mean transit time.

  16. Prognostic implications of cardiac scintigraphic parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, A.; Matsushima, H.; Satoh, A.; Hayashi, H.; Sotobata, I.

    1988-06-01

    A cohort of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction was studied with infarct-avid scan, radionuclide ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Infarct area, left ventricular ejection fraction, and defect score were calculated as radionuclide indices of the extent of myocardial infarction. The correlation was studied between these indices and cardiac events (death, congestive heart failure, postinfarction angina, and recurrence of myocardial infarction) in the first postinfarction year. High-risk patients (nonsurvivors and patients who developed heart failure) had a larger infarct area, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a larger defect score than the others. Univariate linear discriminant analysis was done to determine the optimal threshold of these parameters for distinguishing high-risk patients from others. Radionuclide parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction were useful for detecting both patients with grave complications and those with poor late prognosis during a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years.

  17. Noise equalization in Stokes parameter images obtained by use of variable-retardance polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Tyo, J S

    2000-08-15

    An imaging variable retardance polarimeter was developed and tested by Tyo and Turner [Proc. SPIE 3753, 214 (1999)]. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the reconstructed polarization images obtained with this system varied for the four Stokes parameters. The difference in SNR is determined to be due to differences in the Euclidean lengths of the rows of the synthesis matrix used to reconstruct the Stokes parameters from the measured intensity data. I equalize (and minimize) the lengths of the rows of this matrix by minimizing the condition number of the synthesis matrix, thereby maximizing the relative importance of each of the polarimeter measurements. The performance of the optimized system is demonstrated with simulated data, and the SNR is shown to increase from a worst case of -3.1 dB for the original settings to a worst case of +5.0 dB for the optimized system.

  18. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Eduardo José J; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio; Castro, Bruno N M F; Maciel, Auberson Martins; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment.

  19. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    MALLMANN, Eduardo José J.; CUNHA, Francisco Afrânio; CASTRO, Bruno N.M.F.; MACIEL, Auberson Martins; MENEZES, Everardo Albuquerque; FECHINE, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  20. Variations of the ionospheric parameters obtained from ground based measurements of ULF magnetic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Elena; Kotik, Dmitry; Bösinger, Tilmann

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of the amplitude spectra and polarization parameter (epsilon)[1] of magnetic ULF noise were investigated during different seasons and high geomagnetic activity time using the data on the horizontal magnetic components monitoring at mid-latitude (New Life, Russia, 56 N, 46 E) and low-latitude stations (Crete, 35.15 N, 25.20 E). It was found that abrupt changes in the spectral polarization parameters can be linked as with variation of height of maximum and the electron density of the F-layer, and with a change in ionospheric parameters profiles at lower altitudes, for example, with the appearance of sporadic Es-layers and intermediate layers, located between the E and F-layers. It was detected the peculiarities in the daily dynamics of the epsilon parameter at low latitudes: a) the appearance in some cases more complicated than in the mid-latitudes, epsilon structure of the spectrum associated with the presence of two different values of the boundary frequency fB [2]; b) a decreasing of fB near local midnight observed in 70% of cases; c) observation of typical for dark time epsilon spectra after sunrise in the winter season. The numerical calculations of epsilon parameter were made using the IRI-2012 model with setting the models of sporadic and intermediate layers. The results revealed the dependence of the polarization spectra of the intensity and height of such thin layers. The specific changes in the electron density at altitudes of 80-350 km during the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms were defined basing on a comparative analysis of the experimental spectra and the results of the numerical calculations. References. 1. E. N. Ermakova, D. S. Kotik, A. V.Ryabov, A. V.Pershin, T. B.osinger, and Q. Zhou, Studying the variation of the broadband spectral maximum parameters in the natural ULF fields, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 10-11, March, 2013 p. 605-615. 2. T. Bosinger, A. G. Demekhov, E. N. Ermakova, C. Haldoupis and Q

  1. Description of patellar movement by 3D parameters obtained from dynamic CT acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Moreno, Ramon Alfredo; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; de Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Gutierrez, Marco Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The patellofemoral joint is critical in the biomechanics of the knee. The patellofemoral instability is one condition that generates pain, functional impairment and often requires surgery as part of orthopedic treatment. The analysis of the patellofemoral dynamics has been performed by several medical image modalities. The clinical parameters assessed are mainly based on 2D measurements, such as the patellar tilt angle and the lateral shift among others. Besides, the acquisition protocols are mostly performed with the leg laid static at fixed angles. The use of helical multi slice CT scanner can allow the capture and display of the joint's movement performed actively by the patient. However, the orthopedic applications of this scanner have not yet been standardized or widespread. In this work we present a method to evaluate the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint during active contraction using multi slice CT images. This approach can greatly improve the analysis of patellar instability by displaying the physiology during muscle contraction. The movement was evaluated by computing its 3D displacements and rotations from different knee angles. The first processing step registered the images in both angles based on the femuŕs position. The transformation matrix of the patella from the images was then calculated, which provided the rotations and translations performed by the patella from its position in the first image to its position in the second image. Analysis of these parameters for all frames provided real 3D information about the patellar displacement.

  2. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  3. Energy parameters of precipitating auroral electrons obtained by using photometric observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Takayuki; Morishima, Kei )

    1994-02-15

    The authors present a ground based photometric method for measuring both the average energy and total energy flux for active discrete auroras. They make use of a multichannel photometer, with a narrow field of view. They monitor auroral emissions from atomic states and molecular bands, and by determining intensity ratios, are able to infer information relative to energy parameters of precipitating electrons in discrete arcs. They are able to look along magnetic axes. One observation is that there is a relationship between the energy flux and average energy, which can be considered ohmic in character, consistent with a model that precipitating electrons are accelerated along field lines by potential differences which can exist along these field lines.

  4. Respirometric assays of two different MBR (microfiltration and ultrafiltration) to obtain kinetic and stoichiometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L M; Arévalo, J; Parada, J; González, D; Moreno, B; Pérez, J; Gómez, M A

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two different medium scale MBRs (ultrafiltration and microfiltration) using respirometric methods has been achieved. The ultrafiltration membrane plant (0.034 microm pore size) maintained recirculation sludge flow at seven times the influent flow, and membranes were backwashed every 5 min and chemically cleaned weekly. The microfiltration membrane plant (0.4 microm pore size) maintained recirculation sludge flow at four times the influent flow, membrane-relax was applied after the production phase and membranes were chemically cleaned in the event of high trans-membrane pressure. Both technologies showed a similar performance with regard to heterotrophic kinetic and stoichiometric parameters and organic matter effluent concentrations. The influent was characterized by means of its COD fractions and the average removal percentages for COD concentrations were around 97% for both plants in spite of influent COD fluctuation, temperature variations and sludge retention time (SRT) evolution. Both SRT evolution and temperature affect the heterotrophic yield (Y(H)) and the decay coefficient (bH) in the same range for both plants. Y(H) values of over 0.8 mg COD/mg COD were obtained during the unsteady periods, while under steady state conditions these values fell to less than 0.4 mg COD/mg COD. bH by contrast reached values of less than 0.05 d(-1).

  5. CALIBRATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS OBTAINED FROM THE FIRST YEAR OF SDSS-III APOGEE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mészáros, Sz.; Allende Prieto, C.; Holtzman, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Hearty, F. R.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R. P.; Basu, S.; Bizyaev, D.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Cunha, K.; Epstein, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; García, R. A.; Kallinger, T.; Koesterke, L.; and others

    2013-11-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a three-year survey that is collecting 10{sup 5} high-resolution spectra in the near-IR across multiple Galactic populations. To derive stellar parameters and chemical compositions from this massive data set, the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) has been developed. Here, we describe empirical calibrations of stellar parameters presented in the first SDSS-III APOGEE data release (DR10). These calibrations were enabled by observations of 559 stars in 20 globular and open clusters. The cluster observations were supplemented by observations of stars in NASA's Kepler field that have well determined surface gravities from asteroseismic analysis. We discuss the accuracy and precision of the derived stellar parameters, considering especially effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity; we also briefly discuss the derived results for the abundances of the α-elements, carbon, and nitrogen. Overall, we find that ASPCAP achieves reasonably accurate results for temperature and metallicity, but suffers from systematic errors in surface gravity. We derive calibration relations that bring the raw ASPCAP results into better agreement with independently determined stellar parameters. The internal scatter of ASPCAP parameters within clusters suggests that metallicities are measured with a precision better than 0.1 dex, effective temperatures better than 150 K, and surface gravities better than 0.2 dex. The understanding provided by the clusters and Kepler giants on the current accuracy and precision will be invaluable for future improvements of the pipeline.

  6. Obtaining mass parameters of compact objects from redshifts and blueshifts emitted by geodesic particles around them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Ricardo; Valdez-Alvarado, Susana; Nucamendi, Ulises

    2016-12-01

    The mass parameters of compact objects such as boson stars, Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, and Kerr black holes are computed in terms of the measurable redshift-blueshift (zred , zblue ) of photons emitted by particles moving along circular geodesics around these objects and the radius of their orbits. We find bounds for the values of (zred , zblue ) that may be observed. For the case of the Kerr black hole, recent observational estimates of Sgr A* mass and rotation parameter are employed to determine the corresponding values of these red-blue shifts.

  7. 40 CFR 60.2945 - Is there a minimum amount of operating parameter monitoring data I must obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must obtain? (a) Except for monitor malfunctions, associated repairs, and required quality... parameter monitoring data I must obtain? 60.2945 Section 60.2945 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  8. Communication: comparing ab initio methods of obtaining effective U parameters for closed-shell materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A

    2014-03-28

    The density functional theory (DFT)+U method is an efficient and effective way to calculate the ground-state properties of strongly correlated transition metal compounds, with the effective U parameters typically determined empirically. Two ab initio methods have been developed to compute the U parameter based on either constrained DFT (CDFT) or unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) theory. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of both methods in typical open-shell materials such as FeO and NiO. In this Communication we report numerical instability issues that arise for the CDFT method when applied to closed-shell transition metals, by using ZnO and Cu2O as examples. By contrast, the UHF method behaves much more robustly for both closed- and open-shell materials, making it more suitable for treating closed-shell transition metals, as well as main group elements.

  9. Methods comparison: assessing agreement of physiological parameters obtained from exercise on two different cycle ergometers.

    PubMed

    Siedlik, Jake A; Harrison, Grant; Brigman, Robert; Graham, Zachary A; Weir, Joseph P; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement of physiological parameters measured during exercise testing on 2 devices at established power outputs (POs). Ten trained male cyclists were recruited. The devices used for comparison were the Lode stationary bicycle ergometer (SBE) (Lode Excalibur) and the PowerTap Pro+ (BPT) (Saris Cycling Group) mobile ergometer. The physiological parameters recorded at established PO (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 W) were heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Subjects were randomized once to the SBE and 3 times to a bicycle equipped with a BPT. After 15 minutes of unloaded pedaling, the trial began with 5 minutes of cycling at 50 W. Intensity increased by 50 W every 5 minutes up to 250 W. Physiological measures were recorded at each PO. Bland-Altman plots were constructed including computation of the ratio of half the range of limits of agreement and the mean of the pairwise means along with bivariate regression calculations for analysis of the linear association between device measurements. Moderate to good agreement was found for HR with agreement improving as PO increased. Comparisons of (Equation is included in full-text article.)found agreement increased as the PO increased. VE, RPE, and lactate did not consistently provide similar measures across trials. The level of agreement between HR and (Equation is included in full-text article.)when comparing the SBE and BPT suggests that the PowerTap Pro+ is a sufficient tool for estimating PO and associated physiological parameters in the field.

  10. High-quality colloidal photonic crystals obtained by optimizing growth parameters in a vertical deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Su-Lan; Hu, Xing-Fang; Haché, Alain; Truong, Vo-Van

    2004-06-01

    High-quality polystyrene colloidal crystals were fabricated from aqueous solutions with a vertical deposition technique. The role of sphere size, volume fraction, relative humidity (RH), evaporation temperature and the final drying conditions on the film quality were investigated. We found that all those parameters must be taken into account in order to achieve highest quality for a given particle size. With particles of 300 nm in diameter, the optimal conditions were found to be a 0.1-0.2% volume fraction, an RH between 80% and 90%, an evaporation temperature near 60°C and a quasi-equilibrium drying process.

  11. Synthesis and antiviral activity of azoles obtained from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Barradas, José Sebastián; Errea, María Inés; D'Accorso, Norma B; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Talarico, Laura B; Damonte, Elsa B

    2008-09-22

    Herein we describe the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-thione;1,3,4-oxadiazole, and imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives from carbohydrates. The antiviral activity of these compounds was tested against Dengue and Junin virus (the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever). The 3-(p-bromobenzoyl)-5-(1,2-O-isopropylidene-3-O-methyl-alpha-d-xylofuranos-5-ulos-5-yl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole was able to inhibit the replication of both viruses in Vero cells at concentration significantly lower than the CC(50).

  12. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  13. Stark parameters irregularities of Xe II lines obtained by transitions from ({sup 3}P{sub 1})6plevels

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, S.; Pelaez, R. J.; Rodriguez, F.; Aparicio, J. A.

    2008-10-22

    Stark widths and shifts of some Xe II lines belonging to the supermultiplets with upper levels ({sup 3}P{sub 1})6p were measured using a pulsed discharge lamp. Plasma parameters, i.e. electron density and temperature, in this experiment were in the range from 0.2 to 1.4x10{sup 23} m{sup -3} and from 18000 to 23000 K, respectively. Lines obtained by transitions from levels ({sup 3}P{sub 1})6p show some strong intra-supermultiplet irregularities in their Stark widths and shifts. These results and the measurements obtained in previous works were used here to analyse the main irregularities that can appear in the case of Xe II. This study may be very useful for obtaining Stark parameters of non-measured lines, using the known parameters of other lines belonging to similar transitions.

  14. Innovative parameters obtained for digital analysis of microscopic images to evaluate in vitro hemorheological action of anesthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alet, Analía. I.; Basso, Sabrina; Delannoy, Marcela; Alet, Nicolás. A.; D'Arrigo, Mabel; Castellini, Horacio V.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Drugs used during anesthesia could enhance microvascular flow disturbance, not only for their systemic cardiovascular actions but also by a direct effect on the microcirculation and in particular on hemorheology. This is particularly important in high-risk surgical patients such as those with vascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, etc.). Therefore, in this work we propose a set of innovative parameters obtained by digital analysis of microscopic images to study the in vitro hemorheological effect of propofol and vecuronium on red blood cell from type 2 diabetic patients compared to healthy donors. Obtained innovative parameters allow quantifying alterations in erythrocyte aggregation, which can increase the in vivo risk of microcapillary obstruction.

  15. Accurate Zero Parameter Correlation Energy Functional Obtained from the Homogeneous Electron Gas with an Energy Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, J. B.; Chen, Jiqiang; Iafrate, G. J.; Savin, A.

    1998-03-01

    We have obtained an analytic approximation to E_c(r_g, ζ,G) where G is an energy gap separating the occupied and unoccupied states of a homogeneous electron gas for ζ=3D0 and ξ=3D1. When G=3D0, E_c(r_g, ζ) reduces to the usual LSD result. This functional is employed in calculating correlation energies for unpolarized atoms and ions for Z <= 18 by taking G[n]=3D1/8|nabla ln n|^2, which reduces to the ionization energy in the large r limit in an exact Kohn-Sham (KS) theory. The resulting functional is self-interaction-corrected employing a method which is invariant under a unitary transformation. We find that the application of this approach to the calculation of the Ec functional reduces the error in the LSD result by more than 95%. When the value of G is approximately corrected to include the effect of higher lying unoccupied localized states, the resulting values of Ec are within a few percent of the exact results.

  16. Modelling the fate of nitrite in an urbanized river using experimentally obtained nitrifier growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Laverman, Anniet M

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining low nitrite concentrations in aquatic systems is a major issue for stakeholders due to nitrite's high toxicity for living species. This study reports on a cost-effective and realistic approach to study nitrite dynamics and improve its modelling in human-impacted river systems. The implementation of different nitrifying biomasses to model riverine communities and waste water treatment plant (WWTP)-related communities enabled us to assess the impact of a major WWTP effluent on in-river nitrification dynamics. The optimal kinetic parameters and biomasses of the different nitrifying communities were determined and validated by coupling laboratory experiments and modelling. This approach was carried out in the Seine River, as an example of a large human-impacted river with high nitrite concentrations. The simulation of nitrite fate was performed at a high spatial and temporal resolution (Δt = 10 min, dx¯ = 500 m) including water and sediment layers along a 220 km stretch of the Seine River for a 6-year period (2007-2012). The model outputs were in good agreement with the peak of nitrite downstream the WWTP as well as its slow decrease towards the estuary. Nitrite persistence between the WWTP and the estuary was mostly explained by similar production and consumption rates of nitrite in both water and sediment layers. The sediment layer constituted a significant source of nitrite, especially during high river discharges (0.1-0.4 mgN h(-1) m(-2)). This points out how essential it is to represent the benthic layer in river water quality models, since it can constitute a source of nitrite to the water-column. As a consequence of anthropogenic emissions and in-river processes, nitrite fluxes to the estuary were significant and varied from 4.1 to 5.5 TN d(-1) in low and high water discharge conditions, respectively, over the 2007-2012 period. This study provides a methodology that can be applied to any anthropized river to realistically parametrize autochthonous

  17. Changes in multifractal parameters from profiles of soil penetration resistance obtained with increasing soil dryness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germán Wilson, Marcelo; Lado Liñares, Marcos; González, Antonio Paz

    2015-04-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is linked to basic soil physical properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, so that it has been extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management on soil physical quality. We analyzed multifractality of PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 80 cm depth at 1 cm intervals. Soil PR was recorded at 10 successive dates with decreasing soil water content in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, and 10 replicate PR profiles were obtained in each date. The scaling property of each depth-dependent PR profile was typified by the singularity spectrum, αs versus f(α)s and the generalized dimension spectrum, estimated by the method of moments. Both, singularity and Rènyi spectra showed the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. The multifractality (scaling heterogeneity) in our data series decreased as the mean soil water content decreased. Overall, singularity spectra were asymmetrical and shifted to the right, which is compatible with a greater heterogeneity of the low values in the PR data sets studied. The entropy dimension, D1, increased with decreasing soil water content, and mean values ranged from 0.956 to 0.981; this means that the wetter the soil the more homogeneously is distributed the measure over a large range of scales. Multifractal analysis yielded information about changes with scale of the higher moments, which gives a deep insight into the inner structure of soil PR depth-dependent profiles.

  18. Physiological parameters of gravitaxis in the flagellate Euglena gracilis obtained during a parabolic flight campaign.

    PubMed

    Richter, Peter R; Schuster, Martin; Wagner, Helmut; Lebert, Michael; Hader, Donat-P

    2002-02-01

    The unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis and its close relative Astasia longa show a pronounced negative gravitaxis. Previous experiments revealed that gravitaxis is most likely mediated by an active physiological mechanism in which changes of the internal calcium concentration and the membrane potential play an important role. In a recent parabolic flight experiment on board an aircraft (ESA 29th parabolic flight campaign), changes of graviorientation, membrane potential and the cytosolic calcium concentration upon changes of the acceleration (between 1 x g(n), 1.8 x g(n), microgravity) were monitored by image analysis and photometric methods using Oxonol VI (membrane potential) and Calcium Crimson (cytosolic calcium concentration). The parabolic flight maneuvers performed by the aircraft resulted in transient phases of 1.8 x g(n) (about 20 s), microgravity (about 22 s) followed by 1.8 x g(n) (about 20 s). A transient increase in the intracellular calcium concentration was detected from lower to higher accelerations (1 x g(n) to 1.8 x g(n) or microgravity to 1.8 x g(n)). Oxonol VI-labeled cells showed a signal, which indicates a depolarization during the transition from 1 x g(n) to 1.8 x g(n), a weak repolarization in microgravity followed by a rapid repolarization in the subsequent 1 x g(n) phase. The results show good coincidence with observations of recent terrestrial and space experiments.

  19. Obtaining a Dry Extract from the Mikania laevigata Leaves with Potential for Antiulcer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mariana Viana; Oliveira, Ezequiane Machado; Martins, Jose Luiz Rodrigues; de Paula, Jose Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mikania laevigata leaves are commonly used in Brazil as a medicinal plant. Objective: To obtain hydroalcoholic dried extract by nebulization and evaluate its antiulcerogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Plant material and hydroalcoholic extract were processed and analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. A method using HPLC was validated to quantify coumarin and o-coumaric acid. Hydroalcoholic extract was spray dried and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of its physicochemical parameters and potential for antiulcerogenic activity. Results: The analytical method proved to be selective, linear, precise, accurate, sensitive, and robust. M. laevigata spray dried extract was obtained using colloidal silicon dioxide as adjuvant and was shown to possess 1.83 ± 0.004% coumarin and 0.80 ± 0.012% o-coumaric acid. It showed significant antiulcer activity in a model of an indomethacin-induced gastric lesion in mice and also produced a gastroprotective effect. Conclusion: This dried extract from M. laevigata could be a promising intermediate phytopharmaceutical product. SUMMARY Research and development of standardized dried extract of Mikania laevigata leaves obtained through spray drying and the production process was monitored by the chemical profile, physicochemical properties and potential for anti-ulcerogenic activity. Abbreviations used: DE: M. laevigata spray dried extract, HE: hydroalcoholic extract. PMID:28216886

  20. An automatic scaling method for obtaining the trace and parameters from oblique ionogram based on hybrid genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huan; Hu, Yaogai; Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zou, Xianjian

    2016-12-01

    Scaling oblique ionogram plays an important role in obtaining ionospheric structure at the midpoint of oblique sounding path. The paper proposed an automatic scaling method to extract the trace and parameters of oblique ionogram based on hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA). The extracted 10 parameters come from F2 layer and Es layer, such as maximum observation frequency, critical frequency, and virtual height. The method adopts quasi-parabolic (QP) model to describe F2 layer's electron density profile that is used to synthesize trace. And it utilizes secant theorem, Martyn's equivalent path theorem, image processing technology, and echoes' characteristics to determine seven parameters' best fit values, and three parameter's initial values in QP model to set up their searching spaces which are the needed input data of HGA. Then HGA searches the three parameters' best fit values from their searching spaces based on the fitness between the synthesized trace and the real trace. In order to verify the performance of the method, 240 oblique ionograms are scaled and their results are compared with manual scaling results and the inversion results of the corresponding vertical ionograms. The comparison results show that the scaling results are accurate or at least adequate 60-90% of the time.

  1. Seasonal Variations of the Ionosphere Scintillations Parameters Obtained from the Long Observations of the Power Cosmic Radio Sources at the Decameter Wave Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytvynenko, O. A.; Panishko, S. K.

    Observations of the four power cosmic radio sources were carried out on the radio telescope (RT) URAN-4 during 1987-1990 and 1998-2007 at the frequencies 20 and 25 MHz. Effects of ionosphere and in particular existence of intensity fluctuations on the cosmic radio sources records, or scintillations, are essential at the decameter wave range. Long series of the ionosphere scintillations parameters such as indices, periods and spectrum slopes were obtained after observation data proceeding. Behavior of the seasonal variations was investigated on this data. Obtained dependencies were compared with the indices of the solar and geomagnetic activity.

  2. Chemometrical assessment of the electrical parameters obtained by long-term operating freshwater sediment microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Mario; Bardarov, Ivo; Mandjukov, Petko; Hubenova, Yolina

    2015-12-01

    The electrical parameters of nine freshwater sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) were monitored for a period of over 20 months. The developed SMFCs, divided into three groups, were started up and continuously operated under different constant loads (100, 510 and 1100 Ω) for 2.5 months. At this stage of the experiment, the highest power density values, reaching 1.2 ± 0.2 mW/m(2), were achieved by the SMFCs loaded with 510 Ω. The maximum power obtained at periodical polarization during the rest period, however, ranged between 26.2 ± 2.8 and 35.3 ± 2.8 mW/m(2), strongly depending on the internal cell resistance. The statistical evaluation of data derived from the polarization curves shows that after 300 days of operation all examined SMFCs reached a steady-state and the system might be assumed as homoscedastic. The estimated values of standard and expanded uncertainties of the electric parameters indicate a high repeatability and reproducibility of the SMFCs' performance. Results obtained in subsequent discharge-recovery cycles reveal the opportunity for practical application of studied SMFCs as autonomous power sources.

  3. Transcription activation parameters at ara pBAD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Reeder, T; Schleif, R

    1996-04-26

    We studied the formation of open complexes of RNA polymerase and promoter DNA as activated by the AraC protein at the Escherichia coli araBAD promoter pBAD and by the cyclic AMP receptor protein at the galKTE promoter P1. The DNA migration retardation assay was demonstrated to be suitable for the detection and quantitation of open complexes by the correspondence in the properties of open complexes in solution and retarded complexes observed in gels. These included, on the ara promoter, heparin resistance, lifetime, DNAseI footprinting, exonuclease III footprinting, permanganate footprinting and disappearance upon transcription, and on the gal promoter, the correspondence between the kinetic parameters Kd and k2 obtained with established techniques and those obtained with the migration retardation assay. On the pBAD promoter we obtained kinetic parameters of Kd = 0.3 nM and K2 = 1 minute(-1). The unusually tight binding of polymerase in the presence of AraC suggests that AraC binds polymerase tightly.

  4. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  5. Activation parameters of flow through battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhra, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the hydrodynamic flow of water and 45 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution through a microporous and an ion exchange separator are described. The permeability values are interpreted in terms of a pseudoactivation process. The enthalpy of activation deltaH* and the entropy of activation deltaS* were estimated from Eyring's rate equation.

  6. Critical Parameters for Obtaining Low Particle Densities on a Si Surface in an HF-Last Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alay, Josep-Lluís; Verhaverbeke, Steven; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Heyns, Marc

    1993-01-01

    A study was made on the relation between particle densities and the (remaining) degree of oxidation of a cleaned (100) Si surface following different HF-treatments (HF, HF/IPA, DI-rinse). A detailed comparison between (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) XPS and contact angle measurements of a water droplet with the Si surface shows that the latter method is sensitive to less than 1/10 of a SiO2 monolayer on the (100)Si surface. The results obtained with XPS point out that minute amounts of suboxides (a few percentage of a monolayer) are the dominant cause for particles. On the other hand, HF-dipping time and HF bath temperature are found to be the determinant parameters in an HF-last process. In addition the quality of the rinsing water as well as the initial roughness (Si vs polysilicon) play a major role.

  7. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  8. Correlation of dosimetric parameters obtained with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and toxicity of chest chemoradiation in lung carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cartier, Lysian; Auberdiac, Pierre; Khodri, Mustapha; Malkoun, Nadia; Chargari, Cyrus; Thorin, Julie; Melis, Adrien; Talabard, Jean-Noeel; Laroche, Guy de; Fournel, Pierre; Tiffet, Olivier; Schmitt, Thierry; and others

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and revisit toxicity related to chest chemoradiotherapy and to correlate these side effects with dosimetric parameters obtained using analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) in locally unresectable advanced lung cancer. We retrospectively analyzed data from 47 lung cancer patients between 2005 and 2008. All received conformal 3D radiotherapy using high-energy linear accelerator plus concomitant chemotherapy. All treatment planning data were transferred into Eclipse 8.05 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and dosimetric calculations were performed using AAA. Thirty-three patients (70.2%) developed acute pneumopathy after radiotherapy (grades 1 and 2). One patient (2.1%) presented with grade 3 pneumopathy. Thirty-one (66%) presented with grades 1-2 lung fibrosis, and 1 patient presented with grade 3 lung fibrosis. Thirty-four patients (72.3%) developed grade 1-2 acute oesophagic toxicity. Four patients (8.5%) presented with grades 3 and 4 dysphagia, necessitating prolonged parenteral nutrition. Median prescribed dose was 64 Gy (range 50-74) with conventional fractionation (2 Gy per fraction). Dose-volume constraints were respected with a median V20 of 23.5% (maximum 34%) and a median V30 of 17% (maximum 25%). The median dose delivered to healthy contralateral lung was 13.1 Gy (maximum 18.1 Gy). At univariate analysis, larger planning target volume and V20 were significantly associated with the probability of grade {>=}2 radiation-induced pneumopathy (p = 0.022 and p = 0.017, respectively). No relation between oesophagic toxicity and clinical/dosimetric parameters could be established. Using AAA, the present results confirm the predictive value of the V20 for lung toxicity as already demonstrated with the conventional pencil beam convolution approach.

  9. Spin Saturation Transfer Difference NMR (SSTD NMR): A New Tool to Obtain Kinetic Parameters of Chemical Exchange Processes

    PubMed Central

    Quirós, María Teresa; Macdonald, Colin; Angulo, Jesús; Muñoz, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    This detailed protocol describes the new Spin Saturation Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance protocol (SSTD NMR), recently developed in our group to study processes of mutual-site chemical exchange that are difficult to analyze by traditional methods. As the name suggests, this method combines the Spin Saturation Transfer method used for small molecules, with the Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR method employed for the study of protein-ligand interactions, by measuring transient spin saturation transfer along increasing saturation times (build-up curves) in small organic and organometallic molecules undergoing chemical exchange. Advantages of this method over existing ones are: there is no need to reach coalescence of the exchanging signals; the method can be applied as long as one signal of the exchanging sites is isolated; there is no need to measure T1 or reach steady state saturation; rate constant values are measured directly, and T1 values are obtained in the same experiment, using only one set of experiments. To test the method, we have studied the dynamics of the hindered rotation of N,N-dimethylamides, for which much data is available for comparison. The thermodynamic parameters obtained using SSTD are very similar to the reported ones (spin-saturation transfer techniques and line-shape analysis). The method can be applied to more challenging substrates that cannot be studied by previous methods. We envisage that the simple experimental set up and the wide applicability of the method to a great variety of substrates will make this a common technique amongst organic and organometallic chemists without extensive expertise in NMR. PMID:27911361

  10. Physical parameters for three chromospherically active binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Nordstrom, B.; Andersen, J.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy, photoelectric radial-velocity observations, and uvby photometry are reported for three southern late-type binaries. Data obtained at ESO during 1988 and 1989 are combined with previously published results in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed in detail. HD 57853 is found to be at least a triple system with period 122.2 d and components of strongly differing luminosity; the primary component rotates rapidly (v sin i = 22 km/sec) and has an age of about 80 Myr. HD 114630 comprises two components of equal mass (at least 1.07 solar mass) and luminosity, with orbital inclination about 90 deg, period 4.23 d, rotation v sin i = about 17 km/sec, and age about 2 Gyr. HD 119285 has rotational period 12.031 d, with a K2IVe primary rotating at v sin i = 6.5 km/sec and a very low-mass secondary; its X-ray surface flux is estimated as 5.5 x 10 to the 6th erg/sq cm sec.

  11. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of obtaining numerically maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions is addressed. In recent literature, a certain successive approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, is shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, a general iterative procedure is introduced, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. With probability 1 as the sample size grows large, it is shown that this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. The step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the separation of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  12. Seed and peel essential oils obtained from Campomanesia adamantium fruit inhibit inflammatory and pain parameters in rodents.

    PubMed

    Zuntini Viscardi, Danieli; Arrigo, Jucicléia da Silva; Correia, Camila de Azevedo Chaves; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Maldonade, Iriani Rodrigues; Argandoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez

    2017-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is popularly known as "gabiroba" and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and toxicology of essential oils from peel (EOP) and seed (EOS) of C. adamantium fruits in animal models. Different groups were treated with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and the inflammatory parameters were evaluated in carrageenan induced paw oedema and leukocyte migration in pleurisy model, while antinociceptive activity was evaluated using formalin method in rodents. The major constituent of EOP and EOS was limonene with 13.07% and 20.89%, respectively. No clinical signs of toxicity have been observed in animals. It was observed a significant decreased (P<0.01) in leukocyte migration at the dose of 300 mg/kg of EOP and EOS, with maximal inhibition of 89±3% for EOP and 80±6% for EOS. Paw oedema was inhibited at all times, and maximal inhibition was at the dose of 100 mg/kg at 2 h after carrageenan injection with 72±2% for EOP and 74±2% for EOS. EOS and EOP also reduced the first and second phases of formalin-induced nociception test. In the first formalin-phase, maximal inhibitions were at 48±5% for EOP and 66±4% for EOS (300 mg/kg). At the inflammatory phase induced by formalin, maximal inhibitions were 72±2% for EOP and 80±2% for EOS at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Seed and peel essential oils from C. adamantium fruit inhibited leukocyte migration, inflammatory and neurogenic pain and oedema suggesting their use as nutraceutical or pharmacological agent.

  13. Seed and peel essential oils obtained from Campomanesia adamantium fruit inhibit inflammatory and pain parameters in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zuntini Viscardi, Danieli; Arrigo, Jucicléia da Silva; Correia, Camila de Azevedo Chaves; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Maldonade, Iriani Rodrigues; Argandoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez

    2017-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is popularly known as “gabiroba” and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and toxicology of essential oils from peel (EOP) and seed (EOS) of C. adamantium fruits in animal models. Different groups were treated with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and the inflammatory parameters were evaluated in carrageenan induced paw oedema and leukocyte migration in pleurisy model, while antinociceptive activity was evaluated using formalin method in rodents. The major constituent of EOP and EOS was limonene with 13.07% and 20.89%, respectively. No clinical signs of toxicity have been observed in animals. It was observed a significant decreased (P<0.01) in leukocyte migration at the dose of 300 mg/kg of EOP and EOS, with maximal inhibition of 89±3% for EOP and 80±6% for EOS. Paw oedema was inhibited at all times, and maximal inhibition was at the dose of 100 mg/kg at 2 h after carrageenan injection with 72±2% for EOP and 74±2% for EOS. EOS and EOP also reduced the first and second phases of formalin-induced nociception test. In the first formalin-phase, maximal inhibitions were at 48±5% for EOP and 66±4% for EOS (300 mg/kg). At the inflammatory phase induced by formalin, maximal inhibitions were 72±2% for EOP and 80±2% for EOS at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Seed and peel essential oils from C. adamantium fruit inhibited leukocyte migration, inflammatory and neurogenic pain and oedema suggesting their use as nutraceutical or pharmacological agent. PMID:28222179

  14. Quality control of the total lymphocyte count parameter obtained from routine haematology analyzers, and its relevance in HIV management.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S; Sippy, N; Broome, H; Abayomi, A

    2006-06-01

    Lylmphocyte subsets/CD4 T Helper cell enumeration in HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings can be difficult to ascertain as a result of the lack of the necessary instrumentation, capacity and infrastructure. However. it is imperative to gain such information for patient monitoring in HIV. The Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) is useful as a surrogate marker for CD4 count as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and to calculate CD4% for pacdiatric use. This study therefore sets out to determine and compare the accuracy of the total lymphocyte counts obtained from three haematology analysers designated A. B and C. that are in regular use for routine haemnatological parameters at the main referral hospital in Barbados. West Indies. The TLC of 263 HIV treatment naive individuals attending the HIV Reference Unit in Barbados were enumnerated on the three haematology analysers. The lymphosumn (Sum of lymphocyte subsets: T-helper cell. T-cytotoxic cells. B lymphocytes and Natural killer cells) should be equal to the TLC. and is derived by immunophenotypic analysis on a 4-colour flowcytometer. Machine C had the highest positive correlation between the TLC and the lymphosumn with and R' of 0.9031 compared to machine A with an R values of 0.7119 and Machine B with R(2) values of 0.637. These results show that there can be dramatic inaccuracies when using routine haematology analysers for both routine use. as a surrogate marker of CD4 or for derivation of CD4% in HIV management. It further demonstrates that all haematology analyzers require some form of Quality control. The possible lack of accuracy of the TLC by haematology analysers should be taken into consideration when following the recommendations of the WHO in resource poor settings or using it as a denominator for calculating CD4%.

  15. Cytostatic activity of some compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D; Ahumada, M C; Ruiz, V

    1998-06-30

    Oleuropein, tyrosol, squalene and the fraction of sterols and triterpenoid dialcohols from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil have been tested for possible cytostatic activity against McCoy cells, using 6-mercaptopurine as a positive control. The samples of sterols and triterpenic dialcohols showed a strong activity.

  16. Activated carbon from char obtained from vacuum pyrolysis of teak sawdust: pore structure development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ismadji, S; Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Setiawan, L E K; Ayucitra, A

    2005-08-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from vacuum pyrolysis char of teak sawdust was studied and the results are presented in this paper. The effects of process variables such as temperature and activation time on the pore structure of activated carbons were studied. The activated carbon prepared from char obtained by vacuum pyrolysis has higher surface area and pore volume than that from atmospheric pyrolysis char. The BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbon prepared from vacuum pyrolysis char were 1150 m2/g and 0.43 cm3/g, respectively.

  17. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  18. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  19. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  20. [Biological activity of electrochemically activated solutions obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser].

    PubMed

    Miroshnikov, A I; Konovalov, V F; Serikov, I S

    2006-01-01

    The biological activity of the catholyte and anolyte of bidistilled water in experiments with the germination of wheat grains in the period from March to May has been studied. The activity of solutions, which was characterized by the grain germination index, was high at the beginning of the period, then it gradually decreased and was equal to zero at the middle of the period; at the end of the period it gradually increased almost to initial values. It has been established that the effectiveness of bidistilled water anolyte was as a rule higher than that of catholyte throughout the observation period. At the beginning and end, the stimulating effect of anolyte was 5-5.5 times greater than that of catholyte. The seasonal changes in the biological activity of M 9 medium catholyte were compared with those of bidistilled water anolyte and catholyte. The stimulating effect of M 9 catholyte was estimated by changes in the growth of E. coli cells. The stimulating effect, which was estimated from an increase in the optical density of cell suspension in the initial period at a cultivation temperature of 20 degrees C was 55-60% relative to control (untreated medium). Then it decreased almost to zero in the middle of the period to increase again approximately to the initial values. The assumption has been made that the physicochemical causes of the influence of catholyte and anolyte of bidistilled water on wheat grains and of the culture medium catholyte on E. coli cells are of different nature.

  1. Poisson Parameters of Antimicrobial Activity: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sestraş, Radu E.; Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboacă, Sorana D.

    2012-01-01

    A contingency of observed antimicrobial activities measured for several compounds vs. a series of bacteria was analyzed. A factor analysis revealed the existence of a certain probability distribution function of the antimicrobial activity. A quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis for the overall antimicrobial ability was conducted using the population statistics associated with identified probability distribution function. The antimicrobial activity proved to follow the Poisson distribution if just one factor varies (such as chemical compound or bacteria). The Poisson parameter estimating antimicrobial effect, giving both mean and variance of the antimicrobial activity, was used to develop structure-activity models describing the effect of compounds on bacteria and fungi species. Two approaches were employed to obtain the models, and for every approach, a model was selected, further investigated and found to be statistically significant. The best predictive model for antimicrobial effect on bacteria and fungi species was identified using graphical representation of observed vs. calculated values as well as several predictive power parameters. PMID:22606039

  2. Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.; Markurt, T.; Albrecht, M.; Duff, A.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J.; Chèze, C.

    2014-01-21

    Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets. Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.

  3. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies ERK activity in the brain reward circuit.

    PubMed

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-03-01

    Food palatability produces behavioral modifications that resemble those induced by drugs of abuse. Palatability-induced behavioral changes require both, the activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system, and changes in structural plasticity in neurons of the brain reward pathway. The ERK intracellular pathway is activated by CB1 receptors (CB1-R) and plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity. We investigated the activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the mesocorticolimbic system induced by operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food and the involvement of the CB1-R in these responses. Using immunofluorescence techniques, we analyzed changes in ERK intracellular pathway activation in the mesocorticolimbic system of wild-type and CB1 knockout mice (CB1-/-) trained on an operant paradigm to obtain standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food. Operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food, but not for standard or highly caloric food, produced a robust activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the same brain areas where this training modified structural plasticity. These changes induced by the operant training were absent in CB1-/-. We can conclude that the activation of the ERK pathway is associated to the neuroplasticity induced by operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food and might be involved in CB1-R mediated alterations in behavior and structural plasticity.

  4. Use of grape stalk, a waste of the viticulture industry, to obtain activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Deiana, A C; Sardella, M F; Silva, H; Amaya, A; Tancredi, N

    2009-12-15

    Grape stalk is an organic waste produced in great amounts in the industrialization processes of grape. This work presents the results of studies carried out to use this waste as raw material to prepare activated carbon through the physical and chemical route. The physicochemical characterization of this material suggests the presence of unusually high levels of ashes. Metal content was determined and high levels of potassium, sodium, iron, calcium and magnesium in carbonized and raw grape stalk were exhibited. This characteristic made difficult physical activation at high temperatures. A leaching step was included before the activation with steam, and adsorbents with surface areas between 700 and 900 m(2)/g were obtained. Physical activation was also performed at lower temperatures using carbonized grape stalk without leaching, leading to the development of some grade of porosity, with an area of 412 m(2)/g. These results would indicate the catalytic effect of the minerals present in this raw material. Chemical activation using phosphoric acid as activating agent seemed to be a very efficient method as final products with BET areas between 1000 and 1500 m(2)/g were obtained.

  5. Comparison of TG-43 dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources obtained by three different versions of MCNP codes.

    PubMed

    Zaker, Neda; Zehtabian, Mehdi; Sina, Sedigheh; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used for calculation of the dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources. MCNP4C2, MCNP5, MCNPX, EGS4, EGSnrc, PTRAN, and GEANT4 are among the most commonly used codes in this field. Each of these codes utilizes a cross-sectional library for the purpose of simulating different elements and materials with complex chemical compositions. The accuracies of the final outcomes of these simulations are very sensitive to the accuracies of the cross-sectional libraries. Several investigators have shown that inaccuracies of some of the cross section files have led to errors in  125I and  103Pd parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters of sample brachytherapy sources, calculated with three different versions of the MCNP code - MCNP4C, MCNP5, and MCNPX. In these simulations for each source type, the source and phantom geometries, as well as the number of the photons, were kept identical, thus eliminating the possible uncertainties. The results of these investigations indicate that for low-energy sources such as  125I and  103Pd there are discrepancies in gL(r) values. Discrepancies up to 21.7% and 28% are observed between MCNP4C and other codes at a distance of 6 cm for  103Pd and 10 cm for  125I from the source, respectively. However, for higher energy sources, the discrepancies in gL(r) values are less than 1.1% for  192Ir and less than 1.2% for  137Cs between the three codes. PACS number(s): 87.56.bg.

  6. Comparison of TG-43 dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources obtained by three different versions of MCNP codes.

    PubMed

    Zaker, Neda; Zehtabian, Mehdi; Sina, Sedigheh; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-03-08

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used for calculation of the dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources. MCNP4C2, MCNP5, MCNPX, EGS4, EGSnrc, PTRAN, and GEANT4 are among the most commonly used codes in this field. Each of these codes utilizes a cross-sectional library for the purpose of simulating different elements and materials with complex chemical compositions. The accuracies of the final outcomes of these simulations are very sensitive to the accuracies of the cross-sectional libraries. Several investigators have shown that inaccuracies of some of the cross section files have led to errors in 125I and 103Pd parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters of sample brachytherapy sources, calculated with three different versions of the MCNP code - MCNP4C, MCNP5, and MCNPX. In these simulations for each source type, the source and phantom geometries, as well as the number of the photons, were kept identical, thus eliminating the possible uncertainties. The results of these investigations indicate that for low-energy sources such as 125I and 103Pd there are discrepancies in gL(r) values. Discrepancies up to 21.7% and 28% are observed between MCNP4C and other codes at a distance of 6 cm for 103Pd and 10 cm for 125I from the source, respectively. However, for higher energy sources, the discrepancies in gL(r) values are less than 1.1% for 192Ir and less than 1.2% for 137Cs between the three codes.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela A; Salvador, Ana Augusta; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2013-04-10

    The possibility of increasing the aggregated value of the huge amount of residues generated by wineries around the world foment studies using the grape pomace - the residue from the wine production, composed by seed, skin and stems - to obtain functional ingredients. Nowadays, consumers in general prefer natural and safe products mainly for food and cosmetic fields, where the supercritical fluid extraction is of great importance due to the purity of the extracts provided. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the global extraction yield, the antimicrobial activity and the composition profile of Merlot and Syrah grape pomace extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and CO2 added with co-solvent at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures of 50 and 60 °C. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Soxhlet and by ultrasound-assisted leaching extraction methods. The main components from the extracts, identified by HPLC, were gallic acid, p-OH-benzoic acid, vanillic acid and epicatechin. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated using four strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei). Despite lower extraction yield results, the supercritical fluid extracts presented the highest antimicrobial effectiveness compared to the other grape pomace extracts due to the presence of antimicrobial active compounds. Syrah extracts were less efficient against the microorganisms tested and Merlot extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Barboza, Thiago José; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; de Paula Rosa Ignacio, Ana Claudia; Albarello, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time. PMID:26413061

  9. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Karamać, Magdalena; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kulczyk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS•+) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe2+. The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS•+ scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20–0.24 mmol Fe2+/g and 0.17–0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O2•− scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe2+ of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity of

  10. Effect of Fluid Bypassing on the Experimentally Obtained Darcy and Non-Darcy Permeability Parameters of Ceramic Foam Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, Shahin; Saffari Pour, Mohsen; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Jönsson, Pӓr Göran

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic foam filters (CFFs) are used to remove solid particles and inclusions from molten metal. In general, molten metal which is poured on the top of a CFF needs to reach a certain height to build the required pressure (metal head) to prime the filter. To estimate the required metal head, it is necessary to obtain permeability coefficients using permeametry experiments. It has been mentioned in the literature that to avoid fluid bypassing, during permeametry, samples need to be sealed. However, the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients seems not to be explored. Therefore, in this research, the focus was on studying the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients as well as the empirically obtained Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients. Specifically, the aim of the research was to investigate the effect of fluid bypassing on the liquid permeability of 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina CFFs. In addition, the experimental data were compared to the numerically modeled findings. Both studies showed that no sealing results in extremely poor estimates of the pressure gradients and Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients for all studied filters. The average deviations between the pressure gradients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 57.2, 56.8, and 61.3 pct. The deviations between the Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples found to be 9, 20, and 31 pct. The deviations between the non-Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 59, 58, and 63 pct.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  12. Antiproliferative Activity of Polyether Antibiotic--Cinchona Alkaloid Conjugates Obtained via Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Skiera, Iwona; Antoszczak, Michał; Trynda, Justyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Boratyński, Przemysław; Kacprzak, Karol; Huczyński, Adam

    2015-10-01

    A series of eight new conjugates of salinomycin or monensin and Cinchona alkaloids were obtained by the Cu(I)-catalysed 1,3-dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition (click chemistry) of respective N-propargyl amides of salinomycin or monensin with four different Cinchona alkaloid derived azides. In vitro antiproliferative activity of these conjugates evaluated against three cancer cell lines (LoVo, LoVo/DX, HepG2) showed that four of the compounds exhibited high antiproliferative activity (IC50 below 3.00 μm) and appeared to be less toxic and more selective against normal cells than two standard anticancer drugs.

  13. Relationships between the pulmonary densitometry values obtained by CT and the forced oscillation technique parameters in patients with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, R; Camilo, G B; Machado, D C; Melo, P L; Carvalho, A R S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlations between pulmonary densitometry values and forced oscillation technique (FOT) parameters in patients with silicosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 36 non-smoker patients with silicosis and 20 matched control subjects who were submitted to FOT and multidetector CT (MDCT). Results: Compared with the control subjects, the MDCT evaluation demonstrated that patients with silicosis exhibited greater total lung mass. These patients also had larger non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments, which included nodules and scarring. Compared with the control subjects, FOT evaluation demonstrated that patients with silicosis exhibited changes in both reactive and resistive properties of the respiratory system. In these patients, there was a greater heterogeneity of the respiratory system and increased work of breathing. Significant correlations between non-aerated compartment size and FOT parameters that reflect the non-homogeneity of the respiratory system were observed. The dynamic compliance of the respiratory system was negatively correlated with non-aerated compartment size, while the impedance at 4 Hz was positively correlated with non-aerated compartment size. Conclusion: Patients with silicosis have heavier lungs. In these patients, a larger non-aerated compartment is associated with a worsening of lung function. A more significant pulmonary involvement is associated with a loss of homogeneity and increased mechanical load of the respiratory system. Advances in knowledge The findings provided by both pulmonary densitometry and FOT may add valuable information to the subjective analysis of silicosis; however, more studies are necessary to evaluate the potential use of these methods for assessing disease progression. PMID:25747897

  14. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, J. S.; Lima, F. A.; Vieira, S. F.; Reis, P. J.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones.

  15. A new parameter identification method to obtain change in smooth musclecontraction state due to mechanical skin irritation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniela

    2005-03-01

    A light scratch with a needle induces histamine and neuropetide release on the line of stroke and in the surrounding tissue. Histamine and neuropeptides are vasodilaters. They create vasodilation by changing the contraction state of the vascular smooth muscles and hence vessel compliance. Smooth muscle contraction state is very difficult to measure. We propose an identification procedure that determines change in compliance. The procedure is based on numerical and experimental results. Blood flow is measured by Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Numerical data is obtained by a continuous model of hierarchically arranged porous media of the vascular network [1]. We show that compliance increases after the stroke in the entire tissue. Then, compliance decreases in the surrounding tissue, while it keeps increasing on the line of stroke. Hence, blood is transported from the surrounding tissue to the line of stroke. Thus, higher blood volume on the line of stroke is obtained. [1] Bauer, D., Grebe, R. Ehrlacher, A., 2004. A three layer continuous model of porous media to describe the first phase of skin irritation. J. Theoret. Bio. in press

  16. Extraction optimization for obtaining Artemisia capillaris extract with high anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Kim, Bum-Keun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts have been used as herbal medicines to treat a wide variety of human diseases. We used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Artemisia capillaris Thunb. extraction parameters (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration) for obtaining an extract with high anti-inflammatory activity at the cellular level. The optimum ranges for the extraction parameters were predicted by superimposing 4-dimensional response surface plots of the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced PGE2 and NO production and by cytotoxicity of A. capillaris Thunb. extracts. The ranges of extraction conditions used for determining the optimal conditions were extraction temperatures of 57-65°C, ethanol concentrations of 45-57%, and extraction times of 5.5-6.8 h. On the basis of the results, a model with a central composite design was considered to be accurate and reliable for predicting the anti-inflammation activity of extracts at the cellular level. These approaches can provide a logical starting point for developing novel anti-inflammatory substances from natural products and will be helpful for the full utilization of A. capillaris Thunb. The crude extract obtained can be used in some A. capillaris Thunb.-related health care products.

  17. Evaluation of anti-cancer activity of Acanthester planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction.

    PubMed

    Mutee, Ahmed Faisal; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Ghazali, Farid Che; Aisha, Abdalrahim Fa; Lim, Chung Pin; Ibrahim, Kamarruddin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-10-01

    Acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, naturally endowed with the numerous toxic spines around the dorsal area of its body. Scientific investigations demonstrated several toxico-pharmacological efficacies of A. planci such as, myonecrotic activity, hemorrhagic activity, hemolytic activity, mouse lethality, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, capillary permeability-increasing activity, edema-forming activity, anticoagulant activity and histamine-releasing activity from mast cells. The present study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of A. planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction on MCF-7 and HCT-116, human breast and colon cancer cell lines, respectively. Results of the cell proliferation assay showed that PBS extract exhibited very potent cytotoxic activity against both MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines with IC(50) of 13.48 μg/mL and 28.78 μg/mL, respectively, while the extracts prepared by Bligh and Dyer method showed moderate cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines, for chloroform extract, IC(50) = 121.37 μg/mL (MCF-7) and 77.65 μg/mL (HCT-116), and for methanol extract, IC(50) = 46.11 μg/mL (MCF-7) and 59.29 μg/mL (HCT-116). However, the extracts prepared by sequential extraction procedure from dried starfish found to be ineffective. This study paves the way for further investigation on the peptide composition in the PBS extract of the starfish to discover potential chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Anti-leishmanial activity of alkaloidal extracts obtained from different organs of Aspidosperma ramiflorum.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Ananda de Castro; Chierrito, Talita Perez Cantuaria; Machado, Gerzia Maria de Carvalho; Leon, Leonor Laura Pinto; da Silva, Cleuza Conceição; Tanaka, Julio Cesar; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2012-03-15

    The present study was designated to evaluate semi-quantitative antileishmanial activity of alkaloidal extracts that were obtained from 1g of different parts of Aspidosperma ramiflorum (leaves, roots, seeds, and stem barks). Alkaloidal extracts of barks and leaves presented a good activity against the extracellular form (promastigotes) of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. It is known that compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity in the alkaloidal extracts from A. ramiflorum are the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids ramiflorine A and ramiflorine B, therefore extracts obtained from different plant parts were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in order to evidence the presence of these bioactive alkaloids. Based on these findings, alkaloidal extract from leaves was fractionated on preparative thin-layer chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording individual purified ramiflorines A and B. Both ramiflorines A and B showed significant activity against Leishmania (L.) amazonensis (LD(50) values of 18.5±6.5μg/ml and 12.63±5.52μg/ml, respectively). Our results are showing that alkaloidal extract from leaves is a promising alternative to the use of stem barks from A. ramiflorum.

  19. Relations between anthropometric parameters and sexual activity of Hungarian men.

    PubMed

    Rurik, I; Szigethy, E; Fekete, F; Langmár, Z

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, there were visible achievements in the evaluation of sexuality-related problems and issues regarding sexual life. However, there are limited reliable and comparable data on the average values of sexual activity and its relation to anthropometric parameters in different populations and age cohorts. This study tries to examine the association between anthropometric parameters and male sexual activity. A clinical population of 1146 male patients between 25 and 45 years of age attending an outpatient clinic of andrology in Budapest (Hungary) was examined and questioned in a medical setting. Age, body height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported sexual activity were the main outcome measures. The patients were allotted into age groups (25-29, 30-39 and 40-45 years), the youngest group showing the highest coital activity. Although obesity and overweight were present in 61% of the study population, no connections between BMI and sexual activity were apparent. Comparing less active persons with those reporting at least two intercourses per week, significant difference was found between body height groups. Men below 170 cm reported higher activity than men over 180 cm. Despite the fact that the prevalence of obesity among younger generations is increasing, it has had no visible influence on the sexual activity of this age cohort as yet. Our data suggest that sexual activity was not clearly related to other anthropometric parameters, and depends mainly on the characteristics of the population examined. There is a great need for large-scale studies worldwide on larger representative samples, using similar methods, to acquire reliable data from other nations and different age groups.

  20. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  1. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharides obtained from defatted rice bran and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Zhengxing

    2009-03-01

    Nine sulfated defatted rice bran polysaccharides (sRBPS), with various degrees of sulfation (DS) and carbohydrate content, were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method according to orthogonal test. Nine sulfated derivatives sRBPS were obtained and their antitumor activities were compared by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that when DS within the scope of 0.81-1.29, carbohydrate content in the range of 41.41-78.56%, sulfated derivatives exhibit relatively strong antitumor activity in vitro. The optimum modification conditions were reaction temperature of 70 degrees C, the ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine of 1:4 and the reaction time of 2h.

  2. Evolution of process control parameters during extended co-composting of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Marfà, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to monitor process parameters when two by-products (green waste - GW, and the solid fraction of cattle slurry - SFCS) were composted to obtain growing media. Using compost in growing medium mixtures involves prolonged composting processes that can last at least half a year. It is therefore crucial to study the parameters that affect compost stability as measured in the field in order to shorten the composting process at composting facilities. Two mixtures were prepared: GW25 (25% GW and 75% SFCS, v/v) and GW75 (75% GW and 25% SFCS, v/v). The different raw mixtures resulted in the production of two different growing media, and the evolution of process management parameters was different. A new parameter has been proposed to deal with attaining the thermophilic temperature range and maintaining it during composting, not only it would be useful to optimize composting processes, but also to assess the hygienization degree.

  3. Antifungal activity of itraconazole and voriconazole against clinical isolates obtained from animals with mycoses.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Ken; Imaji, Mashio; Osumi, Takafumi; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Watanabe, Toshi

    2009-01-01

    Animal mycosis, particularly deep mycosis, is one of the most challenging conditions encountered by veterinarians. Pathogens causing mycotic infections in animals include fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida spp., and Aspergillus spp. The antifungal drugs used for the treatment of deep mycoses in animals as well as humans are polyenes and azoles. However, the sensitivity of clinical isolates obtained from animals toward these drugs has rarely been assayed. In this study, the antifungal activities of itraconazole and voriconazole against clinical isolates of C. neoformans, Candida spp., and A. fumigatus isolated from animals with mycoses were examined using the broth microdilution method performed according to the guidelines provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole toward the C. neoformans, Candida spp., and A. fumigatus isolates were 0.125 - 1, 0.125 - 2, and 0.25 - 2 microg/ml, respectively, and those of voriconazole were 0.0625 - 0.5, < or =0.0313 - 0.0625, and 0.0625 - 1 microg/ml, respectively. The results of the MIC analyses implied that the fungal isolates obtained from infected animals exhibit an equivalent degree of susceptibility to itraconazole and voriconazole, as is observed in the case of isolates obtained from humans. The appropriate antifungal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of mycoses in animals must be selected taking into consideration the host immune status and organ function as well as the in vitro sensitivity of the pathogens to antifungal drugs.

  4. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (<1 kDa) with IC50 of 30.3 and 51.8 μg/mL values for the P. lunatus with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  5. Immune parameters differentiating active from latent tuberculosis infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jung, Young Won; Jeong, Ina; Joh, Joon-Sung; Sim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Boram; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis remains a highly prevalent infectious disease worldwide. Identification of the immune parameters that differentiate active disease from latent infection will facilitate the development of efficient control measures as well as new diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the cytokine production profiles of monocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocytes upon encountering mycobacterial antigens. In addition, cytokines and lipid mediators with immune-modulating activities were examined in plasma samples ex vivo. Comparison of these parameters in active tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects with latent infection revealed that, active tuberculosis was associated with diminished Th1-type cytokine secretion from CD4(+) T cells and less augmented inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes induced by IFN-γ than that in latent tuberculosis infection. In addition, a higher plasma concentration of lipoxin A4 and lower ratio of prostaglandin E2 to lipoxin A4 were observed in active cases than in latent infections. These findings have implications for preparing new therapeutic strategies and for differential diagnosis of the two types of tuberculosis infection.

  6. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  7. Expansion of activated lymphocytes obtained from renal cell carcinoma in an automated hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hillman, G G; Wolf, M L; Montecillo, E; Younes, E; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P

    1994-01-01

    Immunotherapy using IL-2 alone or combined with activated lymphocytes has been promising for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be isolated from tumors, expanded in vitro with IL-2, and adoptively transferred back into the tumor-bearing host. These cells can also be transduced with the genes coding for cytokines for local delivery to tumor sites. A major drawback in adoptive immunotherapy is the cumbersome and expensive culture technology associated with the growth of large numbers of cells required for their therapeutic effect. To reduce the cost, resources, and manpower, we have developed the methodology for lymphocyte activation and expansion in the automated hollow fiber bioreactor IMMUNO*STAR Cell Expander (ACT BIOMEDICAL, INC). Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from human renal cell carcinoma tumor specimens were inoculated at a number of 10(8) cells in a small bioreactor of 30 ml extracapillary space volume. We have determined the medium flow rates and culture conditions to obtain a significant and repeated expansion of TIL at weekly intervals. The lymphocytes cultured in the bioreactor demonstrated the same phenotype and cytotoxic activity as those expanded in parallel in tissue culture plates. Lymphocyte expansion in the hollow fiber bioreactor required lower volumes of medium, human serum, IL-2 and minimal labor. This technology may facilitate the use of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of refractory malignancies.

  8. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity and metabolic profiling of juices obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Rosa, Antonella; Montoro, Paola; Fenu, Maurizio Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo

    2016-05-15

    Juices obtained from cold-pressed saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products were evaluated as a potential source of compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Floral by-products were split in two batches for extraction 24 and 48h after flower harvesting, respectively. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity of these extracts was tested using the FRAP and DPPH assays, and two biological models of lipid oxidation (activity in preventing cholesterol degradation and protection against Cu(2+)-mediated degradation of the liposomal unsaturated fatty acids). The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The results show that extracts obtained 48h post-harvest contained higher levels of total polar phenols and had the highest antioxidant activity in all of the performed assays. The LC-DAD and LC-ESI-(HR)MS(n) metabolic profiles showed high levels of kaempferol derivatives and anthocyanins. This study suggests that juices from saffron floral by-products could potentially be used to develop new products for the food and health industry.

  9. Fetal Functional Brain Age Assessed from Universal Developmental Indices Obtained from Neuro-Vegetative Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females) and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent f

  10. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    PubMed

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  11. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Anatase Coatings Obtained by Cold Gas Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardon, M.; Fernández-Rodríguez, C.; Garzón Sousa, D.; Doña-Rodríguez, J. M.; Dosta, S.; Cano, I. G.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a photocatalytic nanostructured anatase coating deposited by cold gas spray (CGS) supported on titanium sub-oxide (TiO2- x ) coatings obtained by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) onto stainless steel cylinders. The photocatalytic coating was homogeneous and preserved the composition and nanostructure of the starting powder. The inner titanium sub-oxide coating favored the deposition of anatase particles in the solid state. Agglomerated nano-TiO2 particles fragmented when impacting onto the hard surface of the APS TiO2- x bond coat. The rough surface provided by APS provided an ideal scenario for entrapping the nanostructured particles, which may be adhered onto the bond coat due to chemical bonding; a possible bonding mechanism is described. Photocatalytic experiments showed that CGS nano-TiO2 coating was active for photodegrading phenol and formic acid under aqueous conditions. The results were similar to the performance obtained by competitor technologies and materials such as dip-coating P25® photocatalysts. Disparity in the final performance of the photoactive materials may have been caused by differences in grain size and the crystalline composition of titanium dioxide.

  12. Antileishmanial activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia obtained in different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Bruna Muller; de Mello, Tatiane França Perles; Lopes, Sara Negrão; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lera, Daniele Stefani Lopes; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício; Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Silveira, Thais Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2015-01-01

    The herbaceous shrub Tetradenia riparia has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. Recently, a study showed that T. riparia essential oil (TrEO) obtained in summer has antileishmanial effects, although these results could be influenced by seasonal variation. This study evaluated the activity of the TrEO obtained in different seasons against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, in vitro and in vivo. The compounds in the TrEO were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; terpenoids were present and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the majority compounds (55.28%). The cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production were also tested after TrEO treatment. The TrEO from all seasons showed a 50% growth inhibitory concentration for promastigotes of about 15 ng/mL; at 30 ng/mL and 3 ng/mL, the TrEO reduced intracellular amastigote infection, independently of season. The TrEO from plants harvested in summer had the highest 50% cytotoxic concentration, 1,476 ng/mL for J774.A1 macrophages, and in spring (90.94 ng/mL) for murine macrophages. NO production did not change in samples of the TrEO from different seasons. The antileishmanial effect in vivo consisted of a reduction of the parasite load in the spleen. These results suggest that the TrEO has potential effects on L. (L.) amazonensis, consonant with its traditional use to treat parasitic diseases. PMID:26602873

  13. Antileishmanial activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia obtained in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bruna Muller; de Mello, Tatiane França Perles; Lopes, Sara Negrão; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lera, Daniele Stefani Lopes; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício; Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Silveira, Thais Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2015-12-01

    The herbaceous shrub Tetradenia riparia has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. Recently, a study showed that T. riparia essential oil (TrEO) obtained in summer has antileishmanial effects, although these results could be influenced by seasonal variation. This study evaluated the activity of the TrEO obtained in different seasons against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, in vitro and in vivo. The compounds in the TrEO were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; terpenoids were present and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the majority compounds (55.28%). The cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production were also tested after TrEO treatment. The TrEO from all seasons showed a 50% growth inhibitory concentration for promastigotes of about 15 ng/mL; at 30 ng/mL and 3 ng/mL, the TrEO reduced intracellular amastigote infection, independently of season. The TrEO from plants harvested in summer had the highest 50% cytotoxic concentration, 1,476 ng/mL for J774.A1 macrophages, and in spring (90.94 ng/mL) for murine macrophages. NO production did not change in samples of the TrEO from different seasons. The antileishmanial effect in vivo consisted of a reduction of the parasite load in the spleen. These results suggest that the TrEO has potential effects on L. (L.) amazonensis, consonant with its traditional use to treat parasitic diseases.

  14. Evaluation of some biological tests as parameters for microbial activities in soils. II. Field investigations.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Monib, M; Rizk, S G; Shehata, S M

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were designed to study the effect of certain factors on the microbial activities in soil. The parameters, used as an index of the microbial activities, were total bacterial counts, dehydrogenase activity, oxidation of organic carbon, and CO2 evolved/7 days. Bahteem Farm clay soil was examined for determining the effects of depth, type of fertilization, and crop rotation on the microbial activities. It appears that the microbial activities, as indicated by the tested parameters, were more pronounced in the surface 15 cm-layer than in the subsurface layer (15-30 cm). Results of all the parameters tested showed markedly higher increases with farmyard manure than with nitrogenous fertilizer and in the control, without significant differences between the latter two. Moreover, the time of sampling had no effect on the results obtained for all parameters. Different types of rotations did not exert significant variation in total bacterial counts, though more than one crop per year increased the organic carbon content of soil and mostly the dehydrogenase activity, whereas the evolution of CO2 tended to decrease. At Gabal el-Asfar Farm, the effect of irrigation with sewage effluent, for long periods, on the microbial activities of sandy soil was investigated. Sewage water stimulated the total bacteria, raised the dehydrogenase activity, the organic carbon, and the production of CO2. In North El Tahreer and Mariut Sectors, the effect of both the type and age of cultivation on the microbial activities in the calcareous soils were examined. Cultivation raised the figures of all the tested parameters progressively with time of cultivation. It was also noticed that crops exerted more beneficial effects on microbial activities than orchards, and the dehydrogenase test was the most reliable parameter to reveal this fact.

  15. Sulfation modification and anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharides obtained from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoyun; Mo, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Yali

    2012-12-01

    The optimal conditions for sulfation of polysaccharides from persimmon fruits (PFP) with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method were determined by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time) on the degree of substitution (DS), molecular weight (MW) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of sulfated polysaccharides (PFP-S). The APTT activity of PFP-S could be improved by application of various volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time, which was possible due to the degradation of polysaccharides to different extent and increasing of DS. The optimal conditions to obtain the strongest APTT of PFP-S were the volume ratio of CSA to Pyr of 1:8, the volume ratio of SO(3)Pyr to PFP of 1:3.6 and the reaction time of 3 h, respectively.

  16. Effect of extraction parameters on the chemical structure and gel properties of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans obtained from Mastocarpus stellatus.

    PubMed

    Hilliou, L; Larotonda, F D S; Abreu, P; Ramos, A M; Sereno, A M; Gonçalves, M P

    2006-09-01

    Extraction parameters (temperature, pH, duration) and alkaline pre-treatment duration have been systematically varied in the aim of exploring their impact on both chemical structure and gelling properties of carrageenan biopolymers obtained from Mastocarpus stellatus seaweeds, collected on the Northern coast of Portugal. Increasing the alkaline pre-treatment duration PT leads to kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans containing less sulphate groups and biological precursor monomers. As a result, gel properties in the presence of KCl are improved as demonstrated by the increase in the Young's modulus with parameter PT. Increasing the extraction duration t ameliorates the biopolymer yield with no significant change in the complex kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan chemical structure. However, smaller molecular weights are obtained and gel properties are seen to be negatively affected. Extraction temperature and pH have dramatic effects on the biopolymer gel strength, and a set of extraction parameters optimized with respect to extraction yield and gel properties is reported. In addition, kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans obtained throughout this study exhibit a wide range of gel strengths in KCl, and allow us to present correlations between gel thermal properties and the kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans chemical structure.

  17. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The choice of environmental conditions when conducting antiperspirant studies greatly affects the quantity of sweat output. Our initial goal in this work was to develop an in-house procedure to test the efficacy of antiperspirant products using replica techniques in combination with image analysis. To ameliorate the skin replica method, we conducted rheological studies using dynamic mechanical analysis of the replica formulation. In terms of sweat output quantification, our preliminary results revealed a considerable amount of variation using the replica technique, leading us to conduct more fundamental studies of the factors that influence sweating behavior and how to best design the experimental strategy. In accordance with the FDA's protocol for antiperspirant testing, we carried out gravimetric analyses of axillae sweating under a variety of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity control. Subjects were first acclimatized in an environmentally controlled room for 30 min, and then placed in a sauna for an additional 30 or 45 min, depending on which test we administered. In Test 1 (30 min total in the sauna), the first 10 min in the sauna was another equilibration period, followed by a 20 min sweat production stage. We monitored axillae sweating during the last 20 min in the sauna by gravimetric analysis. At time (t) = 30 min in the sauna, skin replicas were taken and later analyzed using imaging and image analysis techniques. Test 1 was carried out on over 25 subjects, both male and female, from various racial backgrounds. In Test 2, subjects spent 45 min in the sauna after the initial 30-min period in the environmental room. During the 45 min, we obtained gravimetric readings of absorbent pads placed in the axillae. We conducted studies at various temperature and relative humidity settings. We also studied the influence of several external parameters on sudoriferous activity. Test 2 was a range-finding experiment on two subjects to determine

  18. Influence of selected physicochemical parameters on microbiological activity of mucks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Sokołowska, Z.; Warchulska, P.; Dąbek-Szreniawska, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the basic factor decided about soil fertility are microorganisms that together with flora, determine trend and character of biochemical processes as well totality of fundamental transformations connected with biogeochemistry and physicochemical properties of soil. Determination of general bacteria number, quantity of selected groups of microorganisms and investigation of respiration intensity let estimate microbiological activity of soil. Intensity of microbiological processes is directly connected with physicochemical soil parameters. In that case, such structural parameters as bulk density, porosity, surface or carbon content play significant role. Microbiological activity also changes within the bounds of mucks with different stage of humification and secondary transformation. Knowledge of relations between structural properties, microorganism activity and degree of transformation and humification can lead to better understanding microbiological processes as well enable to estimate microbiological activity at given physicochemical conditions and at progressing process of soil transformation. The study was carried out on two peaty-moorsh (muck) soils at different state of secondary transformation and humification degree. Soil samples were collected from Polesie Lubelskie (layer depth: 5 - 25 cm). Investigated mucks originated from soils formed from low peatbogs. Soil sample marked as I belonged to muck group weakly secondary transformed. Second sample (II) represented soil group with middle stage of secondary transformation. The main purpose of the research was to examine the relations between some physicochemical and surface properties and their biological activity. Total number and respiration activity of microorganisms were determined. The effectiveness of utilizing the carbon substances from the soil by the bacteria increased simultaneously with the transformation state of the peat-muck soils. Quantity of organic carbon decreased distinctly in the soil

  19. Nickel(II) adsorption onto biomass based activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K Anoop; Sreejalekshmi, K G; Baiju, R S

    2011-11-01

    Bioavailability of Nickel in the form of hydrated Nickel(II) attributes to its toxicological effects and hence its removal from aqueous solution is of great concern. Adsorption is used as an efficient technique for the removal of Nickel(II), hereafter Ni(II), from water and wastewaters. Activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith (SBP-AC), a waste biomass collected from juice shops in Sarkara Devi Temple, Chirayinkeezhu, Trivandrum, India during annual festival, is used as adsorbent in the study. The process of adsorption is highly dependent on solution pH, and maximum removal occurs in the pH range of 4.0-8.0. Moreover, the amount of Ni(II) adsorbed onto SBP-AC increased with the time increase and reached equilibrium at 4h. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium data were analyzed for determining the best fit kinetic and isotherm models. The overall study reveals the potential value of steam pyrolysed SBP-AC as a possible commercial adsorbent in wastewater treatment strategies.

  20. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation in pure water and in chloride solution

    PubMed Central

    Perito, Brunella; Giorgetti, Emilia; Marsili, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have increasingly gained importance as antibacterial agents with applications in several fields due to their strong, broad-range antimicrobial properties. AgNP synthesis by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) permits the preparation of stable Ag colloids in pure solvents without capping or stabilizing agents, producing AgNPs more suitable for biomedical applications than those prepared with common, wet chemical preparation techniques. To date, only a few investigations into the antimicrobial effect of AgNPs produced by PLAL have been performed. These have mainly been performed by ablation in water with nanosecond pulse widths. We previously observed a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal from such AgNPs by “activating” the NP surface by the addition of a small quantity of LiCl to the colloid. Such surface effects could also influence the antimicrobial activity of the NPs. Their activity, on the other hand, could also be affected by other parameters linked to the ablation conditions, such as the pulse width. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was evaluated for NPs obtained either by nanosecond (ns) or picosecond (ps) PLAL using a 1064 nm ablation wavelength, in pure water or in LiCl aqueous solution, with Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis as references for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. In all cases, AgNPs with an average diameter less than 10 nm were obtained, which has been shown in previous works to be the most effective size for bactericidal activity. The measured zeta-potential values were very negative, indicating excellent long-term colloidal stability. Antibacterial activity was observed against both microorganisms for the four AgNP formulations, but the ps-ablated nanoparticles were shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of both microorganisms. Moreover, LiCl modified AgNPs were the most effective, showing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in a

  1. A high-throughput 2D-analytical technique to obtain single protein parameters from complex cell lysates for in silico process development of ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Frieder; Elsäßer, Dennis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-11-29

    The accelerating growth of the market for biopharmaceutical proteins, the market entry of biosimilars and the growing interest in new, more complex molecules constantly pose new challenges for bioseparation process development. In the presented work we demonstrate the application of a multidimensional, analytical separation approach to obtain the relevant physicochemical parameters of single proteins in a complex mixture for in silico chromatographic process development. A complete cell lysate containing a low titre target protein was first fractionated by multiple linear salt gradient anion exchange chromatography (AEC) with varying gradient length. The collected fractions were subsequently analysed by high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE) after being desalted and concentrated. From the obtained data of the 2D-separation the retention-volumes and the concentration of the single proteins were determined. The retention-volumes of the single proteins were used to calculate the related steric-mass action model parameters. In a final evaluation experiment the received parameters were successfully applied to predict the retention behaviour of the single proteins in salt gradient AEC.

  2. Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient and impurities in sildenafil citrate obtained from the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Nutan, Mohammad T.; Dodla, Uday Krishna Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accessibility of prescription drugs produced outside of the United States, most notably sildenafil citrate (innovator product, Viagra®), has been made much easier by the Internet. Of greatest concern to clinicians and policymakers is product quality and patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings to potential buyers that the safety of drugs purchased from the Internet cannot be guaranteed, and may present a health risk to consumers from substandard products. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether generic sildenafil citrate tablets from international markets obtained via the Internet are equivalent to the US innovator product regarding major aspects of pharmaceutical quality: potency, accuracy of labeling, and presence and level of impurities. This will help identify aspects of drug quality that may impact public health risks. Methods: A total of 15 sildenafil citrate tablets were obtained for pharmaceutical analysis: 14 generic samples from international Internet pharmacy websites and the US innovator product. According to US Pharmacopeial guidelines, tablet samples were tested using high-performance liquid chromatography for potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and levels of impurities (impurities A, B, C, and D). Impurity levels were compared with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) limits. Results: Among the 15 samples, 4 samples possessed higher impurity B levels than the ICH qualification threshold, 8 samples possessed higher impurity C levels than the ICH qualification threshold, and 4 samples possessed more than 1% impurity quantity of maximum daily dose (MDD). For API, 6 of the samples failed to fall within the 5% assay limit. Conclusions: Quality assurance tests are often used to detect formulation defects of drug products during the manufacturing and/or storage process. Results suggest that manufacturing standards for sildenafil citrate generic drug

  3. The effect of geomagnetic activity on cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E

    2002-01-01

    Multidirectional changes in the natural history of many cardiovascular syndromes have been linked to different levels of daily and monthly geomagnetic activity (GMA). Previous studies have found that in periods of high GMA, there were more admissions for acute myocardial infarction and more cases of anterior wall myocardial infarction. Results also indicated: higher out-patient mortality and a trend towards higher hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction; higher diastolic arterial pressure in healthy subjects and in treated hypertensive patients; higher prolactin and 17-corticosteroid levels in the peripheral blood; more severe migraine attacks and more admissions for CVA and cerebrovascular insufficiency in male patients; changes in many blood coagulation cellular gradients (platelet count, basophils in the peripheral blood), a rise in platelet aggregation, fibrinogen level and a drop in leukocyte adhesiveness. Periods of low GMA showed a related increase (negative correlation) in in-hospital non-myocardial infarction-related cardiovascular deaths. Only in times of lowest GMA did inferior wall myocardial infarction exceed anterior wall myocardial infarction. Low GMA was also associated with higher levels of growth hormone and 11-ketosteroids in the peripheral blood, more sudden deaths, some increase in electrical heart instability number of ventricular and supraventricular extrasystoles and higher rate of ventricular tachycardia. The monthly occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was negatively correlated with GMA level. Gender differences were noted in some of the parameters. Other studied parameters did not show changes related to GMA. These included hemoglobin level, electrolyte level, heart beat and pulse rate. Moreover, some observed cardiovascular fluctuations that were related to the level of GMA, also showed differences in the rising and dropping parts of the 11-year cycle of solar activity. It has been suggested that some of the changes

  4. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures obtained by hydrofluoric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianfei; Xu, Shanshan; Shen, Mingming; Cheng, Bingkun; Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Xiangwei; Qin, Dongze; Bellare, Anuj; Kong, Liang

    2017-01-01

    An easier method for constructing the hierarchical micro-/nano-structures on the surface of dental implants in the clinic is needed. In this study, three different titanium surfaces with microscale grooves (width 0.5-1, 1-1.5, and 1.5-2 μm) and nanoscale nanoparticles (diameter 20-30, 30-50, and 50-100 nm, respectively) were obtained by treatment with different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and at different etching times (1%, 3 min; 0.5%, 12 min; and 1.5%, 12 min, respectively; denoted as groups HF1, HF2, and HF3). The biological response to the three different titanium surfaces was evaluated by in vitro human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC) experiments and in vivo animal experiments. The results showed that cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of hBMMSCs were increased in the HF3 group. After the different surface implants were inserted into the distal femurs of 40 rats, the bone-implant contact in groups HF1, HF2, and HF3 was 33.17%±2.2%, 33.82%±3.42%, and 41.04%±3.08%, respectively. Moreover, the maximal pullout force in groups HF1, HF2, and HF3 was 57.92±2.88, 57.83±4.09, and 67.44±6.14 N, respectively. The results showed that group HF3 with large micron grooves (1.5-2.0 μm) and large nanoparticles (50-100 nm) showed the best bio-functionality for the hBMMSC response and osseointegration in animal experiments compared with other groups.

  5. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures obtained by hydrofluoric acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jianfei; Xu, Shanshan; Shen, Mingming; Cheng, Bingkun; Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Xiangwei; Qin, Dongze; Bellare, Anuj; Kong, Liang

    2017-01-01

    An easier method for constructing the hierarchical micro-/nano-structures on the surface of dental implants in the clinic is needed. In this study, three different titanium surfaces with microscale grooves (width 0.5–1, 1–1.5, and 1.5–2 μm) and nanoscale nanoparticles (diameter 20–30, 30–50, and 50–100 nm, respectively) were obtained by treatment with different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and at different etching times (1%, 3 min; 0.5%, 12 min; and 1.5%, 12 min, respectively; denoted as groups HF1, HF2, and HF3). The biological response to the three different titanium surfaces was evaluated by in vitro human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC) experiments and in vivo animal experiments. The results showed that cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of hBMMSCs were increased in the HF3 group. After the different surface implants were inserted into the distal femurs of 40 rats, the bone–implant contact in groups HF1, HF2, and HF3 was 33.17%±2.2%, 33.82%±3.42%, and 41.04%±3.08%, respectively. Moreover, the maximal pullout force in groups HF1, HF2, and HF3 was 57.92±2.88, 57.83±4.09, and 67.44±6.14 N, respectively. The results showed that group HF3 with large micron grooves (1.5–2.0 μm) and large nanoparticles (50–100 nm) showed the best bio-functionality for the hBMMSC response and osseointegration in animal experiments compared with other groups. PMID:28243092

  6. Assessment of national systems for obtaining local acceptance of waste management siting and routing activities

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, H.W.; Lipman, D.S.; Owens, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    There is a rich mixture of formal and informal approaches being used in our sister nuclear democracies in their attempts to deal with the difficulties of obtaining local acceptance for siting of waste management facilities and activities. Some of these are meeting with a degree of success not yet achieved in the US. Although this survey documents and assesses many of these approaches, time did not permit addressing in any detail their relevance to common problems in the US. It would appear the US could benefit from a periodic review of the successes and failures of these efforts, including analysis of their applicability to the US system. Of those countries (Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, and the US) who are working to a time table for the preparation of a high-level waste (HLW) repository, Germany is the only country to have gained local siting acceptance for theirs. With this (the most difficult of siting problems) behind them they appear to be in the best overall condition relative to waste management progress and plans. This has been achieved without a particularly favorable political structure, made up for by determination on the part of the political leadership. Of the remaining three countries studied (France, UK and Canada) France, with its AVM production facility, is clearly the world leader in the HLW immobilization aspect of waste management. France, Belgium and the UK appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions. US, Switzerland and Canada appear to have the least favorable political structures and environments for arriving at waste management decisions.

  7. Active tectonic deformation along rejuvenated faults in tropical Borneo: Inferences obtained from tectono-geomorphic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Kumar, Shashi Gaurav; Authemayou, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The island of Borneo is enveloped by tropical rainforests and hostile terrain characterized by high denudation rates. Owing to such conditions, studies pertaining to neotectonics and consequent geomorphic expressions with regard to surface processes and landscape evolution are inadequately constrained. Here we demonstrate the first systematic tectono-geomorphic evaluation of north Borneo through quantitative and qualitative morphotectonic analysis at sub-catchment scale, for two large drainage basins located in Sarawak: the Rajang and Baram basins. The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital elevation models arranged within a GIS environment focuses on hypsometric curve analysis, distribution of hypsometric integrals through spatial autocorrelation statistics, relative uplift values, the asymmetry factor and the normalized channel steepness index. Hypsometric analysis suggests a young topography adjusting to changes in tectonic boundary conditions. Autocorrelation statistics show clusters of high values of hypsometric integrals as prominent hotspots that are associated with less eroded, young topography situated in the fold and thrust belts of the Interior Highlands of Borneo. High channel steepness and gradients (> 200 m0.9) are observed in zones corresponding to the hotspots. Relative uplift values reveal the presence of tectonically uplifted blocks together with relatively subsided or lesser uplifted zones along known faults. Sub-catchments of both basins display asymmetry indicating tectonic tilting. Stream longitudinal profiles demonstrate the presence of anomalies in the form of knickzones without apparent lithological controls along their channel reaches. Surfaces represented by cold spots of low HI values and low channel gradients observed in the high elevation headwaters of both basins are linked to isolated erosional planation surfaces that could be remnants of piracy processes. The implication of our results is that Borneo experiences

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the structural parameters and magnetic properties of copper ferrite nanopowders obtained by the sol-gel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. A.; Naiden, E. P.; Minin, R. V.; Itin, V. I.; Ufimtsev, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Phase composition, structure parameters and basic magnetic characteristics obtained by the sol-gel combustion nanopowders of ferrospinel CuFe2O4 are investigated. A comparison of the properties of synthesized materials: first sample - immediately after the combustion of the gel and second sample - after annealing at 1073 K for 4 hours are performed. Annealing leads to an increase in the concentration of the phase with tetragonal crystal structure. Particle sizes and the value of anisotropy field of this phase also increased.

  9. Relationship between Antifungal Activity against Candida albicans and Electron Parameters of Selected N-Heterocyclic Thioamides.

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, Jadwiga; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Lukaszuk, Cecylia; Niewiadomy, A

    2014-07-01

    Due to the increasing demand for new pharmaceuticals showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, there is increasing search for new compounds with predicted biological activity. Variously substituted thioamide derivatives with 1.3 and 1.2 ring of thiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole, as well as pyrazole were assessed for their activity against Candida albicans. Activity of majority of tested thioamides was larger as compared with that of the reference drugs. The electron parameters of obtained N-heterocyclic thioamides were determined and dependencies on their biological activity against Candida albicans were studied. The best electron compliance of produced bindings with the activity against Candida albicans was observed for the derivatives containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring.

  10. Modelling the surface free energy parameters of polyurethane coats-part 1. Solvent-based coats obtained from linear polyurethane elastomers.

    PubMed

    Król, Piotr; Lechowicz, Jaromir B; Król, Bożena

    2013-04-01

    Polyurethane elastomers coating were synthesised by using typical diisocyanates, polyether and polyester polyols and HO-tertiary amines or diols as a chain extenders. Mole fractions of structural fragments (κexp) responsible for the polar interactions within polyurethane chains were calculated by (1)H NMR method. Obtained results were confronted with the analogous parameter values (κtheor) calculated on the basis of process stoichiometry, considering the stage of the production of isocyanate prepolymers and reaction of their extension for polyurethanes. Trials of linear correlation between the κexp parameters and surface free energy (SFE) values of investigated coatings were presented. SFE values were determined by Owens-Wendt method, using contact angles measured with the goniometric method. Based on achieved results, another empirical models, allowing for prediction the influence of the kind of polyurethane raw materials on SFE values of received coatings were determined. It was found that it is possible to regulate the SFE in the range millijoules per cubic metre by the selection of appropriate substrates. It has been found that use of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,4-butanediol as a fluorinated extender of prepolymer chains is essential to obtain coatings with increased hydrophobicity, applied among others as biomaterials-next to diphenylmethane diisocyanate and polyoxyethylene glycol.

  11. A method to obtain the thermal parameters and the photothermal transduction efficiency in an optical hyperthermia device based on laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Optical hyperthermia systems based on the laser irradiation of gold nanorods seem to be a promising tool in the development of therapies against cancer. After a proof of concept in which the authors demonstrated the efficiency of this kind of systems, a modeling process based on an equivalent thermal-electric circuit has been carried out to determine the thermal parameters of the system and an energy balance obtained from the time-dependent heating and cooling temperature curves of the irradiated samples in order to obtain the photothermal transduction efficiency. By knowing this parameter, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatments, thanks to the possibility of predicting the response of the device depending on the working configuration. As an example, the thermal behavior of two different kinds of nanoparticles is compared. The results show that, under identical conditions, the use of PEGylated gold nanorods allows for a more efficient heating compared with bare nanorods, and therefore, it results in a more effective therapy. PMID:25232297

  12. A method to obtain the thermal parameters and the photothermal transduction efficiency in an optical hyperthermia device based on laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez López de Pablo, Cristina; Olmedo, José Javier Serrano; Rosales, Alejandra Mina; Ramírez Hernández, Norma; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Optical hyperthermia systems based on the laser irradiation of gold nanorods seem to be a promising tool in the development of therapies against cancer. After a proof of concept in which the authors demonstrated the efficiency of this kind of systems, a modeling process based on an equivalent thermal-electric circuit has been carried out to determine the thermal parameters of the system and an energy balance obtained from the time-dependent heating and cooling temperature curves of the irradiated samples in order to obtain the photothermal transduction efficiency. By knowing this parameter, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatments, thanks to the possibility of predicting the response of the device depending on the working configuration. As an example, the thermal behavior of two different kinds of nanoparticles is compared. The results show that, under identical conditions, the use of PEGylated gold nanorods allows for a more efficient heating compared with bare nanorods, and therefore, it results in a more effective therapy.

  13. Kea: A New Tool to Obtain Stellar Parameters from Low to Moderate Signal-to-noise and High-resolution Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe Kea a new spectroscopic fitting method to derive stellar parameters from moderate to low signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra. We developed this new tool to analyze the massive data set of the Kepler mission reconnaissance spectra that we have obtained at McDonald Observatory. We use Kea to determine effective temperatures (T eff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), surface gravity (log g), and projected rotational velocity (v{sin}i). Kea compares the observations to a large library of synthetic spectra that covers a wide range of different T eff, [Fe/H], and log g values. We calibrated Kea on observations of well-characterized standard stars (the Kepler field “platinum” sample) that range in T eff from 5000 to 6500 K, in [Fe/H] from -0.5 to +0.4 dex, and in log g from 3.2 to 4.6 dex. We then compared the Kea results from reconnaissance spectra of 45 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to stellar parameters derived from higher signal-to-noise spectra obtained with Keck/HIRES. We find typical uncertainties of 100 K in T eff, 0.12 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.18 dex in log g. Named after Nestor notabilis an alpine parrot native to New Zealand.

  14. Plasma parameters of an active cathode during relativistic magnetron operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Y.; Kweller, T.; Sayapin, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Bernshtam, V.

    2009-09-01

    The results of time- and space-resolved spectroscopic studies of the plasma produced at the surface of the ferroelectric cathode during the operation of an S-band relativistic magnetron generating ˜50 MW microwave power at f =3005 MHz and powered by a linear induction accelerator (LIA) (150 kV, 1.5 kA, 250 ns) are presented. The surface plasma was produced by a driving pulse (3 kV, 150 ns) prior to the application of the LIA accelerating high-voltage pulse. The cathode plasma electron density and temperature were obtained by analyzing hydrogen Hα and Hβ, and carbon ions CII and CIII spectral lines, and using the results of nonstationary collision radiative modeling. It was shown that the microwave generation causes an increase in plasma ion and electron temperature up to ˜4 and ˜7 eV, respectively, and the plasma density increases up to ˜7×1014 cm-3. Estimates of the plasma transport parameters and its interaction with microwave radiation are also discussed.

  15. Nitroreductase-triggered activation of a novel caged fluorescent probe obtained from methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jungeun; McNamara, Louis E; Nael, Manal A; Mahdi, Fakhri; Doerksen, Robert J; Bidwell, Gene L; Hammer, Nathan I; Jo, Seongbong

    2015-08-18

    A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on methylene blue (p-NBMB) was developed for the detection of nitroreductase. Conjugating methylene blue with a p-nitrobenzyl moiety enables it to be activated by nitroreductase-catalyzed 1,6-elimination, resulting in the release of an active methylene blue fluorophore.

  16. Electro-optical parameters in excited states of some spectrally active molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchea, Andreea Celia; Closca, Valentina; Rusu, Cristina Marcela; Morosanu, Cezarina; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-08-01

    The spectral shifts measured in different solvents are expressed as functions of the solvent macroscopic parameters. The value of the correlation coefficient multiplying the functions of electric permittivity was determined by statistical means. The correlation coefficient depends on the electric dipole moment of the spectrally active molecules. The electro-optical parameters in the ground state of the solute molecules can be approximated by molecular modeling. The excited state parameters are usually estimated using the results obtained both by HyperChem Programme and solvatochromic study. The importance of this approximate method is that it offers information about of the excited state of solute molecule for which our measuring possibilities are very restrictive. The information about the excited electronic state is affected by the limits in which the theories of liquid solutions are developed. Our results refer to two molecules of vitamins from B class, namely B3 and B6.

  17. Active region moss. Basic physical parameters and their temporal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Mason, H. E.; Del Zanna, G.; Young, P. R.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Active region moss are transition region phenomena, first noted in the images recorded by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in λ171. Moss regions are thought to be the footpoints of hot loops (3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions. These hot loops appear “fuzzy” (unresolved). Therefore, it is difficult to study the physical plasma parameters in individual hot core loops and hence their heating mechanisms. Moss regions provide an excellent opportunity to study the physics of hot loops. In addition, they allow us to study the transition region dynamics in the footpoint regions. Aims: To derive the physical plasma parameters such as temperature, electron density, and filling factors in moss regions and to study their variation over a short (an hour) and a long time period (5 consecutive days). Methods: Primarily, we have analyzed spectroscopic observations recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. In addition we have used supplementary observations taken from TRACE and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode. Results: The moss emission is strongest in the Fe XII and Fe XIII lines. Based on analyses using line ratios and emission measure we found that moss regions have a characteristic temperature of log T[K] = 6.2. The temperature structure in moss region remains almost identical from one region to another and it does not change with time. The electron densities measured at different locations in the moss regions using Fe XII ratios are about 1-3 × 1010 cm-3 and about 2-4 × 109 cm-3 using Fe XIII and Fe XIV. The densities in the moss regions are similar in different places and show very little variation over short and long time scales. The derived electron density substantially increased (by a factor of about 3-4 or even more in some cases) when a background subtraction was performed. The filling factor of the moss plasma can vary between 0.1-1 and the path length along which the emission

  18. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides obtained from Chlorella pyrenoidosa via different ethanol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Zheng; Huang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    An ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa polysaccharides (CPP) was carried out using different concentrations of ethanol for precipitation, and named as CPP60, CPP70 and CPP85, respectively. The monosaccharide composition of each polysaccharide (CPP) was determined using gas chromatography (GC) and the antioxidant activity of each was investigated via the reducing power and scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. All of the polysaccharides examined possessed antioxidant activity in vitro. CPP70 exhibited stronger scavenging activity against superoxide, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, when compared with CPP60 and CPP85. This suggests that polysaccharides from C. pyrenoidosa precipitated by a final ethanol concentration of 70%, have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceuticals.

  19. The application of parameter estimation to flight measurements to obtain lateral-directional stability derivatives of an augmented jet-flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments with an augmented jet flap STOL aircraft provided data from which the lateral directional stability and control derivatives were calculated by applying a linear regression parameter estimation procedure. The tests, which were conducted with the jet flaps set at a 65 deg deflection, covered a large range of angles of attack and engine power settings. The effect of changing the angle of the jet thrust vector was also investigated. Test results are compared with stability derivatives that had been predicted. The roll damping derived from the tests was significantly larger than had been predicted, whereas the other derivatives were generally in agreement with the predictions. Results obtained using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure are compared with those from the linear regression solutions.

  20. Comparison of the Estimated Item Parameters of Shiba's Word/Phrase Comprehension Tests Obtained by Logist 5 and Those by the Tetrachoric Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    The use of a three-parameter logistic model for applying latent trait theory has become more popular because of the availability of computer programs. The program Logist 5 can be used not only for the item parameter estimation in the three-parameter logistic model, but also in the two parameter logistic model by setting the third parameter equal…

  1. Ice Thickness Estimation of Thin Sea Ice Using Active Microwave Sensor Data Obtained at Different Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brath, M.; Kern, S.; Stammer, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new approach to estimate thin sea ice thickness based on multi-frequency and multi-angle RADAR backscatter measurements. The method is based on the inversion of a first order backscattering model using Monte Carlo methods without any need for additional measured data than the measured radar cross section (RCS) except an optional guess of the surface temperature. The method is applied to RCS data obtained with the Multi3Scat during August and September 2007 over the Arctic Ocean. The Multi3Scat is a helicopter-borne scatterometer of the University of Hamburg, which simultaneously measures the like-polarization RCS at five different frequencies between 1 GHz and 15 GHz (in frequency bands L, S, C, X, and Ku) at incidence angles of 20° to 65°. A video and an infrared camera simultaneously sense the surface in the scatterometer's footprint for additional, independent information. The uncertainty of the thin sea ice thickness estimates obtained with our method is about 5 cm when combining two or more frequencies but only about 10 cm when using just one frequency. Thin sea ice thickness values obtained with our method are of the same order of independent in-situ observations.

  2. A comparison of maximal bioenergetic enzyme activities obtained with commonly used homogenization techniques.

    PubMed

    Grace, M; Fletcher, L; Powers, S K; Hughes, M; Coombes, J

    1996-12-01

    Homogenization of tissue for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activities is a common practice in studies examining metabolic properties of skeletal muscle adaptation to disease, aging, inactivity or exercise. While numerous homogenization techniques are in use today, limited information exists concerning the efficacy of specific homogenization protocols. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of four commonly used approaches to homogenizing skeletal muscle for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activity. The maximal enzyme activity (Vmax) of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured from homogenous muscle samples (N = 48 per homogenization technique) and used as indicators to determine which protocol had the highest efficacy. The homogenization techniques were: (1) glass-on-glass pestle; (2) a combination of a mechanical blender and a teflon pestle (Potter-Elvehjem); (3) a combination of the mechanical blender and a biological detergent; and (4) the combined use of a mechanical blender and a sonicator. The glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) enzyme activities compared to all other protocols for both enzymes. Of the four protocols examined, the data demonstrate that the glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol is the technique of choice for studying bioenergetic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.

  3. Quantification of the activity of biomolecules in microarrays obtained by direct laser transfer.

    PubMed

    Dinca, V; Ranella, A; Farsari, M; Kafetzopoulos, D; Dinescu, M; Popescu, A; Fotakis, C

    2008-10-01

    The direct-writing technique laser-induced forward transfer has been employed for the micro-array printing of liquid solutions of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase and the protein Titin on nitrocellulose solid surfaces. The effect of two UV laser pulse lengths, femtosecond and nanosecond has been studied in relation with maintaining the activity of the transferred biomolecules. The quantification of the active biomolecules after transfer has been carried out using Bradford assay, quantitative colorimetric enzymatic assay and fluorescence techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements of the HRP and the Titin activity as well as chromatogenic and fluorescence assay studies have revealed a connection between the properties of the deposited, biologically active biomolecules, the experimental conditions and the target composition. The bioassays have shown that up to 78% of the biomolecules remained active after femtosecond laser transfer, while this value reduced to 54% after nanosecond laser transfer. The addition of glycerol in a percentage up to 70% in the solution to be transferred has contributed to the stabilization of the micro-array patterns and the increase of their resolution.

  4. Osteoinductive activity of insulin-functionalized cell culture surfaces obtained using diazonium chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulska, Anna; Filipowska, Joanna; Osyczka, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Polymeric surfaces suitable for cell culture (DR/Pec) were constructed from diazoresin (DR) and pectin (Pec) in a form of ultrathin films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The surfaces were functionalized with insulin using diazonium chemistry. Such functionalized surfaces were used to culture human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. The activity of insulin immobilized on the surfaces (DR/Pec/Ins) was compared to that of insulin dissolved in the culture medium. Human MSC grown on insulin-immobilized DR/Pec surfaces displayed increased proliferation and higher osteogenic activity. The latter was determined by means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, which increases at early stages of osteoblasts differentiation. Insulin dissolved in the culture medium did not stimulate cell proliferation and its osteogenic activity was significantly lower. Addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) to the culture medium further increased ALP activity in hMSCs indicating additive osteogenic action of immobilized insulin and rhBMP-2

  5. TU-CD-207-03: Time Evolution of Texture Parameters of Subtracted Images Obtained by Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography (CEDM)

    SciTech Connect

    Mateos, M-J; Brandan, M-E; Gastelum, A; Marquez, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the time evolution of texture parameters, based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), in subtracted images of 17 patients (10 malignant and 7 benign) subjected to contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM). The goal is to determine the sensitivity of texture to iodine uptake at the lesion, and its correlation (or lack of) with mean-pixel-value (MPV). Methods: Acquisition of clinical images followed a single-energy CEDM protocol using Rh/Rh/48 kV plus external 0.5 cm Al from a Senographe DS unit. Prior to the iodine-based contrast medium (CM) administration a mask image was acquired; four CM images were obtained 1, 2, 3, and 5 minutes after CM injection. Temporal series were obtained by logarithmic subtraction of registered CM minus mask images.Regions of interest (ROI) for the lesion were drawn by a radiologist and the texture was analyzed. GLCM was evaluated at a 3 pixel distance, 0° angle, and 64 gray-levels. Pixels identified as registration errors were excluded from the computation. 17 texture parameters were chosen, classified according to similarity into 7 groups, and analyzed. Results: In all cases the texture parameters within a group have similar dynamic behavior. Two texture groups (associated to cluster and sum mean) show a strong correlation with MPV; their average correlation coefficient (ACC) is r{sup 2}=0.90. Other two groups (contrast, homogeneity) remain constant with time, that is, a low-sensitivity to CM uptake. Three groups (regularity, lacunarity and diagonal moment) are sensitive to CM uptake but less correlated with MPV; their ACC is r{sup 2}=0.78. Conclusion: This analysis has shown that, at least groups associated to regularity, lacunarity and diagonal moment offer dynamical information additional to the mean pixel value due to the presence of CM at the lesion. The next step will be the analysis in terms of the lesion pathology. Authors thank PAPIIT-IN105813 for support. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia Y

  6. Antioxidant activity of fractions from oregano essential oils obtained by molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Ruben; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of fractions separated from oregano essential oil by short-path molecular distillation. Two residue (R1 and R2) and two distillate (D1 and D2) fractions were prepared by molecular distillation. The major components were: carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene in R1 and R2; and γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and sabinene in D1 and D2. Free-radical scavenging activity was observed in all fractions and was highest in R2 (77.2%). D1 and D2 showed a smaller amount of volatile oxidation compounds produced from sunflower oil stored at 60°C for 14days. The greatest antioxidant activity was observed in D1 and D2. The thermal stability of oregano essential oil and its fractions was also analysed. R1 and R2 presented an increased carvacrol concentration and thermal stability. The short-path molecular distillation fractions can be used to prepare fractions from oregano essential oil with a higher antioxidant activity.

  7. Human GV oocytes generated by mitotically active germ cells obtained from follicular aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xinbao; Liu, Guishu; Xu, Bo; Wu, Changqing; Hui, Ning; Ni, Xin; Wang, Jian; Du, Meirong; Teng, Xiaoming; Wu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Human female germline stem cells (FGSCs) have opened new opportunities for understanding human oogenesis, delaying menopause, treating infertility, and providing a new strategy for preserving fertility. However, the shortage of adult human ovaries tissues available impedes their future investigations and clinical applications. Here, we have established FGSC lines from scarce ovarian cortical tissues that exist in follicular aspirates (faFGSCs), which are produced and discarded in in vitro fertilization centers worldwide. The faFGSCs have characteristics of germline stem cells involved in the gene expression profile, growth characteristics, and a normal karyotype consistent with that of FGSCs obtained from ovarian cortexes surgically removed from patients (srFGSCs). Furthermore, faFGSCs have developmental potentials including spontaneous differentiation into oocytes under feeder-free conditions, communicating with granulosa cells by gap junctions and paracrine factors, entering meiosis after RA induction, as well as forming follicles after injection into human ovarian cortical tissues xenografted into adult immunodeficient female mice. Lastly, we developed a strategy guiding FGSCs differentiated into germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes in vitro and revealed their developmental mechanisms. Our study not only provides a new approach to obtain human FGSCs for medical treatment, but also opens several avenues to investigate human oogenesis in vitro. PMID:27357640

  8. Botanical origin causes changes in nutritional profile and antioxidant activity of fermented products obtained from honey.

    PubMed

    Dezmirean, Graţia I; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Bonta, Victoriţa; Erler, Silvio

    2012-08-15

    Honey as rich source of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants serves as health-promoting nutrient in the human body. Here, we present the first time a comparative study of nutritional profiles (e.g., acidities, sugar, organic acid profile, total polyphenolic, flavonoid content) for different unifloral, multifloral honeys and their fermented products, in correlation with their antioxidant activity. Additionally, an optimized method for HPLC separation of organic acids from honey was established. The total phenolic content of honey samples varied widely among the honey types compared to fermented products. High amounts of total flavonoids were quantified in heather honey, followed by raspberry, multifloral, black locust, and linden honey. A positive correlation between the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity was observed in honey samples. After fermentation, the flavonoid content of dark honey fermented products decreased significantly. Black locust and linden honeys are more suitable for fermentation because the decrease in antioxidant substances is less pronounced.

  9. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of glycosides obtained by biotransformation of xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Tomasz; Bartmańska, Agnieszka; Milczarek, Magdalena; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Popłoński, Jarosław; Rój, Edward; Huszcza, Ewa

    2013-04-01

    The biotransformation of xanthohumol (1), a prenylated chalcone isolated from hops by selected fungi, was investigated. Microbial regioselective glycosylation at the C-4' position led to xanthohumol 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) and xanthohumol 4'-O-β-d-(4'''-O-methyl)-glucopyranoside (3). The subsequent cyclization of 2 resulted in isoxanthohumol 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of the products were identified based on spectroscopic methods. The biological activity of isolated metabolites has been evaluated. Compared to xanthohumol (1), metabolite 2 is a better 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger, while 2 and 3 have stronger antiproliferative activity against the human HT-29 colon cancer cell line.

  10. Topography of Photosynthetic Activity of Leaves Obtained from Video Images of Chlorophyll Fluorescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Paul F.; Raschke, Klaus; Ball, J. Timothy; Berry, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of photosynthetic activity over the area of a leaf and its change with time was determined (at low partial pressure of O2) by recording images of chlorophyll fluorescence during saturating light flashes. Simultaneously, the gas exchange was being measured. Reductions of local fluorescence intensity quantitatively displayed the extent of nonphotochemical quenching; quench coefficients, qN, were computed pixel by pixel. Because rates of photosynthetic electron transport are positively correlated with (1 − qN), computed images of (1 − qN) represented topographies of photosynthetic activity. Following application of abscisic acid to the heterobaric leaves of Xanthium strumarium L., clearly delineated regions varying in nonphotochemical quenching appeared that coincided with areoles formed by minor veins and indicated stomatal closure in groups. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16666912

  11. Effect of lateral structure parameters of SiGe HBTs on synthesized active inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Xiao, Zhao; Wan-Rong, Zhang; Huang, Xin; Hong-Yun, Xie; Dong-Yue, Jin; Qiang, Fu

    2016-03-01

    The effect of lateral structure parameters of transistors including emitter width, emitter length, and emitter stripe number on the performance parameters of the active inductor (AI), such as the effective inductance Ls, quality factor Q, and self-resonant frequency ω0 is analyzed based on 0.35-μm SiGe BiCMOS process. The simulation results show that for AI operated under fixed current density JC, the HBT lateral structure parameters have significant effect on Ls but little influence on Q and ω0, and the larger Ls can be realized by the narrow, short emitter stripe and few emitter stripes of SiGe HBTs. On the other hand, for AI with fixed HBT size, smaller JC is beneficial for AI to obtain larger Ls, but with a cost of smaller Q and ω0. In addition, under the fixed collector current IC, the larger the size of HBT is, the larger Ls becomes, but the smaller Q and ω0 become. The obtained results provide a reference for selecting geometry of transistors and operational condition in the design of active inductors. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant Nos. 4142007 and 4122014), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61574010), and the Higher Educational Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. J13LN09).

  12. Novel polyacetylene derivatives and their inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase obtained from Panax ginseng roots.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Iida, Daiki; Ueno, Yoshihiro; Samukawa, Keiichi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Kotake, Takeshi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In our research program to identify cholinesterase and β-secretase inhibitors, we investigated Ginseng (root of Panax ginseng), a crude drug described as a multifunctional drug in the ancient Chinese herbal book Shennong Ben Cao Jing. Results from hexane and methanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. This suggests that ginseng roots may be effective for the prevention of and therapy for dementia. We then focused on hexane extracts of raw ginseng root and dried ginseng root since the determination of hexane extract constituents has not been studied extensively. Activity-guided fractionation and purification led to the isolation of 4 polyacetylene compounds; homopanaxynol, homopanaxydol, (9Z)-heptadeca-1, 9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-one, and (8E)-octadeca-1,8-diene-4,6-diyn-3,10-diol. The chemical structures of these compounds, including stereochemistry, were determined. This is the first study to identify the structure of homopanaxynol and homopanaxydol. Moreover, the modes of action of some compounds were characterized as competitive inhibitors. This study showed, for the first time, that polyacetylene compounds possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

  13. Biomass based activated carbon obtained from sludge and sugarcane bagasse for removing lead ion from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu-Chun; Zhang, He-Ran; Li, Jin-Bo; Ding, Wen-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Sewage sludge and bagasse were used as raw materials to produce cheap and efficient adsorbent with great adsorption capacity of Pb(2+). By pyrolysis at 800 °C for 0.5 h, the largest surface area (806.57 m(2)/g) of the adsorbent was obtained, enriched with organic functional groups. The optimal conditions for production of the adsorbent and adsorption of Pb(2+) were investigated. The results of adsorb-ability fitted the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model well. The highest Pb(2+) (at pH = 4.0) adsorption capacity was achieved by treating with 60% (v/v) HNO3. This is a promising approach for metal removal from wastewater, as well as recycling sewage sludge and bagasse to ease their disposal pressure.

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-wen; Zhang, Shi-qi; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→]n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2−∙ clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree. PMID:27446223

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Shi-Qi; Kan, Jian-Quan; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→] n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2 (-∙) clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree.

  16. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    PubMed

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  18. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  20. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Kinji; Maruta, Yuto; Mineo, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Toru; Hirayama, Masao

    2013-10-14

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1%) and polyphenols (84.7%). The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP) made with this optimized SCCO₂ extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO₂ extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO₂ extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  1. Mechanism and activation energy of magnetic skyrmion annihilation obtained from minimum energy path calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Igor S.; Jónsson, Hannes; Uzdin, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and activation energy for the annihilation of a magnetic skyrmion is studied by finding the minimum energy path for the transition in a system described by a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian extended to include dipole-dipole, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya, and anisotropy interactions so as to represent a Co monolayer on a Pt(111) surface. The annihilation mechanism involves isotropic shrinking of the skyrmion and slow increase of the energy until the transition state is reached after which the energy drops abruptly as the ferromagnetic final state forms. The maximum energy along the minimum energy path, which gives an estimate of the activation energy within the harmonic approximation of transition state theory, is found to be in excellent agreement with direct Langevin dynamics simulations at relatively high temperature carried out by Rohart et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 214412 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.214412]. The dipole-dipole interaction, the computationally most demanding term in the Hamiltonian, is found to be important but its effect on the stability of the skyrmion and shape of the transition path can be mimicked accurately by reducing the anisotropy constant in the Hamiltonian.

  2. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kobori, Kinji; Maruta, Yuto; Mineo, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Toru; Hirayama, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1%) and polyphenols (84.7%). The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP) made with this optimized SCCO2 extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO2 extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO2 extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate. PMID:28239130

  3. Antioxidant activities of a polyglucuronic acid sodium salt obtained from TEMPO-mediated oxidation of xanthan.

    PubMed

    Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Gardarin, C; Traikia, M; Elboutachfaiti, R; Isogai, A; Michaud, P

    2015-02-13

    A xanthouronic acid sodium salt called xanthouronan was produced from xanthan by regioselective oxidation with NaOCl/NaBr using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) as catalyst. The efficiency of the one pot TEMPO-mediated oxidation was confirmed by HPAEC-PAD, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR. The oxidation degree was close to 98% and the mass yield of this new polyglucuronic acid was higher than 90% (w/w). The macromolecular characterization of xanthouronan using SEC-MALLS showed a molecular size reduced by a third due to the oxidation treatment and the degree of polymerization (DP) of the xanthouronan form was about 665. The evaluation of the enzymatic degradation of this C-6 carboxylated xanthan by various polysaccharide hydrolases and one polysaccharide lyase showed its high resistant to biodegradation. The antioxidant activity of xanthouronan was also tested by using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical procedures. At 1 g/L, xanthouronan presented 75% of the ascorbic acid antioxidant activity.

  4. Assessment of Parasitic Activity of Fusarium Strains Obtained from a Heterodera schachtii-Suppressive Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuebiao; Yin, Bei; Borneman, James; Becker, J. Ole

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the potential impact of various Fusarium strains on the population development of sugarbeet cyst nematodes. Fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt that were obtained from a field suppressive to that nematode. Twenty-six strains of Fusarium spp. were subjected to a phylogenic analysis of their rRNA-ITS nucleotide sequences. Seven genetically distinct Fusarium strains were evaluated for their ability to influence population development of H. schachtii and crop performance in greenhouse trials. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) seedlings were transplanted into fumigated field soil amended with a single fungal strain at 1,000 propagules/g soil. One week later, the soil was infested with 250 H. schachtii J2/100 cm3 soil. Parasitized eggs were present in all seven Fusarium treatments at 1,180 degree-days after fungal infestation. The percentage of parasitism ranged from 17 to 34%. Although the most efficacious F. oxysporum strain 471 produced as many parasitized eggs as occurred in the original suppressive soil, none of the Fusarium strains reduced the population density of H. schachtii compared to the conducive check. This supports prior results that Fusarium spp. were not the primary cause of the population suppression of sugarbeet cyst nematodes at this location. PMID:19259511

  5. Kinetic parameters of the GUINEVERE reference configuration in VENUS-F reactor obtained from a pile noise experiment using Rossi and Feynman methods

    SciTech Connect

    Geslot, Benoit; Pepino, Alexandra; Blaise, Patrick; Mellier, Frederic; Kochetkov, Anatoly; Vittiglio, Guido; Billebaud, Annick

    2015-07-01

    A pile noise measurement campaign has been conducted by the CEA in the VENUS-F reactor (SCK-CEN, Mol Belgium) in April 2011 in the reference critical configuration of the GUINEVERE experimental program. The experimental setup made it possible to estimate the core kinetic parameters: the prompt neutron decay constant, the delayed neutron fraction and the generation time. A precise assessment of these constants is of prime importance. In particular, the effective delayed neutron fraction is used to normalize and compare calculated reactivities of different subcritical configurations, obtained by modifying either the core layout or the control rods position, with experimental ones deduced from the analysis of measurements. This paper presents results obtained with a CEA-developed time stamping acquisition system. Data were analyzed using Rossi-α and Feynman-α methods. Results were normalized to reactor power using a calibrated fission chamber with a deposit of Np-237. Calculated factors were necessary to the analysis: the Diven factor was computed by the ENEA (Italy) and the power calibration factor by the CNRS/IN2P3/LPC Caen. Results deduced with both methods are consistent with respect to calculated quantities. Recommended values are given by the Rossi-α estimator, that was found to be the most robust. The neutron generation time was found equal to 0.438 ± 0.009 μs and the effective delayed neutron fraction is 765 ± 8 pcm. Discrepancies with the calculated value (722 pcm, calculation from ENEA) are satisfactory: -5.6% for the Rossi-α estimate and -2.7% for the Feynman-α estimate. (authors)

  6. Improvements in Nimbus 7 limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere ozone profiles as obtained with updated spectral line parameters and radiance algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, Ellis; Burton, John; Gordley, Larry; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Bhatt, Praful; Miles, Thomas

    1995-08-01

    Ozone distributions from the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment of 1978-1979 are generally in good agreement with other concurrent ozone measurements in the middle and upper stratosphere, but not at lower altitudes. LIMS ozone is too large below about the 15-hPa (or millibar) level, particularly at lower latitudes. A new LIMS ozone distribution is presented for 1 day of profiles, May 5, 1979, obtained with an improved forward radiance algorithm and using the spectral line parameters for the 9- to 10-μm region in the HITRAN 92 compilation. However, we also divided our single day of retrieved ozone mixing ratio profiles by a suggested factor of 1.051, which makes them compatible with the ozone distributions from several of the UARS experiments. Our revised distribution still agrees with the archived LIMS ozone to better than ±5% above about the 15-hPa level, but there is a significant decrease for the revised ozone in the lower stratosphere. That decrease approaches 25% at 50 hPa in the tropics. In general, the revised LIMS ozone is now in accord with the comparison data sets for the stratosphere, except for the lowest levels (Umkehr layer 3 or 63-127 hPa), where the effects of interfering species and small biases in LIMS temperatures are most pronounced. It is concluded that the current 9- to 10-μm ozone line list is adequate for obtaining good quality ozone mixing ratio profiles from satellite broadband limb-infrared measurements.

  7. Downscaling of climate parameters using Active Learning Method (ALM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

    2009-12-01

    This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events“, which concerns itself of extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series As well as the predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between

  8. New electrochemical procedure for obtaining surface enhanced Raman scattering active polythiophene films on platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaoui, E. A.; Aeiyach, S.; Aubard, J.; Felidj, N.; Lévi, G.; Sakmeche, N.; Lacaze, P. C.

    1998-06-01

    A new electrochemical procedure for obtaining Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of silver islands polybithiophene composite films is described. During the electropolymerization process which consists to use silver dodecylsulfate micellar aqueous solution mixed with bithiophene and LiClO4, silver cations are reduced, thus giving metallic silver particles embedded within the polybithiophene (PbT) film. Both doped and undoped PbT species display SERS spectra with exaltation factors varying between 40 and 200 with respect to the film prepared in sodium dodecylsulfate. Vibrational characterization of both doped and undoped species show that the amount of the polymer structural defects are more important in the oxidized species than in the reduced ones. This general method allows to synthesize various polymeric films displaying SERS effect and appears very promising for the structural study of these materials. Nous décrivons un procédé original pour synthétiser par voie électrochimique des films formés d'un composite de polybithiophène et d'îlots d'argent qui présentent des Spectres de Diffusion Raman Exaltée de Surface (DRES). Au cours de l'électropolymérisation d'une solution aqueuse micellaire de bithiophène en présence de dodécylsulfate d'argent (AgDS) et de LiClO4, les ions argent présents dans la solution se complexent avec le soufre du bithiophène et pénètrent dans le film polymère où ils sont réduits sous forme d'argent métallique. Les spectres Raman des deux formes réduite et oxydée du film ainsi obtenu présentent un effet DRES important avec un facteur d'exaltation variant entre 40 et 200 par rapport au même film électrosynthétisé en présence de dodécylsulfate de sodium (SDS). L'analyse vibrationnelle des deux formes redox montre que le taux de défauts est plus important dans la forme oxydée que dans la forme réduite. Cette méthode de polymérisation très générale, qui permet d'obtenir des polymères

  9. Difficulties in Estimating the Physical Parameters of Compact Radio Sources in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukh, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    The various factors influencing estimates of the physical parameters of compact radio sources in active galactic nuclei (AGN) using a methods based on uniform models of synchrotron radiation sources are analyzed. It is found that the form of the relativistic electron energy density distribution as a function of magnetic energy density (Ee-EH) in the radio sources is determined by the shape of the electron energy spectrum. It is shown that the very large observed deviations of the estimated energies of the field and relativistic particles from equipartition are mainly caused by nonuniformity of the radio sources. In order to obtain correct estimates of the physical parameters of nonuniform radio sources, it is necessary to know their angular sizes at low frequencies (in the opaque region) and their Doppler factors.

  10. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  11. Upgrading the rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis for the production of amorphous silica and high quality activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jon; Lopez, Gartzen; Amutio, Maider; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The overall valorization of rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) has been studied in a two-step process. Thus, silica has been recovered in a first step and the remaining carbon material has been subjected to steam activation. The char samples used in this study have been obtained by continuous flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor at 500°C. Extraction with Na2CO3 allows recovering 88% of the silica contained in the rice husk char. Activation of the silica-free rice husk char has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 800°C using steam as activating agent. The porous structure of the activated carbons produced includes a combination of micropores and mesopores, with a BET surface area of up to 1365m(2)g(-1) at the end of 15min.

  12. Volcanic eruption source parameters from active and passive microwave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank S.; Cimini, Domenico; Mereu, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    It is well known, in the volcanology community, that precise information of the source parameters characterising an eruption are of predominant interest for the initialization of the Volcanic Transport and Dispersion Models (VTDM). Source parameters of main interest would be the top altitude of the volcanic plume, the flux of the mass ejected at the emission source, which is strictly related to the cloud top altitude, the distribution of volcanic mass concentration along the vertical column as well as the duration of the eruption and the erupted volume. Usually, the combination of a-posteriori field and numerical studies allow constraining the eruption source parameters for a given volcanic event thus making possible the forecast of ash dispersion and deposition from future volcanic eruptions. So far, remote sensors working at visible and infrared channels (cameras and radiometers) have been mainly used to detect, track and provide estimates of the concentration content and the prevailing size of the particles propagating within the ash clouds up to several thousand of kilometres far from the source as well as track back, a-posteriori, the accuracy of the VATDM outputs thus testing the initial choice made for the source parameters. Acoustic wave (infrasound) and microwave fixed scan radar (voldorad) were also used to infer source parameters. In this work we want to put our attention on the role of sensors operating at microwave wavelengths as complementary tools for the real time estimations of source parameters. Microwaves can benefit of the operability during night and day and a relatively negligible sensitivity to the presence of clouds (non precipitating weather clouds) at the cost of a limited coverage and larger spatial resolution when compared with infrared sensors. Thanks to the aforementioned advantages, the products from microwaves sensors are expected to be sensible mostly to the whole path traversed along the tephra cloud making microwaves particularly

  13. Annealing effect on the particle size and chemical composition of activated carbon obtained from vacuum furnace of teak sawdust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armynah, B.; Tahir, D.; Jaya, N.

    2014-09-01

    Activated carbon was produced from sawdust by using physical method in a high temperature vacuum furnace without additional chemical. Fast pyrolysis process was carried out prior in fluidized a bed furnace to produce char before activation process. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as particle size, activation temperature and activation time on the quality of the activated carbon. In addition, the chemical composition studies were done by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The crystallite sizes were calculated by using Scherer equation based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy data. The pyrolysis temperature and time were varied from 600°C to 900°C and from 3 hours to 6 hours, respectively. The particle size of activated carbon was increase with increasing temperature. The composition and crystallite size of the prepared activated carbon was compared with the non-activated carbon. The results indicated that the teak sawdust carbon could be employed as a low cost alternative to produce commercial activated carbon.

  14. Annealing effect on the particle size and chemical composition of activated carbon obtained from vacuum furnace of teak sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Armynah, B. Tahir, D. Jaya, N.

    2014-09-25

    Activated carbon was produced from sawdust by using physical method in a high temperature vacuum furnace without additional chemical. Fast pyrolysis process was carried out prior in fluidized a bed furnace to produce char before activation process. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as particle size, activation temperature and activation time on the quality of the activated carbon. In addition, the chemical composition studies were done by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The crystallite sizes were calculated by using Scherer equation based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy data. The pyrolysis temperature and time were varied from 600°C to 900°C and from 3 hours to 6 hours, respectively. The particle size of activated carbon was increase with increasing temperature. The composition and crystallite size of the prepared activated carbon was compared with the non-activated carbon. The results indicated that the teak sawdust carbon could be employed as a low cost alternative to produce commercial activated carbon.

  15. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

    1995-11-17

    Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro.

  16. Polymerase/DNA interactions and enzymatic activity: multi-parameter analysis with electro-switchable biosurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Andreas; Schräml, Michael; Strasser, Ralf; Daub, Herwin; Myers, Thomas; Heindl, Dieter; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of high-performance enzymes for future sequencing and PCR technologies as well as the development of many anticancer drugs requires a detailed analysis of DNA/RNA synthesis processes. However, due to the complex molecular interplay involved, real-time methodologies have not been available to obtain comprehensive information on both binding parameters and enzymatic activities. Here we introduce a chip-based method to investigate polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acids, which employs an electrical actuation of DNA templates on microelectrodes. Two measurement modes track both the dynamics of the induced switching process and the DNA extension simultaneously to quantitate binding kinetics, dissociation constants and thermodynamic energies. The high sensitivity of the method reveals previously unidentified tight binding states for Taq and Pol I (KF) DNA polymerases. Furthermore, the incorporation of label-free nucleotides can be followed in real-time and changes in the DNA polymerase conformation (finger closing) during enzymatic activity are observable. PMID:26174478

  17. Polymerase/DNA interactions and enzymatic activity: multi-parameter analysis with electro-switchable biosurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Andreas; Schräml, Michael; Strasser, Ralf; Daub, Herwin; Myers, Thomas; Heindl, Dieter; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The engineering of high-performance enzymes for future sequencing and PCR technologies as well as the development of many anticancer drugs requires a detailed analysis of DNA/RNA synthesis processes. However, due to the complex molecular interplay involved, real-time methodologies have not been available to obtain comprehensive information on both binding parameters and enzymatic activities. Here we introduce a chip-based method to investigate polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acids, which employs an electrical actuation of DNA templates on microelectrodes. Two measurement modes track both the dynamics of the induced switching process and the DNA extension simultaneously to quantitate binding kinetics, dissociation constants and thermodynamic energies. The high sensitivity of the method reveals previously unidentified tight binding states for Taq and Pol I (KF) DNA polymerases. Furthermore, the incorporation of label-free nucleotides can be followed in real-time and changes in the DNA polymerase conformation (finger closing) during enzymatic activity are observable.

  18. Ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue--ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the obtained hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, J; Darewicz, M; Vegarud, G E; Iwaniak, A; Minkiewicz, P

    2015-01-01

    In the digestive tract of humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study.

  19. [Hypoglycemic activity of berberin and extract obtained from the bark of Phellodendron lavalei, introduced in sub tropic areas of Georgia].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate hypoglycemic activity of Berberin and extract obtained from the bark of Phellodendron Lavalei, which is introduced in sub tropic areas of Georgia-Kobuleti. The study was carried out to reveal comparative hypoglycemic activity and acute toxicity of alkaloid Berberin and bark extract of Phellodendron Lavalei. Effects of Berberin hydrochloride and bark extract on blood glucose level was studied on mice. Measurement of blood glucose level was carried out on fasting animals using glucose meter "GlucoLab"--auto-coding. The study showed that Berberin hydrochloride dose 150 mg/kg, extract (obtained from the bark of Phellodendron Lavalei) dose 400 mg/kg and glybenclamid dose 0.25 mg/kg practically decreased blood glucose level of mice in a same pattern. Received data allows us to suggest that Phellodendron Lavalei, introduced in sub tropic areas of Georgia contains active hypoglycemic components. In conclusion the possible use of Phellodendron Lavalei as a plant raw material for obtaining hypoglycemic substances needs to be decided after further study of efficacy, mechanism of action of extracts and active components of Phellodendron Lavalei on experimental models of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

    2011-06-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69 μmol/μL of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P < .05). The difference between percentage inhibition and TEAC values most probably is due to the fact that undiluted and diluted samples are used in the percentage inhibition assay and the TEAC assay, respectively. TEAC values of oregano essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84 μmol/μL of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7.

  1. Adaptive Estimation of Active Contour Parameters Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Texture Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoogi, Assaf; Subramaniam, Arjun; Veerapaneni, Rishi; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-11-11

    In this paper, we propose a generalization of the level set segmentation approach by supplying a novel method for adaptive estimation of active contour parameters. The presented segmentation method is fully automatic once the lesion has been detected. First, the location of the level set contour relative to the lesion is estimated using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The CNN has two convolutional layers for feature extraction, which lead into dense layers for classification. Second, the output CNN probabilities are then used to adaptively calculate the parameters of the active contour functional during the segmentation process. Finally, the adaptive window size surrounding each contour point is re-estimated by an iterative process that considers lesion size and spatial texture. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method on a dataset of 164 MRI and 112 CT images of liver lesions that includes low contrast and heterogeneous lesions as well as noisy images. To illustrate the strength of our method, we evaluated it against state of the art CNNbased and active contour techniques. For all cases, our method, as assessed by Dice similarity coefficients, performed significantly better than currently available methods. An average Dice improvement of 0.27 was found across the entire dataset over all comparisons. We also analyzed two challenging subsets of lesions and obtained a significant Dice improvement of ����.�������� with our method (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon).

  2. Adaptive Estimation of Active Contour Parameters Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Texture Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoogi, Assaf; Subramaniam, Arjun; Veerapaneni, Rishi; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-11-11

    In this paper, we propose a generalization of the level set segmentation approach by supplying a novel method for adaptive estimation of active contour parameters. The presented segmentation method is fully automatic once the lesion has been detected. First, the location of the level set contour relative to the lesion is estimated using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The CNN has two convolutional layers for feature extraction, which lead into dense layers for classification. Second, the output CNN probabilities are then used to adaptively calculate the parameters of the active contour functional during the segmentation process. Finally, the adaptive window size surrounding each contour point is re-estimated by an iterative process that considers lesion size and spatial texture. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method on a dataset of 164 MRI and 112 CT images of liver lesions that includes low contrast and heterogeneous lesions as well as noisy images. To illustrate the strength of our method, we evaluated it against state of the art CNNbased and active contour techniques. For all cases, our method, as assessed by Dice similarity coefficients, performed significantly better than currently available methods. An average Dice improvement of 0.27 was found across the entire dataset over all comparisons. We also analyzed two challenging subsets of lesions and obtained a significant Dice improvement of 0.24 with our method (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon).

  3. [Comparative characteristic of activity of urease, incorporated into polysiloxane hydrogels and xerogels, obtained by sol-gel technique].

    PubMed

    Pohorilyĭ, R P; Honcharyk, V P; Kozhara, L I; Zub, Iu L; Chuĭko, O O

    2006-01-01

    Polysiloxane hydrogels with incorporated urease (degree of immobilization is 79-88%) that retains fermentative activity at the level of 56-84% were obtained by sol-gel technique. An influence of polysiloxane matrix functionalization on a degree of incorporation, activity retention and a factor of efficiency of urease immobilization was studied. Polysiloxane matrix functionalization with methyl groups causes decreasing a degree of ferment immobilization and a factor of immobilization efficiency. Functionalization of polysiloxane matrix with 3-aminopropyl groups leads to practically quantitative incorporation of the enzyme. And the highest degree of urease activity retention and maximal factor of its immobilization were observed at 3-aminopropyl groups content in polysiloxane matrix equals 2-5% (mol.). Transformation of hydrogels into xerogels via vacuum drying causes decreasing urease fermentative activity on nearly 2 orders.

  4. Αntioxidant activity of Cynara scolymus L. and Cynara cardunculus L. extracts obtained by different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Markaki, Panagiota; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Proestos, Charalampos

    2017-05-01

    Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1.57 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) g(-1) fresh weight (fw)), the highest DPPH(•) scavenging activity (IC50; 0.91 mg ml(-1)) and the highest ABTS(•+) radical scavenging capacity (2.08 mg Trolox Equivalents (TE) g(-1) fw) compared to infusions and other extracts studied. Moreover, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction technique proved to be more appropriate and effective for the extraction of antiradical and phenolic compounds.

  5. The spectroscopic binary system Gl 375. I. Orbital parameters and chromospheric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. F.; González, J. F.; Cincunegui, C.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We study the spectroscopic binary system Gl 375 to characterise its orbit and the spectral types and chromospheric activity levels of the components. Methods: We employed medium-resolution echelle spectra obtained at the 2.15 m telescope at the Argentinian observatory CASLEO and photometric observations obtained from the ASAS database. Results: We have separated the composite spectra into those corresponding to both components. The separated spectra allow us to confirm that the spectral types of both components are similar (dMe3.5) and to obtain precise measurements of the orbital period (P = 1.87844 days), minimum masses (M_1 sin3 i = 0.35 {M}_⊙ and M_2 sin3 i =0.33 {M}_⊙), and other orbital parameters. The photometric observations exhibit a sinusoidal variation with the same period as the orbital period. We interpreted this as signs of active regions carried along with rotation in a tidally synchronised system, and studied the evolution of the amplitude of the modulation on longer timescales. Together with the mean magnitude, the modulation exhibits a roughly cyclic variation with a period of around 800 days. This periodicity is also found in the flux of the Ca II K lines of both components, which seem to be in phase. Conclusions: The periodic changes in the three observables are interpreted as a sign of a stellar activity cycle. Both components appear to be in phase, which implies that they are magnetically connected. The measured cycle of ≈2.2 years (≈800 days) is consistent with previous determinations of activity cycles in similar stars. The authors are visiting astronomers of the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  6. High antioxidant activity of coffee silverskin extracts obtained by the treatment of coffee silverskin with subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusaku; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2012-12-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is a thin tegument of the outer layer of green coffee beans and a major by-product of the roasting process to produce roasted coffee beans. CS extracts obtained by the treatment of CS with subcritical water at 25-270°C were investigated for their antioxidant activity using hydrophilic oxygen radical absorption capacity (H-ORAC) and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assays. The antioxidant activity increased with increasing the extraction temperature and the highest activity was observed with the extracts obtained at 270°C. The H-ORAC and DPPH values of the extracts were 2629±193 and 379±36μmol TE/g of CS extract, respectively. High correlation (R=0.999) was observed between H-ORAC and DPPH values for the CS extracts. High correlation of the antioxidant activity was also observed with protein and phenolic contents in the extracts. The CS extracts could be useful as a good source of antioxidative materials.

  7. Decoding tactile afferent activity to obtain an estimate of instantaneous force and torque applied to the fingerpad.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Heba; Birznieks, Ingvars; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Dexterous manipulation is not possible without sensory information about object properties and manipulative forces. Fundamental neuroscience has been unable to demonstrate how information about multiple stimulus parameters may be continuously extracted, concurrently, from a population of tactile afferents. This is the first study to demonstrate this, using spike trains recorded from tactile afferents innervating the monkey fingerpad. A multiple-regression model, requiring no a priori knowledge of stimulus-onset times or stimulus combination, was developed to obtain continuous estimates of instantaneous force and torque. The stimuli consisted of a normal-force ramp (to a plateau of 1.8, 2.2, or 2.5 N), on top of which -3.5, -2.0, 0, +2.0, or +3.5 mNm torque was applied about the normal to the skin surface. The model inputs were sliding windows of binned spike counts recorded from each afferent. Models were trained and tested by 15-fold cross-validation to estimate instantaneous normal force and torque over the entire stimulation period. With the use of the spike trains from 58 slow-adapting type I and 25 fast-adapting type I afferents, the instantaneous normal force and torque could be estimated with small error. This study demonstrated that instantaneous force and torque parameters could be reliably extracted from a small number of tactile afferent responses in a real-time fashion with stimulus combinations that the model had not been exposed to during training. Analysis of the model weights may reveal how interactions between stimulus parameters could be disentangled for complex population responses and could be used to test neurophysiologically relevant hypotheses about encoding mechanisms.

  8. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens: Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Vergara-Galicia; Ángel, Jimenez-Ramirez Luis; Adrián, Tun-Suarez; Francisco, Aguirre-Crespo; Anuar, Salazar-Gómez; Samuel, Estrada-Soto; Ángel, Sierra-Ovando; Emmanuel, Hernandez-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium; the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. PMID:24075341

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of newly obtained low molecular weight scorpion chitosan and medium molecular weight commercial chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Asan-Ozusaglam, Meltem; Erdogan, Sevil

    2016-06-01

    In this study the antimicrobial activity of low molecular weight (3.22 kDa) chitosan, obtained for the first time from a species belonging to the Scorpiones, was screened against nine pathogenic microorganisms (seven bacteria and two yeasts) and compared with that of medium molecular weight commercial chitosan (MMWCC). It was observed that the antimicrobial activity of the low molecular weight scorpion chitosan (LMWSC) was specific to bacterial species in general rather than gram-negative or gram-positive bacterial groups. It was also determined that LMWSC had a stronger inhibitory effect than the MMWCC, particularly on the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and the yeast Candida albicans, which are important pathogens for public health. In addition, it was recorded that the MMWCC had a greater inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis than LMWSC. According to the results obtained by the disc diffusion method, the antibacterial activity of both LMWSC and MMWCC against B. subtilis and Salmonella enteritidis was higher than the widely used antibiotic Gentamicin (CN, 10 μg/disc).

  10. Active magnetic bearings dynamic parameters identification from experimental rotor unbalance response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanping; Zhou, Jin; Di, Long; Zhao, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) support rotors using electromagnetic force rather than mechanical forces. It is necessary to accurately identify the AMBs force coefficients since they play a critical role in the rotordynamic analysis including system stability, bending critical speeds and modes of vibrations. This paper proposes a rotor unbalance response based approach to identifying the AMBs stiffness and damping coefficients during rotation. First, a Timoshenko beam finite element (FE) rotor model is created. Second, an identification procedure based on the FE model is proposed. Then based on the experimental rotor unbalance response data from 1200 rpm to 30,000 rpm, the AMBs dynamic force parameters (stiffness and damping) are obtained. Finally, the identified results are verified by comparing the estimated and experimental rotor unbalance responses, which shows high accuracy.

  11. Prediction of adsorption from multicomponent solutions by activated carbon using single-solute parameters.

    PubMed

    Wurster, D E; Alkhamis, K A; Matheson, L E

    2000-08-31

    The adsorption of 3 barbiturates--phenobarbital, mephobarbital, and primidone--from simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), without pancreatin, by activated carbon was studied using the rotating bottle method. The concentrations of each drug remaining in solution at equilibrium were determined with the aid of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system employing a reversed-phase column. The competitive Langmuir-like model, the modified competitive Langmuir-like model, and the LeVan-Vermeulen model were each fit to the data. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental and predicted data using the modified competitive Langmuir-like model and the LeVan-Vermeulen model. The agreement obtained from the original competitive Langmuir-like model was less satisfactory. These observations are not surprising because the competitive Langmuir-like model assumes that the capacities of the adsorbates are equal, while the other 2 models take into account the differences in the capacities of the components. The results of these studies indicate that the adsorbates employed are competing for the same binding sites on the activated carbon surface. The results also demonstrate that it is possible to accurately predict multicomponent adsorption isotherms using only single-solute isotherm parameters. Such prediction is likely to be useful for improving in vivo/in vitro correlations.

  12. New Insights into Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay: Serum Dilution Factor as a Crucial Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Jońca, Joanna; Żuk, Monika; Wasąg, Bartosz; Janaszak-Jasiecka, Anna; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Waleron, Krzysztof; Jasiecki, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity assay and inhibitor phenotyping can help to identify patients at risk of prolonged paralysis following the administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The assay plays an important role in clinical chemistry as a good diagnostic marker for intoxication with pesticides and nerve agents. Furthermore, the assay is also commonly used for in vitro characterization of cholinesterases, their toxins and drugs. There is still lack of standardized procedure for measurement of BChE activity and many laboratories use different substrates at various concentrations. The purpose of this study was to validate the BChE activity assay to determine the best dilution of human serum and the most optimal concentration of substrates and inhibitors. Serum BChE activity was measured using modified Ellman’s method applicable for a microplate reader. We present our experience and new insights into the protocol for high-throughput routine assays of human plasma cholinesterase activities adapted to a microplate reader. During our routine assays used for the determination of BChE activity, we have observed that serum dilution factor influences the results obtained. We show that a 400-fold dilution of serum and 5mM S-butyrylthiocholine iodide can be successfully used for the accurate measurement of BChE activity in human serum. We also discuss usage of various concentrations of dibucaine and fluoride in BChE phenotyping. This study indicates that some factors of such a multicomponent clinical material like serum can influence kinetic parameters of the BChE. The observed inhibitory effect is dependent on serum dilution factor used in the assay. PMID:26444431

  13. Selection of suitable detergents for obtaining an active dengue protease in its natural form from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liew, Lynette Sin Yee; Lee, Michelle Yueqi; Wong, Ying Lei; Cheng, Jinting; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2016-05-01

    Dengue protease is a two-component enzyme and is an important drug target against dengue virus. The protease activity and protein stability of dengue nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) require a co-factor region from a four-span membrane protein NS2B. A natural form of dengue protease containing full-length NS2B and NS3 protease domain NS2BFL-NS3pro will be useful for dengue drug discovery. In current study, detergents that can be used for protease purification were tested. Using a water soluble protease construct, 39 detergents were selected for both NS2B and NS2BFL-NS3pro purification. The results showed that 18 detergents were able to sustain the activity of the natural dengue protease and 11 detergents could be used for NS2B purification. The results obtained in this study will be useful for biochemical and biophysical studies on dengue protease.

  14. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Conventional Techniques.

    PubMed

    Pires, Claudia T A; de L Scodro, Regiane B; Brenzan, Mislaine A; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Siqueira, Vera L D; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Goncalves, Renata M; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany R; Cardoso, Rosilene F

    2016-01-01

    The conventional techniques used to extract natural products have many disadvantages, and alternative methods have been used, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-CO2). We compared the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of extracts and major pure compounds were obtained from the leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense by SFE-CO2, maceration and Soxhlet. Anti-M tuberculosis activity was evaluated by resazurin microtiter assay plate and cytotoxicity assay was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. The (-) mammea A/BB, (-) mammea B/BB, mammea B/BB cyclo D, ponnalide, mammea A/BA cyclo D, and amentoflavone were identified as the majority compounds. SFE-CO2, especially at 313 K and 10.92 MPa showed better yield for (-) mammea A/BB. Anti-M. tuberculosis activity (62.5 μg/mL) and cytotoxicity (Selectivity Index = 0.320-0.576) were similar for the three extracts. Mammea B/BB cyclo D had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg/mL, and ponnalide and mammea A/BA cyclo D had MICs > 250 μg/mL. The pure compounds isolated showed low Selectivity Index (< 0.09). SFE-CO2 may be more promising than conventional methods for the extraction of compound (-) mammea A/BB, which presented the best anti-M. tuberculosis activity in our previous study. This is important for current industrial requirements to obtain extracts from medicinal plants using clean technologies.

  15. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Dorien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Geus, Bas; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17–18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. Methods A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course ‘Driving Licence at School’ in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course ‘Driving Licence at School’. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. Results A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow

  16. Biophysical characterization and activity analysis of nano-magnesium supplemented cellulase obtained from a psychrobacterium following graphene oxide immobilization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, N; Biswas, S; Saha, M K

    2016-12-01

    Cellulase enzyme was purified from a psychrophilic strain of Bacillus subtilis obtained from east Himalayan mountains. The native enzyme showed optimum activity at 15°C and pH 8.0.The Magnesium oxide nanoparticle (MgN) supplemented enzyme when immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport (GO), via glutaraldehyde as cross linker, showed 2.98 folds increase in enzymatic activity at 8°C and more than 3.5 folds activity increment at 90°C. The MgN-cel on graphene (GO-MgN-cel) showed a decrease in Km by 6.7 folds at 8°C and 34 folds at 90°C. GO-MgN-cel showed 5 fold and 4.7 fold increase in Vmax at 8°C and 90°C respectively than the untreated enzyme.When compared to native enzyme, GO-MgN-cel had t1/2 (half life) and Ed increased by 72.5 fold and 2.48 fold respectively at 90°C; and 41.6 fold and 2.19 fold respectively at 8°C. Enzymatic activity of GO-MgN-cel was retained even after 12 repeated uses and showed storage stability at 4°C for more than 120days. This nanoparticle assisted immobilization technique can be utilized in bioprocessing industries which require functioning at these extreme ranges of temperature.

  17. Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Protein Isolate-Dextran Conjugates Obtained by TiO2 Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bei; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Bing; Chen, Caiyan; Zhang, Xiaosa; Chen, Siqiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI-) dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P < 0.05). Higher photocatalytic power could promote the extent of glycation and the formation of high molecular weight SPI-dextran conjugates, which were evidenced by free amino group content and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra suggested that the amide I, II, and III bands of SPI were altered by the glycation induced by TiO2 photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation. PMID:26495283

  18. Structure and antioxidant activity of soy protein isolate-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bei; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Bing; Chen, Caiyan; Zhang, Xiaosa; Chen, Siqiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI-) dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P < 0.05). Higher photocatalytic power could promote the extent of glycation and the formation of high molecular weight SPI-dextran conjugates, which were evidenced by free amino group content and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra suggested that the amide I, II, and III bands of SPI were altered by the glycation induced by TiO2 photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation.

  19. Space-weather Parameters for 1,000 Active Regions Observed by SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobra, M.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present statistical studies of several space-weather parameters, derived from observations of the photospheric vector magnetic field by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, for a thousand active regions. Each active region has been observed every twelve minutes during the entirety of its disk passage. Some of these parameters, such as energy density and shear angle, indicate the deviation of the photospheric magnetic field from that of a potential field. Other parameters include flux, helicity, field gradients, polarity inversion line properties, and measures of complexity. We show that some of these parameters are useful for event prediction.

  20. Determination of lead(II) sorption capacity of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell activated with ZnCl2.

    PubMed

    Şencan, Aziz; Karaboyacı, Mustafa; Kılıç, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the Pb(+2) adsorption capacities of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell. It also aimed to determine the effect of ZnCl2 in the activation process. The hazelnut was pyrolyzed at 250 and 700 °C. For determining the capture speed of the adsorbents, the pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic studies were performed. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to determine adsorption equilibrium. The surface characterization of hazelnut shell and activated carbon was determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and FTIR spectrum. Pb(+2) adsorption capacity of obtaining activated carbon was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The raw hazelnut shell's BET surface area is 5.92 m(2)/g and the surface area of activated carbons which is pyrolyzed at 250 and 700 °C were determined (270.2 and 686.7 m(2)/g, respectively. The surface area of hazelnut shell, which pyrolyzed at 700 °C after being activated with ZnCl2, was determined to be 736.49 m(2)/g. Results show that physical adsorption process is dominant for the activated carbon pyrolysis at 700 °C but the chemical adsorption is dominant for the activated carbon pyrolysis at lower degrees and for raw hazelnut shell.

  1. The effects of basic fitness parameters on the implementation of specific military activities.

    PubMed

    Sporiš, Goran; Harasin, Dražen; Baić, Mario; Krističević, Tomislav; Krakan, Ivan; Milanović, Zoran; Cular, Dražen; Bagarić-Krakan, Lucija

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether basic fitness parameters have the impact on the specific military activity such as walking 18 km with 25 kg of load. The members of Croatian Armed Forces (30 soldiers) were tested before the beginning of the training program. The study has included variables for the assessment of muscular endurance: push-ups in 2 minutes, sit-ups in 2 minutes, maximum number of pull-ups before dropping from the bar, bench press with 70% of body weight-max number of repetitions, max number of squats for 60 seconds, then the variables for the assessment of aerobic capacity: the 3200m run and relative oxygen uptake using the direct method of measurement on a treadmill as well as the variable for the assessment of body fat (body fat %). As the criterion variable, it was used the 18 km walking with 25 kg of load. The results of the regression analysis have shown statistically significant relation of predictor variables with the criterion variable. The two variables, 3200m run and RVO2 had a significant Beta coefficient. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded that great cardio-respiratory endurance has a much larger impact on the walking length of 18 km with a load of 25 kg than other fitness parameters.

  2. Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 μM TE·g−1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 μM TE·g−1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. PMID:24957729

  3. Antifungal, Phytotoxic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Metabolites from Epichloë bromicola, a Fungus Obtained from Elymus tangutorum Grass.

    PubMed

    Song, Qiu-Yan; Nan, Zhi-Biao; Gao, Kun; Song, Hui; Tian, Pei; Zhang, Xing-Xu; Li, Chun-Jie; Xu, Wen-Bo; Li, Xiu-Zhang

    2015-10-14

    The development of high-quality herbage is an important aspect of animal husbandry. Inoculating beneficial fungi onto inferior grass is a feasible strategy for producing new varieties of high-quality herbage. Epichloë bromicola is a candidate fungus that is isolated from Elymus tangutorum. A total of 17 metabolites, 1-17, were obtained from E. bromicola, and their biological activities were assayed. Metabolite 1 exhibited antifungal activities against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, Bipolaris sorokiniana, and Curvularia lunata. EC50 values ranged from 0.7 to 5.3 μM, which were better than the positive control, chlorothalonil. Metabolite 8 displayed obvious phytotoxic effects toward Lolium perenne and Poa crymophila seedlings, and it was as active as glyphosate. None of these isolated metabolites displayed cytotoxicity against Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. The IC50 values were greater than 100 μM, and the metabolites increased the growth of the cells at a concentration of 12.5 μM. The bioassay indicated that E. bromicola may be a beneficial fungus for producing new varieties of herbage with various resistances. Additionally, metabolite 7, 3-(2'-(4″-hydroxyphenyl)acetoxy)-2S-methylpropanoic acid, is a new natural product, and its stereochemistry was determined by means of optical rotation computation and chemical reactions.

  4. Biological activities of peptide concentrates obtained from hydrolysed eggshell membrane byproduct by optimisation with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana; Melo, Armindo; Tavares, Tânia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2016-11-09

    The increase of hen egg consumption demands profitable applications for eggshells, including their membranes, in order to minimize environmental and public health problems that could result from their accumulation. This work presents an innovative application for eggshell membranes to obtain an added-value food ingredient that combines maximized ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Firstly, the use of acetic acid 5% (v/v); and 3-mercaptopropionic acid 1.25 M enabled 63% recovery of eggshell membrane proteins. Secondly, the extracted proteins were hydrolysed by alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis, viscozyme L and protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology experimental design. The ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50) was 34.5 ± 2.1 μg mL(-1), 63.0 ± 4.2 μg mL(-1) and 43.0 ± 8.5 μg mL(-1) for each enzyme, respectively, and the antioxidant activity was ca. 4.0 μmoltrolox equivalent mg(-1)hydrolysed protein. The combination of both bioactive properties is of potential interest to control cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro; Manepally, Chandrika; Fedors, Randall; Wyrick, Danielle Y.

    2009-09-01

    Active fractures refer to the portions of unsaturated, connected fractures that actively conduct water. The active fracture model parameter accounts for the reduction in the number of fractures carrying water and in the fracture-matrix interface area in field-scale simulations of flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. One example includes the numerical analyses of the fault test results at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada (USA). In such applications, the active fracture model parameter is commonly used as a calibration parameter without relating it to fracture network orientations and infiltration rates. A two-dimensional, multiphase lattice-Boltzmann model was used in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios for an unsaturated, variable dipping, and geometrically simple fracture network. The active fracture model parameter differed by as much as 0.11-0.44 when the effects of fracture network orientation, injection rate, and injection mode were included in the simulations. Hence, the numerical results suggest that the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation, injection rates, and injection modes should be explored at the field-scale to strengthen the technical basis and range of applicability of the active fracture model.

  6. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions by biosorbent, bio-char and activated carbon obtained from low cost agro-residue.

    PubMed

    Kırbıyık, Çisem; Pütün, Ayşe Eren; Pütün, Ersan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion adsorption processes were carried out with three adsorbents in batch experiments and their adsorption performance was compared. These adsorbents were sesame stalk without pretreatment, bio-char derived from thermal decomposition of biomass, and activated carbon which was obtained from chemical activation of biomass. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared techniques were used for characterization of adsorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption process were obtained by observing the influences of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial solution concentration, contact time and temperature. The optimum adsorption efficiencies were determined at pH 2.8 and pH 4.0 for Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion solutions, respectively. The experimental data were modelled by different isotherm models and the equilibriums were well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich models were applied to analyze the kinetic data and to evaluate rate constants. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave a better fit than the others. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy change ΔG°, standard enthalpy change ΔH° and standard entropy change ΔS° were evaluated. The thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process.

  7. High yields of active Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase are obtained using maltose-binding protein as a solubility tag.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Mieke M E; van Berkel, Willem J H

    2015-03-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) catalyzes the FAD-dependent oxidation of proline to Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate, the first step of proline catabolism in many organisms. Next to being involved in a number of physiological processes, ProDH is of interest for practical applications because the proline imino acid can serve as a building block for a wide range of peptides and antibiotics. ProDH is a membrane-associated protein and recombinant soluble forms of the enzyme have only been obtained in limited amounts. We here report on the heterologous production of ProDH from Thermus thermophilus (TtProDH) in Escherichia coli. Using maltose-binding protein as solubility tag, high yields of active holoenzyme are obtained. Native TtProDH can be produced from cleaving the purified fusion protein with trypsin. Size-exclusion chromatography shows that fused and clipped TtProDH form oligomers. Thermal stability and co-solvent tolerance indicate the conformational robustness of TtProDH. These properties together with the high yield make TtProDH attractive for industrial applications.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi: antiprotozoal activity of parthenolide obtained from Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. (Asteraceae, Compositae) against epimastigote and amastigote forms.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Erika; Morello, Luis Gustavo; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ferreira, Izabel Cristina Piloto; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the activity of crude extracts, fractions and parthenolide (pure compound) obtained from Tanacetum parthenium against two forms of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Feverfew is a traditional herbal medicine that has been used for the treatment of migraine, fever and arthritis. Activity against epimastigote forms was observed for crude extracts, fractions and parthenolide, and a progressive increase in the antitrypanosomal effect was observed in the course of the purification process. The pure compound showed IC50/96h and IC90/96h of 0.5 microg/ml and 1.25 microg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxic effect of parthenolide in LLMCK2 cells was 3.2 microg/ml (CC50/96h) and the selectivity index was 6.4. No hemolysis was detected for the pure compound. The internalization index of T. cruzi in LLMCK2 cells was reduced almost 51% at the concentration of 2 microg/ml of parthenolide, and 96.6% at 4 microg/ml. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy permitted observation of morphological modifications and ultrastructural alterations.

  9. Effects of Temperature and Pore Structure on High Surface Area-Activated Carbon Obtained from Peanut Shells.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, D; Lee, Y S

    2016-03-01

    Activated carbon was synthesized from peanut shells by treating with H3PO4 with an intention to enhance the surface area and to find its electrochemical performance in EDLC as electrode material. The powdered peanut shells were pyrolyzed at three different temperatures namely 300 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C respectively. The structural and surface properties of the pyrolyzed carbon materials were studied using N2 adsorption/desorption, Raman, TEM and SEM analysis. There has been remarkable increase in the surface area of the carbon pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C due to the effect of pore generations. The surface area of the 600 degrees C pyrolyzed sample was found to be 1629 m2/g. The electrochemical properties of all the samples were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The system showed excellent cycleability and a maximum specific capacitance of 291 Fg(-1) was obtained in a 0.1 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution. The effects of the various properties of the activated carbon on the EDLC performance are discussed.

  10. Erythrocytes and cell line-based assays to evaluate the cytoprotective activity of antioxidant components obtained from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Botta, Albert; Martínez, Verónica; Mitjans, Montserrat; Balboa, Elena; Conde, Enma; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress can damage cellular components including DNA, proteins or lipids, and may cause several skin diseases. To protect from this damage and addressing consumer's appeal to natural products, antioxidants obtained from algal and vegetal extracts are being proposed as antioxidants to be incorporated into formulations. Thus, the development of reliable, quick and economic in vitro methods to study the cytoactivity of these products is a meaningful requirement. A combination of erythrocyte and cell line-based assays was performed on two extracts from Sargassum muticum, one from Ulva lactuca, and one from Castanea sativa. Antioxidant properties were assessed in erythrocytes by the TBARS and AAPH assays, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant cytoprotection were assessed in HaCaT and 3T3 cells by the MTT assay. The extracts showed no antioxidant activity on the TBARS assay, whereas their antioxidant capacity in the AAPH assay was demonstrated. On the cytotoxicity assays, extracts showed low toxicity, with IC50 values higher than 200μg/mL. C. sativa extract showed the most favourable antioxidant properties on the antioxidant cytoprotection assays; while S. muticum and U. lactuca extracts showed a slight antioxidant activity. This battery of methods was useful to characterise the biological antioxidant properties of these natural extracts.

  11. Power spectral analysis of EEG activity obtained from cortical and subcortical sites during the vigilance states of the cat.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Stern, W C; Leahy, J P; Morgane, P J

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the raphé system and the region of the nucleus tractus solitarious (NTS), including the area postrema, play significant roles in slow-wave sleep mechanisms and in EEG synchronization. Studies of the interactions between these systems and the neocortex are much needed. If neuronal activity in these lower brainstem regions regulates the degree of cortical synchrony then a high degree of correspondence between the EEG of the area postrema or raphé complex with that of the cortex might be expected. In order to quantitate the reequency characteristics of the EEG obtained from these subcortical sites (nucleus raphé dorsalis, area postrema, as well as anatomical controls adjacent to these regions) during the different vigilance states (waking, slow-wave sleep, REM sleep) in the cat, power spectral analyses techniques were employed. Comparison of these subcortical spectral characteristic with those obtained from cortical (frontal and occipital) sites during the same vigilance state, show that the spectral measures elicited from the region of the area postrema closely correspond to that of the cortex, particularly during slow-wave sleep. On the other hand, the EEG of the anterior portion of the raphé region, although exhibiting a substantial low frequency component during slow-wave sleep in comparison to wakefulness does not show a statistically significant shift to low frequencies such as occurs in the area postrema or the cortex. These results suggest that the increases in the low frequency content of the cortical EEG sites during slow-wave sleep results from synchronizing inputs from the area postrema to a greater extent than from the raphé complex.

  12. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities.

  13. Drinking water obtaining by nanofiltration from waters contaminated with glyphosate formulations: process evaluation by means of toxicity tests and studies on operating parameters.

    PubMed

    Saitúa, Hugo; Giannini, Fernando; Padilla, Antonio Perez

    2012-08-15

    Glyphosate formulations toxicity depends on all its components but commercial products only specify the active principle in their label. To treat contaminated waters and to verify if the unknown components which add toxicity have been removed represent a challenge. Nanofiltration and permeate analysis by toxicity tests with fish are an interesting alternative to evaluate the process. Permeates of solutions with concentrations five times above the lethal doses (48 mg/l) did not present toxicity, pointing that all toxic compounds were removed at the same time. Glyphosate rejection over an 80% despite its molecular weight is lower than membrane MWCO, this could be associated to a predominant Donnan exclusion mechanism, combined with dielectric exclusion due to the solute high charge density. Glyphosate concentration did not show any effect over rejection. It increased when pressure was incremented from 2.5 to 4 bar and then remained constant in a 4-10 bar range. Because of dissociation of the glyphosate and the surface charged of the membrane depend on pH value, the rejection increase from 72.5 to 92.5% when pH increase from 4 to 8.5. Studies with river water showed the same behavior with a slight decrease in rejection.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Marcelo de Almeida; Magalhães, Rafael Matos; Torres, Danielle Mesquita; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Mota, Francisca Sheila Xavier; Oliveira Coelho, Emanuela Maria Araújo; Moreira, Henrique Pires; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Araújo, Pamella Cristina da Costa; Cardoso, José Henrique Leal; de Souza, Andrelina Noronha Coelho; Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-pinene (α-pinene) is a monoterpene commonly found in essential oils with gastroprotective activity obtained from diverse medicinal plants, including Hyptis species. The genus Hyptis (lamiaceae) consists of almost 400 species widespread in tropical and temperate regions of America. In the north and northeastern Brazil, some Hyptis species are used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disturbances. Objective: The present study has investigated the gastoprotective effect of purified α-pinene in experimental gastric ulcer induced by ethanol and indomethacin in mice. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced in male Swiss mice (20-30 g) by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45 min after oral pretreatment with vehicle, standard control drugs or α-pinene (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomach were removed, and gastric lesions areas measured. The effects of α-pinene on the gastric juice acidity were determined by pylorus ligation model. The gastrointestinal motility and mucus depletion were determined by measuring the gastric levels of phenol red and alcian blue, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of gastric mucosa of the experimental groups were used for histology analysis. Results: α-pinene pretreatment inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions, reduced volume and acidity of the gastric juice and increased gastric wall mucus (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we showed an interesting correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species (P Pearson = 0.98). Conclusion: Our data showed that the α-pinene exhibited significant antiulcerogenic activity and a great correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species was also observed. PMID:25709221

  15. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline.

  16. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Vanessa J.; Lindblad, Maiken M.; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Gunnarsson, Anders; Schmidt, Mette; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.; Volke, Daniela; Zuchner, Thole; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw). We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs) from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early onset mechanisms related to cell renewal and function in familial AD astrocytes. These outcomes also highlight that radial glia could be a potentially useful population of cells for drug discovery, and that altered APP expression and altered tau phosphorylation can be detected in an in vitro model of the disease. Finally, it might be possible to use large mammal models to model familial AD by insertion of only a single mutation. PMID:26398935

  17. Antifungal, antiradical and cytotoxic activities of extractives obtained from Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), a potential acaricide plant species.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; Queiroz-Fernandes, Geisiany M; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Freitas, Jolindo A; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2016-06-01

    Tagetes patula L. shows a complex chemical composition, ranging from glycosylated flavonoids and thiophenes in extracts until terpenoids in the essential oil. In the present study, due to this rich flavonoidic constitution, its antioxidant potential was determined, having shown values of antiradical percentage superior to reference compounds, mainly the extracts prepared with flowers. Previous studies performed emphasized the acaricide potential of T. patula and thus, the present study aimed to verify the action of extractives obtained from aerial parts on growth of entomopathogenic fungi related to biological control of brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the action against pathogenic fungi closely associated with pets. None of the samples inhibited the growth of strains of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, enabling feasible future studies of synergism on acaricide activity of formulations containing fungi and extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of flowers (FlEtOH70%) against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum was significant (193.3 μg/mL and 253.9 μg/mL, respectively), as well as ethanolic extract from aerial parts (APEtOH70%) against T. rubrum (312.5 μg/mL). In order to ensure the safety of a topical formulation containing the extractives of T. patula, the cytotoxic potential of these samples were tested in murine macrophages cells. At higher concentrations all extracts were quite lethal, with IC50 ranging from 210.96 μg/mL to 468.75 μg/mL for APEtOH70% and FlEtOH70%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of a product containing T. patula extractives in the control of ticks could be used, at principle, only on the environment.

  18. Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, C L; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Fehl, D L; Hahn, K D; Leeper, R J; McWatters, B R; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Snow, C S; Torres, J A

    2012-10-01

    The 350-keV Cockroft-Walton accelerator at Sandia National laboratory's Ion Beam facility is being used to calibrate absolutely a total DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β+) reaction. These investigations have led to first-order uncertainties approaching 5% or better. The experiments employ the associated-particle technique. Deuterons at 175 keV impinge a 2.6 μm thick erbium tritide target producing 14.1 MeV neutrons from the T(d,n)(4)He reaction. The alpha particles emitted are measured at two angles relative to the beam direction and used to infer the neutron flux on a copper sample. The induced (62)Cu activity is then measured and related to the neutron flux. This method is known as the F-factor technique. Description of the associated-particle method, copper sample geometries employed, and the present estimates of the uncertainties to the F-factor obtained are given.

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus activity and climate parameters during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Sirimi, Natalia; Miligkos, Michael; Koutouzi, Foteini; Petridou, Evi; Siahanidou, Tania; Michos, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during long periods and the factors that determine seasonality are not well studied. In order to correlate the RSV epidemic activity with climate parameters, we conducted a retrospective study of children (0-14 year) who were hospitalized because of respiratory tract infection and had an RSV test performed in the major tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece during a 12-year period (2002-2013). Daily data regarding temperature and humidity were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. A total of 2030/7516 (27%) children were tested positive for RSV infection. Among RSV positive children 1945/2030 (95.8%) were infants <1 year. A peak of RSV activity was measured in years 2002, 2003, and 2006 (>35% positive). The RSV season in our area spanned from December to April, with higher incidence during January through March. The peak monthly RSV incidence was observed during February with mean temperature 10.34 °C and mean relative humidity 69.16%. Regarding climate conditions, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between monthly RSV activity and mean monthly relative humidity (rho = 0.66, P-value = 0.02), whereas a negative correlation was found with mean monthly temperature (rho = -0.81, P-value = 0.002). However, in the multivariable analysis, only the effect of mean monthly temperature remained statistically significant (IRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.80). Further understanding of RSV seasonality in different geographic areas would be important in order to timely implement preventing strategies with immunoprophylaxis or future RSV vaccines.

  20. Phase transformations during HLnTiO{sub 4} (Ln=La, Nd) thermolysis and photocatalytic activity of obtained compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Silyukov, Oleg I. Abdulaeva, Liliia D.; Burovikhina, Alena A.; Rodionov, Ivan A.; Zvereva, Irina A.

    2015-03-15

    Layered HLnTiO{sub 4} (Ln=La, Nd) compounds belonging to Ruddlesden–Popper phases were found to form partially hydrated compounds Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}·xH{sub 2}O during thermal dehydration as well as defect oxides Ln{sub 2}□Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} as final products. Further heating of metastable defect Ln{sub 2}□Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} substances leads to the formation of pyrochlore-type oxides Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} {sub (p)}, with subsequent transformation under higher temperatures to stable layered 110-type perovskites Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The occurring structure transformations lead to an increase of photocatalytic activity in the order of HLnTiO{sub 4}activity in the order of HLnTiO{sub 4}obtained. • We examined the photocatalytic activity of all obtained compounds. The hydrogen evolution rate increased in the course of the structure changes during thermolysis.

  1. Daily doses of biologically active UV radiation retrieved from commonly available parameters.

    PubMed

    de La Casinière, Alain; Touré, Mamadou Lamine; Masserot, Dominique; Cabot, Thierry; Pinedo Vega, Jose Luis

    2002-08-01

    A multiple linear correlation is done between atmospheric transmissivity for four biologically active radiation daily doses (UVB, erythemal, DNA and plant damage) T, and three parameters (daily sunshine fraction sigma, cosine of the daily minimum solar zenith angle mu min and daily total ozone column omega). T is defined as the ratio of a daily dose to its extra-atmospheric value. The data used are spectral UV measurements (390-400 nm at 0.5 nm step) recorded along year 2000 and over 8 months of year 2001 at Briançon Station (Alps, 1300 m above sea level) that forms part of the French UV network. The coefficients obtained from year 2000 correlation permit to retrieve daily doses for year 2001 with an average error running from 3 to 9% for monthly mean values and from 2 to 4.5% for 3-monthly mean values, depending on daily dose type. The retrieval of yearly mean value gives an error between 4 and 7.5%. Retrieving the daily dose of a given day, where sigma > or = 0.2, introduces error running from 16 to 32% depending on daily dose. An attempt to retrieve the yearly mean UVB daily dose for a northern France site, from the previous coefficients, gives encouraging results.

  2. Green pigment from Bacillus cereus M(1)(16) (MTCC 5521): production parameters and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debopam; Chatterjee, Sandipan; Banerjee, U C; Guha, Arun K; Ray, Lalitagauri

    2011-07-01

    A bacterial strain, Bacillus cereus M(1)(16) (MTCC 5521), isolated and identified in our laboratory produces a green pigment when grown in nutrient broth at stationary condition. Optimum fermentation parameters for maximum pigment production are pH 7.0, temperature 30°C, time of incubation 72 h and inoculum volume 1% from 20 h grown cell suspension. Magnesium ion enhances pigment production whereas calcium and zinc ions inhibit the process. The pigment is better extracted from the fermented broth with chloroform in comparison with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The extracted crude pigment consists of three fractions as revealed from thin layer chromatogram on silica gel GF254 using ethyl acetate and hexane (1:1) solvent system. The major fraction C(3) shows antibacterial activity against different gram positive bacteria. The proposed structure of C(3) is 9-methyl-1,4,5,8-tetra-azaphenanthrene obtained by elemental analysis, GC-MS, and NMR spectra studies.

  3. Evaluation of oxygen reduction activity by the thin-film rotating disk electrode methodology: The effects of potentiodynamic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guangyu; Li, Meng; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kong, Fanpeng; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2016-04-11

    Here, an accurate and efficient assessment of activity is critical for the research and development of electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Currently, the methodology combining the thin-film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) and potentiodynamic polarization is the most commonly used to pre-evaluate ORR activity, acquire kinetic data (i.e., kinetic current, Tafel slope, etc.), and gain understanding of the ORR mechanism. However, it is often neglected that appropriate potentiodynamic parameters have to be chosen to obtain reliable results. We first evaluate the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization measurements with TF-RDE to examine the ORR activity of Pt nanoelectrocatalyst. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that besides depending on the nature of electrocatalyst, the apparent ORR kinetics also strongly depends on the associated potentiodynamic parameters, such as scan rate and scan region, which have a great effect on the coverage of adsorbed OHad/Oad on Pt surface, thereby affecting the ORR activities of both nanosized and bulk Pt. However, the apparent Tafel slopes remained nearly the same, indicating that the ORR mechanism in all the measurements was not affected by different potentiodynamic parameters.

  4. Evaluation of oxygen reduction activity by the thin-film rotating disk electrode methodology: The effects of potentiodynamic parameters

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Guangyu; Li, Meng; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; ...

    2016-04-11

    Here, an accurate and efficient assessment of activity is critical for the research and development of electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Currently, the methodology combining the thin-film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) and potentiodynamic polarization is the most commonly used to pre-evaluate ORR activity, acquire kinetic data (i.e., kinetic current, Tafel slope, etc.), and gain understanding of the ORR mechanism. However, it is often neglected that appropriate potentiodynamic parameters have to be chosen to obtain reliable results. We first evaluate the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization measurements with TF-RDE to examine the ORR activity of Pt nanoelectrocatalyst. Furthermore, our results demonstratemore » that besides depending on the nature of electrocatalyst, the apparent ORR kinetics also strongly depends on the associated potentiodynamic parameters, such as scan rate and scan region, which have a great effect on the coverage of adsorbed OHad/Oad on Pt surface, thereby affecting the ORR activities of both nanosized and bulk Pt. However, the apparent Tafel slopes remained nearly the same, indicating that the ORR mechanism in all the measurements was not affected by different potentiodynamic parameters.« less

  5. Effect of age and chemical treatments on characteristic parameters for active and porous sublayers of polymeric composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Benavente, J; Vázquez, M I

    2004-05-15

    Changes in the transport parameters and the chemical nature of the surface of composite polyamide/polysulfone membranes due to both aging and treatment with chemical products (HCl, H(3)NO, and NaOH) have been considered. Hydraulic and salt permeability were obtained from water flow and salt diffusion measurements, respectively, and their values seem to indicate a modification in the structural parameters (porosity/thickness) of aging samples, while HCl and HNO(3) treatments will act in the opposite way. Chemical modifications in the membrane surfaces were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which mainly show the effect of H(3)NO and HCl on the polyamide active layer of the membranes (polyamide oxidation), but no chemical damage for that sublayer. Electrical characterization of both sublayers of the composite membranes were determined from impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements using equivalent circuits as models, and these results indicate: (i) a strong increase of the membrane electrical resistance as a consequence of aging, mainly that associated with the active sublayer (30 times higher for an old sample than for a fresh one) and treatment with NaOH; (ii) the reduction of this effect when the samples were treated with HCl and HNO(3) solutions. Changes in the values of the electrical resistance of the composite membranes are in agreement with those obtained for permeabilities, but the electrical parameter also allows the determination of the contribution of each sublayer.

  6. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-Latitude Ionosphere-Basic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere is an important task of the Space Weather program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two main elements are a suitable geomagnetic activity index and coupling function -- the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity. The appropriate choice of these two elements is imperative for any reliable prediction model. The purpose of this work was to elaborate on these two elements -- the appropriate geomagnetic activity index and the coupling function -- and investigate the opportunity to improve the reliability of the prediction of geomagnetic activity and other events in the Earth's magnetosphere. The new polar magnetic index of geomagnetic activity and the new version of the coupling function lead to a significant increase in the reliability of predicting the geomagnetic activity and some key parameters, such as cross-polar cap voltage and total Joule heating in high-latitude ionosphere, which play a very important role in the development of geomagnetic and other activity in the Earth s magnetosphere, and are widely used as key input parameters in modeling magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  7. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. Methods: In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into two groups: Physically inactive (n=133) performing light physical activity and Physically active (n=34) performing moderate physical activity. Physical activity (in metabolic equivalents), bone mineral density and serum homocysteine levels were assessed. Spearman’s rho correlation was applied to observe correlations. Two independent sample t test and Mann Whitney U test were applied to compare groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was taken statistically significant. Results: Parameters of bone profile were significantly higher and serum homocysteine levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal females performing moderate physical activity as compared to females performing light physical activity. Homocysteine was not significantly related to T-score and Z-score in both groups. Conclusion: Improving physical activity could be beneficial for improving the quality of bone, decreasing fracture risk and decreasing serum homocysteine levels. PMID:27882033

  8. Determination of a suitable parameter field for the active fluid jet polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Roland; Biskup, Heiko; Trum, Christian; Rascher, Rolf; Wünsche, Christine

    2013-09-01

    In 2012 a well-known company in the field of high precision optics assigned the University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf to determine a suitable parameter field for the active fluid jet polishing (AFJP) process in order to reach a surface accuracy of at least lambda / 5. The active fluid jet polishing is a relatively new and an affordable sub-aperture polishing process. For a fast and precise identification of the parameter field a considered design of experiment is necessary. The available control variables were the rotational speed of the nozzle, the distance between the test object and the jet, the feed rate, the material of the pin inside the nozzle and the material of the test object itself. In order to reach a significant data density on the one hand and to minimize the number of test runs on the other hand a meander shaped tool path was chosen. At each blank nine paths had been driven whereby at each path another parameter combination was picked. Thus with only one test object nine parameter settings may be evaluated. For the automatized analysis of the tracks a software tool was developed. The software evaluates ten sections which orthogonally intersect the nine tracks on the test-lens. The significant measurement parameters per section are the width and the height of each path as well as the surface roughness within the polished tracks. With the aid of these parameters and further statistical evaluations a suitable parameter field for the goal to find a constant and predictable removal spot was determined. Furthermore up to now over 60 test runs have been successfully finished with nine parameter combinations in each case. As a consequence a test evaluation by hand would be very time-consuming and the software facilitates it dramatically.

  9. Optimal Parameter Exploration for Online Change-Point Detection in Activity Monitoring Using Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, smart phones with inbuilt sensors have become popular devices to facilitate activity recognition. The sensors capture a large amount of data, containing meaningful events, in a short period of time. The change points in this data are used to specify transitions to distinct events and can be used in various scenarios such as identifying change in a patient’s vital signs in the medical domain or requesting activity labels for generating real-world labeled activity datasets. Our work focuses on change-point detection to identify a transition from one activity to another. Within this paper, we extend our previous work on multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) algorithm by using a genetic algorithm (GA) to identify the optimal set of parameters for online change-point detection. The proposed technique finds the maximum accuracy and F_measure by optimizing the different parameters of the MEWMA, which subsequently identifies the exact location of the change point from an existing activity to a new one. Optimal parameter selection facilitates an algorithm to detect accurate change points and minimize false alarms. Results have been evaluated based on two real datasets of accelerometer data collected from a set of different activities from two users, with a high degree of accuracy from 99.4% to 99.8% and F_measure of up to 66.7%. PMID:27792177

  10. Important Physiological Parameters and Physical Activity Data for Evaluating Exposure Modeling Performance: a Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to develop a database of physiological parameters needed for understanding and evaluating performance of the APEX and SHEDS exposure/intake dose rate model used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its regulatory activities. The A...

  11. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

  12. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  13. Estimates of genetic parameters among scale activity scores, growth, and fatness in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for scale activity score were estimated from generations 5, 6, and 7 of a randomly selected, composite population composed of Duroc, Large White, and two sources of Landrace (n = 2,186). At approximately 156 d of age, pigs were weighed (WT) and ultrasound backfat measurements (BF1...

  14. Let's Get Physical: K-12 Students Using Wearable Devices to Obtain and Learn about Data from Physical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.; Drake, Joel; Williamson, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Accessibility to wearable technology has exploded in the last decade. As such, this technology has potential to be used in classrooms in uniquely interactive and personally meaningful ways. Seeing this as a possible future for schools, we have been exploring approaches for designing activities to incorporate wearable physical activity data…

  15. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-04

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport.

  16. Animal-Assisted Activities for Students with Disabilities: Obtaining Stakeholders' Approval and Planning Strategies for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Erin; Cho, Jeong-il

    2014-01-01

    Animal-human interactions have been found to have positive influences on children across the world. In particular, research supports the benefits of animal-assisted activities in addressing students' social and behavioral problems within the classroom environment. The general information about animal-assisted activities provided in this…

  17. Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marby, Adel; Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Al-badani, Rwaida A; Alghamdi, Ghanem MA; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these “hidden treasures,” the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities. Materials and Methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated. Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases. PMID:27104031

  18. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Tan, Arjun; Ridley, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere are important tasks of US Space Weather Program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method, and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two of the main elements of such prediction scheme are: an appropriate geomagnetic activity index, and an appropriate coupling function (the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity). We have developed a new index of geomagnetic activity, the Polar Magnetic (PM) index and an improved version of solar wind coupling function. PM index is similar to the existing polar cap PC index but it shows much better correlation with upstream solar wind/IMF data and other events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We investigate the correlation of PM index with upstream solar wind/IMF data for 10 years (1995-2004) that include both low and high solar activity. We also have introduced a new prediction function for the predicting of cross-polar-cap voltage and Joule heating based on using both PM index and upstream solar wind/IMF data. As we show such prediction function significantly increase the reliability of prediction of these important parameters. The correlation coefficients between the actual and predicted values of these parameters are approx. 0.9 and higher.

  19. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanol extract and some fractions obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Dias, P C; Foglio, M A; Possenti, A; Nogueira, D C; de Carvalho, J E

    2001-12-01

    The resulting enriched sesquiterpene lactone fraction and the crude ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. aerial parts, showed antiulcerogenic activity when administered orally, on the indomethacin induced ulcer in rats. The sesquiterpene lactone fraction yielded three different polarity fractions on column chromatography as follows: non-polar, medium polarity and polar fraction, When submitted to the same indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats they resulted in different levels of inhibition of the ulcerative lesion index. The participation of nitric oxide was evaluated on an ethanol-induced ulcer model which had a previous administration of L-NAME, a NO-synthase inhibitor. Under these conditions, the medium polarity fraction maintained the antiulcerogenic activity, suggesting that nitric oxide could not be involved in the antiulcerogenic activity. When the animal groups were treated with N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylator of sulphhydryl groups, using the same experimental model, the medium polarity fraction maintained its antiulcerogenic activity, suggesting that the pharmacological mechanism is not related to non-protein sulphydryl compounds. On the ethanol-induced ulcer with previous indomethacin treatment, the medium polarity fraction lost its antiulcerogenic activity indicating that the active compounds of Artemisia annua L. increase the prostaglandin levels in the gastric mucosa. This hypothesis was reinforced by an increase of adherent mucus production by the gastric mucosa, produced by the medium polarity fraction on the hypothermic restraint stress induced ulcer model.

  20. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasaruddin, N. H.; Yusoff, A. N.; Kaur, S.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus.

  1. A Study on Association between Common Haematological Parameters and Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barui, Gopinath; Adhikari, Anjan; Karmakar, Rupam; Ghosh, Udas Chandra; Das, Tushar Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease where assessment of disease activity is essential for management of patient. Currently, many composite scoring systems are used for evaluation of disease activity but they are mainly clinical-based. As several haematological parameters are altered due to systemic inflammatory process in RA, this study was intended to evaluate role of common haematological parameters to assess disease activity in RA. Aim To find out the association of disease activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) with platelet count, Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) level so that these cost-effective haematological parameters can be used as additional factors to assess disease activity. Materials and Methods This hospital based cross-sectional study was done on newly diagnosed patients of RA along with age and sex matched healthy control population. Patients suffering from malignancies, renal failure, diabetes mellitus or RA patients on drug therapy were excluded. Clinically, disease activity of RA was measured using DAS 28-3 Score (Modified Disease Activity Score using three variables- tender joint count, swollen joint count and ESR). Haematological parameters were measured by automated cell counter. Results Total 80 cases were selected (60 female and 20 male). 48 patients with high disease activity (DAS 28-3>5.1) were labelled as Group-A and 32 with low to moderate disease activity (DAS 28-3 ≤5.1) as Group- B. Mean platelet count of patients of group A and group B were 4.53 lac/cmm and 2.17 lac/cmm respectively (p <0.001). MPV mean in group A and B were 11.86 fl and 10.19 fl respectively (p <0.001). Mean Hb (g/dl) was 10.05 and 12.25 for group A and B respectively (p=0.001) for male patients while in females it was 10.12 and 11.91 for group A and B, respectively (p=0.003). Mean platelet count and MPV in control population were 2.07 lac/cmm and 9.4 fl, respectively while mean Hb (g/dl) was 13.31 (male

  2. Effects of Space Weather on Biomedical Parameters during the Solar Activity Cycles 23-24.

    PubMed

    Ragul'skaya, M V; Rudenchik, E A; Chibisov, S M; Gromozova, E N

    2015-06-01

    The results of long-term (1998-2012) biomedical monitoring of the biotropic effects of space weather are discussed. A drastic change in statistical distribution parameters in the middle of 2005 was revealed that did not conform to usual sinusoidal distribution of the biomedical data reflecting changes in the number of solar spots over a solar activity cycle. The dynamics of space weather of 2001-2012 is analyzed. The authors hypothesize that the actual change in statistical distributions corresponds to the adaptation reaction of the biosphere to nonstandard geophysical characteristics of the 24th solar activity cycle and the probable long-term decrease in solar activity up to 2067.

  3. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay.

  4. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P.; Cole, Megan A.; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65 ± 5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1 ± 1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus −73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation. PMID:28216604

  5. Effect of reaction parameters on photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of zinc sulfide nanosphere synthesized by hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanu, T. Inakhunbi; Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Tiwari, Archana; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2017-01-01

    Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) nanospheres have been synthesized using amino acid, L-Histidine as a capping agent by hydrothermal method. The as prepared ZnS have been characterised using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy (XPS). Effect of reaction parameters on particle size has been investigated. The morphology and size of the ZnS can be tuned based on the reaction parameters. ZnS nanosphere with a particle size of 5 nm is obtained when the reaction parameters are kept at 120 °C for 3 h. The PL of ZnS shows multiple defect emissions arising from interstitials/vacancies. Particle size of ZnS nanoparticles plays an important role in determining the photo catalytic activity. A chronological study on synthesis of ZnS nanosphere and its photo catalytic activity under the sunlight are discussed here, which reveals the photo degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) upto 87% as observed with ZnS nanosphere having a particle size of 5 nm.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review.

    PubMed

    Rahaiee, Somayeh; Moini, Sohrab; Hashemi, Maryam; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-04-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. These properties are basically related to its crocins, picrocrocin and safranal contents which have all demonstrated health promoting properties. The present review article highlights the phytochemical constituents (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, degraded carotenoid compounds crocins and crocetin) that are important in antioxidant activity of saffron extracts. However, the synergistic effect of all the bioactive components presence in saffron gave a significant antioxidant activity similar to vegetables rich in carotenoids. Our study provides an updated overview focused on the antioxidant activity of saffron related to its bioactive compounds to design the different functional products in food, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  7. Non-probabilistic stability reliability measure for active vibration control system with interval parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Lei; Fan, Weichao; Qiu, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    A systematic non-probabilistic reliability analysis procedure for structural vibration active control system with unknown-but-bounded parameters is proposed. The state-space representation of active vibration control system with uncertain parameters is presented. Compared with the robust control theory, which is always over-conservative, the reliability-based analysis method is more suitable to deal with uncertain problem. Stability is the core of the closed-loop feedback control system design, so stability criterion is adopted to act as the limited state function for reliability analysis. The uncertain parameters without enough samples are modeled as interval variables. Interval perturbation method is employed to estimate the interval bounds of eigenvalues, which can be used to characterize the stability of the closed-loop active control system. Formulation of defining the reliability of active control system based on stability is discussed. A novel non-probabilistic reliability measurement index is discussed and used to determine the probability of the stability based on the area ratio. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated by two numerical examples.

  8. In vitro study of the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Laurus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Hechachna, Hind; Teldji, Hanifa; Ozogul, Fatih

    2016-09-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. The major constituents of Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. M. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, and Penicillium expansum were the most sensitive to mint oil with lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 2.5 μL mL-1 (v/v). T. vulgaris essential oil was less active compared to the oil of M. spicata. Aspergillus ochraceus was the most sensitive strain to thyme oil with MIC and MFC values of 2.5 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. T. vulgaris essential oil also exhibited a moderate fungicidal effect against the tested fungi, except for A. niger (MFC >20 μL mL-1). L. nobilis essential oil showed a similar antifungal activity with thyme oil in which A. parasiticus was the most resistant strain to this oil (MFC >20 μL mL-1). Our findings suggested the use of these essential oils as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in order to prevent pre-and post-harvest infections and improve product safety.

  9. SU-E-T-212: Comparison of TG-43 Dosimetric Parameters of Low and High Energy Brachytherapy Sources Obtained by MCNP Code Versions of 4C, X and 5

    SciTech Connect

    Zehtabian, M; Zaker, N; Sina, S; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Different versions of MCNP code are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The purpose of this study is to compare different versions of the MCNP codes in dosimetric evaluation of different brachytherapy sources. Methods: The TG-43 parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function of different brachytherapy sources, i.e. Pd-103, I-125, Ir-192, and Cs-137 were calculated in water phantom. The results obtained by three versions of Monte Carlo codes (MCNP4C, MCNPX, MCNP5) were compared for low and high energy brachytherapy sources. Then the cross section library of MCNP4C code was changed to ENDF/B-VI release 8 which is used in MCNP5 and MCNPX codes. Finally, the TG-43 parameters obtained using the MCNP4C-revised code, were compared with other codes. Results: The results of these investigations indicate that for high energy sources, the differences in TG-43 parameters between the codes are less than 1% for Ir-192 and less than 0.5% for Cs-137. However for low energy sources like I-125 and Pd-103, large discrepancies are observed in the g(r) values obtained by MCNP4C and the two other codes. The differences between g(r) values calculated using MCNP4C and MCNP5 at the distance of 6cm were found to be about 17% and 28% for I-125 and Pd-103 respectively. The results obtained with MCNP4C-revised and MCNPX were similar. However, the maximum difference between the results obtained with the MCNP5 and MCNP4C-revised codes was 2% at 6cm. Conclusion: The results indicate that using MCNP4C code for dosimetry of low energy brachytherapy sources can cause large errors in the results. Therefore it is recommended not to use this code for low energy sources, unless its cross section library is changed. Since the results obtained with MCNP4C-revised and MCNPX were similar, it is concluded that the difference between MCNP4C and MCNPX is their cross section libraries.

  10. Quantum-classical transition and quantum activation of ratchet currents in the parameter space.

    PubMed

    Beims, M W; Schlesinger, M; Manchein, C; Celestino, A; Pernice, A; Strunz, W T

    2015-05-01

    The quantum ratchet current is studied in the parameter space of the dissipative kicked rotor model coupled to a zero-temperature quantum environment. We show that vacuum fluctuations blur the generic isoperiodic stable structures found in the classical case. Such structures tend to survive when a measure of statistical dependence between the quantum and classical currents are displayed in the parameter space. In addition, we show that quantum fluctuations can be used to overcome transport barriers in the phase space. Related quantum ratchet current activation regions are spotted in the parameter space. Results are discussed based on quantum, semiclassical, and classical calculations. While the semiclassical dynamics involves vacuum fluctuations, the classical map is driven by thermal noise.

  11. Effects of Manisa propolis on telomerase activity in leukemia cells obtained from the bone marrow of leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Cogulu, O; Biray, C; Gunduz, C; Karaca, E; Aksoylar, S; Sorkun, K; Salih, B; Ozkinay, F

    2009-11-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees and obtained from beehives that has anticancer effects by inducing apoptosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of propolis on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the leukemia cells obtained from leukemia patients. Four different bone marrow cell cultures from each of four leukemia cases were prepared. The 60 ng/ml, 30 ng/ml and 15 ng/ml working concentrations of propolis were administered to three cultures of each patient, while one culture contained only culture medium. hTERT mRNA expression levels of cells were detected at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h using the LightCycler 2.0 instrument. A significant decrease in hTERT expression levels was observed in the 60 ng/ml concentration of propolis. In conclusion, Manisa propolis may also have a potential effect on the expression of hTERT in leukemia-particularly owing to its constituent chrysin.

  12. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramamurthy, Perumal; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Mentha extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Four solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) of ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder of M. spicata were analyzed for total antioxidant activity (TAA) and relative antioxidant activity (RAA) and compared with standard antioxidants such as Quercetin, beta-carotene, L-ascorbic acid and glutathione using ABTS*+ decolorization assay (ABTS/Potassium persulphate). The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract. Total phenolics are found to be highest in ethyl acetate fraction (54 mg/g) and least in hexane fraction (13 mg/g) and more or less similar in water and chloroform fractions (30-32 mg/g). TAA is found to be less in hexane and chloroform fractions (<53% at 50 microg/ml) and highest in ethyl acetate (95% at 20 microg/ml) and water (84% at 30 microg/ml) fractions. The RAA of ethyl acetate fraction is 1.1 compared to quercetin (at 5 microM/ml), but greater when compared to beta-carotene (15 microM/ml), L-ascorbic acid (15 microM/ml) and glutathione (15 microM/ml). The RAAs with these antioxidants are in the range of 1.31 -1.6. The values of RAAs for water fraction also show similar trend and are in the range of 1.0-1.4. The antioxidant activities of the solvent factions are closely related to the content of total phenolics present in them.

  13. Gentian violet exhibits activity against biofilms formed by oral Candida isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Chandra, Jyotsna; Salata, Robert A; Jurevic, Richard; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of gentian violet against Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans biofilms formed on polymethylmethacrylate strips was evaluated using a dry weight assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The ability of gentian violet to inhibit Candida albicans germination was also assessed. Gentian violet activity against Candida biofilms was demonstrated by a reduction in dry weight, disruption of biofilm architecture, and reduced biofilm thickness. Additionally, gentian violet inhibited Candida germination in a concentration-dependent manner.

  14. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  15. Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita; Das, S. S.; Singh, G.; Schuff, Carola; de Lampasona, Marina P.; Catalán, César A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), α-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200 ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE per g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24689064

  16. A new solar activity parameter and the strength of 5-cycle periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z. L.

    2006-10-01

    A weak 5-cycle periodicity ( r = -0.64) is found in the maximum amplitudes of the modern era sunspot cycles (11-23), slightly stronger than the 8-cycle (Gleissberg) periodicity ( r = 0.60). We propose a new parameter called 'effective duration', defined as the total sunspot numbers in a cycle divided by the maximum amplitude. This parameter has two advantages: one is that it is almost independent of the exact definition of minimum timing; another is that the maximum amplitude is found to be highly correlated ( r = 0.86) with this parameter five cycles before, when applied to the smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers in modern era. Implied is that this parameter carries some information of the amplitude five cycles later, and may become one of the parameters to study solar activity and the theory of solar dynamo. With the relationship above, the amplitude of cycle 24 is estimated to be 115.7 ± 19.7, where the error is the standard error.

  17. Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Biosurfactant Obtained From Bacillus pumilus DSVP18 Grown on Potato Peels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Gupta, Sonam; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Pruthi, Parul; Pruthi, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants constitute a structurally diverse group of surface-active compounds derived from microorganisms. They are widely used industrially in various industrial applications such as pharmaceutical and environmental sectors. Major limiting factor in biosurfactant production is their production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production under laboratory conditions with potato peels as the sole source of carbon source. Materials and Methods: A biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain (Bacillus pumilus DSVP18, NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865643) was isolated from motor oil contaminated soil samples. Biochemical characteristics of the purified biosurfactant were determined and its chemical structure was analyzed. Stability studies were performed and biological activity of the biosurfactant was also evaluated. Results: The strain, when grown on modified minimal salt media supplemented with 2% potato peels as the sole carbon source, showed the ability to reduce Surface Tension (ST) value of the medium from 72 to 28.7 mN/m. The isolated biosurfactant (3.2 ± 0.32 g/L) was stable over a wide range of temperatures (20 - 120 ºC), pH (2-12) and salt concentrations (2 - 12%). When characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found to be a lipopeptide in nature, which was further confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass peak 1044.60) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data showed that the isolated biosurfactant at the concentration range of 30 - 35 µg/ml had strong antimicrobial activity when tested against standard strains of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae. Conclusions: Potato peels were proved to be potentially useful substrates for biosurfactant production by B. pumilus DSVP18. The strain possessed a

  18. Low-degree p-mode parameters evolution with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochard, J.; Boumier, P.

    We present updated results on the low-degree p-mode parameters changes with solar activity: frequency, spectral width, rotational splittings and spectral asymmetry. A particular attention is devoted to the l=2 splitting asymmetry. Comparaisons of our frequency shifts (derived from the GOLF observations) with predictions of Pr.Dziembowski (based on an extrapolation from intermediate degree modes observations from MDI), are discussed.

  19. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains.

  20. Structural Aspects of Antioxidant and Genotoxic Activities of Two Flavonoids Obtained from Ethanolic Extract of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Cassiana Macagnan; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Pflüger, Pricila; Facundo, Valdir Alves

    2016-01-01

    Combretum leprosum Mart., a member of the Combretaceae family, is a traditionally used Brazilian medicinal plant, although no evidence in the literature substantiates its antioxidant action and the safety of its use. We evaluated the antioxidant properties of the ethanolic extract (EE) from flowers of C. leprosum and its isolated products 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (FCL2) and 5,3′,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (FCL5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains proficient and deficient in antioxidant defenses. Their mutagenic activity was also assayed in S. cerevisiae, whereas cytotoxic and genotoxic properties were evaluated by MTT and Comet Assays, respectively, in V79 cells. We show that the EE, FCL2, and FCL5 have a significant protective effect against H2O2. FCL2 showed a better antioxidant action, which can be related to the activation of the 3′-OH in the presence of a methoxyl group at 4′ position in the B-ring of the molecule, while flavonoids did not induce mutagenesis in yeast, and the EE was mutagenic at high concentrations. The toxicity of these compounds in V79 cells increases from FCL2 = FCL5 < EE; although not cytotoxic, FCL5 induced an increase in DNA damage. The antioxidant effect, along with the lower toxicity and the absence of genotoxicity, suggests that FCL2 could be suitable for pharmacological use. PMID:27478483

  1. Acrosome intactness and seminal hyaluronidase activity: relationship with conventional seminal parameters.

    PubMed

    Tambe, A S; Kaore, S B; Sawane, M V; Gosavi, G B

    2001-03-01

    Seminal hyaluronidase activity was estimated after liquefaction in semen samples of 100 male partners of infertile couples including 16 azoospermic (no spermatozoon) men and 48 fertility proven men by a method based on measurement of the area of digestion of substrate (hyaluronic acid) in agar plate. Semen samples were also evaluated for Acrosomal Intactness (AI) test except the azoospermics of the studied samples. Seminal hyaluronidase activity was completely absent in azoospermic specimens confirming its cellular origin. Seminal hyaluronidase activity was found to be significantly correlated, statistically, with sperm density (r = 0.708, p < 0.001), % motility (r = 0.6478, p < 0.001) and % normal sperm morphology (r = 0.5724, p < 0.001). Acrosomal Intactness (AI) test scores were also well correlated with sperm density (r = 0.6477, p < 0.001), % motility (r = 0.5965, p < 0.001) and % normal morphology (r = 0.6237, p < 0.001). Both values were higher in semen samples with normal routine parameters (proven fertility and normozoospermic infertile groups) than those compared with abnormal routine parameters (oligozoospermic). We also found very highly significant correlation (r = 0.8442) between seminal hyaluronidase activity and Acrosomal Intactness scores, statistically (p < 0.001). This could be because; normal germinal semineferous epithelium generates abundant number of sperms with normal motility and morphology that are also having intact acrosome. Intact acrosome prevents loss of acrosomal enzymatic activity (e.g. hyaluronidase) until released after liquefaction during seminal analysis and during acrosomal reaction in female genital tract prior to fertilization. Seminal hyaluronidase activity, thus determined, is primarily dependent upon the intact status of acrosome. As each sperm contributes to the seminal hyaluronidase activity, it is directly correlated with sperm density; but at the same time it exhibits goods correlation with % motility and % normal

  2. An assessment of cloud top thermodynamic phase products obtained from A-Train passive and active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, S.; Riedi, J.; Parol, F.; Cornet, C.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-09-01

    The A-Train observations provide an unprecedented opportunity for the production of high quality dataset describing cloud properties. We illustrate in this study the use of one year of coincident POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance), MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) observations to establish a reference dataset for the description of cloud top thermodynamic phase at global scale. We present the results of an extensive comparison between POLDER and MODIS cloud top phase products and discuss those in view of cloud vertical structure and optical properties derived simultaneously from collocated CALIOP active measurements. These results allow to identify and quantify potential biases present in the 3 considered dataset. Among those, we discuss the impacts of observation geometry, thin cirrus in multilayered and single layered cloud systems, supercooled liquid droplets, aerosols, fractional cloud cover and snow/ice or bright surfaces on global statistics of cloud phase derived from POLDER and MODIS passive measurements. Based on these analysis we define criteria for the selection of high confidence cloud phase retrievals which in turn can serve for the establishment of a reference cloud phase product. This high confidence joint product derived from POLDER/PARASOL and MODIS/Aqua can be used in the future as a benchmark for the evaluation of other cloud climatologies, for the assessment of cloud phase representation in models and the development of better cloud phase parametrization in the general circulation models (GCMs).

  3. Photo-inducible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities of 3,6-di-substituted acridines obtained by acylation of proflavine.

    PubMed

    Benchabane, Yohann; Di Giorgio, Carole; Boyer, Gérard; Sabatier, Anne-Sophie; Allegro, Diane; Peyrot, Vincent; De Méo, Michel

    2009-06-01

    The cytotoxicity and photo-enhanced cytotoxicity of a series of 18 3,6-di-substituted acridines were evaluated on both tumour CHO cells and human normal keratinocytes, and compared to their corresponding clastogenicity as assessed by the micronucleus assay. Compounds 2f tert-butyl N-[(6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acridin-3-yl]carbamate and 2d N-[6-(pivalamino)acridin-3-yl]pivalamide displayed a specific cytotoxicity on CHO cells. These results suggested that the two derivatives could be considered as interesting candidates for anticancer chemotherapy and hypothesized that the presence of 1,1-dimethylethyl substituents was responsible for a strong nonclastogenic cytotoxicity. Compounds 2b and 2c, on the contrary, displayed a strong clastogenicity. They indicated that the presence of nonbranched aliphatic chains on positions 3 and 6 of the acridine rings tended to induce a significant clastogenic effect. Finally, they established that most of the acridine compounds could be photo-activated by UVA-visible rays and focussed on the significant role of light irradiation on their biological properties.

  4. [Physiologic parameters and locomotor activity in Fleckvieh and Schwarzbund cattle during an alpine summer].

    PubMed

    Koch, K; Pirchner, F; Graf, F

    1995-01-01

    The investigation on an alpine pasture was performed on 15 heifers of the breeds Fleckvieh and Friesians from different farms. Some physiological parameters and locomotor activities in dependence of breed, farm of origin and weather conditions were studied. Animals of one farm were pastured in spring, the animals of the other farm were brought directly from the barn to the mountain area. Physiological parameters were influenced by farm, but not by breed. The activities of GOT and CK increased in unprepared heifers only (due to the release from skeletal muscles) as did levels of free fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate obviously due to adaptation-difficulties linked with energy-deficiency. Pre-pastured animals showed higher blood-urea concentrations, due to their ability to locate always fresh grass with high protein content. The breed influence on the daily number of steps and on the distance covered was statistically not significant. Animals already pastured in spring showed more movement than unprepared ones. Among weather conditions thunderstorm showed a striking increase in activity which resulted from the search for shelter. On rainy days without wind the animals showed least movement. Cloudy, dry weather as well as sunshine was associated with average activity. These reactions to meteorological conditions were manifested more clearly in prepared heifers. The other animals obviously had to learn first how to minimize untoward effects by suitable behaviour.

  5. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  6. Kinetic parameter estimation model for anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Cumberbatch, Jewel; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion has a potential to improve biogas production, but limited kinetic information is available for co-digestion. This study introduced regression-based models to estimate the kinetic parameters for the co-digestion of microalgae and Waste Activated Sludge (WAS). The models were developed using the ratios of co-substrates and the kinetic parameters for the single substrate as indicators. The models were applied to the modified first-order kinetics and Monod model to determine the rate of hydrolysis and methanogenesis for the co-digestion. The results showed that the model using a hyperbola function was better for the estimation of the first-order kinetic coefficients, while the model using inverse tangent function closely estimated the Monod kinetic parameters. The models can be used for estimating kinetic parameters for not only microalgae-WAS co-digestion but also other substrates' co-digestion such as microalgae-swine manure and WAS-aquatic plants.

  7. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  8. Confidence interval based parameter estimation--a new SOCR applet and activity.

    PubMed

    Christou, Nicolas; Dinov, Ivo D

    2011-01-01

    Many scientific investigations depend on obtaining data-driven, accurate, robust and computationally-tractable parameter estimates. In the face of unavoidable intrinsic variability, there are different algorithmic approaches, prior assumptions and fundamental principles for computing point and interval estimates. Efficient and reliable parameter estimation is critical in making inference about observable experiments, summarizing process characteristics and prediction of experimental behaviors. In this manuscript, we demonstrate simulation, construction, validation and interpretation of confidence intervals, under various assumptions, using the interactive web-based tools provided by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (http://www.SOCR.ucla.edu). Specifically, we present confidence interval examples for population means, with known or unknown population standard deviation; population variance; population proportion (exact and approximate), as well as confidence intervals based on bootstrapping or the asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimates. Like all SOCR resources, these confidence interval resources may be openly accessed via an Internet-connected Java-enabled browser. The SOCR confidence interval applet enables the user to empirically explore and investigate the effects of the confidence-level, the sample-size and parameter of interest on the corresponding confidence interval. Two applications of the new interval estimation computational library are presented. The first one is a simulation of confidence interval estimating the US unemployment rate and the second application demonstrates the computations of point and interval estimates of hippocampal surface complexity for Alzheimers disease patients, mild cognitive impairment subjects and asymptomatic controls.

  9. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  10. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  11. Adverse effects of MWCNTs on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and activation of MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Puthumana, Jayesh; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-10-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received widespread applications in a broad variety of commercial products due to low production cost. Despite their significant commercial applications, CNTs are being discharged to aquatic ecosystem, leading a threat to aquatic life. Thus, we investigated the adverse effect of CNTs on the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Additional to the study on the uptake of CNTs and acute toxicity, adverse effects on life parameters (e.g. growth, fecundity, and size) were analyzed in response to various concentrations of CNTs. Also, as a measurement of cellular damage, oxidative stress-related markers were examined in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the phosphorylation pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of oxidative stress-induced toxicity in the copepod P. nana. As a result, significant inhibition on life parameters and evoked antioxidant systems were observed without ROS induction. In addition, CNTs activated MAPK signaling pathway via ERK, suggesting that phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)-mediated adverse effects are the primary cause of in vitro and in vivo endpoints in response to CNTs exposure. Moreover, ROS-independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway was observed. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of CNTs on the copepod P. nana at cellular and molecular level and insight on possible ecotoxicological implications in the marine environment.

  12. Inhibition and activation of enzymes. The effect of a modifier on the reaction rate and on kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Fontes, R; Ribeiro, J M; Sillero, A

    2000-01-01

    A combined analysis of enzyme inhibition and activation is presented, based on a rapid equilibrium model assumption in which one molecule of enzyme binds one molecule of substrate (S) and/or one molecule of a modifier X. The modifier acts as activator (essential or non-essential), as inhibitor (total or partial), or has no effect on the reaction rate (v), depending on the values of the equilibrium constants, the rate constants of the limiting velocity steps, and the concentration of substrate ([S]). Different possibilities have been analyzed from an equation written to emphasize that v = f([X]) is, in general and at a fixed [S], a hyperbolic function. Formulas for Su (the value of [S], different from zero, at which v is unaffected by the modifier) and v(su) (v at that particular [S]) were deduced. In Lineweaver-Burk plots, the straight lines related to different [X] generally cross in a point (P) with coordinates (Su, v(su)). In certain cases, point P is located in the first quadrant which implies that X acts as activator, as inhibitor, or has no effect, depending on [S]. Furthermore, we discuss: (1) the apparent Vmax and Km displayed by the enzyme in different situations; (2) the degree of effect (inhibition or activation) observed at different concentrations of substrate and modifier; (3) the concept of Ke, a parameter that depends on the concentration of substrate and helps to evaluate the effect of the modifier: it equals the value of [X] at which the increase or decrease in the reaction rate is half of that achieved at saturating [X]. Equations were deduced for the general case and for particular situations, and used to obtain computer-drawn graphs that are presented and discussed. Formulas for apparent Vmax, Km and Ke have been written in a way making it evident that these parameters can be expressed as pondered means.

  13. Solubility parameter and activity coefficient of HDEHP dimer in select organic diluents by vapor pressure osmometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.; Nilsson, M.; Zalupski, P.

    2013-07-01

    A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)

  14. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  15. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation and their composite with cotton fabric: Preparation and study of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichnyi, Valery; Shabalina, Anastasiia; Lapin, Ivan; Goncharova, Daria; Nemoykina, Anna

    2016-05-01

    A simple deposition method was used to prepare a ZnO/cotton fabric composite from water and ethanol dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the pulsed laser ablation method. The structure and composition of the nanoparticles from dispersions and as-prepared composites were studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopy. The nanoparticles and composite obtained exhibited antibacterial activity to three different pathogenic microorganisms-Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. An attempt to understand a mechanism of bactericidal effect of ZnO nanoparticles was made. It was shown that zinc ions and hydrogen peroxide were not responsible for antibacterial activity of the particles and the composite, and surface properties of nanoparticles played an important role in antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. The proposed composite is a promising material for use as an antibacterial bandage.

  16. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins.

  17. Parameters Influencing the Photocatalytic Activity of Suspension-Sprayed TiO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Berger, Lutz-Michael; Shakhverdova, Irina; Leupolt, Beate; Potthoff, Annegret; Oelschlägel, Kathrin; Meissner, Tobias; Gomez, José Antonio Ibáñez; de Miguel, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Photocatalytic properties of titania have been studied very intensively for a variety of applications, including air and water purification. In order to clarify the influence of the phase composition and other parameters, thermal spraying with suspensions was applied to produce photocatalytically active titania coatings starting from two commercially available anatase and rutile submicron powders. Aqueous suspensions containing 40% solids by weight were sprayed with an HVOF process using ethylene as the fuel gas. The spray parameters were chosen in order to produce mechanically stable coatings and to preserve a high content of the initial crystalline phases of the powders. The coating microstructures, phase compositions, and surface properties were characterized. The photocatalytic performance was evaluated by degradation of the pink dye Rhodamine B (RB) using two techniques: degradation of an aqueous solution of RB and discoloration of impregnated RB. All the coatings exhibited photocatalytic activity to varying degrees, depending on the phase composition as well as other factors, namely, the coating microstructure, surface morphology, surface hydroxylation, light absorption, and interaction with the pollutant.

  18. The Effect of the Number of Simulations on the Exponents Obtained by Finite-Size Scaling Relations of the Order Parameter and the Magnetic Susceptibility for the Four-Dimensional Ising Model on the Creutz Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Z.; Güzelsoy, E.

    2012-05-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton using finite-size lattices with linear dimension 4≤ L≤8. The exponents in the finite-size scaling relations for the order parameter and the magnetic susceptibility at the finite-lattice critical temperature are computed to be β=0.49(7), β=0.49(5), β=0.50(1) and γ=1.04(4), γ=1.03(4), γ=1.02(4) for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the obtained results are consistent with the renormalization group predictions of β=0.5 and γ=1. The values for the critical temperature of the infinite lattice T c (∞)=6.6788(65), T c (∞)=6.6798(69), T c (∞)=6.6802(70) are obtained from the straight-line fit of the magnetic susceptibility maxima using 4≤ L≤8 for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the obtained results are in very good agreement with the series expansion results of T c (∞)=6.6817(15), T c (∞)=6.6802(2), the dynamic Monte Carlo result of T c (∞)=6.6803(1), the cluster Monte Carlo result of T c (∞)=6.680(1) and the Monte Carlo using Metropolis and Wolff-cluster algorithm result of T c (∞)=6.6802632±5×10-5.

  19. Effects of honey HMF on enzyme activities and serum biochemical parameters of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Özkök, Duran; Silici, Sibel

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a by-product of thermal degradation of glucose and fructose. In this study, the effects of high HMF content of honey on biochemical parameters of rats were investigated. Experiments were conducted with 40 Wistar albino male rats, each weighing 250-350 g and covered a period of 5 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups. The first group was served as control group. HMF was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 200 mg/kg rat b.w. to the animals in group 2. Group 3 was fed with honey that contains 10 mg HMF/kg honey. In group 4 and 5, there were honeys that contain significantly high HMF content due to long storage period (181 mg HMF/kg honey) and heat process (140 mg HMF/kg honey). At the end of the feeding process, biochemical blood parameters of rats were investigated. It was observed that there were no differences among the glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, Na, GGT, and ALP parameters of the groups. On the other hand, significant differences were observed among the cholesterol, LDL, BUN, creatinine, Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, total bilirubin, LDH, CPK, AST, ALT, total protein, and pseudocholinesterase values of the rats. The highest adverse effects were obtained from group HMF, and it was followed by groups SH (stored honey) and HH (heated honey). It can be concluded that high HMF content of honey may affect the human health adversely; thus, HMF in honey must be controlled by beekeepers.

  20. Noncontact active sensing for viscoelastic parameters of tissue with coupling effect.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Makoto; Kao, Imin

    2011-03-01

    Living soft tissues have two characteristics for an external force. One is the coupling effect (see Fig. 1) where the tissue deforms not only at the point of application of force but also at its surrounding area without any external force. The other is the direction-dependent response (see Fig. 2) where the response during the loading phase (when the force is applied with increasing displacement) is quicker than that during the unloading phase (when the force is shutdown). In order to represent these characteristics, this paper first proposes a single layered 3-D tissue model constructed by a network composed of two stiffness and two damping parameters, respectively. For such a single-layered model, we solve the inverse problem where four unknown viscoelastic parameters are obtained by assuming that both the applied force and surface deformation of the tissue are given with respect to time. Through both simulation and experimental results, we show that this model can describe good inherent characteristics of soft tissues, namely a direction-dependent response and a coupling effect.

  1. Antigenic fractions from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes obtained by hydrophobicity for the immunodiagnosis of active and inactive forms of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriela B; Nunes, Daniela S; de Sousa, José Eduardo N; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the total extract of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (TC) and its antigenic fractions obtained by Triton X-114 fractionation techniques, such as detergent (DC) and aqueous (AC), in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40), which was further divided into active (n=20) and inactive (n=20) NCC, and Group 2 (control group), which comprised 39 CSF samples from patients who had another neurological disorder, were suffering from other infectious diseases of the brain or had other parasitic infections. The total extracts and antigenic fractions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect human IgG anti-Taenia solium. T. crassiceps fractions (DC and AC) showed the same value of sensitivity (Se), 100%, for active and inactive NCC and a specificity (Sp) of 97.4%. The DS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for active NCC, 95% Se for inactive NCC and a 92.3% Sp. The AS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for both active and inactive NCC and a 94.9% Sp. There was a positive correlation between the total saline extract of T. crassiceps (TC) and T. solium (TS) and their fractions (DC, AC, DS and AS). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic efficiency and Youden index were calculated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that detergent and aqueous fractions obtained from T. crassiceps metacestodes are important sources of specific antigens and are efficient for immunodiagnosis of active and inactive NCC.

  2. In vivo photodynamic activity of photosensitizer-loaded nanoparticles: formulation properties, administration parameters and biological issues involved in PDT outcome.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Angelica; Eid, Michael; Fanchaouy, Mohammed; Gurny, Robert; Delie, Florence

    2008-05-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PS) into polymeric nanoparticles (NP) has proven to be an effective alternative to organic solvents for their formulation. As NP size controls NP passage through endothelial barriers, it is a key parameter for achieving passive targeting of cancer tissues and choroidal neovascularization, secondary to age-related macular degeneration, the main applications of photodynamic therapy. In the present study, a hydrophobic PS, the meso-tetra(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin, was encapsulated into biodegradable NP made of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 via an emulsification-diffusion technique. NP batches having mean diameters of 117, 285, and 593 nm were obtained with narrow size distribution. Using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the developing chick embryo, it was demonstrated that the increase in the NP size decreased photodynamic activity in vivo. The activity of PS-loaded NP was not influenced by the volume of injection and was kept intact at least 6h after NP reconstitution. Investigation of NP circulation after IV administration by fluorescence measurements revealed that 117 nm NP reached Tmax earlier than larger NP. Confocal imaging of CAM vessels demonstrated PS uptake by endothelial cells after NP administration. It was concluded that NP size controls the photodynamic activity of the encapsulated PS.

  3. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  4. Diffusive transport parameters of deuterium through China reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Lingbo; Xiang, Xin; Rao, Yongchu; Ye, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Chang An

    2016-03-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels have been considered as the most promising candidate structure materials for a fusion reactor. In the recent decades, two new types of RAFM steels, called China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel and China Low-activation Ferritic (CLF-1) steel, have been developed. The gas evolution permeation technique has been used to investigate diffusive transport parameters of deuterium through CLAM and CLF-1 over the temperature range 623 ∼ 873 K at deuterium pressure of 105 Pa. The resultant transport parameters are: Φ (mol. m-1 s-1 Pa-1/2) = 5.40 × 10-8 exp (-46.8 (kJ. mol-1)/RT), D(m2 s-1) = 3.81 × 10-7 exp(-24.0(kJ. mol-1)/RT) and S (mol. m-3 Pa-1/2) = 1.42 × 10-1 exp(-22.8(kJ. mol-1)/RT) for CLAM; while Φ(mol m-1 s-1 Pa-1/2) = 1.76 × 10-8 exp(-43.9(kJ. mol-1)/RT), D(m2. s-1) = 1.02 × 10-7 exp(-16.9(kJ. mol-1)/RT) and S(mol. m-1 Pa-1/2) = 1.73 × 10-1 exp(-27.0(kJ. mol-1) /RT) for CLF-1. The results show that CLAM is more permeable than CLF-1, thus it is easier for hydrogen isotopes to transport and be removed.

  5. A strategy for obtaining both resting and psychologically activated state metabolic data from a single PET study using (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.; Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Apicella, A.; Gilson, A.

    1985-05-01

    When psychological activation is studied with PET using the deoxyglucose method, a stable and specific psychological state for at least 30 minutes is required before commencing the scan. At this time, if the subject reverts to the testing state, a progressive degradation of the activated pattern occurs. However, a strategy could be used to obtain corrected activation state data and resting state data in a single study using a tracer such as FDG. The amount of tracer FDG and FDG-6P in the tissue at the time of study completion, t, will be the sum of the remaining quantity (R) of tracer accumulated in the tissue at the time T, when activation ceases, and the uptake during the subsequent period t-T when resting state glucose transport kinetics apply.

  6. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) fruit using compressed propane and supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ciro E F; Scapinello, Jaqueline; Bohn, Aline; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Magro, Jacir Dall; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Ilex paraguariensis leaves are consumed in tea form or as typical drinks like mate and terere, while the fruits are discarded processing and has no commercial value. The aim of this work to evaluate phytochemical properties, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Ilex paraguariensis fruits obtained from supercritical CO2 and compressed propane extraction. The extraction with compressed propane yielded 2.72 wt%, whereas with supercritical CO2 1.51 wt% was obtained. The compound extracted in larger amount by the two extraction solvents was caffeine, 163.28 and 54.17 mg/g by supercritical CO2 and pressurized propane, respectively. The antioxidant activity was more pronounced for the supercritical CO2 extract, with no difference found in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus for the two extracts and better results observed for Escherichia coli when using supercritical CO2.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  9. Parameters that enhance the bacterial expression of active plant polyphenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs, EC 1.10.3.1) are type-3 copper proteins that enzymatically convert diphenolic compounds into their corresponding quinones. Although there is significant interest in these enzymes because of their role in food deterioration, the lack of a suitable expression system for the production of soluble and active plant PPOs has prevented detailed investigations of their structure and activity. Recently we developed a bacterial expression system that was sufficient for the production of PPO isoenzymes from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). The system comprised the Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 (DE3) [pLysSRARE2] strain combined with the pET-22b(+)-vector cultivated in auto-induction medium at a constant low temperature (26 °C). Here we describe important parameters that enhance the production of active PPOs using dandelion PPO-2 for proof of concept. Low-temperature cultivation was essential for optimal yields, and the provision of CuCl2 in the growth medium was necessary to produce an active enzyme. By increasing the copper concentration in the production medium to 0.2 mM, the yield in terms of PPO activity per mol purified protein was improved 2.7-fold achieving a v(max) of 0.48 ± 0.1 µkat per mg purified PPO-2 for 4-methylcatechol used as a substrate. This is likely to reflect the replacement of an inactive apo-form of the enzyme with a correctly-folded, copper-containing counterpart. We demonstrated the transferability of the method by successfully expressing a PPO from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing that our optimized system is suitable for the analysis of further plant PPOs. Our new system therefore provides greater opportunities for the future of research into this economically-important class of enzymes.

  10. Linking tree size distribution to active remote sensing parameters: consequences for observation strategies and impacts on biomass retrieval (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Behrman, K. D.; Keitt, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation 3D structure measurements from active remote sensing (i.e. lidar and radar) are usually averaged and reported at the regional level. However, environmental gradients and disturbance can structure vegetation patterns at multiple scales. Thus, a critical challenge in designing global observation strategies is to obtain confidence intervals on vegetation parameters as a function of biome, sensor, and resolution of observation. We present strategies to gain knowledge on forest spatial heterogeneity that can be translated into confidence intervals for above ground biomass and canopy height measurements. We use data from two airborne systems: the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) and the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) acquired over sites in the US (NH and ME), Canada (Quebec) and Costa Rica. We first describe two parameters (alpha and beta) that summarize tree size distribution for individual patches, thereby capturing forest successional stage. In this scenario, the uncertainty in predicting above ground biomass stems from: (1) the ability to estimate alpha and beta with the lidar/radar signals, and (2) the error in deriving above ground biomass from tree size distribution statistics. The processes of competition and self-thinning create skewed tree size distributions where smaller individuals are common and large individuals are rare. Using a global dataset of spaceborne lidar points from the sensor ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), we show the importance of sampling extreme values when using spatially sparse data. This raises the need to obtain expectations for the second-order properties of forest stands. To this end, we employed wavelet transforms to quantify variation in lidar-derived canopy height metrics across >20 Km transects and asked whether environmental gradients such as elevation can constrain the spatial autocorrelation among large trees.

  11. Investigation of relationships between parameters of solar nano-flares and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Hossein; Javaherian, Mohsen; Kaki, Bardia

    2016-07-01

    Solar flares are one of the important coronal events which are originated in solar magnetic activity. They release lots of energy during the interstellar medium, right after the trigger. Flare prediction can play main role in avoiding eventual damages on the Earth. Here, to interpret solar large-scale events (e.g., flares), we investigate relationships between small-scale events (nano-flares) and large-scale events (e.g., flares). In our method, by using simulations of nano-flares based on Monte Carlo method, the intensity time series of nano-flares are simulated. Then, the solar full disk images taken at 171 angstrom recorded by SDO/AIA are employed. Some parts of the solar disk (quiet Sun (QS), coronal holes (CHs), and active regions (ARs)) are cropped and the time series of these regions are extracted. To compare the simulated intensity time series of nano-flares with the intensity time series of real data extracted from different parts of the Sun, the artificial neural networks is employed. Therefore, we are able to extract physical parameters of nano-flares like both kick and decay rate lifetime, and the power of their power-law distributions. The procedure of variations in the power value of power-law distributions within QS, CH is similar to AR. Thus, by observing the small part of the Sun, we can follow the procedure of solar activity.

  12. Activity Parameters of Subthalamic Nucleus Neurons Selectively Predict Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A.; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A.; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ≥10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

  13. Activity parameters of subthalamic nucleus neurons selectively predict motor symptom severity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sharott, Andrew; Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K; Moll, Christian K E

    2014-04-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ≥ 10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype.

  14. Fundamental relation between the main parameters of the thermally activated transport phenomena in complex oxide melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasik, M. M.; Gasik, M. I.; Leont'ev, L. I.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.; Griogorovich, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    The relation between the activation energy and the preexponential factor in the Arrhenius equation that describes the viscosity and electrical conductivity of oxide (slag) melts is systematically analyzed over wide composition and temperature ranges for the first time. When deriving this relation, we do not use any model concepts and assumptions concerning the structure of slag melts or the character of electric charge transfer in them. The fundamental applicability of the Meyer-Neldel rule for this relation is shown and grounded. The application of this algorithm in practice can give information on the structure of experimental data, nonobvious correlations, and possible relations of a higher order and can quantitatively predict the behavior of parameters, including the range outside experimentally determined data.

  15. Earthquake source parameters at the sumatran fault zone: Identification of the activated fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmolan, Madlazim; Santosa, Bagus Jaya; Lees, Jonathan M.; Utama, Widya

    2010-12-01

    Fifteen earthquakes (Mw 4.1-6.4) occurring at ten major segments of the Sumatran Fault Zone (SFZ) were analyzed to identify their respective fault planes. The events were relocated in order to assess hypocenter uncertainty. Earthquake source parameters were determined from three-component local waveforms recorded by IRIS-DMC and GEOFON broadband lA networks. Epicentral distances of all stations were less than 10°. Moment tensor solutions of the events were calculated, along with simultaneous determination of centroid position. Joint analysis of hypocenter position, centroid position, and nodal planes produced clear outlines of the Sumatran fault planes. The preferable seismotectonic interpretation is that the events activated the SFZ at a depth of approximately 14-210 km, corresponding to the interplate Sumatran fault boundary. The identification of this seismic fault zone is significant to the investigation of seismic hazards in the region.

  16. [Vocal efficiency parameters in children and adolescents: effect of physical development and singing activity].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Heide, S; Hentschel, B; Gelbrich, G; Makuch, A; Thiel, S; Täschner, R; Dietz, A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of physical development and singing activity on vocal efficiency in children and adolescents is well known from clinical experience. There is, however, no comparative study between singing and non-singing children which also considers the influence of age and gender. Therefore, standard values for evaluation in clinical practice are missing. We examined the following parameters in 164 healthy children and adolescents (90 boys, 74 girls; 11-16 years), 86 without singing activity (group A) and 78 members of children's and youth choirs (group B): frequency and dynamic range of voice and its borders with a voice range profile, mean fundamental frequency (normal and loud phonation), maximum voice intensity, and maximum duration of intonation. The statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA. We found significantly higher ranges of frequency and intensity in singing children and adolescents (p<0.0001). The borders of the dynamic range and the upper border of the frequency range were significantly higher in group B (p<0.0001). The boys in group B used a higher mean fundamental frequency during loud phonation. There were no significant differences between groups in maximum voice intensity (p=0.051) but a tendency towards higher values in singing children. As an unexpected result, we found significantly higher values in maximum duration of intonation in group A (p<0.0001) independent of age and gender, which seems to be related to the methods used. Regular training of the singing voice results in positive effects on several voice parameters in children as well as adolescents. Our results can be used for estimating standard values in professional clinical and educational care of young singing voices and non-singing children. For this purpose, voice range profile is particularly suitable.

  17. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of 6-mono-substituted and 3,6-di-substituted acridines obtained by acylation of proflavine.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Carole; Shimi, Kamal; Boyer, Gérard; Delmas, Florence; Galy, Jean-Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Two new series of diaminoacridinic derivatives obtained from proflavine and N-(6-amino-3-acridinyl)acetamide were synthesised and assessed for their cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities. Two compounds, N-[6-(acetylamino)-3-acridinyl]acetamide and N-[6-(benzoylamino)-3-acridinyl]benzamide demonstrated highly specific antileishmanial properties against the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite. Structure-activity relationships established that the antiproliferative activity against human cells was greatly enhanced by the presence of a benzoylamino group in 6-mono-substituted acridines, while the presence of two acetylamino or benzoylamino groups in 3,6-di-substituted acridines strongly increased the specificity of the molecules for Leishmania parasite, suggesting that symmetric conformations could preferentially interfere with Leishmania metabolism.

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamodi, Zaid H; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S; Ahmed, Khaled A; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-05-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat insertion/deletion polymorphisms might be genetic determinations of increased or decreased of their plasma activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome parameters in normal Malaysian subjects and to assess the impact of these polymorphisms on their plasma activities and antigens. The genetic polymorphisms were genotyped in 130 normal subjects. In addition, the plasma activities and antigens of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator as well as levels of insulin, glucose, and lipid profile at fasting state were investigated. The subjects with homozygous 4G/4G showed association with an increased triglyceride (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). In addition, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism modulates plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and antigen and tissue plasminogen activator activity (p = 0.002, 0.014, 0.003) respectively. These results showed that, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator activities in Malaysian subjects, and may serve to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Malaysian subjects.

  19. Macroalga Padina pavonica water extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction inhibit hyaluronidase activity as shown by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Syntia; Nehmé, Reine; Tannoury, Mona; Lesellier, Eric; Pichon, Chantal; Morin, Philippe

    2017-03-20

    Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, the principal component of the extracellular matrix. Inhibition of this enzyme is thus expected to hinder skin aging. Brown alga Padina pavonica activity toward hyaluronidase was evaluated using capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzymatic assays. This green technique allows evaluation of the biological activity of the natural material in an economic manner. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction and electroporation extraction techniques were used. Extraction conditions were optimized to obtain cosmetically acceptable Padina pavonica extracts with the best inhibition activity. CE-based assays were conducted using only a few nanoliters of reactants, a capillary of 60cm total length and of 50μm internal diameter, +20kV voltage for separation in 50mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 9.0) and 200nm wavelength for detection. The reaction mixture was incubated for 1h and CE analysis time was about 11min. A novel online CE-assay using transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles for in-capillary reactant mixing allowed efficient monitoring of hyaluronidase kinetics with Km and Vmax equal to 0.46±0.04mgmL(-1) and 137.1±0.3nMs(-1) (r(2)=0.99; n=3), respectively. These values compared well with literature, which validates the assay. Water extracts obtained by PLE (60°C; 2 cycles) and MAE (60°C; 1000W; 2min) presented the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity. The half maximal effective concentration (IC50) of water PLE extract was 0.04±0.01mgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.99; n=3). This value is comparable to the one obtained for Einsenia bicyclis phlorotannin fractions (IC50=0.03mgmL(-1)), which makes Padina pavonica bioactivity very promising.

  20. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries.

    PubMed

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered.

  1. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries

    PubMed Central

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered. PMID:26659905

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  3. Physicochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Bee Honey Enriched With Herbs.

    PubMed

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Sowa, Patrycja; Kwaśniewska, Monika; Wesołowska, Monika; Czernicka, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Three groups of products enriched with herbs were studied: (1) commercial herb honeys (n = 5) produced by bees fed a syrup with an herbal extract, (2) natural herbal honey (n = 3) produced by bees from the nectar of herbs, and (3) creamed multifloral honey with added dried herbs (n = 5). As a control, multifloral honey (n = 5) was used. The physicochemical parameters (i.e., sugar extract, water content, specific rotation, conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, pH and acidity), sugar profiles (HPLC analysis), antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds content of the studied samples were compared. Although great diversity in the basic properties of the studied products was observed, they were comparable to multifloral honey and complied with honey regulations. Significant differences in sugar composition were observed, and adversely positive rotation (excluding nettle herb honey) was detected in group 1, likely resulting from the change in bee feeding. The best antioxidant activity for creamed honeys with dried herbs (group 2) was investigated, whereas herb honeys (group 1) exhibited similar antioxidant properties as multifloral honey. The use of controlled feeding of bees appears to be an effective method of enriching honey with desirable plant bioactive components to create innovative bee products.

  4. Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon. Part II. Models with more than two parameters.

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, Oualid; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2007-08-17

    The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of five phenolic compounds, phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon were studied and modeled. In order to determine the best-fit isotherm, the experimental equilibrium data were analyzed using thirteen adsorption isotherm models with more than two-parameter; nine three-parameter equations - the Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Langmuir-Freundlich, Fritz-Schlunder, Radke-Prasnitz (three models), Tóth, and Jossens isotherms - three four-parameter equation - the Weber-van Vliet, Fritz-Schlunder, and Baudu isotherms - and one five-parameter equation - the Fritz-Schlunder isotherm. The results reveal that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the experimental data in the order: Baudu (four-parameter)>Langmuir-Freundlich (three-parameter)>Sips (three-parameter)>Fritz-Schlunder (five-parameter)>Tóth (three-parameter)>Fritz-Schlunder (four-parameter)>Redlich-Peterson (three-parameter). The influence of solution pH on the adsorption isotherms of 4-CP was investigated. It was shown that the solution pH has not an effect on the adsorption isotherms for pH

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin: effect of collection time.

    PubMed

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid

    2013-06-15

    The properties of essential oils obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resins (OGRs) collectioned in three collections times in 15 June (OGR1), 30 June (OGR2) and 15 July (OGR3) 2011 was investigated. Essential oil from OGR1 was constituted high levels of (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.9%) and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (15.1%). Essential oil from OGR2 was constituted high levels of (Z)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (27.7%) and (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (20.3%). Essential oil from OGR3 was constituted high levels of β-pinene (47.1%) and α-pinene (21.3%). Inhibitory concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging were 0.012-0.035, 0.025-0.047 and 0.035-0.066 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi grpwth were 0.028-0.111, 0.027-0.107 and 0.018-0.058 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Essential oils obtained from different OGRs have different composition and biological activity thus have different applications in food and health industry.

  6. Chemical Characterization of Enteromorpha prolifera Extract Obtained by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction and Its Influence on the Metabolic Activity of Caco-2

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Izabela; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The green seaweed Enteromorpha prolifera was used as a feedstock for the production of enzymatic hydrolysate using cellulase. The selection of the conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass was carried out for different enzyme doses and incubation periods. The obtained extract was examined in terms of its multielemental composition, content of polyphenols and antibacterial properties (tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Additionally, its influence on the metabolic activity of human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2) was analyzed. The tested concentrations of extract using an in vitro model were 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL. The hydrolysis yield in the most suitable experimental conditions (8-h process and 50 and 100 µL of cellulase) was 36%. Micro- and macroelements were poorly extracted from the algal biomass. Total phenolic content was 55 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry mass of extract. The cytotoxic effect of extracts, related to the inhibition of the metabolic activity of Caco-2, was noted only after 24 h. In turn, cultures of Caco-2 propagated with extracts for 72 h were characterized by significantly elevated metabolism (the concentration of extracts ranged from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, p < 0.05). Obtained results indicated the high biological activity of the prepared extracts; however, the observed effects did not occur in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:28241482

  7. Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Fátima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 2×10(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500 mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09 mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76 mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07 mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65 mg/mL), TGI (280.54 mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59 mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3.

  8. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, M.; Nosal-Wiercińska, A.; Ostolska, I.; Sternik, D.; Nowicki, P.; Pietrzak, R.; Bazan-Wozniak, A.; Goncharuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  9. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, M; Nosal-Wiercińska, A; Ostolska, I; Sternik, D; Nowicki, P; Pietrzak, R; Bazan-Wozniak, A; Goncharuk, O

    2017-12-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  10. Biological evaluation of synthesized allicin and its transformation products obtained by microwaves in methanol: antioxidant activity and effect on cell growth.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Dušica P; Stojanović, Sanja; Najman, Stevo; Nikolić, Vesna D; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Tačić, Ana; Nikolić, Ljubiša B

    2015-01-02

    Allicin is the most biologically active substance present in garlic. It can be synthesized or obtained by extraction of fresh garlic. Transformation products of allicin are also biologically active. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of synthesized allicin and its transformation products obtained using microwaves in methanol at 55 °C as well as their effect on HeLa cells growth. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) test. The effect on HeLa cells growth was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) test. For MTT test, allicin and its transformation products were dispersed in carmellose sodium solution and examined in concentrations ranging from 0.3 μg/mL to 3 mg/mL. Allicin showed stronger antioxidant activity than the transformation products. A maximum degree of neutralization of DPPH radicals, about 90%, was reached when the concentration of allicin was 2 mg/mL, with an EC50 (concentration of sample which is required for reduction of the initial concentration DPPH radicals to 50%) value of 0.37 mg/mL. In our study, allicin and its transformation products were not cytotoxic to HeLa cells under the examined conditions. The highest concentration of allicin and its transformation products had a slight antiproliferative effect, with a more pronounced effect of allicin, which reflected on the morphology of HeLa cells. The examined substances are safe to use on epithelial cells at concentrations up to 3 mg/mL when applied in carmellose sodium solution. Using carmellose sodium as a dispersing agent could be recommended as a good approach for testing liposoluble substances in liquid cell cultures.

  11. Can parameters of the helical axis be measured reliably during active cervical movements?

    PubMed

    Barbero, Marco; Falla, Deborah; Clijsen, Ron; Ghirlanda, Filippo; Schneebeli, Alessandro; Ernst, Markus J; Cescon, Corrado

    2017-02-01

    Convex hull area (CHA) and mean angle (MA) have been proposed to describe the behaviour of the helical axis during joint kinematics. This study investigates the intra- and inter-session reliability of CHA and MA during active movements of the cervical spine. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (19 women) aged 23 ± 2.8 years participated. Each volunteer was tested on two sessions. All participants were instructed to perform the following active movements of the cervical spine: rotation, flexion/extension and lateral bending, each performed to full range and repeated ten consecutive times. Cervical movements were registered with an electromagnetic tracking system. For each participant, each movement and each session, range of motion (ROM), CHA and MA were extracted. ROM showed high intra- and inter-session reliability during all cervical spine movements using this method. Overall, the intra- and inter-session reliability of the helical axis parameters varied depending on the movement direction and ranged from fair to almost perfect. The intra- and inter-session reliability of CHA and MA were almost perfect during rotation whereas the intra- and inter-session reliability of CHA was substantial during lateral bending and intra- and inter-session reliability of MA ranged from fair to substantial during flexion/extension and lateral bending. This is the first study to evaluate the reliability of helical axis measures during active movements of the cervical spine. The results show that CHA and MA are promising descriptors of cervical kinematics which could be applied in future studies to evaluate neck function in patients with cervical spine disorders.

  12. Inflows towards active regions and the modulation of the solar cycle: A parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Belda, D.; Cameron, R. H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate how converging flows towards active regions affect the surface transport of magnetic flux, as well as their impact on the generation of the Sun's poloidal field. The inflows constitute a potential non-linear mechanism for the saturation of the global dynamo and may contribute to the modulation of the solar cycle in the Babcock-Leighton framework. Methods: We build a surface flux transport code incorporating a parametrized model of the inflows and run simulations spanning several cycles. We carry out a parameter study to assess how the strength and extension of the inflows affect the build-up of the global dipole field. We also perform simulations with different levels of activity to investigate the potential role of the inflows in the saturation of the global dynamo. Results: We find that the interaction of neighbouring active regions can lead to the occasional formation of single-polarity magnetic flux clumps that are inconsistent with observations. We propose the darkening caused by pores in areas of high magnetic field strength as a possible mechanism preventing this flux-clumping. We find that inflows decrease the amplitude of the axial dipole moment by 30%, relative to a no-inflows scenario. Stronger (weaker) inflows lead to larger (smaller) reductions of the axial dipole moment. The relative amplitude of the generated axial dipole is about 9% larger after very weak cycles than after very strong cycles. This supports the idea that the inflows are a non-linear mechanism that is capable of saturating the global dynamo and contributing to the modulation of the solar cycle within the Babcock-Leighton framework.

  13. Extraction of essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens: comparison of global yields, chemical composition and antioxidant activity obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical extraction.

    PubMed

    Nejia, Herzi; Séverine, Camy; Jalloul, Bouajila; Mehrez, Romdhane; Stéphane, Condoret Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 and hydrodistillation (HD) were compared as methods to isolate the essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens. The odour of the oil obtained by SFE at 90 bar and 40°C was very close to the odour of the leaves of C. sempervirens before the extraction. Compounds extracted by both SFE and HD were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. Moreover, the difference in the chemical composition obtained by SFE and HD was quite noticeable qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were also determined. Compared to HD, the SFE method presents some advantages: the extraction was completed after 1 h in SFE, although 4 h is necessary for HD, and the yield was improved by 34%. Finally, it has also been shown that SFE is very selective towards some specific components such as manoyl oxide, trans-totarol and α-acoradiene.

  14. CuO/ZnO coupled oxide films obtained by the electrodeposition technique and their photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Paz, Diego S; Foletto, Edson L; Bertuol, Daniel A; Jahn, Sérgio L; Collazzo, Gabriela C; da Silva, Syllos S; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; do Nascimento, Claudio A O

    2013-01-01

    CuO/ZnO coupled oxide films were electrodeposited onto an aluminum substrate and tested as photocatalysts in degradation of phenol molecules in aqueous solution under sunlight. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of films was significant, especially to coupled oxide film with a CuO/ZnO ratio equal to 0.697, which presented about 70% degradation of the aromatic molecules and 42% of total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 300 min under solar irradiation. Therefore, this work highlights the potential application of CuO/ZnO coupled oxide films obtained by electrodeposition onto aluminum substrate in the field of photocatalysis.

  15. Hematological parameters and phagocytic activity in fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) bred in captivity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Antenor Aguiar; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José T; da Veiga, Marcelo Leite; Faustino, Lucas; Egami, Mizue I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the hematological parameters and the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages of fat snook related to sex, stage of gonadal maturation and seasonal cycle. Blood was collected from 135 animals (78 females and 57 males) and used for determinations of: erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total and differential leukocyte counts, and thrombocyte count. The phagocytic capacity and phagocytic index were determined after Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculation in the peritoneal cavity of the animals. The hematological results according to sex showed that the erythrocyte, total leukocyte and thrombocyte counts were statistically higher in males than females, with the latter showing a higher MCV. Concerning to erythrocyte count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration analyzed separately by sex and stage of gonadal maturation, males were found to have significantly elevated values in the mature stage and decreased levels in the resting stage. The results of the erythrocyte and leukocyte series, thrombocytes and phagocytic activity related to seasonal cycle showed significant differences in both sexes, where hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were lower in winter and higher in the other seasons, mean corpuscular volume was higher in the summer and lower in the winter and fall, total leukocytes and thrombocytes lower in the spring and higher in the fall, lymphocytes low in the winter and summer and high in the spring and phagocytic capacity and phagocytic index high in the summer and low in the winter and fall. The results showed that the hematological values in males are statistically higher than those in females, the erythrocyte values in males increase with the progression of gonadal maturation and that winter is the season of the year least favorable for hematological and phagocytic responses for survival of fat

  16. Results of a Study Investigating the Plant Uptake of Explosive Residues From Compost of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Obtained from the Umatilla Army Depot Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5401 POC: Mr. Wayne Sisk Prepared by J. J. Maddox, R. A. Almond , M. F. Broder J. J. Hoagland, D. A. Kelly, W...Compost of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Obtained from the Umatilla Army Depot Activity ___ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J. J. Maddox, R. A. Almond , M. F...NUMBER 3-1 Summary of Water (HPLC Purity) Samples Spiked Before Extraction 3-6 3-2 Summary of Leachate Samples Spiked Before Extraction 3-6 3-3

  17. Principal Component Analysis of HPLC Retention Data and Molecular Modeling Structural Parameters of Cardiovascular System Drugs in View of Their Pharmacological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Jolanta; Koba, Marcin; Bober, Leszek; Bączek, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of relationships between molecular modeling structural parameters and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) retention data of 11 cardiovascular system drugs by principal component analysis (PCA) in relation to their pharmacological activity was performed. The six retention data parameters were determined on three different HPLC columns (Nucleosil C18 AB with octadecylsilica stationary phase, IAM PC C10/C3 with chemically bounded phosphatidylcholine, and Nucleosil 100-5 OH with chemically bounded propanodiole), and using isocratically acetonitrile: Britton-Robinson buffer as the mobile phase. Additionally, molecular modeling studies were performed with the use of HyperChem software and MM+ molecular mechanics with the semi-empirical AM1 method deriving 20 structural descriptors. Factor analysis obtained with the use of various sets of parameters: structural parameters, HPLC retention data, and all 26 considered parameters, led to the extraction of two main factors. The first principal component (factor 1) accounted for 44–57% of the variance in the data. The second principal component (factor 2) explained 29–33% of data variance. Moreover, the total data variance explained by the first two factors was at the level of 73–90%. More importantly, the PCA analysis of the HPLC retention data and structural parameters allows the segregation of circulatory system drugs according to their pharmacological (cardiovascular) properties as shown by the distribution of the individual drugs on the plane determined by the two principal components (factors 1 and 2). PMID:20717530

  18. Principal component analysis of HPLC retention data and molecular modeling structural parameters of cardiovascular system drugs in view of their pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Jolanta; Koba, Marcin; Bober, Leszek; Baczek, Tomasz

    2010-07-09

    Evaluation of relationships between molecular modeling structural parameters and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) retention data of 11 cardiovascular system drugs by principal component analysis (PCA) in relation to their pharmacological activity was performed. The six retention data parameters were determined on three different HPLC columns (Nucleosil C18 AB with octadecylsilica stationary phase, IAM PC C10/C3 with chemically bounded phosphatidylcholine, and Nucleosil 100-5 OH with chemically bounded propanodiole), and using isocratically acetonitrile: Britton-Robinson buffer as the mobile phase. Additionally, molecular modeling studies were performed with the use of HyperChem software and MM+ molecular mechanics with the semi-empirical AM1 method deriving 20 structural descriptors. Factor analysis obtained with the use of various sets of parameters: structural parameters, HPLC retention data, and all 26 considered parameters, led to the extraction of two main factors. The first principal component (factor 1) accounted for 44-57% of the variance in the data. The second principal component (factor 2) explained 29-33% of data variance. Moreover, the total data variance explained by the first two factors was at the level of 73-90%. More importantly, the PCA analysis of the HPLC retention data and structural parameters allows the segregation of circulatory system drugs according to their pharmacological (cardiovascular) properties as shown by the distribution of the individual drugs on the plane determined by the two principal components (factors 1 and 2).

  19. Predicting trace organic compound attenuation with spectroscopic parameters in powdered activated carbon processes.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Austin D; Park, Minkyu; Anumol, Tarun; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-08-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) is of growing interest in water research and society. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been proven to be an effective method of removal for TOrCs in water, with the degree of effectiveness depending on dosage, contact time, and activated carbon type. In this study, the attenuation of TOrCs in three different secondary wastewater effluents using four PAC materials was studied in order to elucidate the effectiveness and efficacy of PAC for TOrC removal. With the notable exception of hydrochlorothiazide, all 14 TOrC indicators tested in this study exhibited a positive correlation of removal rate with their log Dow values, demonstrating that the main adsorption mechanism was hydrophobic interaction. As a predictive model, the modified Chick-Watson model, often used for the prediction of microorganism inactivation by disinfectants, was applied. The applied model exhibited good predictive power for TOrC attenuation by PAC in wastewater. In addition, surrogate models based upon spectroscopic measurements including UV absorbance at 254 nm and total fluorescence were applied to predict TOrC removal by PAC. The surrogate model was found to provide an excellent prediction of TOrC attenuation for all combinations of water quality and PAC type included in this study. The success of spectrometric parameters as surrogates in predicting TOrC attenuation by PAC are particularly useful because of their potential application in real-time on-line sensor monitoring and process control at full-scale water treatment plants, which could lead to significantly reduced operator response times and PAC operational optimization.

  20. Activation parameters as mechanistic probes in the TAML iron(V)-oxo oxidations of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Soumen; Thompson, Jasper Van Kirk; Shen, Longzhu Q; Mills, Matthew R; Bominaar, Emile L; Ryabov, Alexander D; Collins, Terrence J

    2015-01-19

    The results of low-temperature investigations of the oxidations of 9,10-dihydroanthracene, cumene, ethylbenzene, [D10]ethylbenzene, cyclooctane, and cyclohexane by an iron(V)-oxo TAML complex (2; see Figure 1) are presented, including product identification and determination of the second-order rate constants k2 in the range 233-243 K and the activation parameters (ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠)). Statistically normalized k2 values (log k2') correlate linearly with the C-H bond dissociation energies DC-H, but ΔH(≠) does not. The point for 9,10-dihydroanthracene for the ΔH(≠) vs. DC-H correlation lies markedly off a common straight line of best fit for all other hydrocarbons, suggesting it proceeds via an alternate mechanism than the rate-limiting C-H bond homolysis promoted by 2. Contribution from an electron-transfer pathway may be substantial for 9,10-dihydroanthracene. Low-temperature kinetic measurements with ethylbenzene and [D10]ethylbenzene reveal a kinetic isotope effect of 26, indicating tunneling. The tunnel effect is drastically reduced at 0 °C and above, although it is an important feature of the reactivity of TAML activators at lower temperatures. The diiron(IV) μ-oxo dimer that is often a common component of the reaction medium involving 2 also oxidizes 9,10-dihydroanthracene, although its reactivity is three orders of magnitude lower than that of 2.

  1. Modeling the parameters for plasmodesmal sugar filtering in active symplasmic phloem loaders

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) play a key role in loading of sugars into the phloem. In plant species that employ the so-called active symplasmic loading strategy, sucrose that diffuses into their unique intermediary cells (ICs) is converted into sugar oligomers. According to the prevalent hypothesis, the oligomers are too large to pass back through PD on the bundle sheath side, but can pass on into the sieve element to be transported in the phloem. Here, we investigate if the PD at the bundle sheath-IC interface can indeed fulfill the function of blocking transport of sugar oligomers while still enabling efficient diffusion of sucrose. Hindrance factors are derived via theoretical modeling for different PD substructure configurations: sub-nano channels, slit, and hydrogel. The results suggest that a strong discrimination could only be realized when the PD opening is almost as small as the sugar oligomers. In order to find model parameters that match the in vivo situation, we measured the effective diffusion coefficient across the interface in question in Cucurbita pepo with 3D-photoactivation microscopy. Calculations indicate that a PD substructure of several sub-nano channels with a radius around 7 Å, a 10.4 Å-wide slit or a hydrogel with 49% polymer fraction would be compatible with the effective diffusion coefficient. If these configurations can accommodate sufficient flux of sucrose into the IC, while blocking raffinose and stachyose movement was assessed using literature data. While the slit-configuration would efficiently prevent the sugar oligomers from “leaking” from the IC, none of the configurations could enable a diffusion-driven sucrose flux that matches the reported rates at a physiologically relevant concentration potential. The presented data provides a first insight on how the substructure of PD could enable selective transport, but indicates that additional factors are involved in efficient phloem loading in active symplasmic loading species. PMID

  2. Different impressions of other agents obtained through social interaction uniquely modulate dorsal and ventral pathway activities in the social human brain.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Terada, Kazunori; Morita, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Haji, Tomoki; Kozima, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Omori, Takashi; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-09-01

    Internal (neuronal) representations in the brain are modified by our experiences, and this phenomenon is not unique to sensory and motor systems. Here, we show that different impressions obtained through social interaction with a variety of agents uniquely modulate activity of dorsal and ventral pathways of the brain network that mediates human social behavior. We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 16 healthy volunteers when they performed a simple matching-pennies game with a human, human-like android, mechanical robot, interactive robot, and a computer. Before playing this game in the scanner, participants experienced social interactions with each opponent separately and scored their initial impressions using two questionnaires. We found that the participants perceived opponents in two mental dimensions: one represented "mind-holderness" in which participants attributed anthropomorphic impressions to some of the opponents that had mental functions, while the other dimension represented "mind-readerness" in which participants characterized opponents as intelligent. Interestingly, this "mind-readerness" dimension correlated to participants frequently changing their game tactic to prevent opponents from envisioning their strategy, and this was corroborated by increased entropy during the game. We also found that the two factors separately modulated activity in distinct social brain regions. Specifically, mind-holderness modulated activity in the dorsal aspect of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal and posterior paracingulate cortices, while mind-readerness modulated activity in the ventral aspect of TPJ and the temporal pole. These results clearly demonstrate that activity in social brain networks is modulated through pre-scanning experiences of social interaction with a variety of agents. Furthermore, our findings elucidated the existence of two distinct functional networks in the social human brain

  3. Contribution of diet and physical activity to metabolic parameters among survivors of childhood leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tonorezos, Emily S.; Robien, Kim; Eshelman-Kent, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Church, Timothy S.; Ross, Robert; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determine the relationship between diet and metabolic abnormalities among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods We surveyed 117 adult survivors of childhood ALL using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was measured with the SenseWear Pro2 Armband. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were measured by abdominal CT. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern was calculated using the index developed by Trichopoulou. Subjects were compared using multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender. Results Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with lower visceral adiposity (P=0.07), subcutaneous adiposity (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.005), and body mass index (P=0.04). For each point higher on the Mediterranean Diet Score, the odds of having the metabolic syndrome fell by 31% (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.50, 0.94; P = 0.019). Higher dairy intake was associated with higher HOMA-IR (P =0.014), but other individual components of the Mediterranean diet, such as low intake of meat or high intake of fruits and vegetables, were not significant. PAEE was not independently associated with metabolic outcomes, although higher PAEE was associated with lower body mass index. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with better metabolic and anthropometric parameters in this cross-sectional study of ALL survivors. PMID:23187859

  4. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested.

  5. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods is the non-linear relation linking actuator strokes to the point spread function in the coronagraph focal plane. The Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) method is achieving this minimization by solving a non linear differential Monge Ampere equation. Once this open loop method have reached the minimum, a close-loop stroke minimization method can be applied to correct for phase and amplitude aberrations to achieve the ultimate contrast. In this paper, I describe the results of the parametric analysis that that I have undertaken on this method. After recalling the principle of the method, I will described the explored parameter space (deformable mirror set-up, shape of the pupil, bandwidth, coronagraph designs). I will precisely described the way I simulated the Vortex coronagraph for this numerical simulation. Finally I will present the preliminary results of this parametric analysis for space telescope pupils only.

  6. Effects of attention and rewarded activity on immune parameters and wound healing in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ernst, K; Tuchscherer, M; Kanitz, E; Puppe, B; Manteuffel, G

    2006-10-30

    Challenging animals with a demanding situation they are able to cope with and where they are rewarded may be a source of positive emotions and possibly of increased welfare. In order to test if this results in changes of immunological parameters and wound healing, 56 pigs (7-20 weeks of age), housed in groups of 8 animals each, were successfully trained to recognize and localize an individual acoustic summons and to receive a small portion of feed as a reward. Immune reactions and the development of a standardized biopsy wound were compared to values of conventionally fed control groups of equal size and animal-to-feeding-place ratio (2:1). In the experimental animals a significantly higher concentration of IgG as well as an increased in vitro T-cell proliferation to ConA but a reduced LPS-induced proliferation of B-cells was found, while basal salivary cortisol concentrations were similar. Wound development was better in the experimental animals as measured by the area of the inflammatory corona. It decreased more rapidly in the experimental animals since the 5th day after biopsy and was significantly smaller than in the control groups. We conclude that environmental enrichment by equipment provoking attention and cognitive activity which is rewarded by feed may play a beneficial role for physical welfare of intensively housed pigs.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-impregnated with MgZnAl mixed oxides obtained from layered double hydroxides for phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Marciano Fabiano; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; Milagres, Jaderson Lopes; Miranda, Liany Divina Lima

    2015-12-01

    A series of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalysts were successfully synthesized from ternary (Mg, Zn and Al) layered double hydroxides impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles by the co-precipitation method at variable pH with different Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratios. The composite photocatalysts were calcined at 500 °C resulting in the incorporation of oxide zinc, in the calcined MgZnAl LDH structure. Synergistic effect between ZnO and TiO2 lead to significant enhancement of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalytic activity. Composite photocatalysts were characterized by ICP-MS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM, EDS, IR and UV-vis DRS. Phenol in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) was used as a model compound for evaluation of UV-vis (filter cut-off for λ > 300 nm) photocatalytic activity. The most efficient photocatalyst composite was obtained at a 5% Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratio, in the catalyst identified as TiO2/MgZnAl-5. This composite catalyst had high photocatalytic activity, completely destroying phenol and removing 80% of total organic carbon in solution after 360 min. The TiO2/MgZnAl-5 catalyst remained relatively stable, presenting a 15% decrease in phenol degradation efficiency after five consecutive photocatalytic cycles.

  8. Effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the physico-chemical, mechanical properties and biological activity on a mixture of polycaprolactone and polyurethanes obtained from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Fabian; Uscategui, Yomaira L; Diaz, Luis; Cobo, Martha; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, polyurethane materials were obtained from castor oil, polycaprolactone and isophorone diisocyanate by incorporating different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% w/w) as an additive to improve the mechanical properties and the biological activity of polyurethanes. The polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain fracture tests and swelling analysis, and the hydrophilic character of the surface was determined by contact angle trials. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the changes of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties and the in vitro biological activity of the polyurethanes. It was found that the incorporation of chitosan enhances the ultimate tensile strength of the polyurethanes and does not affect the strain at fracture in polyurethanes with 5% w/w of polycaprolactone and concentrations of chitosan ranging from 0 to 2% w/w. In addition, PCL5-Q-PU formulations and their degradation products did not affect cell viability of L929 mouse fibroblast and 3T3, respectively. Polyurethane formulations showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The results of this study have highlighted the potential biomedical application of this polyurethanes related to soft and cardiovascular tissues.

  9. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens.

  10. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  11. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Hypericum perforatum adventitious roots cultured in a mist bioreactor against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.

  12. Growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands on several human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Tatsuya; Suzui, Masumi; Takamatsu, Reika; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Fujino, Tetsuya; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of herbs for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether crude extracts obtained from 44 herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands might contain components capable of inhibiting the growth of a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines. Leaves, roots and other parts of the plants were extracted with chloroform, and the crude extracts were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and used for the experiments. Extracts of Hemerocallis fulva, Ipomoea batatas, Curcuma longa, and Nasturium officinale caused marked dose-dependent growth inhibition, with IC(50) values in the range of 10-80 mug/ml. With the HCT116 cell line, the extracts of Hemerocallis fulva and Ipomoea batatas induced G1 cell cycle arrest after 48 h of treatment. In addition, we found that extracts of Curcuma longa, and Nasturium officinale induced apoptosis in these cells after 48 h of treatment. The present studies are the first systematic examination of the growth inhibitory effects of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands. The findings provide evidence that several plants in the Ryukyu Islands contain components that may have anticancer activity.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil obtained from Ocimum basilicum complexed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Martins, Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; E Castro, Fyama Ferreira; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Fernandes, Maria Neyze Martins; da Silva, Bruno Anderson Fernandes; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Sousa; Menezes, Paula Dos Passos; Nunes, Paula Santos; Matos, Isabella Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Goncalves Wanderley, Almir; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2017-02-22

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides can enhance the bioavailability of drugs. Ocimum basilicum is an aromatic plant found in Brazil used in culinary. The essential oil of this plant presents anti-edematogenic and anti-inflammatory activities in acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil obtained from O. basilicum complexed with β - cyclodextrin (OBEO/β-CD) in mice. The complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was performed by different methods and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using mice models of paw edema induced by carrageenan, dextran, histamine and arachidonic acid (AA); vascular permeability and peritonitis induced by carrageenan and granuloma induced by cotton block introduction. The DSC, TG and SEM analysis indicated that the OBEO was successfully complexed with β-CD. The oral administration of OEOB/β-CD prevented paw edema formation by decreasing vascular permeability in vivo, inhibited leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity, and inhibited granuloma formation in mice. Our results indicate that conjugation with β-CD improves the anti-inflammatory effects of OBEO in mice models of acute and chronic inflammation, indicating that this complex can be used in anti-inflammatory drug development.

  14. Identification of the most sensitive parameters in the activated sludge model implemented in BioWin software.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Biernacki, Rafal

    2010-10-01

    In order to simulate biological wastewater treatment processes, data concerning wastewater and sludge composition, process kinetics and stoichiometry are required. Selection of the most sensitive parameters is an important step of model calibration. The aim of this work is to verify the predictability of the activated sludge model, which is implemented in BioWin software, and select its most influential kinetic and stoichiometric parameters with the help of sensitivity analysis approach. Two different measures of sensitivity are applied: the normalised sensitivity coefficient (S(i,j)) and the mean square sensitivity measure (delta(j)(msqr)). It occurs that 17 kinetic and stoichiometric parameters of the BioWin activated sludge (AS) model can be regarded as influential on the basis of S(i,j) calculations. Half of the influential parameters are associated with growth and decay of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). The identification of the set of the most sensitive parameters should support the users of this model and initiate the elaboration of determination procedures for the parameters, for which it has not been done yet.

  15. Downscaling of climate parameters in Bode river basin in Germany using Active Learning Method (ALM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

    2009-04-01

    This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events", which concerns itself of "extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany „with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series and predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between global and

  16. Active vibration control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping and Adaptive Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. P.; Luo, B.; Huang, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a vibration control strategy for a two-link Flexible Joint Manipulator (FJM) with a Hexapod Active Manipulator (HAM). A dynamic model of the multi-body, rigid-flexible system composed of an FJM, a HAM and a spacecraft was built. A hybrid controller was proposed by combining the Input Shaping (IS) technique with an Adaptive-Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller (APADRC). The controller was used to suppress the vibration caused by external disturbances and input motions. Parameters of the APADRC were adaptively adjusted to ensure the characteristic of the closed loop system to be a given reference system, even if the configuration of the manipulator significantly changes during motion. Because precise parameters of the flexible manipulator are not required in the IS system, the operation of the controller was sufficiently robust to accommodate uncertainties in system parameters. Simulations results verified the effectiveness of the HAM scheme and controller in the vibration suppression of FJM during operation.

  17. Validating proposed migration equation and parameters' values as a tool to reproduce and predict (137)Cs vertical migration activity in Spanish soils.

    PubMed

    Olondo, C; Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R

    2017-01-05

    This paper shows the procedure performed to validate the migration equation and the migration parameters' values presented in a previous paper (Legarda et al., 2011) regarding the migration of (137)Cs in Spanish mainland soils. In this paper, this model validation has been carried out checking experimentally obtained activity concentration values against those predicted by the model. This experimental data come from the measured vertical activity profiles of 8 new sampling points which are located in northern Spain. Before testing predicted values of the model, the uncertainty of those values has been assessed with the appropriate uncertainty analysis. Once establishing the uncertainty of the model, both activity concentration values, experimental versus model predicted ones, have been compared. Model validation has been performed analyzing its accuracy, studying it as a whole and also at different depth intervals. As a result, this model has been validated as a tool to predict (137)Cs behaviour in a Mediterranean environment.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of red blood cell membrane with highly uniform active substrates obtained using block copolymers self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Malafronte, Anna; Dochshanov, Alden; Rusciano, Giulia; Auriemma, Finizia; Pesce, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Claudio; Sasso, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    In this communication, we discuss the application of ordered, ultrahigh-density templates of nano-textured Ag-particles obtained by self-assembling of inorganic-containing polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) micelles, for the spectroscopic surface-enhanced Raman imaging in-vitro of red blood cells (RBCs) and its capability to identify the vibrational fingerprint of the plasma membrane of the cell physisorbed to the SERS substrate. Hexagonal arrays of PS-b-P4VP micelles, with selective inclusion of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the polar core, prepared by in situ reduction of a suitable precursor, are obtained by polymer self-assembly upon fast solvent evaporation during spin coating on the supporting substrate. UV irradiation and/or plasma oxygen treatment remove the polymer matrix leaving immobilized nano-islands of Ag-NPs. Such a kind of SERS-active substrate consists of a reproducible and uniform twodimensional hexagonal array of silver clusters with a diameter ranging from 25 to 30 nm (single particles having typically diameters of 5 nm) and nano-island gap distances of the order of 5-8 nm on silicon and 15 nm on glass , while giving rise to high enhancement factors and addressing the issue of SERS reproducibility. The basic substrate supporting the plasmonic coating used in this work is either of silicon or glass. This last allows working in back scattering configuration permitting real time monitoring, via microscopy, of the RBCs on which Raman measurements are being carried out. The template is thus applied for surface-enhanced Raman analysis of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane in confocal micro-Raman configuration demonstrating to have SERS imaging potential thanks to the uniformity of the nano-textured substrate. The first experimental evidence of SERS imaging of a red blood cell membrane in-vitro is demonstrated.

  19. The Fourier analysis applied to the relationship between (7)Be activity in the Serbian atmosphere and meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Rajačić, M M; Todorović, D J; Krneta Nikolić, J D; Janković, M M; Djurdjević, V S

    2016-09-01

    Air sample monitoring in Serbia, Belgrade started in the 1960s, while (7)Be activity in air and total (dry and wet) deposition has been monitored for the last 22 years by the Environment and Radiation Protection Department of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Vinca. Using this data collection, the changes of the (7)Be activity in the air and the total (wet and dry) deposition samples, as well as their correlation with meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, cloudiness, sunshine duration, precipitation and humidity) that affect (7)Be concentration in the atmosphere, were mathematically described using the Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis confirmed the expected; the frequency with the largest intensity in the harmonic spectra of the (7)Be activity corresponds to a period of 1 year, the same as the largest intensity frequency in Fourier series of meteorological parameters. To analyze the quality of the results produced by the Fourier analysis, we compared the measured values of the parameters with the values calculated according to the Fourier series. Absolute deviations between measured and predicted mean monthly values are in range from 0.02 mBq/m(3) to 0.7 mBq/m(3) for (7)Be activity in air, and 0.01 Bq/m(2) and 0.6 Bq/m(2) for (7)Be activity in deposition samples. Relatively good agreement of measured and predicted results offers the possibility of prediction of the (7)Be activity.

  20. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with antimicrobial activity from Origanum vulgare L.: determination of optimal extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, S; Cavero, S; Jaime, L; Ibañez, E; Señoráns, F J; Reglero, G

    2006-02-01

    Oregano leaves were extracted using a pilot-scale supercritical fluid extraction plant under a wide range of extraction conditions, with the goal of determining the extraction and fractionation conditions to obtain extracts with optimal antimicrobial activity. In this investigation, the essential oil-rich fractions were selectively precipitated in the second separator, and their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions resulted in the identification of 27 compounds of the essential oil. The main components of these fractions were carvacrol, trans-sabinene hydrate, cis-piperitol, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against six different microbial species, including two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), a yeast (Candida albicans), and a fungus (Aspergillus niger). All of the supercritical fluid extraction fractions obtained showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, although the most active fraction was the one obtained in experiment 5 (fraction was obtained with 7% ethanol at 150 bar and 40 degrees C). C. albicans was the most sensitive microorganism to the oregano extracts, whereas the least susceptible was A. niger. Carvacrol, sabinene hydrate, borneol, and linalool standards also showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, with carvacrol being the most effective. Consequently, it was confirmed that essential oil from experiment 5, with the best antimicrobial activity, also presented the highest quantity of carvacrol.

  2. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  3. Stellar magnetic activity and variability of oscillation parameters: An investigation of 24 solar-like stars observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, René; Schad, Ariane; Davies, Guy; Roth, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Context. The Sun and solar-like stars undergo activity cycles for which the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The oscillations of the Sun are known to vary with its activity cycle and these changes provide diagnostics on the conditions below the photosphere. Kepler has detected solar-like oscillations in hundreds of stars but as of yet, no widespread detection of signatures of magnetic activity cycles in the oscillation parameters of these stars have been reported. Aims: We analysed the photometric short cadence Kepler time series of a set of 24 solar-like stars, which were observed for at least 960 d each, with the aim to find signatures of stellar magnetic activity in the oscillation parameters. Methods: We analyse the temporal evolution of oscillation parameters by measuring mode frequency shifts, changes in the height of the p-mode envelope, as well as granulation timescales. Results: For 23 of the 24 investigated stars, we find significant frequency shifts in time. We present evidence for magnetic activity in six of these stars. We find that the amplitude of the frequency shifts decreases with stellar age and rotation period. For KIC 8006161 (the most prominent example), we find that frequency shifts are smallest for the lowest and largest for the highest p-mode frequencies, as they are for the Sun. Conclusions: These findings show that magnetic activity can be routinely observed in the oscillation parameters for solar-like stars, which opens up the possibility of placing the solar activity cycle in the context of other stars by asteroseismology.

  4. Articulatory Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladefoged, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 16 parameters hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for linguistic phonetic specifications. Suggests seven parameters affecting tongue shapes, three determining the positions of the lips, one controlling the position of the velum, four varying laryngeal actions, and one controlling respiratory activity. (RL)

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

    2014-10-15

    Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5μg/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST-Kepler parameters and activity indicators (Frasca+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, A.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; De Cat, P.; Catanzaro, G.; Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B.; Luo, A. L.; Shi, J. R.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, H. T.

    2016-07-01

    Spectral type, atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, and [Fe/H]), radial velocity (RV) and projected rotational velocity (vsini) are quoted in Table A.3. Table A.4 reports the H-alpha and CaII-IRT equivalent widths for 577 spectra of 547 targets. (2 data files).

  7. Effects of ion source operating parameters on direct analysis in real time of 18 active components from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Qu, Haibin

    2016-03-20

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) provides a new analytical method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The present study investigated the effects of key ion source operating parameters on DART-MS analysis of various TCM active components. A total of 18 active components, including phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavones, volatile oils, and glycosides, were examined. For each substance, the peak area and signal-to-noise of its characteristic ions under different reagent gases and heater temperatures were compared. Based on the comparison, the relationships among chemical structures, ion source parameters and instrument responses were revealed. Finally, some suggestions about choosing reagent gas and heater temperature were proposed for types of TCM active substance, which offered a reference for the application of DART-MS on TCM analysis.

  8. Relative desirability of leisure activities and work parameters in a simulation of isolated work stations. [long term space flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullins, W. R., Jr.; Rogers, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The kinds of activities that are attractive to man in long duration isolation are delineated considering meaningful work as major activity and a choice of leisure/living provisions. The dependent variables are the relative distribution between various work, leisure, and living activities where external constraints on the subject's freedom of choice are minimized. Results indicate that an average of at least five hours per day of significant meaningful work is required for satisfactory enjoyment of the situation; most other parameters of the situation have less effects on overall performance and satisfaction

  9. Parameter Identification of Long Stroke and Short Stroke MR Damper for its Use in Semi-Active Vibration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi Priya, C.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are devices that can be used for structural vibration reduction under seismic excitation. These devices are used in semi-active control which require less power compared to active devices and offer high reliability compared to passive devices. Despite the advantages of MR damper, use of these dampers in an effective way in a structure is highly challenging and a precise modelling is required as these dampers are highly non-linear. Among the parametric models available, Bouc-Wen model is widely used because of its effective modelling of the hysteretic force-velocity curve of MR damper. The parameters of Bouc-Wen model are damper dependent and hence need to be identified before utilising the damper for further simulation studies. In this work, the parametric identification of Bouc-Wen model for commercially available long stroke and short stroke MR damper (RD 8040-1 and RD 8041-1) is done. For this, experimental characterization of the dampers are carried out using hydraulic actuators mounted on a self-restraining frame. The damper is driven harmonically in the testing setup at various combinations of frequency, amplitude, current and displacement. Using the experimental characterization, parameters of Bouc-Wen model are identified by Levenberg-Marquardt optimization Algorithm (LMA). The identified parameters are validated by comparing with the experimental results. The identified parameters are believed to be worthwhile for the use of these MR dampers in further studies of real-time semi-active vibration control of structures.

  10. Relationship between protozoan and metazoan communities and operation and performance parameters in a textile sewage activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Araújo dos Santos, Liliana; Ferreira, Vânia; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Nicolau, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims at investigating the possibility of assessing performance and depuration conditions of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant through an exploration of the microfauna. The plant, receiving textile industrial (70%) and domestic (30%) sewage, consists of a two-step biological depurating plant, with activated sludge followed by a percolating system. A total of 35 samples were analyzed during five months, and 30 taxa of protozoa and small metazoa were found. Epistylis rotans, Vorticella microstoma, Aspidisca cicada and Arcella sp. were the most frequent protozoa identified. Several significant correlations between biological, physical-chemical and operational parameters were determined, but no significant correlations could be established between biological parameters and removal efficiencies. The Sludge Biotic Index (SBI) reflected the overall state of the community but only presented statistically significant correlations with the influent total suspended solids (TSS), total suspended solids in mixed-liquor (MLTSS) and dissolved oxygen (DO). The determination of key groups and taxa along with general community parameters showed to have potential value as indicators of the depuration conditions. Despite the impossibility of correlating biological parameters and the removal efficiencies, the present study attests the value of the microfauna to assess the operation of the activated sludge systems even in the case of non-conventional plants and/or plants receiving industrial sewage.

  11. Effect of vitamin E on ectonucleotidase activities in synaptosomes and platelets and parameters of oxidative stress in rats experimentally demyelinated.

    PubMed

    Spanevello, Roselia; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Schmatz, Roberta; Bagatini, Margarete; Stefanello, Naiara; Correa, Maisa; Kaizer, Rosilene; Maldonado, Paula; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Graça, Dominguita L; Martins, Tessie B; Danesi, Cristiane; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C

    2009-08-28

    NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities in synaptosomes and platelets and oxidative stress parameters, such as TBARS levels, non-protein thiols and catalase activity were analyzed in rats submitted to demyelination by ethidium bromide (EB) and treated with vitamin E. The following groups were studied: I control (saline); II (canola oil); III (vitamin E); IV (EB) and V (EB and vitamin E). 2mg/kg of vitamin E were injected intraperitoneally in animals from groups III and V for seven days. After this time, the animals were submitted to euthanasia and samples were collected for biochemical assays. The results showed that NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were significantly increased in synaptosomes and platelets of rats from group IV when compared with the groups I, II, III and V (p<0.05). When demyelinated rats were treated with vitamin E (group V), NTPDase activity in synaptosomes and platelets was reduced to control level, while 5'-nucleotidase activity was significantly increased in relation to the control group (p<0.05). TBARS levels and non-protein thiols were significantly increased in group IV (p<0.05), while catalase activity was significantly decreased in this group when compared with the control group (p<0.05). No differences in TBARS levels, non-protein thiols and catalase activity were observed in groups I, II, III and V. These findings demonstrate that ectonucleotidase activities in synaptosomes and platelets and some parameters of oxidative stress were altered after a demyelinating event on the nervous system and that treatment with vitamin E modulated adenine nucleotide hydrolysis and altered oxidative stress parameters in this experimental condition.

  12. A Successful Attempt to Obtain the Linear Dependence Between One-Photon and Two-Photon Spectral Properties and Hammett Parameters of Various Aromatic Substituents in New π-Extended Asymmetric Organic Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nvdan; Gong, Yulong; Wang, Xinchao; Lu, Yao; Peng, Guangyue; Yang, Long; Zhang, Shengtao; Luo, Ziping; Li, Hongru; Gao, Fang

    2015-11-01

    A series of new asymmetric chromophores containing aromatic substituents and possessing the excellent π-extension in space were prepared through multi-steps routes. One-photon and two-photon spectral properties of these new chromophores could be tuned by these substituents finely and simultaneously. The linear correlation of the wave numbers of the one-photon absorption and emission maxima to Hammett parameters of these substituents was presented. Near infrared two-photon absorption emission integrated areas of the target chromophores were correlated linearly to Hammett constants of these substituted groups.

  13. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Results Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations

  14. The effect of solar activity on the evolution of solar wind parameters during the rise of the 24th cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod'kin, D. G.; Shugay, Yu. S.; Slemzin, V. A.; Veselovskii, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of parameters of the near-Earth solar wind (SW) and the effect of solar activity on the parameters of three SW components (fast SW from large-scale coronal holes (CHs); slow SW from active regions, streamers, and other sources; and transient flows related to sporadic solar activity) at the beginning of the 24th solar cycle (2009-2011) are analyzed. It is demonstrated that temperaturedependent parameters of ionic composition (C+6/C+5 and O+7/O+6) of the transient SW component in the profound minimum of solar activity in 2009 were correlated with the variation of the rate of weak (type C and weaker) flares. This verifies the presence of a hot component associated with these flares in the SW. The variations in the velocity and the kinetic temperature of fast SW from CHs with an increase in activity are more pronounced in the bulk of the high-speed stream, and the variations of O+7/O+6 and Fe/O ratios and the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field are the most prominent in the region of interaction between fast and slow SW streams. The analysis reveals that a value of O+7/O+6 = 0.1 serves as the criterion to distinguish between fast SW streams and interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the 2009 activity minimum. This value is lower than the one (0.145) determined earlier based on the data on the 23rd cycle (Zhao et al., 2009). Therefore, the distinguishing criterion is not an absolute one and depends on the solar activity level.

  15. Changes in rabbit jaw-muscle activity parameters in response to reduced masticatory load.

    PubMed

    Grünheid, T; Brugman, P; Zentner, A; Langenbach, G E J

    2010-03-01

    Mechanical food properties influence the neuromuscular activity of jaw-closing muscles during mastication. It is, however, unknown how the activity profiles of the jaw muscles are influenced by long-term alterations in masticatory load. In order to elucidate the effect of reduced masticatory load on the daily habitual activity profiles of three functionally different jaw muscles, the electromyograms of the masseter, temporalis and digastric muscles were recorded telemetrically in 16 male rabbits between seven and 20 weeks of age. Starting at eight weeks of age the experimental animals were fed significantly softer pellets than the control animals. Daily muscle activity was quantified by the relative duration of muscle use (duty time), burst number and burst length in relation to multiple activity levels. The daily duty time and burst number of the masseter muscle were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 5% and 10% of the maximum activity during the two weeks following the change in food hardness. By contrast, altered food hardness did not significantly influence the activity characteristics of the temporalis and digastric muscles. The findings suggest that a reduction in masticatory load decreases the neuromuscular activity of the jaw-closing muscles that are primarily responsible for force generation during mastication. This decrease is most pronounced in the weeks immediately following the change in food hardness and is limited to the activity levels that reflect muscle contractions during chewing. These findings support the conclusion that the masticatory system manifests few diet-specific long-term changes in the activity profiles of jaw muscles.

  16. Plasmin and coagulant activities in a minicurd model system: Study of technological parameters.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M A; Perotti, M C; Candioti, M C; Bergamini, C V; Hynes, E R

    2016-09-01

    The effect of scalding temperature of the curd, the inclusion of a washing step, and the pH at whey drainage on plasmin and coagulant activities were assessed in a minicurd model of young hard cooked cheese. The variables were tested as follows: draining pH was assayed at 3 levels (4.6, 5.6, and 6.4), curd scalding temperature was tested at 50 and 56°C, and washing of the curd was examined at 2 levels (no washing step, and the replacement of the whey by water). Increase in pH at whey drainage and washing of the curd had a positive effect on plasmin activity, which was also evidenced by compatible changes in soluble peptide profiles. No effect of increased cooking temperature was found on plasmin activity. Plasminogen activation was not verified in any treatment. As for coagulant, lower pH values at whey drainage and a decrease in curd cooking temperature increased its activity; washing of the curd showed no influence on coagulant residual activity. These results were consistent with proteolysis described by peptide profiles, electrophoresis, and soluble nitrogen fractions.

  17. Green tea catechins alone or in combination alter functional parameters of human neutrophils via suppressing the activation of TLR-4/NFκB p65 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, M P; Morandi, A C; Otton, R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a mixture containing the four main catechins found in green tea, as well it separately, as modulators of the functional parameters of human neutrophils. The cells were obtained from peripheral blood of healthy individuals isolated and cultured with a mix: 30 μM of EGCG, 3 μM of EGC, 2 μM of ECG and 1.4 μM of EC, as well as each one alone. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of catechins, production of several reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR), Nrf2, TLR4/IKK/NFκB, CD11b mRNA levels, intracellular calcium release, chemotactic and phagocytic capacity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and G6PDH activities, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and pro-inflammatory cytokines release, protein levels of TLR4, p38 MAPK, iNOS and p-65 NFκB. The actions of the catechins were evidenced by the reduction in inflammatory parameters, including the suppression of TLR4, NFκB and iNOS protein expression, decreased release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, migration capacity, MPO activity and HOCl production and the suppression of ROS, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite production, while inducing antioxidant enzyme activities and Nrf2 mRNA levels, phagocytic capacity and calcium release. Our results demonstrate that catechins present marked immunomodulatory actions, either alone or in combination.

  18. Effects of Increasing Doses of Activated Recombinant Factor VII (rFVIIa) on Hemostatic Parameters in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-07

    when exposed to por- cine thromboplastin (11, 12). Furthermore, standard in vitro co- agulation tests commonly use as a tissue factor source rabbit...activity in pig blood when measured by in vitro tests than the same dose has in vivo when exposed solely to pig tissue factor. This could compli...on capillary bleed- ing time and in vitro haemostatic parameters using species-spe- cific procedures. The second phase (Injury Phase) was a pilot

  19. Variation of Equatorial F-Region Irregularity Parameters as a Function of Solar Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    stations at Ancon and Huancayo and the coordinates (Ancon L9 and Huancayo MS) pertaining to these measurements are illus- trated in Figure 1. The...ionosonde data were obtained at Huancayo (H) and scintillation measurements were performed from both Ancon (A) and lHuancayo (H). 3 2. IONOGRAM ANALYSIS...VIRTUAL IEIGHT AND SPREAD-F Early observations of equatorial spread-F at Huancayo (Booker and Wells, 1938) indicated that the onset of spread-F is

  20. Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide in Cyprinus carpio: assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity, hematological responses and serum biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalil; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Kosari, Ali Asghar

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity effects of acute and sublethal of Roundup® as a glyphosate-based herbicide on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and several hematological and biochemical parameters of Cyprinus carpio. The LC₅₀-96 h of Roundup® to C. carpio was found to be 22.19 ppm. Common carp was subjected to Roundup® at 0 (control), 3.5, 7 and 14 ppm for 16 days, and the AChE activity is verified in tissues of gill, muscle, brain and liver. After 5 days, a significant decrease was observed in the AChE activity of muscle, brain and liver tissues. Besides, a time- and dose-dependent increase in mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) was observed. In contrast, a significant decrease was found in the quantities of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and, red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cell count. Also, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Roundup® treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods. However, the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had a significant reduction behavior during the sampling days. It seems that the changes in hematological and biochemical parameters as well as AChE activity could be used as efficient biomarkers in order to determine Roundup® toxicity in aquatic environment.

  1. The influence of environmental parameters on active and maturing oceanic whitecaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B.; Ward, B.

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution images of the ocean surface are examined using digital processing, achieving quantifications of actively breaking (WA), maturing (WB), and total (WT = WA + WB) whitecaps. The images are selected from two data sets of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean to sample a maximal range of environmental conditions. A total of 125,860 images were processed and averaged to establish 622 10 min periods. Parameterizing WA, WB, and WT with wind speed achieved modest correlations while also displaying large variabilities. Parameterizing WT with wind speed and specific Reynolds numbers achieved correlation coefficients ranging from 0.76 to 0.79. The filtering of WT into its active stage of evolution WA and subsequent fittings with wind speed and specific Reynolds numbers achieved reduced correlation coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.66. We suggest that the contribution of WB serves to conceal and thus underestimate the variability of actively breaking waves.

  2. In Vitro Activity, Synergism, and Testing Parameters of Amikacin, with Comparisons to Other Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael T.; Matsen, John M.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of the new aminoglycoside antibiotic, amikacin, was evaluated in vitro against 219 clinical bacterial isolates. One hundred eighty-nine of the 219 strains had agar dilution minimal inhibitory concentration values of 8.0 μg/ml or less for amikacin. Comparative agar dilution studies were performed for gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin. Gentamicin was the most active overall, but tobramycin and amikacin also had significant activity against most bacterial groups. The effects of divalent cations on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to amikacin were evaluated, and the minimal inhibitory concentration values varied sixfold over a range of divalent cation concentrations from 0.2 to 8.75 mg%. The effects of media and inoculum size on disk susceptibility testing with amikacin were also evaluated. In addition, a synergistic interaction between carbenicillin and amikacin against P. aeruginosa was demonstrated. Amikacin appears to be a promising new broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. PMID:1259402

  3. Batch Tests To Determine Activity Distribution and Kinetic Parameters for Acetate Utilization in Expanded-Bed Anaerobic Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Peter; Suidan, Makram T.

    1990-01-01

    Batch tests to measure maximum acetate utilization rates were used to determine the distribution of acetate utilizers in expanded-bed sand and expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) reactors. The reactors were fed a mixture of acetate and 3-ethylphenol, and they contained the same predominant aceticlastic methanogen, Methanothrix sp. Batch tests were performed both on the entire reactor contents and with media removed from the reactors. Results indicated that activity was evenly distributed within the GAC reactors, whereas in the sand reactor a sludge blanket on top of the sand bed contained approximately 50% of the activity. The Monod half-velocity constant (Ks) for the acetate-utilizing methanogens in two expanded-bed GAC reactors was searched for by combining steady-state results with batch test data. All parameters necessary to develop a model with Monod kinetics were experimentally determined except for Ks. However, Ks was a function of the effluent 3-ethylphenol concentration, and batch test results demonstrated that maximum acetate utilization rates were not a function of the effluent 3-ethylphenol concentration. Addition of a competitive inhibition term into the Monod expression predicted the dependence of Ks on the effluent 3-ethylphenol concentration. A two-parameter search determined a Ks of 8.99 mg of acetate per liter and a Ki of 2.41 mg of 3-ethylphenol per liter. Model predictions were in agreement with experimental observations for all effluent 3-ethylphenol concentrations. Batch tests measured the activity for a specific substrate and determined the distribution of activity in the reactor. The use of steady-state data in conjunction with batch test results reduced the number of unknown kinetic parameters and thereby reduced the uncertainty in the results and the assumptions made. PMID:16348175

  4. The effects of environmental parameters on diffuse degassing at Stromboli volcano: Insights from joint monitoring of soil CO2 flux and radon activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiolo, M.; Ranaldi, M.; Tarchini, L.; Carapezza, M. L.; Coppola, D.; Ricci, T.; Cigolini, C.

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 flux and 222Rn activity measurements may positively contribute to the geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes. The influence of several environmental parameters on the gas signals has been substantially demonstrated. Therefore, the implementation of tools capable of removing (or minimising) the contribution of the atmospheric effects from the acquired time series is a challenge in volcano surveillance. Here, we present 4 years-long continuous monitoring (from April 2007 to September 2011) of radon activity and soil CO2 flux collected on the NE flank of Stromboli volcano. Both gases record higher emissions during fall-winter (up to 2700 Bq * m- 3 for radon and 750 g m- 2 day- 1 for CO2) than during spring-summer seasons. Short-time variations on 222Rn activity are modulated by changes in soil humidity (rainfall), and changes in soil CO2 flux that may be ascribed to variations in wind speed and direction. The spectral analyses reveal diurnal and semi-diurnal cycles on both gases, outlining that atmospheric variations are capable to modify the gas release rate from the soil. The long-term soil CO2 flux shows a slow decreasing trend, not visible in 222Rn activity, suggesting a possible difference in the source depth of the of the gases, CO2 being deeper and likely related to degassing at depth of the magma batch involved in the February-April 2007 effusive eruption. To minimise the effect of the environmental parameters on the 222Rn concentrations and soil CO2 fluxes, two different statistical treatments were applied: the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and the Principal Component Regression (PCR). These approaches allow to quantify the weight of each environmental factor on the two gas species and show a strong influence of some parameters on the gas transfer processes through soils. The residual values of radon and CO2 flux, i.e. the values obtained after correction for the environmental influence, were then compared with the eruptive episodes that

  5. Serum platelet factor 4 is a reliable activity parameter in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Yu, Na; Jia, Ya-Xu; Wan, Shu-Jun; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the diagnostic utility of serum platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels and to assess its accuracy in detecting inflammatory bowel disease activity. This study included 45 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 30 control subjects at Jinling Hospital between May 2014 and July 2015. Laboratory tests measured white blood count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelet count. PF4 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease activity: active and inactive. Median PF4 values dramatically increased in UC and CD patients compared with the healthy group (UC: 26.64 [20.00–36.22] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63–26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.002; CD: 25.56 [18.57–36.36] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63–26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.014); however, the serum PF4 levels between UC and CD failed to show a significant difference (26.64 [20.00–36.22] mg/mL vs 25.56 [18.57–36.36] mg/mL, P = 0.521). Furthermore, serum PF4 levels were elevated in both UC and CD patients with active disease (UC: 20.19 [14.89–23.53] mg/mL vs 28.86 [22.57–37.29] mg/mL, P < 0.001; CD: 18.33 [16.72–25.77] mg/mL vs 34.38 [22.58–39.92] mg/mL, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed higher PF4 level as an independent predictor of disease activity in UC and CD patients (UC: odds ratio 30.375, P = 0.002; CD: odds ratio 54.167, P < 0.001). The cut-off level of PF4 for distinguishing active from inactive UC patients was 24.1 mg/mL. While in CD patients, the cut-off level of PF4 was 19.24 mg/mL. Serum PF4 levels could be a potential biomarker for monitoring the disease activity of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:28296751

  6. Comparison of hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological parameters of healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy and the active labor phase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is accompanied by several hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological changes which revert to normal values after labor. The mean values of these parameters have been reported for developed countries, but not for Mexican women. Furthermore, labor constitutes a stress situation, in which these factors may be altered. It is known that serologic increase of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is associated with abnormal pregnancies, presenting very low level in normal pregnant women. Nevertheless, there are no studies where these measurements are compared in healthy pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy (3TP) and the active labor phase (ActLP). Methods Seventy five healthy Mexican pregnant women were included. Hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained in all cases, and serum Hsp70 levels were measured in a sample of 15 women at 3TP and at ActLP. Results Significant differences were found in most analysis performed and in Hsp70 concentration at 3TP as compared to ActLP, however all were within normal range in both conditions, supporting that only in pathological pregnancies Hsp70 is drastically increased. Conclusion Results obtained indicate that 3TP and ActLP have clinical similarities in normal pregnancies, therefore if abnormalities are found during 3TP, precautions should be taken before ActLP. PMID:21548965

  7. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system.

  8. Preventive control of odor emissions through manipulation of operational parameters during the active phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxiu; Lau, Anthony K; Wen, Zhiping S

    2009-06-01

    Better understanding of the effects of key operational parameters or environmental factors on odor emission is of critical importance for minimizing the generation of composting odors. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to examine the effects of various operating conditions on odor emissions. The results revealed that airflow rates that were too high or too low could result in higher total odor emissions. An optimal flowrate for odor control would be approximately 0.6 L/min.kg dry matter with intermittent aeration and a duty cycle of 33%. Temperature setpoint at 60 degrees C appeared to be a turning point for odor emission. Below this point, odor emissions increased with increasing temperature setpoint; conversely, odor emissions decreased with increasing temperature setpoint above this point. With regard to the composting material properties, odor emissions were greatly affected by the initial moisture content of feedstock. Both peak odor concentration and emission rate generally increased with higher initial moisture content. Odor emission was significant only at moisture levels higher than 65%. An initial moisture level below 45% is not recommended due to concern with the resulting lower degree of biodegradation. Biodegradable volatile solids content (BVS) of feedstock had pronounced effect on odor emissions. Peak odor concentration and emission rate increased dramatically as BVS increased from 45% to 65%, thus, total odor emission increased exponentially with BVS.

  9. Droplet-based microfluidic platform for high-throughput, multi-parameter screening of photosensitizer activity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soongwon; Kang, Dong-Ku; Sim, Steven; Geier, Florian; Kim, Jin-Young; Niu, Xize; Edel, Joshua B; Chang, Soo-Ik; Wootton, Robert C R; Elvira, Katherine S; deMello, Andrew J

    2013-09-17

    We present a fully integrated droplet-based microfluidic platform for the high-throughput assessment of photodynamic therapy photosensitizer (PDT) efficacy on Escherichia coli. The described platform is able to controllably encapsulate cells and photosensitizer within pL-volume droplets, incubate the droplets over the course of several days, add predetermined concentrations of viability assay agents, expose droplets to varying doses of electromagnetic radiation, and detect both live and dead cells online to score cell viability. The viability of cells after encapsulation and incubation is assessed in a direct fashion, and the viability scoring method is compared to model live/dead systems for calibration. Final results are validated against conventional colony forming unit assays. In addition, we show that the platform can be used to perform concurrent measurements of light and dark toxicity of the PDT agents and that the platform allows simultaneous measurement of experimental parameters that include dark toxicity, photosensitizer concentration, light dose, and oxygenation levels for the development and testing of PDT agents.

  10. Meltlets(®) of soy isoflavones: process optimization and the effect of extrusion spheronization process parameters on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Ketkee; Amin, Purnima

    2013-07-01

    In the current research work an attempt was made to develop "Melt in mouth pellets" (Meltlets(®)) containing 40% herbal extract of soy isoflavones that served to provide antioxidants activity in menopausal women. The process of extrusion-spheronization was optimized for extruder speed, extruder screen size, spheronization speed, and time. While doing so the herbal extract incorporated in the pellet matrix was subjected to various processing conditions such as the effect of the presence of other excipients, mixing or kneading to prepare wet mass, heat generated during the process of extrusion, spheronization, and drying. Thus, the work further investigates the effect of these processing parameters on the antioxidant activity of the soy isoflavone herbal extract incorporated in the formula. Thereby, the antioxidant activity of the soya bean herbal extract, Meltlets(®) and of the placebo pellets was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total reduction capacity.

  11. Environmentally realistic concentrations of the antibiotic Trimethoprim affect haemocyte parameters but not antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; De Notaris, Chiara; Finos, Livio; Filippini, Raffaella; Piovan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers were measured to evaluate the effects of Trimethoprim (TMP; 300, 600 and 900 ng/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days. The actual TMP concentrations were also measured in the experimental tanks. The total haemocyte count significantly increased in 7 day-exposed clams, whereas alterations in haemocyte volume were observed after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Haemocyte proliferation was increased significantly in animals exposed for 1 and 7 days, whereas haemocyte lysate lysozyme activity decreased significantly after 1 and 3 days. In addition, TMP significantly increased haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity after 3 and 7 days. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, only a significant time-dependent effect on CAT activity was recorded. This study demonstrated that environmentally realistic concentrations of TMP affect haemocyte parameters in clams, suggesting that haemocytes are a useful cellular model for the assessment of the impact of TMP on bivalves.

  12. Investigation of plasma parameters in an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma used for plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, M.; Khattak, Z. I.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Shabir, S.; Khan, A. W.; Zakaullah, M.

    2014-11-01

    Active screen cage-pulsed dc plasmas are widely used in the material processing applications such as plasma nitriding, carburizing and nitrocarburizing. Specifically for plasma nitriding applications, a H2-N2 mixture is used. In this article, a study of the electron number density (ne), atomic nitrogen density ([N]), electron temperature ? and the excitation temperature ? is reported in the presence of an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma. The ne and ? are determined here by a triple Langmuir probe, while [N] and ? are estimated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The two temperatures and their ratio ? are compared for different input parameters (such as applied power, gas pressure and H2 percentage). This study is useful in active screen cage plasma nitriding applications where only few plasma diagnostic measurements have been reported.

  13. Salinity effects on growth, photosynthetic parameters, and nitrogenase activity in estuarine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moisander, P H; McClinton, E; Paerl, H W

    2002-05-01

    Salinity has been suggested as being a controlling factor for blooms of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in estuaries. We tested the effect of salinity on the growth, N2 fixation, and photosynthetic activities of estuarine and freshwater isolates of heterocystous bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Anabaena aphanizomenoides and Anabaenopsis sp. were isolated from the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Lakes Dora and Griffin, central Florida. Salinity tolerance of these cyanobacteria was compared with that of two Nodularia strains from the Baltic Sea. We measured growth rates, N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity), and CO2 fixation at salinities between 0 and 20 g L(-1) NaCl. We also examined photosynthesis-irradiance relation-ships in response to salinity. Anabaenopsis maintained similar growth rates in the full range of salinities from 2 to 20 g L(-1) NaCl. Anabaena grew at up to 15 g L-', but the maximum salinity 20 g L(-1) NaCl was inhibitory. The upper limit for salinity tolerance of Cylindrospermopsis was 4 g L(-1) NaCl. Nodularia spp. maintained similar growth rates in the full range of salinities from 0 to 20 g L(-1) . Between 0 and 10 g L(-1), the growth rate of Nodularia spumigena was slower than that of the Neuse Estuary strains. In most strains, the sensitivity of nitrogenase activity and CO2 fixation to salinity appeared similar. Anabaenopsis, Anabaena, and the two Nodularia strains rapidly responded to NaCl by increasing their maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmn). Overall, both Neuse River Estuary and Baltic Sea strains showed an ability to acclimate to salt stress over short-(24 h) and long-term (several days to weeks) exposures. The study suggested that direct effect of salinity (as NaCl in these experiments) on cyanobacterial physiology does not alone explain the low frequency and magnitude of blooms of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in estuaries.

  14. Parameters of optical signals registered with the AZT-33IK telescope in active Radar-Progress space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eselevich, Maksim; Khakhinov, Vitaliy; Klunko, Evgeniy

    2016-09-01

    Images of Progress cargo spacecraft (PCS) and areas around them were captured by the AZT-33IK optical telescope (Sayan Observatory of ISTP SB RAS) during sessions of the active Radar-Progress space experiment. We took images of exhaust and fuel jets when propulsion systems worked and after they were cut off, during fuel system purging. In different sessions of the experiment, PCS had different orientations relative to the telescope, thus allowing us to find some parameters of the observed phenomena. These parameters make it possible to determine instants of engine ignitions, to estimate velocities of the jets, and, if necessary, to control the geometry of the space experiment. The paper reports common features of optical signals from jets measured in these experiments.

  15. B-cell activation in HIV infection: relationship of spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion to various immunological parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuma, H; Litwin, S; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals spontaneously secrete elevated levels of IgG, IgM and IgD. This increased level of synthesis and secretion is similar in HIV-infected subjects with no or few symptoms, in ARC patients and in AIDS patients. Thus, abnormal B-cell activation is characteristic of patients with mild as well as severe manifestations of HIV infection. The level of spontaneous cellular secretion of IgG, IgM and IgD correlates with serum levels of these isotypes. Levels of spontaneous cellular secretion of IgG and IgM correlate negatively with the percentage but not with the absolute number of T4-positive cells and correlate positively with the percentage but not with the absolute number of T8-positive cells. The data suggest that the proportional distribution of these T-cell subsets is a critical factor in the B-cell dysregulation leading to overproduction of IgG and IgM. On the other hand, spontaneous IgD secretion correlates with neither the percent nor the absolute number of T4 or T8 cells suggesting that the increase of IgD-secretion by B cells is independent of the T-cell defects. The data imply that more than one mechanism underlies the B-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:3260155

  16. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles Obtained by Four Different Techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm. and Evaluation for Biological Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, were obtained by four different isolation techniques and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Also in scope of the present work, the...

  17. Influence of lasing parameters on the cleaning efficacy of laser-activated irrigation with pulsed erbium lasers.

    PubMed

    Meire, Maarten A; Havelaerts, Sophie; De Moor, Roeland J

    2016-05-01

    Laser-activated irrigation (LAI) using erbium lasers is an irrigant agitation technique with great potential for improved cleaning of the root canal system, as shown in many in vitro studies. However, lasing parameters for LAI vary considerably and their influence remains unclear. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the influence of pulse energy, pulse frequency, pulse length, irradiation time and fibre tip shape, position and diameter on the cleaning efficacy of LAI. Transparent resin blocks containing standardized root canals (apical diameter of 0.4 mm, 6% taper, 15 mm long, with a coronal reservoir) were used as the test model. A standardized groove in the apical part of each canal wall was packed with stained dentin debris. The canals were filled with irrigant, which was activated by an erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser (2940 nm, AT Fidelis, Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia). In each experiment, one laser parameter was varied, while the others remained constant. In this way, the influence of pulse energy (10-40 mJ), pulse length (50-1000 μs), frequency (5-30 Hz), irradiation time (5-40 s) and fibre tip shape (flat or conical), position (pulp chamber, canal entrance, next to groove) and diameter (300-600 μm) was determined by treating 20 canals per parameter. The amount of debris remaining in the groove after each LAI procedure was scored and compared among the different treatments. The parameters significantly (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis) affecting debris removal from the groove were fibre tip position, pulse length, pulse energy, irradiation time and frequency. Fibre tip shape and diameter had no significant influence on the cleaning efficacy.

  18. Nanocomposites of C3N4 with Layers of MoS2 and Nitrogenated RGO, Obtained by Covalent Cross-linking: Synthesis, Characterization and HER Activity.

    PubMed

    Pramoda, K; Gupta, Uttam; Chhetri, Manjeet; Bandyopadhyay, Arkamita; Pati, Swapan K; Rao, Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra

    2017-03-07

    Generation of hydrogen by photochemical, electrochemical and other means is a vital area of research today and a variety of materials has been explored as catalysts for this purpose. C3N4, MoS2 and nitrogenated RGO (NRGO) are some of the important catalytic materials investigated for the HER reaction but the observed catalytic activities are somewhat marginal. Prompted by preliminary reports that covalent cross-linking of 2D materials to generate hetero assemblies or nanocomposites may have beneficial effect on the catalytic activity, we have synthesized nanocomposites wherein C3N4 is covalently bonded to MoS2 or NRGO nanosheets. The photochemical HER activity of the C3N4-MoS2 nanocomposite is found to be remarkable with a activity of 12778 µmoles h-1g-1 and a TOF of 2.35 h-1. The physical mixture of C3N4 and MoS2, on the other hand, does not exhibit notable catalytic activity. Encouraged by this result, we have studied electrochemical HER activity of these composites as well. C3N4-MoS2 shows superior activity relative to a physical mixture of MoS2 and C3N4. DFT calculations have been carried out to understand the HER activity of the nanocomposites. Charge-transfer between the components and greater planarity of cross-linked layers are important causes of the superior catalytic activity of the nanocomposites. Covalent linking of such 2D materials appears to be a worthwhile strategy for catalysis and other applications.

  19. Physical activity prevents alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure and glucometabolic parameters in a high-sugar diet model.

    PubMed

    Barbosa de Queiroz, Karina; Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Andrade Leal, Diego; Pinto, Angélica Barbosa G; Kappes-Becker, Lenice; Evangelista, Elisio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods. After training, animals were euthanized and the sera, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles were collected for further analysis. The HSD increased body weight after an 8-week period; it also increased the fat pads and the adipose index, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR). Transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in alterations of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and an increase in protein carbonylation. Regular physical activity partially reverted these alterations in rats fed a HSD, preventing mitochondrial morphological alterations and IR. Moreover, we observed a decrease in Pgc1α expression (qPCR analysis) in STD-EXE group and a less pronounced reduction in HSD-EXE group after an 8-week period. Thus, regular physical activity (swimming without workload) in rats fed a HSD can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and IR, highlighting the crucial role for physical activity on metabolic homeostasis.

  20. Extracting Kinematic Parameters for Monkey Bipedal Walking from Cortical Neuronal Ensemble Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Nathan A.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Peikon, Ian D.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to walk may be critically impacted as the result of neurological injury or disease. While recent advances in brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) have demonstrated the feasibility of upper-limb neuroprostheses, BMIs have not been evaluated as a means to restore walking. Here, we demonstrate that chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons can be used to predict the kinematics of bipedal walking in rhesus macaques – both offline and in real time. Linear decoders extracted 3D coordinates of leg joints and leg muscle electromyograms from the activity of hundreds of cortical neurons. As more complex patterns of walking were produced by varying the gait speed and direction, larger neuronal populations were needed to accurately extract walking patterns. Extraction was further improved using a switching decoder which designated a submodel for each walking paradigm. We propose that BMIs may one day allow severely paralyzed patients to walk again. PMID:19404411

  1. The fundamental parameters of the chromospherically active K2 dwarf Epsilon Eridani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Smith, Geoffrey

    1993-01-01

    A silicon array detector was used to record regions exhibiting calcium and iron lines in the spectrum of the chromospherically active K2 dwarf Epsilon Eri at a resolution of 120,000 and with an SNR of not less than 200. The effective temperature, surface gravity, logarithmic iron and calcium abundances, and microturbulence are determined. Three high-excitation lines of Fe I were found to yield anomalously low iron abundances; it is postulated that the origin of the anomaly lies in the nonthermal excitation of the upper photosphere caused by chromospheric emission. It is shown that Epsilon Eri is in an evolutionary stage consistent with an M/solar mass of 0.85 theoretical zero-age main-sequence model. It is suggested that Epsilon Eri is almost certainly a young star of slightly less than one solar mass.

  2. A comparative study of results obtained in magnetotelluric deep soundings in Villarrica active volcano zone (Chile) with gravity investigations, distribution of earthquake foci, heat flow empirical relationships, isotopic geochemistry 87Sr/ 86Sr and SB systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M.; Fournier, H.; Mamani, M.; Febrer, J.; Borzotta, E.; Maidana, A.

    The first magnetotelluric deep soundings in Chile were carried out during 1986 in the Villarrica active volcano zone (39°25'S, 71°57'W). In the TM mode of polarization, the curves show a distorted segment with dispersion. A static distortion at long periods is observed in curves in the TE mode of polarization; the segment was shifted vertically to fit the geomagnetic global model values at daily periods. This modified curve was used for 1D modelling to determine the electrical structure in the study area. The upper level of the intermediate conducting layer of resistivity 20-60 ω m is found to be at 35-50 km depth. A higher resistivity layer (600 ω m), starting at 100 km depth, may be resolved in the intermediate conducting layer. A sharp decrease in the resistivity is shown by the model at 500 km. Large heterogeneities at the level of the conducting layer encountered in the 1D modelling, and increased resistivity of the ultimate layer, may account for distortion observed at long periods. Two-dimensional test models show that the conducting layer in the area of Villarrica volcano may be an anomalous heated layer surrounded by rocks of higher resistivity of about 2 × 10 3 ω m. These features correspond to the interaction with a subsiding oceanic lithosphere resulting in a complex thermal structure and perturbed resistivity distribution in transition zones of the Pacific type such as Chile, and to the existence of a megafault and a system of fractures in the sounding area. These facts make it difficult to determine the conductance of the electrical asthenosphere. The parameters of the model structure correlate well with geophysical and geochemical results obtained in the area by other workers. Gravity studies indicate a maximum crustal thickness of about 37 km, which implies a non-full compensation according to the Airy hypothesis. The morphology of the Wadati-Benioff zone clearly shows a sharp decrease of earthquake foci at 50 km depth, and a reinitiation of

  3. Can Thromboelastography performed on kaolin-activated citrated samples from critically ill patients provide stable and consistent parameters?

    PubMed

    White, H; Zollinger, C; Jones, M; Bird, R

    2010-04-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a potentially useful tool but analysis within 4-6 min of collection imposes limitations on its use and access. The use of citrate blood tubes potentially increases the time frame for processing specimens. There is, however, limited research on the stability of citrate specimens, timing of processing and the accuracy of TEG results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of early and delayed processing on TEG parameters using kaolin-activated citrated blood samples in the intensive care population. TEG analysis was performed on 61 patients. Blood was collected into two 3.2% sodium citrate (0.105 m) tubes. Kaolin-activated samples were analysed at 15, 30 and 120 min postcollection. TEG parameters analysed included reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), alpha angle (alpha), maximum amplitude, LY30, the coagulation index, time to maximum rate of thrombus generation, maximum rate of thrombus generation and total thrombus generation. Sixty-one critically ill patients were included. The results of the anova showed that time from collection was significantly associated with the TEG((R)) results (P < 0.05). On comparison of individual outcome variables, this difference in most cases was due to changes over time from 30 to 120 min. Furthermore, progressive changes in TEG parameters such as decreasing R were suggestive of a trend toward hypercoagulability of the specimens. Processing of kaolin-activated citrate TEG specimens can begin as early as 15 min postvenipuncture. However, delaying processing by more than 30 min leads to a significant change in results.

  4. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  5. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Cvetković, Dragoljub D.; Markov, Siniša L.; Šaponjac, Vesna T. Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites. PMID:27904315

  6. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Šaponjac, Vesna T Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J

    2014-12-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC (50) values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  7. Respirometric measurement of kinetic parameters: effect of activated sludge floc size.

    PubMed

    Chu, K H; van Veldhuizen, H M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2003-01-01

    The variation of activated sludge floc size with the mixing intensity of a mechanically stirred respirometer, expressed in terms of the mean energy dissipation rate, was characterized using a photometric dispersion analyzer. The floc size decreased rapidly when the energy dissipation rate was increased from 1.33 x 10(-3) to 2.68 x 10(-3) W/kg. Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of floc size on the oxygen saturation coefficient measured under the condition of acetate oxidation. The respirometric data were interpreted by considering only the kinetics of biochemical reactions. The variation of the oxygen saturation coefficient with mixing intensity was found to correlate with the variation of floc size with mixing intensity. The oxygen saturation coefficient was found to decrease from 0.23 to 0.08 mg/L when the mean energy dissipation rate was increased from 1.33 x 10(-3) to 2.68 x 10(-3) W/kg. The dependence of the oxygen saturation coefficient on floc size or mixing intensity suggests the presence of mass transfer resistances in large flocs.

  8. Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 °C and room temperature. Storage at 40 °C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept.

  9. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Marisa P.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas. PMID:28036043

  10. Impact of microbial growth inhibition and proteolytic activity on the stability of a new formulation containing a phytate-degrading enzyme obtained from mushroom.

    PubMed

    Spier, Michele R; Siepmann, Francieli B; Staack, Larissa; Souza, Priscila Z; Kumar, Vikas; Medeiros, Adriane B P; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-10-02

    The development of stable enzymes is a key issue in both the food and feed industries. Consequently, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of various additives (sodium chloride, sodium citrate, mannitol, methylparaben, polyethylene glycol 3350, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, and a serine protease inhibitor) on the stability of a mushroom phytase produced by solid-state cultivation and recovery. Also observed was the effect of the additives on microbial growth inhibition by monitoring both the change in optical density over 30 days of storage and proteolytic activity. Initially, eight experimental formulations were prepared along with a control. After screening, a 3(2) factorial design was applied to define suitable concentrations of the selected additives. Among the eight formulations tested, the formulation containing NaCl, PEG 3350, and methylparaben retained all of the initial phytase activity after 50 days of storage, with no detected interference from protease activity. Sodium citrate, a metal chelation agent, presented the unusual effect of reducing protease activity in the formulations. Although all formulations presented better phytase stability when compared to the control, NaCl and PEG were both able to prolong the stability of the enzyme activity and also to inhibit microbial growth during storage, making them favorable for application as food and feed additives.

  11. Origin of high oxygen reduction reaction activity of Pt12 and strategy to obtain better catalyst using sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Kasumi; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, methods to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of sub-nanosized Pt clusters were investigated in a theoretical manner. Using ab initio molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations based on density functional theory, we have succeeded in determining the origin of the superior ORR activity of Pt12 compared to that of Pt13. That is, it was clarified that the electronic structure of Pt12 fluctuates to a greater extent compared to that of Pt13, which leads to stronger resistance against catalyst poisoning by O/OH. Based on this conclusion, a set of sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters was also explored to find catalysts with better ORR activities and lower financial costs. It was suggested that Ga4Pt8, Ge4Pt8, and Sn4Pt8 would be good candidates for ORR catalysts. PMID:28349985

  12. A New Radio Loudness Diagnostic for Active Galaxies: A Radio-to-Mid-Infrared Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, Marcio B.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the nuclear (high-resolution) radio emission, at 8.4GHz (3.6cm) and 1.4GHz (20cm), the [O IV) (gamma)25.89 micron, [Ne III] (gamma)l5.56 micron and [Ne II] (gamma)l2.81 micron emission lines and the black hole mass accretion rate for a sample of Seyfert galaxies. In order to characterize the radio contribution for the Seyfert nuclei we used the 8.4 GHz/[O IV] ratio, assuming that [0 IV] scales with the luminosity of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). From this we find that Seyfert 1 s (i.e. Seyfert 1.0s, 1.2s and 1.5s) and Seyfert 2s (i.e. Seyfert 1.8s, 1.9s and 2.0s) have similar radio contributions, relative to the AGN. On the other hand, sources in which the [Ne u] emission is dominated either by the AGN or star formation have statistically different radio contributions, with star formation dominated sources more 'radio loud', by a factor of approx.2.8 on average, than AGN dominated sources. We show that star formation dominated sources with relatively larger radio contribution have smaller mass accretion rates. Overall, we suggest that 8.4 GHz/[O IV], or alternatively, 1.4 GHz/[O IV] ratios, can be used to characterize the radio contribution, relative to the AGN, without the limitation of previous methods that rely on optical observables. Key words: Galaxy: stellar content - galaxies: Seyfert - infrared: galaxies

  13. [Correlation between clinical parameters and quantitative analysis of inflammatory infiltrate. Importance in the diagnosis of active periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Mendieta Fiter, C

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the destruction in chronic periodontal disease occurs in relatively short periods of time which are followed of prolonged periods of inactivity. These bursts of activity are characterized by an increase in the inflammatory reaction. It has been the purpose of this paper to study the correlation between the clinical measurements of periodontal disease and the histomorphometric quantification of areas of dense inflammatory infiltrate. The results of this study show that the clinical parameters that measure gingival inflammation or loss of periodontal attachment are useful to distinguish pathology from normal (p less than 0.003), but lack sensitivity to detect burst of periodontal disease activity (p greater than 0.05).

  14. Effect of operational parameters on the removal of particulate chemical oxygen demand in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose A; La Motta, Enrique J; Parker, Denny S

    2007-09-01

    The removal of particulate material in the aeration basin of the activated sludge process is mainly attributed to bioflocculation and hydrolysis of particulate substrate. The bioflocculation process in the aeration tank of the activated sludge process occurs only under favorable conditions in the system, and several common operational parameters affect its performance. The principal objective of this research was to observe the effect of mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time (SRT), and extracellular polymer substances on the removal of particulate substrate by bioflocculation. A first-order particulate removal expression, based on flocculation, accurately described the removal rates for supernatant suspended solids and colloidal chemical oxygen demand. Based on the results presented in this investigation, a mixed liquor concentration of approximately 2200 mg/L, an SRT of at least 3 days, and a contact time of 30 minutes are needed for relatively complete removal of the particulate substrate in a plug-flow reactor.

  15. Effects of Temperature and pH on the Activities of Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase Obtained from Crude Oil Contaminated Soil in Ilaje, Ondo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olukunle, O.F.; Babajide, O.; Boboye, B.

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment technique was employed for the isolation of the crude oil degrading bacteria. The isolated bacteria were screened for their degradative ability and the best degrading bacteria were selected based on their growth. Specific activities of Catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and effects of temperature and pH and their stabilities on the enzyme relative activities were observed. Bacteria isolated from the soil sample include; Bacillus cereus, B. amyloliquficiens, B. firmus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Pseudomonas sp. P. fluorescens, P.putida, P.aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Achromobacter sp. Screening of the degradative ability of the bacteria revealed P. aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Achromobacter sp. to be the best degraders. The pH and temperature range with time for the enzyme activity were 6.0-8.0 and 30oC-50oC respectively. The enzyme exhibited activity that was slightly more tolerant to alkaline pH. Therefore, engineering of Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase may be employed for application on bioremediation of polluted sites. PMID:26464607

  16. Meditation-related activations are modulated by the practices needed to obtain it and by the expertise: an ALE meta-analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fregona, Sara; Skrap, Miran; Fabbro, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.). It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the subsets of studies involving meditation induced through exercising focused attention (FA). The network included clusters bilaterally in the medial gyrus, the left superior parietal lobe, the left insula and the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG). A second analysis addressed the studies involving meditation states induced by chanting or by repetition of words or phrases, known as “mantra.” This type of practice elicited a cluster of activity in the right SMG, the SMA bilaterally and the left postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the last analyses addressed the effect of meditation experience (i.e., short- vs. long-term meditators). We found that frontal activation was present for short-term, as compared with long-term experience meditators, confirming that experts are better enabled to sustain attentional focus, rather recruiting the right SMG and concentrating on aspects involving disembodiment. PMID:23316154

  17. Multi-Parameter Observation and Detection of Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Parrot, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent large earthquakes (M9.0 Tohoku, 03/2011; M7.0 Haiti, 01/2010; M6.7 L Aquila, 04/2008; and M7.9 Wenchuan 05/2008) have renewed interest in pre-anomalous seismic signals associated with them. Recent workshops (DEMETER 2006, 2011 and VESTO 2009 ) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric /ionospheric signals observed in space prior to these events. Our initial results indicate that no single pre-earthquake observation (seismic, magnetic field, electric field, thermal infrared [TIR], or GPS/TEC) can provide a consistent and successful global scale early warning. This is most likely due to complexity and chaotic nature of earthquakes and the limitation in existing ground (temporal/spatial) and global satellite observations. In this study we analyze preseismic temporal and spatial variations (gas/radon counting rate, atmospheric temperature and humidity change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) which we propose occur before the onset of major earthquakes:. We propose an Integrated Space -- Terrestrial Framework (ISTF), as a different approach for revealing pre-earthquake phenomena in seismically active areas. ISTF is a sensor web of a coordinated observation infrastructure employing multiple sensors that are distributed on one or more platforms; data from satellite sensors (Terra, Aqua, POES, DEMETER and others) and ground observations, e.g., Global Positioning System, Total Electron Content (GPS/TEC). As a theoretical guide we use the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model to explain the generation of multiple earthquake precursors. Using our methodology, we evaluated retrospectively the signals preceding the most devastated earthquakes during 2005-2011. We observed a correlation between both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of these earthquakes. The second phase of our validation include systematic retrospective analysis for more than 100 major earthquakes (M>5

  18. Effects of lipid composition and preparation conditions on physical-chemical properties, technological parameters and in vitro biological activity of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Calvagno, Maria Grazia; Celia, Christian; Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Iannone, Michelangelo; Castelli, Francesco; Doldo, Patrizia; Frest, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of lipid composition and preparation conditions on the physicochemical and technological properties of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes, as well as the in vitro anti-tumoral activity of various liposome formulations were investigated. Three liposome formulations were investigated: DPPC/Chol/Oleic acid (8:3:1 molar ratio, liposomes A), DPPC/Chol/DPPS (6:3:1 molar ratio, liposomes B) and DPPC/Chol/DSPE-MPEG (6:3:1 molar ratio, liposomes C). Multilamellar liposomes were prepared by using the TLE, FAT and DRV methods, while small unilamellar liposomes were obtained by extrusion through polycarbonate filters. Light scattering techniques were used to characterize liposome formulations. Loading capacity and release profiles of gemcitabine from various liposome formulations were also investigated. Caco-2 cells were used to evaluate in vitro the antitumoral activity of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes with respect to the free drug and also the intracellular drug uptake. Preparation methods and liposome lipid composition influenced both physicochemical parameters and drug delivery features. Liposomes with a size ranging from 200 nm to 7 microm were obtained. The gemcitabine entrapment was higher than that expected probably due to an interaction with the liposome lipid components. The following decreasing loading capacity order was observed: liposome B>liposome C>liposome A. Gemcitabine release from various liposome formulations is modulated by two different processes, i.e. desorption from and permeation through liposomal bilayers. MTT assay showed a greater cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes with respect to the free drug. The following decreasing anticancer activity order was observed between the various liposome formulations: liposome C>liposome A>liposome B. The increased anticancer activity is correlated to the ability of the colloidal carrier to increase the intracellular drug uptake. Due to the encouraging results and to the high liposome modularity

  19. Partial construction of apoptotic pathway in PBMC obtained from active SLE patients and the significance of plasma TNF-alpha on this pathway.

    PubMed

    Pitidhammabhorn, Dhanesh; Kantachuvesiri, Surasak; Totemchokchyakarn, Kitti; Kitiyanant, Yindee; Ubol, Sukathida

    2006-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder that affects various organs and systems. Increased apoptosis, together with defects in the uptake of apoptotic bodies, are thought to have a pathogenic role in SLE. By detection of chromatin condensation, 30% of apoptosis was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Thai patients with active SLE. Therefore, understanding of the molecular processes in PBMC apoptosis may allow us to gain insight into pathophysiology of SLE. Thus, genes involved in the apoptosis of PBMC from these patients were investigated ex vivo by cDNA array analysis. Seventeen apoptosis-related genes were stimulated in active SLE, more than twofold higher than in inactive SLE. These genes are classified into six groups, namely death receptors, death ligands, caspases, bcl-family, and neutral proteases and genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis, such as caspase-4 and GADD153. Among those stimulated genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the TNF-receptor family were drastically up-regulated 60- and 19-fold higher than in healthy controls, respectively. Moreover, the degree of apoptosis correlated with the level of TNF-alpha in plasma, suggesting that the TNF family plays a role in the induction of apoptosis in SLE. To verify this hypothesis, PBMC from healthy individuals were treated with plasma from active SLE patients in the presence or absence of etanercept, a TNF inhibitor. In the presence of etanercept, active SLE plasma reduced the level of apoptosis to 26.43%. In conclusion, massive apoptotic death of PBMC occurred during the active stage of SLE. The molecular pathway of SLE-PBMC apoptosis was mediated at least via TNF/TNFR signaling pathway, which was confirmed by functional test of TNF-alpha in SLE patients' plasma.

  20. Comparative study of oxidative stress parameters and acetylcholinesterase activity in the liver of Pelophylax esculentus complex frogs.

    PubMed

    Prokić, Marko; Borković-Mitić, Slavica; Krizmanić, Imre; Gavrić, Jelena; Despotović, Svetlana; Gavrilović, Branka; Radovanović, Tijana; Pavlović, Slađan; Saičić, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Comparative activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the concentrations of total glutathione (GSH), sulfhydryl groups (-SH) and the activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were investigated in the livers of species belonging to the Pelophylax esculentus "complex" (parental species Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax lessonae, and their hybrid Pelophylax kl. esculentus) from the wetland, Obedska bara in Serbia. The condition factor (CF) and hepato somatic index (HSI) were also calculated. All three species were caught at same locality and were exposed to the same environmental conditions. Liver SOD activity was lower in P. ridibundus than in P. kl. esculentus and P. lessonae; higher activities of CAT, GR and GST were observed in P. kl. esculentus frogs as compared to their parental species. The activity of GSH-Px was significantly lower in P. kl. esculentus. The activity of AChE was increased in P. lessonae as compared to P. kl. esculentus and P. ridibundus. Similar concentrations of GSH and -SH groups were observed in all investigated species. P. kl. esculentus had a higher CF, while the HSI was lower when compared to the parental species. Our findings suggest that the parental species (P. ridibundus and P. lessonae) possess more similar antioxidative responses to environmental conditions than the hybrid species P. kl. esculentus. The obtained results improve our understanding of the biology and physiology of these three closely related species.

  1. Latitudinal Responses of F2 Peak Parameters to High-intensity Long-duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spraggs, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The ionospheric responses to geomagnetic storms form an important part of the space weather study. The ionospheric perturbations may be described as enhancements and depletions compared to the quiet time variations, known as positive and negative phases of the ionospheric storms, respectively. In spite of a significant volume of studies on the ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storms, understanding of ionospheric storm has not reached a level where it is possible to predict it. Geomagnetic activity may be divided into three categories: substorms, storms of different intensity, and high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events. This work presents specifically the latitudinal responses of the noontime F region peak parameters (hmF2 and foF2) to HILDCAA events. For this, digisonde data from 51 stations around the world was selected from the Digital Ionogram Data Base (DIDbase) from 2004 to 2012. For the same period 19 HILDCAA events were detected. Preliminary results show a positive effect in the peak parameters of the southern hemisphere and a negative effect in those of the northern hemisphere, suggesting that there is a predominantly northward component of the meridional winds. Additionally, it seems that the events occurring around the summer solstice have meridional wind components that are exclusively northward, while two of the six winter time events have southward components. Wintertime events are also the only ones with a very prominent eastward component of the zonal winds.

  2. Silica coating and photocatalytic activities of ZnO nanoparticles: effect of operational parameters and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ismail, L F M; Emara, M M; El-Moselhy, M M; Maziad, N A; Hussein, O K

    2014-10-15

    Silica-coating ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using the hydrothermal method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that ultrafine core/shell structured silica-coating ZnO nanoparticles were successfully obtained. TEM analysis revealed a continuous and uniform silica coating layer of about 8nm in thickness on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic performance of silica-coating ZnO core/shell nanoparticles in methylene blue aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of some operational parameters such as pH value, nanocatalyst loading and initial MB concentration on the degradation efficiency were discussed. Kinetic parameters were experimentally determined and a pseudo-first-order kinetic was observed. Thus, the main advantage of the coating is the stability of the photocatalysts and the better performance in acidic or alkaline solutions. Compared to ZnO the maximum apparent rate constant is obtained at pH 8.5 (pH 11.5 in case of bare ZnO). Moreover, the Langmuir adsorption model was applied to describe the equilibrium isotherm at different MB concentration. The applicability of the Langmuir isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of the MB onto surface of silica-coating ZnO nanoparticles. The kinetics of the adsorption with respect to the initial dye concentration, were also investigated. The pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic models were used and the rate constants were evaluated. The kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better represented the adsorption kinetics, suggesting that the adsorption process may be chemisorption.

  3. Antimicrobial activity, growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines, and phytochemical characterization of the hydromethanolic extract obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Khaled N; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity, Growth Inhibition of Human Tumour Cell Lines, and Phytochemical Characterization of the Hydromethanolic Extract Obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin. PMID:24455713

  5. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles obtained by four different techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm., and evaluation for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Demirci, Fatih; Ozek, Temel; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Khan, Shabana I; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Duran, Ahmet; Hamzaoglu, Ergin

    2010-01-29

    Four different isolation techniques, conventional hydrodistillation (HD), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), microdistillation (MD) and micro-steam distillation-solid-phase microextraction (MSD-SPME), have been used to analyze the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. HD and MWHD techniques produced quantitatively (yield, 0.39% and 0.40%) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar essential oils. alpha-Pinene (15.7-34.8%), 1,8-cineole (16.6-25.1%), beta-pinene (6.7-13.5%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4-5.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.4-4.4%) were identified as major constituents of this Turkish endemic species. Besides, the hydrodistilled oil of S. rosifolia was evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The hydrodistilled oil of S. rosifolia showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a MIC value of 125microg/mL. Other human pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans) were also inhibited within a moderate range (MIC=125-1000microg/mL). Antifungal activity of the oil was also observed against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. No cytotoxicity was observed for S. rosifolia oil up to 25mg/mL against malignant melanoma, epidermal, ductal and ovary carcinoma.

  6. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities and surfactant properties of protein hydrolysates as obtained of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. grain.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Santos, J; Escalona-Buendía, H

    2015-04-01

    Even though some research has been carried out on surfactant properties of amaranth protein hydrolysates, their bio-functionality has not been studied yet. In this work amaranth grain Alb 1 and Glob were hydrolyzed (Alb 1H, Glob H) and foams and emulsions at optimal conditions (t, E/S, pH5) were prepared in order to assess techno-functional properties such as foaming (F) and emulsifying (E) (capacity (C) and stability (S)). FC and EC were much better for Glob H than for Alb H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity was higher for Alb 1H (roughly 50 %) than that of Glob H (roughly 30 %). Scavenging of radicals activity (DPPH· or ABTS· (+) ) of Alb 1H and Glob H, at 2 mg/mL, was similar (approx. 40 %), but lower than Alb 1 (approx. 70 %), which was the best antioxidant. The low reducing power showed that hydrolysates barely donate an electron or hydrogen. Chelating activity on Cu(2+) was lower than that exhibited by Fe(2+,) which was remarkable, approx. 80 % as long as DH% > 10 %, where hydrolysates displayed high solubility (Alb 1H = 85 %, Glob H = 70 %) because of occurrence of 1-10 kDa peptides. Amaranth foams and emulsions prepared with protein hydrolysates have a potential as a nutraceutical food.

  7. Mechanisms other than activation of the iron regulon account for the hyper-resistance to cobalt of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain obtained by evolutionary engineering.

    PubMed

    Alkim, Ceren; Benbadis, Laurent; Yilmaz, Ulku; Cakar, Z Petek; François, Jean Marie

    2013-08-01

    Cobalt is an important metal ion with magnetic properties that is widely used for several industrial applications. Overexposure to cobalt ions can be highly toxic for the organisms because they usually overwhelm the endogenous physiological system that maintains their homeostasis causing (geno)toxic effects. To gain insight into the mechanism of cobalt toxicity, we characterized at the molecular and genetic levels a cobalt resistant CI25E Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain previously isolated by an in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy, and which was able to grow on 5 to 10 mM CoCl2. This evolved strain showed cross-resistance to other metal ions including iron, manganese, nickel and zinc, but not to copper. Moreover, the cobalt resistant trait was semi-dominant, and linked to more than one gene, as indicated by the absence of 2(+):2(-) segregation of the cobalt resistance. Genome wide transcriptional profiling revealed a constitutive activation of the iron regulon that could be accounted for by a constitutive nuclear localization of the transcriptional activator Aft1. However, the presence of Aft1 in the nucleus was not a prerequisite for hyper-resistance to cobalt, since a mutant defective in nuclear monothiol glutaredoxin encoding GRX3 and GRX4 that also leads to nuclear localization of Aft1 was cobalt hypersensitive. In addition, the loss of AFT1 only partially abolished the cobalt resistance in the evolved strain, and the deletion of COT1 encoding the major vacuolar transporter of cobalt had only a minor effect on this trait. Paradoxically to the activation of iron regulon, the evolved strain was hypersensitive to the iron chelator BPS, and this hypersensitivity was abrogated by cobalt ions. Taken together, this work suggested that cobalt resistance is not merely dependent upon activation of AFT1, but it likely implicates other mechanisms including intracellular reallocation of iron into important compartments whose function is dependent on this metal and

  8. Biochar amendment for integrated composting and vermicomposting of sewage sludge - The effect of biochar on the activity of Eisenia fetida and the obtained vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Malińska, Krystyna; Golańska, Małgorzata; Caceres, Rafaela; Rorat, Agnieszka; Weisser, Patryk; Ślęzak, Ewelina

    2017-02-01

    Sewage sludge derived biochar (SSDB) was used as a supplementary material for municipal sewage sludge (SS) and wood chips mixtures (WC) treated by combined composting and vermicomposting. SSDB added to the mixture before composting resulted in significantly higher reproduction rate: on week 4 the number of cocoons increased by 213% when compared to the mixture with no biochar. On week 6 the average number of juveniles increased 11-fold in the mixture with biochar added before composting and 5-fold in the mixtures with biochar added after composting when compared to the mixture with no biochar. Biochar added before composting reduced bioavailability of Cd and Zn to E. fetida. The biochar-added vermicomposts showed good fertilizing properties except for elevated concentrations of Cr. The pH of all vermicomposts was in the range of 5.27-5.61. The obtained vermicomposts can be used as a growing medium for horticultural purposes or as an amendment in calcareous soils.

  9. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  10. Physical activity prevents alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure and glucometabolic parameters in a high-sugar diet model

    PubMed Central

    Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Andrade Leal, Diego; Pinto, Angélica Barbosa G.; Kappes-Becker, Lenice; Evangelista, Elisio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods. After training, animals were euthanized and the sera, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles were collected for further analysis. The HSD increased body weight after an 8-week period; it also increased the fat pads and the adipose index, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR). Transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in alterations of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and an increase in protein carbonylation. Regular physical activity partially reverted these alterations in rats fed a HSD, preventing mitochondrial morphological alterations and IR. Moreover, we observed a decrease in Pgc1α expression (qPCR analysis) in STD-EXE group and a less pronounced reduction in HSD-EXE group after an 8-week period. Thus, regular physical activity (swimming without workload) in rats fed a HSD can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and IR, highlighting the crucial role for physical activity on metabolic homeostasis. PMID:28199417

  11. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  12. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Elyse A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Heikal, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, “Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins” [2]. PMID:26862571

  13. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elyse A; Cook, Gregory M; Heikal, Adam

    2016-03-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see "Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs" Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, "Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins" [2].

  14. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Gross, Diane; Jorgensen, Pernille; Buda, Silke; Bromberg, Michal; Kaufman, Zalman; Prosenc, Katarina; Socan, Maja; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and all 6 districts in Israel. Methods We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country’s sentinel surveillance during 2000–2011 (Spain) and 2006–2011 (all others). Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM) were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks’ influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location. Results Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel’s Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and

  15. The photospheric abundances of active binaries. II. Atmospheric parameters and abundance patterns for 6 single-lined RS CVn systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, T.; Micela, G.; Favata, F.; Katz, D.; Pillitteri, I.

    2003-12-01

    Photospheric parameters and abundances are presented for a sample of single-lined chromospherically active binaries from a differential LTE analysis of high-resolution spectra. Abundances have been derived for 13 chemical species, including several key elements such as Li, Mg, and Ca. Two methods have been used. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities were first derived from a fully self-consistent analysis of the spectra, whereby the temperature is determined from the excitation equilibrium of the Fe I lines. The second approach relies on temperatures derived from the (B-V) colour index. These two methods give broadly consistent results for the stars in our sample, suggesting that the neutral iron lines are formed under conditions close to LTE. We discuss the reliability in the context of chromospherically active stars of various colour indices used as temperature indicators, and conclude that the (V-R) and (V-I) colours are likely to be significantly affected by activity processes. Irrespective of the method used, our results indicate that the X-ray active binaries studied are not as metal poor as previously claimed, but are at most mildly iron-depleted relative to the Sun (-0.41protect <~ [Fe/H]protect la +0.11). A significant overabundance of several chemical species is observed (e.g., the alpha -synthezised elements). These abundance patterns are discussed in relation to stellar activity. Based on observations collected at ESO (La Silla, Chile). Table A.1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/495

  16. An evaluation of process parameters to improve coating efficiency of an active tablet film-coating process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Chen, Wei; Desai, Divyakant; Early, William; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Chang, Shih-Ying; Stamato, Howard; Varia, Sailesh

    2012-05-10

    Effects of material and manufacturing process parameters on the efficiency of an aqueous active tablet film-coating process in a perforated pan coater were evaluated. Twenty-four batches representing various core tablet weights, sizes, and shapes were coated at the 350-500 kg scale. The coating process efficiency, defined as the ratio of the amount of active deposited on tablet cores to the amount of active sprayed, ranged from 86 to 99%. Droplet size and velocity of the coating spray were important for an efficient coating process. Factors governing them such as high ratios of the suspension spray rate to atomization air flow rate, suspension spray rate to pattern air flow rate, or atomization air flow rate to pattern air flow rate improved the coating efficiency. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of the droplets showed that reducing the fraction of the smaller droplets, especially those smaller than 10 μm, resulted in a marked improvement in the coating efficiency. Other material and process variables such as coating suspension solids concentration, pan speed, tablet velocity, exhaust air temperature, and the length of coating time did not affect the coating efficiency profoundly over the ranges examined here.

  17. A New Method to Quantify and Reduce the net Projection Error in Whole-solar-active-region Parameters Measured from Vector Magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David A.; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Khazanov, Igor

    2016-12-01

    Projection errors limit the use of vector magnetograms of active regions (ARs) far from the disk center. In this Letter, for ARs observed up to 60° from the disk center, we demonstrate a method for measuring and reducing the projection error in the magnitude of any whole-AR parameter that is derived from a vector magnetogram that has been deprojected to the disk center. The method assumes that the center-to-limb curve of the average of the parameter’s absolute values, measured from the disk passage of a large number of ARs and normalized to each AR’s absolute value of the parameter at central meridian, gives the average fractional projection error at each radial distance from the disk center. To demonstrate the method, we use a large set of large-flux ARs and apply the method to a whole-AR parameter that is among the simplest to measure: whole-AR magnetic flux. We measure 30,845 SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager vector magnetograms covering the disk passage of 272 large-flux ARs, each having whole-AR flux >1022 Mx. We obtain the center-to-limb radial-distance run of the average projection error in measured whole-AR flux from a Chebyshev fit to the radial-distance plot of the 30,845 normalized measured values. The average projection error in the measured whole-AR flux of an AR at a given radial distance is removed by multiplying the measured flux by the correction factor given by the fit. The correction is important for both the study of the evolution of ARs and for improving the accuracy of forecasts of an AR’s major flare/coronal mass ejection productivity.

  18. Superior photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of CdS (core)-SiO2 (shell) nanostructures obtained by CdS photoetching and Au deposition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-07-01

    Core-shell morphology of silica (SiO2) coated CdS nanocomposites (SiO2@CdS) of different shapes have been made for better stability, luminescence and photochemical activity of CdS nanoparticles. A thin layer (thickness 1-1.4 nm) of SiO2 shell is deposited over CdS nanorods (CdS-NR) of aspect ratio = 21 and CdS nanospheres (CdS-NS) of size 6-8 nm by alkyl silane agents. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra, HR-TEM, BET surface measurement, LB surface film, and absorption and photoluminescence analysis. Photoetching (PE) of CdS core led to blue shift of the absorbance onset of SiO2@CdS-NR along with the appearance of an exciton band at 485 nm due to the quantum confinement effect. Photodissolution of CdS core shifts the band gap energy from initial 2.4 to 2.6 eV for CdS-NR and 2.5 to 2.67 eV for CdS-NS. TEM images reveal the increase in aspect ratio of NR from 21 to 31 and decrease in the spherical core to 2.5 nm from 6-8 nm after PE. Photoetched SiO2@CdS-NC displayed highly intense fluorescence emission (SiO2@CdS-NS > SiO2@CdS-NR) than unetched SiO2@CdS-NC at 488 nm corresponding to band edge position. The Au (0.5 wt.%) deposition onto photoetched SiO2@CdS-NR(PE) composites highly enhanced the fluorescence intensity in comparison to 1 wt.% of Au and Ag loading. SiO2@CdS-NC(PE) displayed improved photocatalytic activity during benzaldehyde photooxidation under UV (125 W, Hg-arc, 10.4 mW/cm2) irradiation. Silica coating onto CdS particles improves the photostability and photoactivity of CdS upon long UV irradiation.

  19. Antioxidant supplementations in vitro improve rat sperm parameters and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities against dimethoate-induced sperm damages.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, F; Fetoui, H; Zribi, N; Fakfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

    2012-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are currently among the most frequently used pesticides worldwide, and therefore, the potential for human exposure to man is considerable. Their toxicity results in negative effects on many organs and systems such as the male reproductive system. So, vitamins that can offer spermatozoa protection are of great importance. This study was designed to investigate (i) the possibility of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide, to induce oxidative stress response in rat spermatozoa in vitro and its effect on antioxidant defence system and (ii) the role of vitamin C and vitamin E in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of dimethoate Epididymal spermatozoa were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C with different concentrations of dimethoate (50, 100 and 200 μm) without vitamins or pre-incubated with 20 mm of vitamin C or 2 mm of vitamin E. Sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were performed. Dimethoate caused a significant induction of oxidative damage in spermatozoa at different concentrations as evidenced by increased MDA levels. However, a significant decrease in sperm mobility, viability and activities SOD, CAT and GPx was observed. Vitamins pre-treated spermatozoa showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects induced by dimethoate on studied parameters.

  20. Evaluating the impact of operational parameters on the formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Ming; Ni, Bing-Jie; Seviour, Thomas; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-03-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) are the major component of the residual organic fraction in biological wastewater treatment effluent. The impact of process parameters on SMP production by specific groups of bacteria is currently unknown. In this work, SMP production by activated sludge at different substrate concentrations, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperatures, was evaluated by experimental and modeling approaches. The results showed that among the three parameters, SMP production was most sensitive to substrate concentration. Total SMP production was increased 70.5% by a threefold increase in substrate concentration, with SMP produced from heterotrophs, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) increasing by 61.2%, 580.0% and 410.0%, respectively. The effect of temperature on SMP was less pronounced. Decreasing the temperature from 20 °C to 10 °C decreased total SMP by 17.2%, with SMP production from heterotrophs decreasing by 20.0%, and from the AOB and NOB increasing by 180.0% and 140.0%. DO concentration had nearly no effect on total and heterotrophic SMP production, while it did have a significant positive effect on autotrophic SMP production. SMP production from AOB and NOB decreased by 24.3% and 47.8%, respectively following a decrease in DO concentration from 8.7 to 1.5 mg/L. However, the net effect of DO on total SMP production was negligible.

  1. Linear polarization of the radiation from active galactic nuclei and the redshift dependence of their main parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.

    2010-11-01

    We consider the observed continuum linear polarization of extragalactic objects with various redshifts z, most of which have degrees of polarization p ≤ 10%. We propose that this polarization is due to multiple scattering of the radiation in magnetized accretion disks around the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN; the Milne problem in an optically thick atmosphere). The structure of the accretion disks and the polarization of the emergent radiation depend on the main parameters of the AGN—the mass of the central body M BH , accretion rate dot M , magnetic field at the black-hole event horizon B H , angular momentum a *, and the explicit form of the magnetic-field distribution in the accretion disk. Theoretical expressions for the degree of polarization are averaged over all angles of the disks to the line of sight, and the resulting formula compared with the mean observed polarizations in redshift intervals Δ z = 0.25. The dependence of the observed degree of polarization and the main parameters on the redshift z is derived. The degrees of polarization of 305 objects from the catalog of Hutsemekers et al. with redshifts from zero to z = 2.25 are used for the analysis.

  2. Evaluation of neutron flux parameters in irradiation sites of research reactor using the Westcott-formalism for the k0 neutron activation analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Hamid, Ashraf

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using k0 (k0-INAA) method has been used to determine a number of elements in sediment samples collected from El-Manzala Lake in Egypt. k0-INAA according to Westcott's formalism has been implemented using the complete irradiation kit of the fast pneumatic rabbit and some selected manually loaded irradiation sites for short and long irradiation at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). Zr-Au and Co sets as neutron flux monitors are used to determine the neutron flux parameters (f and α) in each irradiation sites. Two reference materials IAEA Soil-7 samples have been inserted and implemented for data validation and an internal monostandard multi monitor used (k0 based IM-NAA). It was given a good agreement between the experimental analyzed values and that obtained of the certified values. The major and trace elements in the sediment samples have been evaluated with the use of Co as an internal and Au as an external monostandard comparators. The concentrations of the elements (Cr, Mn and Zn) in the sediment samples of the present work are discussed regarding to those obtained from other sites.

  3. Effects of cathode design parameters on in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of electrically-activated silver-based iontophoretic system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhuo; Ganapathy, Anirudh; Orndorff, Paul E; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2015-01-01

    Post-operative infection is a major risk associated with implantable devices. Prior studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionic silver as an alternative to antibiotic-based infection prophylaxis and treatment. The focus of this study is on an electrically activated implant system engineered for active release of antimicrobial silver ions. The objective was to evaluate the effects of the cathode design, especially the cathode material, on the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of the system. A modified Kirby-Bauer diffusion technique was used for the antimicrobial efficacy evaluations (24 h testing interval). In phase-1 of the study, a three-way ANOVA (n = 6, α = 0.05) was performed to determine the effects of cathode material (silver, titanium, and stainless steel), cathode surface area and electrode separation distance on the efficacy of the system against Staphylococcus aureus. The results show that within the design space tested, none of these parameters had a statistically significant effect on the antimicrobiality of the system (P > 0.15). Subsequently, one-way ANOVA (n = 6, α = 0.05) was conducted in phase-2 to validate the inference regarding the non-significance of the cathode material to the system efficacy using a broader spectrum of pathogens (methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae and Aspergillus flavus) responsible for osteomyelitis. The results confirmed the lack of statistical difference between efficacies of the three cathode material configurations against all pathogens tested (P > 0.58). Overall, the results demonstrate the ability to alter the cathode material and related design parameters in order to minimize the silver usage in the system without adversely affecting its antimicrobial efficacy.

  4. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  5. Stratospheric variability of wave activity and parameters in equatorial coastal and tropical sites during the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent numerical studies in stratospheric dynamics and its variability as well as climate, have highlighted the need of more observational analyses to improve simulation of the West African monsoon (WAM). In this paper, activity and spectral characteristics of short-scale vertical waves (wavelengths <4 km) are analysed in equatorial coastal and tropical lower stratosphere during the WAM. A first detailed description of such waves over West Africa is derived from high-resolution vertical profiles of temperature and horizontal wind obtained during Intensive Observation Period of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) Campaign 2006. Monthly variation of wave energy density is revealed to trace the progression of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over West Africa. Mesoscale inertia gravity-waves structures with vertical and horizontal wavelengths of 1.5-2.5 and 400-1100 km respectively and intrinsic frequencies of 1.1-2.2 f or periods <2 days are observed in the tropical LS with intense activity during July and August when the WAM is installed over the tropical West Africa. Over equatorial region, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.4-4 f or periods <5.2 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and long horizontal wavelengths of 1300 km are intense during the WAM coastal phase. From July to October, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.2-3.8 f or periods <6 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and horizontal wavelengths of 1650 km are less intense during the WAM Sahelian phase of the WAM, March-June. Unlike potential energy density, kinetic energy density is observed to be a good proxy for the activity of short-scale vertical waves during the WAM because quasi-inertial waves are dominant. Long-term wave activity variation from January 2001 to December 2009, highlights strong year-to-year variation superimposed on convective activity and quasi-biennial oscillation-like variations especially above tropical stations.

  6. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  7. Comparison of hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between older persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary lifestyle combined with smoking, contributes to the development of a set of chronic diseases and to accelerating the course of aging. The aim of the study was to compare the hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Methods The sample was comprised of 40 elderly people practicing regular physical activity for 12 months, divided into a Nonsmoker Group and an Ex-smoker Group. During a year four trimestrial evaluations were performed, in which the hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate- HR and VO2) and nutritional status (measured by body mass index) data were collected. The paired t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied in the intragroup and intergroup analysis, respectively. Results The mean age of the groups was 68.35 years, with the majority of individuals in the Nonsmoker Group being women (n = 15) and the Ex-smoker Group composed of men (n = 11). In both groups the variables studied were within the limits of normality for the age. HR was diminished in the Nonsmoker Group in comparison with the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.045) between the first and last evaluation. In the intragroup analysis it was verified that after one year of exercise, there was significant reduction in the HR in the Nonsmoker Group (p = 0.002) and a significant increase in VO2 for the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.010). There are no significant differences between the hemodynamic and nutritional conditions in both groups. Conclusion In elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, it was observed that the studied variables were maintained over the course of a year, and there was no association with the history of smoking, except for HR and VO2. PMID:21040562

  8. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM.

  9. An Examination of the Relationship between Active Site Loop Size and Thermodynamic Activation Parameters for Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase from Mesophilic and Thermophilic Organisms†

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L.; Wood, B. McKay; Chan, Kui K.; Gerlt, John A.; Richard, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Closure of the active site phosphate gripper loop of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) over the bound substrate orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) activates the bound substrate for decarboxylation by at least 104-fold [Amyes, T. L., Richard, J. P., and Tait, J. J. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 15708-15709]. The 19 residue phosphate gripper loop of the mesophilic ScOMPDC is much larger than the 9 residue loop at the ortholog from the thermophile Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC). This difference in loop size results in a small decrease in the total intrinsic phosphate binding energy of the phosphodianion group of OMP from 11.9 to 11.6 kcal/mol, along with a modest decrease in the extent of activation by phosphite dianion of decarboxylation of the truncated substrate 1-(β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid. The activation parameters ΔH‡ and ΔS‡ for kcat for decarboxylation of OMP are 3.6 kcal/mol and 10 cal/K/mol more positive, respectively, for MtOMPDC than for ScOMPDC. We suggest that these differences are related to the difference in size of the active site loops at the mesophilic ScOMPDC and the thermophilic MtOMPDC. The greater enthalpic transition state stabilization available from the more extensive loop-substrate interactions for the ScOMPDC-catalyzed reaction is largely balanced by a larger entropic requirement for immobilization of the larger loop at this enzyme. PMID:19618917

  10. Effects of Porous Polystyrene Resin Parameters on Candida antarctica Lipase B Adsorption, Distribution, and Polyester Synthesis Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,B.; Miller, M.; Gross, R.

    2007-01-01

    Polystyrene resins with varied particle sizes (35 to 350-600 {mu}m) and pore diameters (300-1000 {angstrom}) were employed to study the effects of immobilization resin particle size and pore diameter on Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) loading, distribution within resins, fraction of active sites, and catalytic properties for polyester synthesis. CALB adsorbed rapidly (saturation time {<=}4 min) for particle sizes 120 {mu}m (pore size = 300 {angstrom}). Infrared microspectroscopy showed that CALB forms protein loading fronts regardless of resin particle size at similar enzyme loadings ({approx}8%). From the IR images, the fractions of total surface area available to the enzyme are 21, 33, 35, 37, and 88% for particle sizes 350-600, 120, 75, 35 {mu}m (pore size 300 {angstrom}), and 35 {mu}m (pore size 1000 {angstrom}), respectively. Titration with methyl p-nitrophenyl n-hexylphosphate (MNPHP) showed that the fraction of active CALB molecules adsorbed onto resins was {approx}60%. The fraction of active CALB molecules was invariable as a function of resin particle and pore size. At {approx}8% (w/w) CALB loading, by increasing the immobilization support pore diameter from 300 to 1000 {angstrom}, the turnover frequency (TOF) of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone ({var_epsilon}-CL) to polyester increased from 12.4 to 28.2 s{sup -1}. However, the {var_epsilon}-CL conversion rate was not influenced by changes in resin particle size. Similar trends were observed for condensation polymerizations between 1,8-octanediol and adipic acid. The results herein are compared to those obtained with a similar series of methyl methacrylate resins, where variations in particle size largely affected CALB distribution within resins and catalyst activity for polyester synthesis.

  11. Induction of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 by unsaturated fatty acids, retinoic acid, and carotenoids in preadipocytes obtained from bovine white adipose tissue1,2.

    PubMed

    García-Rojas, P; Antaramian, A; González-Dávalos, L; Villarroya, F; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarría, A; Mora, O

    2010-05-01

    The importance of dietary fat components, such as fatty acids, in the expression of multiple genes is clear. In the case of beef cattle, fat in the form of fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated), vitamin A (mainly retinoic acid), or carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) is obtained from dietary feed or pasture. The aim of this work was to study the effect of fatty acids (phytanic and pristanic acids), vitamin A (all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid), and carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) on the expression of PPARgamma and its coactivator PGC-1alpha during differentiation of bovine white adipose tissue. Samples were collected at slaughter from subcutaneous adipose tissue and processed in a solution containing type II collagenase for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were resuspended in basal medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum, plated on 24-well culture plates at a density of 1 x 10(4) cells/cm(2), and incubated at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO(2) atmosphere. Preadipocyte differentiation after reaching confluence was induced by various treatments: rosiglitazone (20 microM); unsaturated fatty acids: phytanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM) and pristanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM); retinoids: 9-cis retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM) and all-trans retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM); and carotenoids: beta-carotene (10, 20, 30 microM) and lutein (10, 20, 30 microM). Expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha was measured in differentiated cells. Phytanic acid, all-trans retinoic acid, and 9-cis retinoic acid were the best activators of PPARgamma expression, and the combination of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid was the best activator of PGC-1alpha expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, these are powerful agents for the promotion of bovine adipogenesis and constitute promising compounds to be used in bovine fattening.

  12. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not...

  13. MATLAB-based program for optimization of quantum cascade laser active region parameters and calculation of output characteristics in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanić, J.; Žeželj, M.; Milanović, V.; Radovanović, J.; Stanković, I.

    2014-03-01

    A strong magnetic field applied along the growth direction of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) active region gives rise to a spectrum of discrete energy states, the Landau levels. By combining quantum engineering of a QCL with a static magnetic field, we can selectively inhibit/enhance non-radiative electron relaxation process between the relevant Landau levels of a triple quantum well and realize a tunable surface emitting device. An efficient numerical algorithm implementation is presented of optimization of GaAs/AlGaAs QCL region parameters and calculation of output properties in the magnetic field. Both theoretical analysis and MATLAB implementation are given for LO-phonon and interface roughness scattering mechanisms on the operation of QCL. At elevated temperatures, electrons in the relevant laser states absorb/emit more LO-phonons which results in reduction of the optical gain. The decrease in the optical gain is moderated by the occurrence of interface roughness scattering, which remains unchanged with increasing temperature. Using the calculated scattering rates as input data, rate equations can be solved and population inversion and the optical gain obtained. Incorporation of the interface roughness scattering mechanism into the model did not create new resonant peaks of the optical gain. However, it resulted in shifting the existing peaks positions and overall reduction of the optical gain. Catalogue identifier: AERL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37763 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2757956 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB. Computer: Any capable of running MATLAB version R2010a or higher. Operating system: Any platform

  14. From Squid to Mammals with the HH Model through the Nav Channels' Half-Activation-Voltage Parameter.

    PubMed

    Krouchev, Nedialko I; Rattay, Frank; Sawan, Mohamad; Vinet, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The model family analyzed in this work stems from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model (HHM). for a single-compartment (space-clamp) and continuous variation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) half-activation-voltage parameter ΔV1/2, which controls the window of sodium-influx currents. Unlike the baseline HHM, its parametric extension exhibits a richer multitude of dynamic regimes, such as multiple fixed points (FP's), bi- and multi-stability (coexistence of FP's and/or periodic orbits). Such diversity correlates with a number of functional properties of excitable neural tissue, such as the capacity or not to evoke an action potential (AP) from the resting state, by applying a minimal absolute rheobase current amplitude. The utility of the HHM rooted in the giant squid for the descriptions of the mammalian nervous system is of topical interest. We conclude that the model's fundamental principles are still valid (up to using appropriate parameter values) for warmer-blooded species, without a pressing need for a substantial revision of the mathematical formulation. We demonstrate clearly that the continuous variation of the ΔV1/2 parameter comes close to being equivalent with recent HHM 'optimizations'. The neural dynamics phenomena described here are nontrivial. The model family analyzed in this work contains the classical HHM as a special case. The validity and applicability of the HHM to mammalian neurons can be achieved by picking the appropriate ΔV1/2 parameter in a significantly broad range of values. For such large variations, in contrast to the classical HHM, the h and n gates' dynamics may be uncoupled--i.e. the n gates may no longer be considered in mere linear correspondence to the h gates. ΔV1/2 variation leads to a multitude of dynamic regimes--e.g. models with either 1 fixed point (FP) or with 3 FP's. These may also coexist with stable and/or unstable periodic orbits. Hence, depending on the initial conditions, the system may behave as either

  15. From Squid to Mammals with the HH Model through the Nav Channels’ Half-Activation-Voltage Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Krouchev, Nedialko I.; Rattay, Frank; Sawan, Mohamad; Vinet, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The model family analyzed in this work stems from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model (HHM). for a single-compartment (space-clamp) and continuous variation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) half-activation-voltage parameter ΔV1/2, which controls the window of sodium-influx currents. Unlike the baseline HHM, its parametric extension exhibits a richer multitude of dynamic regimes, such as multiple fixed points (FP’s), bi- and multi-stability (coexistence of FP’s and/or periodic orbits). Such diversity correlates with a number of functional properties of excitable neural tissue, such as the capacity or not to evoke an action potential (AP) from the resting state, by applying a minimal absolute rheobase current amplitude. The utility of the HHM rooted in the giant squid for the descriptions of the mammalian nervous system is of topical interest. We conclude that the model’s fundamental principles are still valid (up to using appropriate parameter values) for warmer-blooded species, without a pressing need for a substantial revision of the mathematical formulation. We demonstrate clearly that the continuous variation of the ΔV1/2 parameter comes close to being equivalent with recent HHM ‘optimizations’. The neural dynamics phenomena described here are nontrivial. The model family analyzed in this work contains the classical HHM as a special case. The validity and applicability of the HHM to mammalian neurons can be achieved by picking the appropriate ΔV1/2 parameter in a significantly broad range of values. For such large variations, in contrast to the classical HHM, the h and n gates’ dynamics may be uncoupled - i.e. the n gates may no longer be considered in mere linear correspondence to the h gates. ΔV1/2 variation leads to a multitude of dynamic regimes—e.g. models with either 1 fixed point (FP) or with 3 FP’s. These may also coexist with stable and/or unstable periodic orbits. Hence, depending on the initial conditions, the system may

  16. High-rate activated sludge system for carbon management--Evaluation of crucial process mechanisms and design parameters.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark; Bott, Charles; Murthy, Sudhir; De Clippeleir, Haydee; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-12-15

    The high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process is a technology suitable for the removal and redirection of organics from wastewater to energy generating processes in an efficient manner. A HRAS pilot plant was operated under controlled conditions resulting in concentrating the influent particulate, colloidal, and soluble COD to a waste solids stream with minimal energy input by maximizing sludge production, bacterial storage, and bioflocculation. The impact of important process parameters such as solids retention time (SRT), hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the performance of a HRAS system was demonstrated in a pilot study. The results showed that maximum removal efficiencies of soluble COD were reached at a DO > 0.3 mg O2/L, SRT > 0.5 days and HRT > 15 min which indicates that minimizing the oxidation of the soluble COD in the high-rate activated sludge process is difficult. The study of DO, SRT and HRT exhibited high degree of impact on the colloidal and particulate COD removal. Thus, more attention should be focused on controlling the removal of these COD fractions. Colloidal COD removal plateaued at a DO > 0.7 mg O2/L, SRT > 1.5 days and HRT > 30 min, similar to particulate COD removal. Concurrent increase in extracellular polymers (EPS) production in the reactor and the association of particulate and colloidal material into sludge flocs (bioflocculation) indicated carbon capture by biomass. The SRT impacted the overall mass and energy balance of the high-rate process indicating that at low SRT conditions, lower COD mineralization or loss of COD content occurred. In addition, the lower SRT conditions resulted in higher sludge yields and higher COD content in the WAS.

  17. Physical parameters of late M-type members of Chamaeleon I and TW Hydrae Association: dust settling, age dispersion and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayo, A.; Barrado, D.; Allard, F.; Henning, T.; Comerón, F.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.; Beamín, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Although mid-to-late type M dwarfs are the most common stars in our stellar neighbourhood, our knowledge of these objects is still limited. Open questions include the evolution of their angular momentum, internal structures, dust settling in their atmospheres and age dispersion within populations. In addition, at young ages, late-type Ms have masses below the hydrogen burning limit and therefore are key objects in the debate on the brown dwarf mechanism of formation. In this work, we determine and study in detail the physical parameters of two samples of young, late M-type sources belonging to either the Chamaeleon I dark cloud or the TW Hydrae Association and compare them with the results obtained in the literature for other young clusters and also for older, field, dwarfs. We used multiwavelength photometry to construct and analyse SEDs to determine general properties of the photosphere and disc presence. We also used low-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to study activity, accretion, gravity and effective temperature sensitive indicators. We propose a Virtual Observatory-based spectral index that is both temperature and age sensitive. We derived physical parameters using independent techniques confirming the already common feature/problem of the age/luminosity spread. In particular, we highlight two brown dwarfs showing very similar temperatures but clearly different surface gravity (explained invoking extreme early accretion). We also show how, despite large improvement in the dust treatment in theoretical models, there is still room for further progress in the simultaneous reproduction of the optical and near-infrared features of these cold young objects.

  18. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  19. The effects of dietary boron compounds in supplemented diet on hormonal activity and some biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Akbel, Erten; Karabag, Funda; Ince, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of dietary boric acid or borax, as a boron (B) source, on hormonal status (leptin, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine) and some biochemical parameter levels as glucose, carnitine, nonesterified fatty acids, and betahydroxybutyric acid in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds especially borax decreased leptin, insulin, and glucose levels, whereas increased T3 and carnitine levels in plasma. In addition, body weight of rats was found to be low in the boric acid group at the end of 4 weeks. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases body weight, leptin, and insulin, whereas increases T3 levels in plasma, so enhances the metabolic activity of rats. Between the B compounds used in this study, it was found that borax had a greater effect on hormonal status than boric acid.

  20. Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters, Risk of Falling and Physical Activity in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Tchalla, Achille E.; Bonis, Joelle; Perucaud, Florian; Mandigout, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise programs are presumed to rehabilitate gait disorders and to reduce the risk of falling in dementia patients. This study aimed to analyze the specific effects of multicomponent exercise on gait disorders and to determine the association between gait impairments and the risk of falling in dementia patients before and after intervention. Methods We conducted an 8-week multicomponent exercise program in 16 dementia patients (age 86.7 ± 5.4 years). All participants were assessed several times for gait analysis (Locométrix®), Tinetti score and physical activity (Body Media SenseWear® Pro armband). Results After 8 weeks of the exercise program, the mean gait speed was 0.12 m/s faster than before the intervention (0.55 ± 0.17 vs. 0.67 ± 0.14 m/s). The multicomponent exercise program improved gait performance and Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Gait performance (gait speed, stride length) was correlated with the Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Conclusion Analysis of spatiotemporal gait parameters using an accelerometer method provided a quick and easy tool to estimate the benefits of an exercise program and the risk of falling. PMID:26557134

  1. Simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial activity and DNA content in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by dual parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, T; Löffler, M

    1989-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were permeabilized using low concentrations of digitonin, 8 micrograms/10(6) cells. Permeabilization was monitored by the assay of lactate dehydrogenase released into the incubation medium and of hexokinase partially bound to mitochondria. Integrity of the cellular organelles was unaffected as determined by assay of the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Cells were stained with rhodamine 123 as a mitochondrial specific dye and propidium iodide/mithramycin as DNA specific dyes. The green fluorescence of bound rhodamine 123 versus red fluorescence of DNA in individual cells was analysed by dual parameter flow cytometry. Incubation of cells with inhibitors of mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as, potassium cyanide and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished binding of rhodamine 123. Flow cytometric data allowed a correlation between cell position in the mitotic cycle with total mitochondrial activity. In addition, comparison of the characteristics of propidium iodide and ethidium bromide staining further elucidated the molecular basis of the staining with the positively-charged fluorescent dye rhodamine 123.

  2. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, E. I.; Pankow, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p) approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1) variation of activity coefficient (ζi) values and mean molecular weight MW in the particulate matter (PM) phase; 2) water uptake into the PM; and 3) the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2p)ζpMW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index). Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA) compounds to allow calculation of ζi and MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm). To facilitate adoption of the (N·2p)ζpMW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1), a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975). Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2p)ζpMW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1) to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m-3) when relative humidity (RH) ≍50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is obtained using both the (N·2p)ζpMW,θ and N·2p approaches, indicating relatively small water effects under these conditions. However, for a hypothetical α-pinene/O3 case at ΔHC=30 μg m-3 and

  3. Lycopene and resveratrol improve post-thaw bull sperm parameters: sperm motility, mitochondrial activity and DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Bucak, M N; Ataman, M B; Başpınar, N; Uysal, O; Taşpınar, M; Bilgili, A; Öztürk, C; Güngör, Ş; İnanç, M E; Akal, E

    2015-06-01

    We focussed on evaluating the protective effect of lycopene and resveratrol on post-thaw bull sperm and oxidative stress parameters. Nine ejaculates for each bull were used in the study. Each ejaculate, splitted into three equal aliquots and diluted at 37 °C with base extenders containing lycopene (1 × 10(-3)  g ml(-1) ) and resveratrol (1 mm), and no antioxidant (control), was cooled to 5 °C and then frozen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for evaluation. The supplementation of the semen extender with lycopene and resveratrol increased the percentages of post-thawed computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) motility (55.8 ± 3.8 and 61.9 ± 4.0%) and progressive motility (38 ± 2.4 and 37 ± 8.8), compared with the controls (50.7 ± 2.65 and 33.3 ± 3.74%, respectively, P < 0.05). Resveratrol provided a higher ALH (4.3 ± 0.1), in comparison with the control (3.9 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). The supplementation of the semen extender with lycopene and resveratrol produced a higher mitochondrial activity (24.6 ± 2.9 and 30.1 ± 6.5% respectively), compared with that of the control (11.8 ± 9.5%, P < 0.05). It was determined that both antioxidants resulted in a lower percentage of sperm with damaged DNA than that of the control (P < 0.05). Sperm motion characteristics except for ALH, acrosome integrity, sperm viability and oxidative stress parameters were not affected by the adding of lycopene and resveratrol.

  4. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; García-Cañas, Virginia; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-12-07

    In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116). The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1) pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent) at lab-scale; (2) Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at pilot scale; (3) Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4) Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF) at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight), this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide), suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts.

  5. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea del Pilar; García-Cañas, Virginia; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116). The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1) pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent) at lab-scale; (2) Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at pilot scale; (3) Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4) Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF) at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight), this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide), suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts. PMID:27941607

  6. Effect of age and environmental factors on semen quality, glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidative parameters in Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Balić, I Majić; Milinković-Tur, S; Samardžija, M; Vince, S

    2012-07-15

    Taking into account that semen quality depends on animal age and climate conditions and that oxidative stress has been reported to be a common cause of infertility, the objective of this study was to monitor indicators of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection during four seasonal periods in service bulls of various age to get better insight into the significance of these factors upon evaluating service bull semen. The research was conducted over a year on 19 Simmental service bulls. Animals were divided into two groups according to age; Group I consisted of younger bulls aged two to four yrs (n=9), and Group II was comprised of older bulls aged five to ten yrs (n=10). Semen samples were obtained once in the middle of every seasonal period and blood samples for biochemical analysis were collected by jugular venipuncture immediately after ejaculate collection. The activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) and selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), together with the intensity of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) and oxidative protein damage (protein carbonyl content (PCC)) were measured in seminal plasma. In samples of spermatozoa and blood serum, the activity of Se-GSH-Px and TBARS and PCC concentrations were determined. Older service bulls had significantly higher ejaculate volume in summer in comparison with younger bulls, whereas the number of spermatozoa and progressive motility percentage did not significantly vary with age. Younger animals had lower progressive motility percentage during summer than in spring, with more intensive oxidative processes observed in seminal plasma (TBARS) and spermatozoa (TBARS and PCC). Based on the results presented here, it can be concluded that younger bulls are more sensitive to elevated ambient temperatures during the summer, when intensified prooxidative processes in semen plasma and spermatozoa

  7. Appearance of monoclonal plasma cell diseases in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and correlation with parameters of disease activity.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Jost K; Hillengass, Jens; Listl, Karin; Kilk, Kerstin; Hielscher, Thomas; Landgren, Ola; Delorme, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-André

    2014-11-15

    The aim of our study was to assess in which way different infiltration patterns of monoclonal plasma cell diseases in whole-body (wb) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with clinical stages, plasma cell content in bone marrow samples and established serum markers of disease activity. Institutional review board approval was obtained. We performed wb-MRI in 547 consecutive, unselected and untreated patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, n=138), smoldering myeloma (SMM, n=157) and multiple myeloma (MM, n=252) on two 1.5 T MRI-scanners with body array coils. The studies were evaluated in consensus by two experienced radiologists blinded to the diagnosis. We observed focal lesions in 23.9% (MGUS), 34.4% (SMM) and 81.3% (MM), respectively. A diffuse infiltration pattern was detected in 38.4%, 45.9% and 71%, respectively. The differences between all infiltration patterns were significant (p<0.0001). The presence of focal lesions and the presence of a diffuse bone marrow infiltration was associated with an increased plasma cell percentage in bone marrow samples (median 22% vs. 14%, 26% vs. 10%, both p<0.0001) and monoclonal protein concentration (median 18 g/dl vs. 13 g/dl, p=0.003, 20 g/dl vs. 11 g/dl, p<0.0001). Further categorization of the diffuse infiltration patterns in wb-MRI into "salt-and-pepper," moderate and severe identified significant associations with M-protein (median g/dl for S+P/moderate/severe 23/18/25, p=0.04), plasma cell percentage in the bone marrow (median 25%/24%/40%, p=0.02), and age (median years 67/60/57, p<0.0001). Bone marrow infiltration in wb-MRI is significantly different between the various stages of plasma cell disease and correlates well with established markers of disease activity.

  8. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  9. Requirements To Obtain a Pupil Activity Validation To Direct, Supervise, or Coach a Pupil Activity Program (3301-27-01). Guidelines for School Administration and First Aid Program Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    Administrative Code 3301-27-01, revised in June 1995, replaces what was previously known as the sports medicine certification program. The revision changes requirements for individuals who supervise, direct, or coach a pupil activity program that involves athletes, routine/regular physical activity, or health and safety consideration as determined…

  10. Blood thioredoxin reductase activity, oxidative stress and hematological parameters in painters and battery workers: relationship with lead and cadmium levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Conterato, Greicy M M; Bulcão, Rachel P; Sobieski, Rocheli; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; de Freitas, Fernando A; de Almeida, Fernanda L; Moreira, Ana P L; Roehrs, Miguel; Tonello, Raquel; Batista, Bruno L; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa, Fernando; Garcia, Solange C; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in lead and cadmium toxicity. We recently showed that the activity of the antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is increased in the kidneys of lead-exposed rats. The present study evaluated the blood cadmium and blood lead levels (BLLs) and their relationship with hematological and oxidative stress parameters, including blood TrxR activity in 50 painters, 23 battery workers and 36 control subjects. Erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity and its reactivation index were measured as biomarkers of lead effects. BLLs increased in painters, but were even higher in the battery workers group. In turn, blood cadmium levels increased only in the painters group, whose levels were higher than the recommended limit. δ-ALA-D activity was inhibited only in battery workers, whereas the δ-ALA-D reactivation index increased in both exposed groups; both parameters were correlated to BLLs (r = -0.59 and 0.84, P < 0.05), whereas the reactivation index was also correlated to blood cadmium levels (r = 0.27, P < 0.05). The changes in oxidative stress and hematological parameters were distinctively associated with either BLLs or blood cadmium levels, except glutathione-S-transferase activity, which was correlated with both lead (r = 0.34) and cadmium (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). However, TrxR activity did not correlate with any of the metals evaluated. In conclusion, blood TrxR activity does not seem to be a good parameter to evaluate oxidative stress in lead- and cadmium-exposed populations. However, lead-associated changes in biochemical and hematological parameters at low BLLs underlie the necessity of re-evaluating the recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to this metal.

  11. PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LASER MEDIA: Influence of the chemical composition of the hydrogen-containing component in an RH active medium and of the initiation method on the parameters of a pulsed chemical SF6-RH laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal', A. V.; Dodonov, A. A.; Rusanov, V. D.; Shiryaevskiĭ, V. L.; Sholin, G. V.

    1992-02-01

    The influence of the composition of the active medium on the lasing characteristics and energy deposition efficiency was studied under conditions of electron-beam and electric-discharge initiation in SF6-H2 and SF6-HI pulsed hydrogen fluoride chemical lasers.The best radiation energy characteristics were achieved for an SF6-HI active medium using electron-beam initiation and for an SF6-H2 active medium when the pump reaction was initiated by a self-sustained volume discharge. The following pulse parameters were obtained for an SF6-HI laser:energy 1.5 J, half-height pulse duration 60 ns,and leading edge duration 20 ns.

  12. Variation of TEC and related parameters over the Indian EIA region from ground and space based GPS observations during the low solar activity period of May 2007-April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.; Nagaraja, Kamsali; Jakowski, N.

    2017-03-01

    The annual variations of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC), F-region peak ionisation (NmF2) and the ionospheric slab thickness (τ) over the Indian region during the low solar activity period of May 2007-April 2008 have been studied. For this purpose the ground based TEC data obtained from GAGAN measurements and the space based data from GPS radio occultation technique using CHAMP have been utilised. The results of these independent measurements are combined to derive additional parameters such as the equivalent slab thickness of the total and the bottom-side ionospheric regions (τT and τB). The one year hourly average values of all these parameters over the ionospheric anomaly latitude region (10-26°N) are presented here along with the statistical error estimates. It is expected that these results are potentially suited to be used as base level values during geomagnetically quiet and undisturbed solar conditions.

  13. Estimation of ice activation parameters within a particle tracking Lagrangian cloud model using the ensemble Kalman filter to match ISCDAC golden case observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, J. M.; Dubey, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    To both quantify and reduce uncertainty in ice activation parameterizations for stratus clouds occurring in the temperature range between -5 to -10 C ensemble simulations of an ISDAC golden case have been conducted. To formulate the ensemble, three parameters found within an ice activation model have been sampled using a Latin hypercube technique over a parameter range that induces large variability in both number and mass of ice. The ice activation model is contained within a Lagrangian cloud model that simulates particle number as a function of radius for cloud ice, snow, graupel, cloud, and rain particles. A unique aspect of this model is that it produces very low levels of numerical diffusion that enable the model to accurately resolve the sharp cloud edges associated with the ISDAC stratus deck. Another important aspect of the model is that near the cloud edges the number of particles can be significantly increased to reduce sampling errors and accurately resolve physical processes such as collision-coalescence that occur in this region. Thus, given these relatively low numerical errors, as compared to traditional bin models, the sensitivity of a stratus deck to changes in parameters found within the activation model can be examined without fear of numerical contamination. Likewise, once the ensemble has been completed, ISDAC observations can be incorporated into a Kalman filter to optimally estimate the ice activation parameters and reduce overall model uncertainty. Hence, this work will highlight the ability of an ensemble Kalman filter system coupled to a highly accurate numerical model to estimate important parameters found within microphysical parameterizations containing high uncertainty.

  14. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zefeng; Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Ge, Zhaogang; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-11-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid‑related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of β-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the β-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin pathway.

  15. A critical study of the Miura-Maki integral method for the estimation of the kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Li, Tao; Liu, Ronghou

    2011-02-01

    Using some theoretically simulated data constructed from known sets of the activation energy distribution f(E) (assumed to follow the Gaussian distribution [Formula in text] where E is the activation energy, E(0) is the mean value of the activation energy distribution, and σ is the standard deviation of the activation energy distribution) and the frequency factor k(0), a critical study of the use of the Miura-Maki integral method for the estimation of the kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model has been performed from three cases. For all cases, the use of the Miura-Maki integral method leads to important errors in the estimation of k(0). There are some differences between the assumed and calculated activation energy distributions and the differences decrease with increasing the assumed k(0) values (for Case 1), with increasing the assumed σ values (for Case 2), and with decreasing the b values (for Case 3).

  16. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  17. Time-Intensity Curves Obtained after Microbubble Injection Can Be Used to Differentiate Responders from Nonresponders among Patients with Clinically Active Crohn Disease after 6 Weeks of Pharmacologic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Sozzi, Michele; Angileri, Roberta; Gennari, Antonio Giulio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To assess whether contrast material-enhanced ultrasonography (US) can be used to differentiate responders from nonresponders among patients with clinically active Crohn disease after 6 weeks of pharmacologic treatment. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by our ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Fifty consecutive patients (26 men and 24 women; mean age, 34.76 years ± 9) with a proved diagnosis of active Crohn disease who were scheduled to begin therapy with biologics (infliximab or adalimumab) were included, with enrollment from June 1, 2013, to June 1, 2015. In each patient, the terminal ileal loop was imaged with contrast-enhanced US before the beginning and at the end of week 6 of pharmacologic treatment. Time-intensity curves obtained in responders (those with a decrease in the Crohn disease endoscopic index of severity score of 25-44 before treatment to 10-15 after treatment, an inflammatory score <7, and/or a decrease ≥70 in the Crohn disease activity index score compared with baseline) and nonresponders were compared with Mann-Whitney test. Results Responders (n = 31) and nonresponders (n = 19) differed (P < .05) in the percent change of peak enhancement (-40.78 ± 62.85 vs 53.21 ± 72.5; P = .0001), wash-in (-34.8 ± 67.72 vs 89.44 ± 145.32; P = .001) and washout (-5.64 ± 130.71 vs 166.83 ± 204.44; P = .002) rate, wash-in perfusion index (-42.29 ± 59.21 vs 50.96 ± 71.13; P = .001), area under the time-intensity curve (AUC; -46.17 ± 48.42 vs 41.78 ± 87.64; P = .001), AUC during wash-in (-43.93 ± 54.29 vs 39.79 ± 70.85; P = .001), and AUC during washout (-49.36 ± 47.42 vs 42.65 ± 97.09; P = .001). Responders and nonresponders did not differ in the percent change of rise time (5.09 ± 49.13 vs 6.24 ± 48.06; P = .93) and time to peak enhancement (8.82 ± 54.5 vs 10.21 ± 43.25; P = .3). Conclusion Analysis of time-intensity curves obtained after injection of microbubble

  18. A new chronobiological approach to discriminate between acute and chronic depression using peripheral temperature, rest-activity, and light exposure parameters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Circadian theories for major depressive disorder have suggested that the rhythm of the circadian pacemaker is misaligned. Stable phase relationships between internal rhythms, such as temperature and rest/activity, and the external day-night cycle, are considered to be crucial for adapting to life in the external environmental. Therefore, the relationship and possible alterations among (i) light exposure, (ii) activity rhythm, and (iii) temperature rhythm could be important factors in clinical depression. This study aimed to investigate the rhythmic alterations in depression and evaluate the ability of chronobiological parameters to discriminate between healthy subjects and depressed patients. Methods Thirty female subjects, including healthy subjects, depressed patients in the first episode, and major recurrent depression patients. Symptoms were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Montgomery-Äsberg Scale. Motor activity, temperature, and light values were determined for 7 days by actigraph, and circadian rhythms were calculated. Results Depressed groups showed a lower amplitude in the circadian rhythm of activity and light exposure, but a higher amplitude in the rhythm of peripheral temperature. The correlation between temperature and activity values was different in the day and night among the control and depressed groups. For the same level of activity, depressed patients had lowest temperature values during the day. The amplitudes of temperature and activity were the highest discriminant parameters. Conclusions These results indicate that the study of rhythms is useful for diagnosis and therapy for depressive mood disorders. PMID:23510455

  19. Analysis of Family Structures Reveals Robustness or Sensitivity of Bursting Activity to Parameter Variations in a Half-Center Oscillator (HCO) Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms that support robustness in neuronal networks are as yet unknown. However, recent studies provide evidence that neuronal networks are robust to natural variations, modulation, and environmental perturbations of parameters, such as maximal conductances of intrinsic membrane and synaptic currents. Here we sought a method for assessing robustness, which might easily be applied to large brute-force databases of model instances. Starting with groups of instances with appropriate activity (e.g., tonic spiking), our method classifies instances into much smaller subgroups, called families, in which all members vary only by the one parameter that defines the family. By analyzing the structures of families, we developed measures of robustness for activity type. Then, we applied these measures to our previously developed model database, HCO-db, of a two-neuron half-center oscillator (HCO), a neuronal microcircuit from the leech heartbeat central pattern generator where the appropriate activity type is alternating bursting. In HCO-db, the maximal conductances of five intrinsic and two synaptic currents were varied over eight values (leak reversal potential also varied, five values). We focused on how variations of particular conductance parameters maintain normal alternating bursting activity while still allowing for functional modulation of period and spike frequency. We explored the trade-off between robustness of activity type and desirable change in activity characteristics when intrinsic conductances are altered and identified the hyperpolarization-activated (h) current as an ideal target for modulation. We also identified ensembles of model instances that closely approximate physiological activity and can be used in future modeling studies. PMID:27595135

  20. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively.

  1. Effect of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone on in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes evaluated by the subsequent in vitro development of embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, M A; Alfonso, J; García-Mengual, E; Salvador, I; Duque, C C; Molina, I

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant human (rh) FSH and LH on in vitro maturation of pig oocytes compared with a conventional hormonal supplement based on equine (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG), as evaluated by the developmental ability of 3 types of pig embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or artificial activation (ATA). In Exp. 1, one cumulus-oocyte complex group (A group) was supplemented with rh-FSH and rh-LH (0.1 IU/mL each), and the other group (B group) was supplemented with PMSG and hCG (10 IU/mL each). No differences in nuclear maturation between the A and B groups were observed (68.5 vs. 71.4%, respectively). No differences were detected between hormonal treatments in the rates of cleavage or blastocyst formation of ATA, IVF, and ICSI embryos. Total cell number of the embryos was not significantly different in any experimental group (A: 31.1, 28.5, and 19.8 vs. B: 25.2, 25.5, and 20.6 for ATA, IVF, and ICSI embryos, respectively). In Exp. 2, the effects of different concentrations of rh-FSH and rh-LH (0.5, 0.1, or 0.05 IU/mL) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation and in vitro development of embryos obtained by IVF were studied. No effect of different hormonal concentrations on blastocyst formation rates was observed (8.5, 13.0, and 5.7%, respectively). Blastocyst cell number was not different in any experimental group. In conclusion, the results obtained here permit us to substitute PMSG and hCG with rh-FSH and rh-LH and to produce pig embryos obtained by IVF, ICSI, or ATA.

  2. Serum oxytocinase activity is related to tumor growth parameters in N-methyl nitrosourea induced rat breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2004-07-30

    Oxytocinase has been reported to hydrolyse the peptide hormone oxytocin (OT). We have previously described changes in oxytocinase activity in human breast cancer, where a highly significant increase occurred in tumoral tissue. In the present work, we analysed oxytocinase activity in serum of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU). We also correlated these data with the number and size of tumors and the body weight of the animals to evaluate the putative value of this activity as a biological marker of the disease. Our results confirm the involvement of OT in carcinogenesis and suggest a mayor role for oxytocinase activity in the development of breast cancer.

  3. Lead Oxychloride Borates Obtained under Extreme Conditions.

    PubMed

    Siidra, Oleg I; Kabbour, Houria; Mentre, Olivier; Nazarchuk, Evgeny V; Kegler, Philip; Zinyakhina, Diana O; Colmont, Marie; Depmeier, Wulf

    2016-09-06

    [Pb10O4]Pb2(B2O5)Cl12 (1) and [Pb18O12]Pb(BO2OH)2Cl10 (2) were obtained via high-temperature high-pressure experiments. [O12Pb18](12+) and [O4Pb10](12+) oxocentered structural units of different dimensionality are excised from the ideal [OPb] layer in tetragonal α-PbO. 2 is formed with an excess of lead oxide component, and 1 is formed with an excess of borate and halide reagents. The structure of 2 can be visualized as the incorporation of {Pb(10)Cl4(BO2OH)2} clusters into alternating PbO and chloride layers, with the existence of square vacancies in both. However, the structure of 1 is described as the intrusion of [O4Pb10](12+) tetramers linked by disordered Pb(B2O5) groups into a halogen three-dimensional matrix. The structure of 2 contains 10 symmetrically independent Pb positions. The 6s(2) lone electron pair is stereochemically active on Pb(1)-Pb(9) atoms, whereas it is inert on Pb(10). All of the Pb coordinations in the structure of 2, in accordance with ECCv (volume eccentricity) parameters and the density of states (DOS), can be subdivided into three groups. The current study is the first attempt to analyze this unusual behavior in structurally complex oxyhalide material with the rare case of Pb(2+) cations, demonstrating both stereochemically active and inactive behavior of the lone pair via charge and first-principle calculations.

  4. T-cell activation by soluble MHC oligomers can be described by a two-parameter binding model.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, J D; Cochran, J R; Stern, L J

    2001-01-01

    T-cell activation is essential for initiation and control of immune system function. T cells are activated by interaction of cell-surface antigen receptors with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins on the surface of other cells. Studies using soluble oligomers of MHC-peptide complexes and other types of receptor cross-linking agents have supported an activation mechanism that involves T cell receptor clustering. Receptor clustering induced by incubation of T cells with MHC-peptide oligomers leads to the induction of T-cell activation processes, including downregulation of engaged receptors and upregulation of the cell-surface proteins CD69 and CD25. Dose-response curves for these T-cell activation markers are bell-shaped, with different maxima and midpoints, depending on the valency of the soluble oligomer used. In this study, we have analyzed the activation behavior using a mathematical model that describes the binding of multivalent ligands to cell-surface receptors. We show that a simple equilibrium binding model accurately describes the activation data for CD4(+) T cells treated with MHC-peptide oligomers of varying valency. The model can be used to predict activation and binding behavior for T cells and MHC oligomers with different properties. PMID:11606269

  5. Parameter Estimation of Actuators for Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind Tunnel Model with Analysis of Wear and Aerodynamic Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.

  6. Associations between Multiple Accelerometry-Assessed Physical Activity Parameters and Selected Health Outcomes in Elderly People – Results from the KORA-Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortlieb, Sandra; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Nowak, Dennis; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Kuhn, Klaus A.; Karrasch, Stefan; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometry is an important method for extending our knowledge about intensity, duration, frequency and patterns of physical activity needed to promote health. This study has used accelerometry to detect associations between intensity levels and related activity patterns with multimorbidity and disability. Moreover, the proportion of people meeting the physical activity recommendations for older people was assessed. Methods Physical activity was measured in 168 subjects (78 males; 65–89 years of age), using triaxial GT3X accelerometers for ten consecutive days. The associations between physical activity parameters and multimorbidity or disability was examined using multiple logistic regression models, which were adjusted for gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, lung function, nutrition and multimorbidity or disability. Results 35.7% of the participants met the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week. Only 11.9% reached these 150 minutes, when only bouts of at least 10 minutes were counted. Differences in moderate to vigorous activity between people with and without multimorbidity or disability were more obvious when shorter bouts instead of only longer bouts were included. Univariate analyses showed an inverse relationship between physical activity and multimorbidity or disability for light and moderate to vigorous physical activity. A higher proportion of long activity bouts spent sedentarily was associated with higher risk for multimorbidity, whereas a high proportion of long bouts in light activity seemed to prevent disability. After adjustment for covariates, there were no significant associations, anymore. Conclusions The accumulated time in moderate to vigorous physical activity seems to have a stronger relationship with health and functioning when shorter activity bouts and not only longer bouts were counted. We could not detect an association of the intensity

  7. HYDROGEN ATOM THERMAL PARAMETERS.

    PubMed

    JENSEN, L H; SUNDARALINGAM, M

    1964-09-11

    Isotropic hydrogen atom thermal parameters for N,N'- hexamethylenebispropionamide have been determined. They show a definite trend and vary from approximately the same as the mean thermal parameters for atoms other than hydrogen near the center of the molecule to appreciably greater for atoms near the end. The indicated trend for this compound, along with other results, provides the basis for a possible explanation of the anomolous values that have been obtained for hydrogen atom thermal parameters.

  8. The relationship of beta-glucuronidase activity in crevicular fluid to clinical parameters of periodontal disease. Findings from a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lamster, I B; Holmes, L G; Gross, K B; Oshrain, R L; Cohen, D W; Rose, L F; Peters, L M; Pope, M R

    1994-02-01

    Previous reports have suggested that persistently elevated levels of the acidic glycohydrolase beta-glucuronidase (beta G) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can identify patients with chronic adult periodontitis who are at risk for future probing attachment loss (PAL). To comprehensively study beta G activity in GCF, a multicenter trial examining the relationship of the enzyme in GCF to traditional clinical parameters of periodontal disease and PAL was conducted. In this report, the baseline data was used to evaluate the relationship of beta G activity in GCF to traditional parameters of periodontal disease. The study group included 130 patients who had been treated for periodontal disease and were on a regular recall schedule, and 10 patients with chronic adult periodontitis who had never received treatment. Upon entering the longitudinal trial, the patients were examined, and a standardized 30-s GCF sample was collected from the mesiobuccal crevice of all study teeth. As a control, GCF samples and clinical data were collected from 62 patients with a healthy periodontium or mild inflammatory gingivitis without loss of probing attachment. At baseline, beta G activity for the periodontitis patients ranged from 0 to 1704 Units (U), with a median of 32 U. beta G could not be detected in 0.2% of samples (activity < or = 2.0 U). The 90% cumulative relative frequency was 139 U. For the healthy/gingivitis subjects beta G activity ranged from 0 to 504 U, with a median of 22 U. Enzyme was not detectable in 0.4% of samples. Only 0.9% of samples contained greater than 139 U. beta G activity in GCF was not related to gender or age. For the periodontitis patients, elevated enzyme activity (> or = 140 U) was most often associated with molar teeth, followed by maxillary bicuspids. Maxillary central incisors, and mandibular central and lateral incisors displayed the lowest frequency of elevated enzyme activity. The relationship of beta G activity to the traditional parameters of

  9. Thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties of human tissue-type plasminogen activator variants, obtained by deletion and/or duplication of structural/functional domains, in a hamster pulmonary embolism model.

    PubMed

    Collen, D; Lijnen, H R; Vanlinthout, I; Kieckens, L; Nelles, L; Stassen, J M

    1991-02-12

    A pulmonary embolism model in hamsters was used for the quantitative evaluation of the thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties of variants of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). A 25 microliters 125I-fibrin labeled human plasma clot was made in vitro and injected into the jugular vein of heparinized hamsters. The extent of thrombolysis within 90 min was determined as the difference between the radioactivity injected in the jugular vein and that recovered in the heart and lungs. Recombinant t-PA (home-made rt-PA or Activase) infused intravenously over 60 min caused dose-dependent progressive thrombolysis. The results of thrombolytic potency (clot lysis in percent versus dose administered in mg/kg) and of specific thrombolytic activity (clot lysis in percent versus steady state plasma level in microgram/ml) were fitted with an exponentially transformed sigmoidal function y = 100 c/(1 + e-a(ax-eh] and the maximal percent lysis (c), the dose or plasma level at which maximal rate of lysis is achieved (b) and the maximal rate of lysis (z = 1/4 ac.eb) were determined. With rt-PA, these parameters were c = 72 +/- 6% (mean +/- SEM), b = 0.19 +/- 0.08 mg/kg, z = 68 +/- 25% lysis per mg/kg, with corresponding values of 87 +/- 5%, 0.07 +/- 0.03 mg/kg and 150 +/- 38% lysis per mg/kg for Activase (p = NS). Deletion of the finger and growth factor domains in rt-PA (rt-PA-delta FE) was not associated with marked alteration of the thrombolytic potency (c = 90 +/- 30%, b = 0.34 +/- 0.35 mg/kg, and z = 54 +/- 14% per mg/kg), but was associated with a significant reduction of the specific thrombolytic activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Activity of the corn Spm transposon system in transgenic plants Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz obtained by both direct transfer of DNA to protoplasts and agrobacterial transformation of root explants].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L A; Sytnik, E S; Cherep, N N; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V; Klimiuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    Transposon mediated insertional mutagenesis is one of the approaches for the unique gene cloning. A wild species of Cruciferae family Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz, which is of interest for practical breeding as a donor of improved plant oil, was an object of the investigation. Plasmid construction used in the experiments included selective NPT II gene, reported GUS gene serving as an excision marker, structural BAR gene located within the dSpm element and Spm transposase. The GUS gene of this plasmid had not his own promoter and became functional only after Spm-transposition. Transformed Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz. plants were obtained by direct mesophyll protoplast transformation as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated root explant transformation. Gene transfer and the transposition event were confirmed by the GUS activity and the PCR analysis. Relative transformation efficiency using protoplasts was 5.8%.

  11. Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) improved non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mansouri Taee, Hadis; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ahmadvand, Hassan

    2017-03-19

    The present study examined the effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) on non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings (6.50 ± 0.55 g (were distributed in twelve cages (65 × 65 × 65 cm) with a metal framework. The study included four treatments repeated in triplicates. The treatments were feeding trouts with experimental diets containing different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of Myrtle powder. The fingerlings were fed on experimental diet for sixty days and then skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as bactericidal activity were measured. At the end of the trial, the highest skin mucus soluble protein level was observed in group fed with 1.5% Myrtle (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased in fish groups fed 1 and 1.5% Myrtle compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, evaluation of skin mucus lysozyme activity showed no significant difference between treatments and control group (P > 0.05). Also, no antibacterial activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica in all treatments and control group. Whereas skin mucus of rainbow trout showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri) in 1 and 1.5% Myrtle treatments. These results indicated beneficial effects of dietary Myrtle on mucosal immune parameters of fingerling rainbow trout.

  12. Hemato - Immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following the diet supplemented with Mentha piperita against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Ghiasi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the potential effects of Mentha piperita on the hemato - immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Mentha piperita (MP) plant extract for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin contents), as well as in respiratory burst activity, total protein, albumin, and neutrophil levels in fish fed supplemented diets compared to the control fish. Furthermore, dietary MP plant extract supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum of rainbow trout. After 8 weeks the cessation of feeding with MP plant extract, survival rates of 54.4%, 63.6% and 75.2% were recorded in groups which received 1, 2 and 3% of MP plant extract of feed, respectively, compared to 34.6% survivals in the control. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish.

  13. Hazard analysis of active tectonics through geomorphometric parameters to cultural heritage conservation: the case of Paphos in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, A. V.; Sarris, A.; Alexakis, D.; Agapiou, A.; Themistocleous, K.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2014-08-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, can have a large destructive effect on cultural heritage sites conservation. This study aims to assess from a geospatial perspective the risk from natural hazards for the archaeological sites and monuments and evaluate the potential tectonic activity impact on the cultural and historic heritage. Geomorphometric data derivatives that can be extracted from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide information relevant with active tectonics. The specific extracted tectonic information when being used on the basis of analytical hierarchy process and weighted linear combination approach can offer an important robust approach. The ranking of the derived information relatively to specific criteria of weights can enhance the interrelationships and assemblages over neotectonics aspects. The outcomes of that methodological framework can propose an assessment approach for the spatial distribution of neotectonic activity and can become a useful tool to assessing seismic hazard for disaster risk reduction. The risk assessment aspects of such a hazard are being interlinked with the archaeological sites in order to highlight and examine those that are exposed on ongoing tectonic activity and seismic hazard. Paphos area in Cyprus has been used as the test bed for the particular analysis. The results show an important number of archaeological sites being located within zones of high degree of neotectonic activity.

  14. Effect of coumaphos on cholinesterase activity, hematology, and biochemical blood parameters of bovines in tropical regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pardío, Violeta T; Ibarra, Nelly De J; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; López, Karla M

    2007-05-01

    To assess the effect of coumaphos [O-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate] exposure on physiological responses during bovine production, acetylcolinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities were measured in whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma of healthy male steers (Bos Taurus x Bos indicus) sprayed with coumaphos at a non-lethal dose of 1 mg kg(- 1) body weight per day once every 14 (in vivo group) or 21 days (southern and central groups). Coumaphos topically administered at 1 mg/kg body weight per day to cattle under normal management practices in tropical areas produced a significant inhibition in erythrocyte (RBC) AChE and BuAChE activities when compared to baseline levels. RBC-AChE activity for the in vivo group decreased 71.3% (P < 0.05) and BuChE activity 59.1% (P < 0.05); RBC-AChE activity decreased 55.1% (P < 0.05) (southern group) and 43.4% (P < 0.05) (central group). Compared to the control specimens, steers from in vivo, southern, and central groups after 150 days of exposure had lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count, absolute lymphocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts. Decreases in RBC-AChE activities correlated with decreased lymphocyte (r = 1.000, p = 0.01), erythrocyte (r = 1.000, p = 0.003), and platelet counts (r = 0.841, p = 0.036). Significantly increased BUN levels (P < 0.05) correlated with the decrease in RBC-AChE activities (r = - 0.997, p = 0.047) and with the decrease in absolute red blood cell (r = - 0.883, p = 0.020) and lymphocyte (r = - 0.825, p = 0.043) counts; increased (P < 0.05) total plasma protein levels correlated with the decrease in RBC-AChE activities (r = -0.998, p = 0.043), absolute red blood cell (r = - 0.998, p = 0.040), lymphocyte (r = - 0.893, p = 0.017), and platelet (r = -0.855, p = 0.030) counts. The physiological responses correlated with the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition could be considered as early indicators or warning responses of bovine

  15. The relation between EMG activity and kinematic parameters strongly supports a role of the action tremor in parkinsonian bradykinesia.

    PubMed

    Carboncini, M C; Manzoni, D; Strambi, S; Bonuccelli, U; Pavese, N; Andre, P; Rossi, B

    2001-01-01

    The kinematics characteristics of an upper arm extension of large amplitude (90 degrees) performed in the horizontal plane and the simultaneous activity of the shoulder muscles were recorded in 12 parkinsonian patients and in six normal control subjects. The movement, triggered by an acoustic "go" signal, was preceded by an isometric adduction. Within the whole population of individuals (n = 18) a strong, positive correlation was observed between the root mean square value of agonist EMG activity, evaluated during the acceleration phase of the movement, and both peak velocity and acceleration. In six patients tremor bursts at the frequency of 8-14 Hz (action tremor) were observed during the movement phase in the anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid: all these patients showed low root mean square values and were bradykinetic with respect to the control subjects. The remaining six patients did not show this action tremor during the movement phase. All but one had an agonist activation of normal duration and amplitude, showed high root mean square values, and performed well in the range of control subjects. We conclude that the inability to suppress the activity of pathological oscillator(s) responsible for the action tremor plays a fundamental role in the bradykinesia associated with Parkinson's disease.

  16. Adsorption of phenol onto activated carbon from Rhazya stricta: determination of the optimal experimental parameters using factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, A. K.; Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; El-Chaghaby, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    A novel activated carbon was prepared from Rhazya stricta leaves and was successfully used as an adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution. The prepared activated carbon was characterized by FTIR and SEM analysis. Three factors (namely, temperature, pH and adsorbent dose) were screened to study their effect on the adsorption of phenol by R. stricta activated carbon. A 23 full factorial design was employed for optimizing the adsorption process. The removal of phenol by adsorption onto R. stricta carbon reached 85 % at a solution pH of 3, an adsorbent dose of 0.5 g/l and a temperature of 45 °C. The temperature and adsorbent weight had a positive effect on phenol removal percentage, when both factors were changed from low to high and the opposite is true for the initial solution pH. The results of the main effects showed that the three studied factors significantly affected phenol removal by R. stricta carbon with 95 % confidence level. The interaction effects revealed that the interaction between the temperature and pH had the most significant effect on the removal percentage of phenol by R. stricta activated carbon. The present work showed that the carbon prepared from a low-cost and natural material which is R. stricta leaves is a good adsorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution.

  17. Serum platelet factor 4 is a reliable activity parameter in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Yu, Na; Jia, Ya-Xu; Wan, Shu-Jun; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic utility of serum platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels and to assess its accuracy in detecting inflammatory bowel disease activity.This study included 45 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 30 control subjects at Jinling Hospital between May 2014 and July 2015. Laboratory tests measured white blood count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelet count. PF4 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease activity: active and inactive.Median PF4 values dramatically increased in UC and CD patients compared with the healthy group (UC: 26.64 [20.00-36.22] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63-26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.002; CD: 25.56 [18.57-36.36] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63-26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.014); however, the serum PF4 levels between UC and CD failed to show a significant difference (26.64 [20.00-36.22] mg/mL vs 25.56 [18.57-36.36] mg/mL, P = 0.521). Furthermore, serum PF4 levels were elevated in both UC and CD patients with active disease (UC: 20.19 [14.89-23.53] mg/mL vs 28.86 [22.57-37.29] mg/mL, P < 0.001; CD: 18.33 [16.72-25.77] mg/mL vs 34.38 [22.58-39.92] mg/mL, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed higher PF4 level as an independent predictor of disease activity in UC and CD patients (UC: odds ratio 30.375, P = 0.002; CD: odds ratio 54.167, P < 0.001). The cut-off level of PF4 for distinguishing active from inactive UC patients was 24.1 mg/mL. While in CD patients, the cut-off level of PF4 was 19.24 mg/mL.Serum PF4 levels could be a potential biomarker for monitoring the disease activity of inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Effects of Pulp and Na-Bentonite Amendments on the Mobility of Trace Elements, Soil Enzymes Activity and Microbial Parameters under Ex Situ Aided Phytostabilization

    PubMed Central

    Wasilkowski, Daniel; Mrozik, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential use of pulp (by-product) from coffee processing and Na-bentonite (commercial product) for minimizing the environmental risk of Zn, Pb and Cd in soil collected from a former mine and zinc-lead smelter. The effects of soil amendments on the physicochemical properties of soil, the structural and functional diversity of the soil microbiome as well as soil enzymes were investigated. Moreover, biomass of Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (cultivar Asterix) and the uptake of trace elements in plant tissues were studied. The outdoor pot set contained the following soils: control soil (initial), untreated soil (without additives) with grass cultivation and soils treated (with additives) with and without plant development. All of the selected parameters were measured at the beginning of the experiment (t0), after 2 months of chemical stabilization (t2) and at the end of the aided phytostabilization process (t14). The obtained results indicated that both amendments efficiently immobilized the bioavailable fractions of Zn (87–91%) and Cd (70–83%) at t14; however, they were characterized by a lower ability to bind Pb (33–50%). Pulp and Na-bentonite drastically increased the activity of dehydrogenase (70- and 12-fold, respectively) at t14, while the activities of urease, acid and alkaline phosphatases differed significantly depending on the type of material that was added into the soil. Generally, the activities of these enzymes increased; however, the increase was greater for pulp (3.5-6-fold) than for the Na-bentonite treatment (1.3–2.2-fold) as compared to the control. Soil additives significantly influenced the compo