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Sample records for activation parp cleavage

  1. Helicobacter pylori activation of PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nossa, Carlos W

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori produces a cache of virulence factors that promote colonization and persistence, which, in turn, contributes to a robust inflammatory response at the host-pathogen interface. Recently, we reported that H. pylori activates the abundant nuclear regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, resulting in the production of the catabolite poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARP-1 is emerging as a key player in establishing homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface. In this article, we summarize the discovery of H. pylori-dependent PARP-1 activation, and discuss potential roles for PARP-1 in H. pylori-mediated gastric disease. In light of the remarkable successes that have reported for treating inflammatory disorders and cancers with PARP-1 inhibitors, we discuss the prospects of targeting PARP-1 for treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. PMID:21468218

  2. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew induces apoptosis without PARP or cytokeratin 18 cleavage in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Aztopal, Nazlihan; Cevatemre, Buse; Sarimahmut, Mehmet; Ari, Ferda; Dere, Egemen; Ozel, Mustafa Zafer; Firat, Mehmet; Ulukaya, Engin

    2016-01-01

    Pelargonium species have various uses in folk medicine as traditional remedies, and several of them have been screened for their biological activity, including anticancer. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew (P. quercetorum) is traditionally used for its anthelminthic activity. However, little is known about its biological activity or its effect on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of P. quercetorum extract on lung cancer cell lines with varying properties. Following the analyses of its chemical composition, the cytotoxic activity was screened by the adenosine triphosphate viability test. M30-Apoptosense® and M65 EpiDeath® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the cell death mode (apoptosis vs. necrosis). For apoptosis, additional methods, including Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Hoechst 33342 staining, were employed. The cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was assayed by western blotting to further dissect the apoptosis mechanism. The methanol extract of P. quercetorum caused cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of cell death was apoptosis, as evidenced by the positive staining of the cells for Annexin-V-FITC and the presence of pyknotic nuclei. Notably, neither PARP cleavage nor cytokeratin 18 fragmentation were observed. P.quercetorum caused cell death by an apoptosis mechanism that is slightly different from classical apoptosis. Therefore, future in vivo experiments are required for further understanding of the effect of this plant on cancer cells. PMID:27446448

  3. PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces enzymatic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaogan; Wang Zhaoqi; Tong Weimin . E-mail: tong@iarc.fr; Shen Yan

    2007-03-02

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) modifies a variety of nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and plays diverse roles in molecular and cellular processes. A common PARP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 762, resulting in the substitution of alanine (Ala) for valine (Val) in the catalytic domain has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. To characterize the functional effect of this polymorphism on PARP1, we performed in vitro enzymatic analysis on PARP1-Ala762 and PARP1-Val762. We found that PARP1-Ala762 displayed 57.2% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and 61.9% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of histone H1. The kinetic characterization revealed that the K {sub m} of PARP1-Ala762 was increased to a 1.2-fold of the K {sub m} of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Thus, the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces the enzymatic activity of PARP1 by increasing K {sub m}. This finding suggests that different levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP1 might aid in understanding Cancer risk of carriers of the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism.

  4. PARP1 expression, activity and ex vivo sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Herriott, Ashleigh; Tudhope, Susan J.; Junge, Gesa; Rodrigues, Natalie; Patterson, Miranda J.; Woodhouse, Laura; Lunec, John; Hunter, Jill E.; Mulligan, Evan A.; Cole, Michael; Allinson, Lisa M.; Wallis, Jonathan P.; Marshall, Scott; Wang, Evelyn; Curtin, Nicola J.; Willmore, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mutation and loss of p53 and ATM abrogate DNA damage signalling and predict poorer response and shorter survival. We hypothesised that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity, which is crucial for repair of DNA breaks induced by oxidative stress or chemotherapy, may be an additional predictive biomarker and a target for therapy with PARP inhibitors. We measured PARP activity in 109 patient-derived CLL samples, which varied widely (192 – 190052 pmol PAR/106 cells) compared to that seen in healthy volunteer lymphocytes (2451 – 7519 pmol PAR/106 cells). PARP activity was associated with PARP1 protein expression and endogenous PAR levels. PARP activity was not associated with p53 or ATM loss, Binet stage, IGHV mutational status or survival, but correlated with Bcl-2 and Rel A (an NF-kB subunit). Levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in DNA (a marker of oxidative damage) were not associated with PAR levels or PARP activity. The potent PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), inhibited CD40L-stimulated proliferation of CLL cells at nM concentrations, independently of Binet stage or p53/ATM function. PARP activity is highly variable in CLL and correlates with stress-induced proteins. Proliferating CLL cells (including those with p53 or ATM loss) are highly sensitive to the PARP inhibitor talazoparib. PMID:26539646

  5. Notch/HES1-mediated PARP1 activation: a cell type–specific mechanism for tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Sankaranarayanan; Fang, Wendy; Song, Guangchun; Mullighan, Charles G.; Hammitt, Richard; McMurray, John

    2011-01-01

    Notch signaling plays both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, depending on cell type. In contrast to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), where Notch activation promotes leukemogenesis, induction of Notch signaling in B-cell ALL (B-ALL) leads to growth arrest and apoptosis. The Notch target Hairy/Enhancer of Split1 (HES1) is sufficient to reproduce this tumor suppressor phenotype in B-ALL; however, the mechanism is not yet known. We report that HES1 regulates proapoptotic signals by the novel interacting protein Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase1 (PARP1) in a cell type–specific manner. Interaction of HES1 with PARP1 inhibits HES1 function, induces PARP1 activation, and results in PARP1 cleavage in B-ALL. HES1-induced PARP1 activation leads to self-ADP ribosylation of PARP1, consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+, diminished adenosine triphosphate levels, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria to the nucleus, resulting in apoptosis in B-ALL but not T-cell ALL. Importantly, induction of Notch signaling by the Notch agonist peptide Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 can reproduce these events and leads to B-ALL apoptosis. The novel interaction of HES1 and PARP1 in B-ALL modulates the function of the HES1 transcriptional complex and signals through PARP1 to induce apoptosis. This mechanism shows a cell type–specific proapoptotic pathway that may lead to Notch agonist–based cancer therapeutics. PMID:21224467

  6. Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Metformin and Telmisartan: Reduction of PARP1 Activity via the AMPK-PARP1 Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Fenqing; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Yin, Yanjun; Wang, Yaqiong; Marin, Traci L.; Gongol, Brendan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, You-yi; Chen, Zhen; Shyy, John Y-J; Lei, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs), diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity. The results showed that metformin and telmisartan, but not glipizide and metoprolol, activated AMPK, which phosphorylated PARP1 Ser-177 in cultured ECs and the vascular wall of rodent models. Experiments using phosphorylated/de-phosphorylated PARP1 mutants show that AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 leads to decreased PARP1 activity and attenuated protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), but increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) expression. Taken together, the data presented here suggest biguanides and ARBs have a beneficial effect on the vasculature by the cascade of AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 to inhibit PARP1 activity and protein PARylation in ECs, thereby mitigating endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26986624

  7. Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Metformin and Telmisartan: Reduction of PARP1 Activity via the AMPK-PARP1 Cascade.

    PubMed

    Shang, Fenqing; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Yin, Yanjun; Wang, Yaqiong; Marin, Traci L; Gongol, Brendan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, You-Yi; Chen, Zhen; Shyy, John Y-J; Lei, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs), diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity. The results showed that metformin and telmisartan, but not glipizide and metoprolol, activated AMPK, which phosphorylated PARP1 Ser-177 in cultured ECs and the vascular wall of rodent models. Experiments using phosphorylated/de-phosphorylated PARP1 mutants show that AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 leads to decreased PARP1 activity and attenuated protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), but increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) expression. Taken together, the data presented here suggest biguanides and ARBs have a beneficial effect on the vasculature by the cascade of AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 to inhibit PARP1 activity and protein PARylation in ECs, thereby mitigating endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26986624

  8. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity.

    PubMed

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  9. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  10. PARP activation promotes nuclear AID accumulation in lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Katrin; Schmidt, Angelika; Davari, Kathrin; Müller, Peter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hemmerich, Peter; Pfeil, Ines; Jungnickel, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin diversification in germinal center B cells by targeted introduction of DNA damage. As aberrant nuclear AID action contributes to the generation of B cell lymphoma, the protein's activity is tightly regulated, e.g. by nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear degradation. In the present study, we asked whether DNA damage may affect regulation of the AID protein. We show that exogenous DNA damage that mainly activates base excision repair leads to prevention of proteasomal degradation of AID and hence its nuclear accumulation. Inhibitor as well as knockout studies indicate that activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by DNA damaging agents promotes both phenomena. These findings suggest that PARP inhibitors influence DNA damage dependent AID regulation, with interesting implications for the regulation of AID function and chemotherapy of lymphoma. PMID:26921193

  11. Assessment of calpain and caspase systems activities during ageing of two bovine muscles by degradation patterns of αII spectrin and PARP-1.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Elena; Pizzutti, Nicoletta; Corazzin, Mirco; Lippe, Giovanna; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-03-01

    The activities of calpain and caspase systems during ageing in Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Infraspinatus (IS) muscles of Italian Simmental young bulls (Bos taurus) were assessed. Samples from 10 animals were collected within 20 min of exsanguination (T0), after 48 h (T1) and 7 days (T2) post mortem. Calpain and caspase activity were evaluated based on the formation of αII spectrin cleavage products of 145 kDa (SBDP145) and 120 kDa (SBDP120), respectively. Caspase activity was also assessed by the presence of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage product. At T0, LL showed higher levels of SBDP145 than IS (P < 0.01), while SBDP120 and PARP-1 degradation products were similar between muscles. At T1, no difference was found in the level of SBDP145 between muscles, while SBDP120 and PARP-1 cleavage products were not detected. At T2 neither αII spectrin nor PARP-1 cleavage products were found. LL and IS showed different proteolysis after slaughter that was influenced more by calpain than caspase activity, which was detectable only in the early post mortem period. PMID:26950517

  12. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  13. PARP inhibitor olaparib increases the oncolytic activity of dl922-947 in in vitro and in vivo model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Carmela; Volpe, Massimiliano; Botta, Ginevra; Scamardella, Eloise; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Gillespie, David; Libertini, Silvana; Portella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors are mostly effective as anticancer drugs in association with DNA damaging agents. We have previously shown that the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 induces extensive DNA damage, therefore we hypothesized a synergistic antitumoral effect of the PARP inhibitor olaparib in association with dl922-947. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was chosen as model since it is a particularly aggressive tumor and, because of its localized growth, it is suitable for intratumoral treatment with oncolytic viruses. Here, we show that dl922-947 infection induces PARP activation, and we confirm in vitro and in vivo that PARP inhibition increases dl922-947 replication and oncolytic activity. In vitro, the combination with olaparib exacerbates the appearance of cell death markers, such as Annexin V positivity, caspase 3 cleavage, cytochrome C release and propidium iodide permeability. In vivo, we also observed a better viral distribution upon PARP inhibition. Changes in CD31 levels suggest a direct effect of olaparib on tumor vascularization and on the viral distribution within the tumor mass. The observation that PARP inhibition enhances the effects of dl922-947 is highly promising not only for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but, in general, for the treatment of other tumors that could benefit from the use of oncolytic viruses. PMID:25139258

  14. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. PMID:24275069

  15. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 3 (PARP3), a potential repressor of telomerase activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering previous result in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), we investigated in human cancer cells the role of PARP3 in the regulation of telomerase activity. Methods We selected A549 (lung adenocarcinoma cell line) and Saos-2 (osteosarcoma cell line), with high and low telomerase activity levels, respectively. The first one was transfected using a plasmid construction containing a PARP3 sequence, whereas the Saos-2 cells were submitted to shRNA transfection to get PARP3 depletion. PARP3 expression on both cell systems was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and PARP3 protein levels, by Western-blot. Telomerase activity was determined by TRAP assay. Results In A549 cells, after PARP3 transient transfection, data obtained indicated that twenty-four hours after transfection, up to 100-fold increased gene expression levels were found in the transfected cells with pcDNA/GW-53/PARP3 in comparison to transfected cells with the empty vector. Moreover, 48 hours post-transfection, telomerase activity decreased around 33%, and around 27%, 96 hours post-transfection. Telomerase activity average ratio was 0.67 ± 0.05, and 0.73 ± 0.06, respectively, with significant differences. In Saos-2 cells, after shRNA-mediated PARP3 silencing, a 2.3-fold increase in telomerase activity was detected in relation to the control. Conclusion Our data indicated that, at least in some cancer cells, repression of PARP3 could be responsible for an increased telomerase activity, this fact contributing to telomere maintenance and, therefore, avoiding genome instability. PMID:24528514

  16. TRAIL induces necroptosis involving RIPK1/RIPK3-dependent PARP-1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Jouan-Lanhouet, S; Arshad, M I; Piquet-Pellorce, C; Martin-Chouly, C; Le Moigne-Muller, G; Van Herreweghe, F; Takahashi, N; Sergent, O; Lagadic-Gossmann, D; Vandenabeele, P; Samson, M; Dimanche-Boitrel, M-T

    2012-01-01

    Although TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, we have previously demonstrated that acidic extracellular pH (pHe) switches TRAIL-induced apoptosis to regulated necrosis (or necroptosis) in human HT29 colon and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of RIPK1 (receptor interacting protein kinase 1), RIPK3 and PARP-1 (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1) in TRAIL-induced necroptosis in vitro and in concanavalin A (Con A)-induced murine hepatitis. Pretreatment of HT29 or HepG2 with pharmacological inhibitors of RIPK1 or PARP-1 (Nec-1 or PJ-34, respectively), or transient transfection with siRNAs against RIPK1 or RIPK3, inhibited both TRAIL-induced necroptosis and PARP-1-dependent intracellular ATP depletion demonstrating that RIPK1 and RIPK3 were involved upstream of PARP-1 activation and ATP depletion. In the mouse model of Con A-induced hepatitis, where death of mouse hepatocytes is dependent on TRAIL and NKT (Natural Killer T) cells, PARP-1 activity was positively correlated with liver injury and hepatitis was prevented both by Nec-1 or PJ-34. These data provide new insights into TRAIL-induced necroptosis with PARP-1 being active effector downstream of RIPK1/RIPK3 initiators and suggest that pharmacological inhibitors of RIPKs and PARP-1 could be new treatment options for immune-mediated hepatitis. PMID:22814620

  17. Pathophysiological role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation during acetaminophen-induced liver cell necrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cover, Cathleen; Fickert, Peter; Knight, Tamara R; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Farhood, Anwar; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2005-03-01

    DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes occurs early after acetaminophen (AAP) overdose in mice. DNA strandbreaks can induce excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which may lead to oncotic necrosis. Based on controversial findings with chemical PARP inhibitors, the role of PARP-1 activation in AAP hepatotoxicity remains unclear. To investigate PARP-1 activation and evaluate a pathophysiological role of PARP-1, we used both PARP inhibitors (3-aminobenzamide; 5-aminoisoquinolinone) and PARP gene knockout mice (PARP-/-). Treatment of C3Heb/FeJ mice with 300 mg/kg AAP resulted in DNA fragmentation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release as early as 3 h, with further increase of these parameters up to 12 h. Few nuclei of hepatocytes stained positive for poly-ADP-ribosylated nuclear proteins (PAR) as indicator for PARP-1 activation at 4.5 h. However, the number of PAR-positive cells and staining intensity increased substantially at 6 and 12 h. Pretreatment with 500 mg/kg 3-aminobenzamide before AAP attenuated hepatic glutathione depletion and completely eliminated DNA fragmentation and liver injury. Delayed treatment several hours after AAP was still partially protective. On the other hand, liver injury was not attenuated in PARP-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Similarly, the specific PARP-1 inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5 mg/kg) was not protective. However, 3-aminobenzamide attenuated liver injury in WT and PARP-/- mice. In summary, PARP-1 activation is a consequence of DNA fragmentation after AAP overdose. However, PARP-1 activation is not a relevant event for AAP-induced oncotic necrosis. The protection of 3-aminobenzamide against AAP-induced liver injury was due to reduced metabolic activation and potentially its antioxidant effect but independent of PARP-1 inhibition. PMID:15601672

  18. SIRT6 promotes DNA repair under stress by activating PARP1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiyong; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Van Meter, Michael; Au, Matthew; Vaidya, Amita; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2011-06-17

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a mammalian homolog of the yeast Sir2 deacetylase. Mice deficient for SIRT6 exhibit genome instability. Here, we show that in mammalian cells subjected to oxidative stress SIRT6 is recruited to the sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stimulates DSB repair, through both nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination. Our results indicate that SIRT6 physically associates with poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) and mono-ADP-ribosylates PARP1 on lysine residue 521, thereby stimulating PARP1 poly-ADP-ribosylase activity and enhancing DSB repair under oxidative stress. PMID:21680843

  19. Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Activation in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Obrosova, Irina G.; Drel, Viktor R.; Pacher, Pal; Ilnytska, Olga; Wang, Zhong Q.; Stevens, Martin J.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications, is considered a downstream effector of oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, some recent findings suggest that it is not necessarily the case and that PARP activation may precede and contribute to free radical and oxidant-induced injury. This study evaluated the effect of PARP inhibition on oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic peripheral nerve, vasa nervorum, aorta, and high glucose–exposed human Schwann cells. In vivo experiments were performed in control rats and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated with and without the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (ABA) (30 mg · kg−1 · day−1 i.p. for 2 weeks after 2 weeks of untreated diabetes). Human Schwann cells (HSC) (passages 7–10; ScienCell Research Labs) were cultured in 5.5 or 30 mmol/l glucose with and without 5 mmol/l ABA. Diabetes-induced increase in peripheral nerve nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, epineurial vessel superoxide and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivities, and aortic superoxide production was reduced by ABA. PARP-1 (Western blot analysis) was abundantly expressed in HSC, and its expression was not affected by high glucose or ABA treatment. High-glucose–induced superoxide production and overexpression of nitrosylated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated protein, chemically reduced amino acid-(4)-hydroxynonenal adducts, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were decreased by ABA. We concluded that PARP activation contributes to superoxide anion radical and peroxynitrite formation in peripheral nerve, vasa nervorum, and aorta of STZ-induced diabetic rats and high-glucose–exposed HSC. The relations between oxidative-nitrosative stress and PARP activation in diabetes are bi-rather than unidirectional, and PARP activation cannot only result from but also lead to free radical and oxidant generation. PMID:16306359

  20. [18F]FluorThanatrace uptake as a marker of PARP1 expression and activity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Christine E; Makvandi, Mehran; Lieberman, Brian P; Xu, Kuiying; Zeng, Chenbo; Li, Shihong; Hou, Catherine; Lee, Hsiaoju; Greenberg, Roger A; Mankoff, David A; Mach, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear enzyme PARP1 plays a central role in sensing DNA damage and facilitating repair. Tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations are highly dependent on PARP1 as an alternative mechanism for DNA repair, and PARP inhibitors generate synthetic lethality in tumors with BRCA mutations, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Zhou et al. recently synthesized an 18F-labeled PARP1 inhibitor ([18F]FluorThanatrace) for PET, and demonstrated high specific tracer uptake in a xenograft model of breast cancer [1]. In the current study, we characterize the level of baseline PARP expression and activity across multiple human breast cancer cell lines, including a BRCA1 mutant line. PARP expression and activity, as measured by levels of PAR and PARP1, is correlated with in vitro [18F]FluorThanatrace binding as well as tracer uptake on PET in a xenograft model of breast cancer. Radiotracer uptake in genetically-engineered mouse fibroblasts indicates [18F]FluorThanatrace is selective for PARP1 versus other PARP enzymes. This motivates further studies of [18F]FluorThanatrace as an in vivo measure of PARP1 expression and activity in patients who would benefit from PARP inhibitor therapy. PMID:27069769

  1. Activation of α-secretase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Postina, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) releases the neuroprotective APP fragment sαAPP and prevents amyloid β peptide (Aβ) generation. Moreover, α-secretase-like cleavage of the Aβ transporter 'receptor for advanced glycation end products' counteracts the import of blood Aβ into the brain. Assuming that Aβ is responsible for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), activation of α-secretase should be preventive. α-Secretase-mediated APP cleavage can be activated via several G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, cAMP and calcium are activators of receptor-induced α-secretase cleavage. Selective targeting of receptor subtypes expressed in brain regions affected by AD appears reasonable. Therefore, the PACAP receptor PAC1 and possibly the serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor subtype are promising targets. Activation of APP α-secretase cleavage also occurs upon blockade of cholesterol synthesis by statins or zaragozic acid A. Under physiological statin concentrations, the brain cholesterol content is not influenced. Statins likely inhibit Aβ production in the blood by α-secretase activation which is possibly sufficient to inhibit AD development. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) acts as α-secretase on APP. By targeting the nuclear retinoic acid receptor β, the expression of ADAM10 and non-amyloidogenic APP processing can be enhanced. Excessive activation of ADAM10 should be avoided because ADAM10 and also ADAM17 are not APP-specific. Both ADAM proteins cleave various substrates, and therefore have been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. PMID:21883223

  2. Basal activity of a PARP1-NuA4 complex varies dramatically across cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Jiang, Ruomu; Steen, Judith A.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze poly(ADP-ribose) addition onto proteins, an important post-translational modification involved in transcription, DNA damage repair, and stem cell identity. Previous studies established the activation of PARP1 in response to DNA damage, but little is known about PARP1 regulation outside of DNA repair. We developed a new assay for measuring PARP activity in cell lysates, and found that the basal activity of PARP1 was highly variable across breast cancer cell lines, independent of DNA damage. Sucrose gradient fractionation demonstrated that PARP1 existed in at least three biochemically distinct states in both high and low activity lines. A newly discovered complex containing the NuA4 chromatin remodeling complex and PARP1 was responsible for high basal PARP1 activity, and NuA4 subunits were required for this activity. These findings present a new pathway for PARP1 activation and a direct link between PARP1 and chromatin remodeling outside of the DNA damage response. PMID:25199834

  3. PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nadine; Schwamborn, Klaus; Schreiber, Valérie; Werner, Andreas; Guillier, Christelle; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Bischof, Oliver; Seeler, Jacob-S; Dejean, Anne

    2009-11-18

    Heat shock and other environmental stresses rapidly induce transcriptional responses subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications. Among these, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and sumoylation have received growing attention. Here we show that the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy interacts with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1, and that PIASy mediates heat shock-induced poly-sumoylation of PARP-1. Furthermore, PIASy, and hence sumoylation, appears indispensable for full activation of the inducible HSP70.1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that PIASy, SUMO and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 are rapidly recruited to the HSP70.1 promoter upon heat shock, and that they are subsequently released with kinetics similar to PARP-1. Finally, we provide evidence that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 mediates heat-shock-inducible ubiquitination of PARP-1, regulates the stability of PARP-1, and, like PIASy, is a positive regulator of HSP70.1 gene activity. These results, thus, point to a novel mechanism for regulating PARP-1 transcription function, and suggest crosstalk between sumoylation and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination in regulating gene expression in response to heat shock. PMID:19779455

  4. Low concentration of arsenite exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Xujun; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Wenlan; Timmins, Graham S.; Liu Kejian

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite ({<=} 2 {mu}M) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 {mu}M arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.

  5. Inhibition of DNA damage repair by artificial activation of PARP with siDNA.

    PubMed

    Croset, Amelie; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Berthault, Nathalie; Buhler, Cyril; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Quanz, Maria; Dutreix, Marie

    2013-08-01

    One of the major early steps of repair is the recruitment of repair proteins at the damage site, and this is coordinated by a cascade of modifications controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases and/or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We used short interfering DNA molecules mimicking double-strand breaks (called Dbait) or single-strand breaks (called Pbait) to promote DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and PARP activation. Dbait bound and induced both PARP and DNA-PK activities, whereas Pbait acts only on PARP. Therefore, comparative study of the two molecules allows analysis of the respective roles of the two signaling pathways: both recruit proteins involved in single-strand break repair (PARP, XRCC1 and PCNA) and prevent their recruitment at chromosomal damage. Dbait, but not Pbait, also inhibits recruitment of proteins involved in double-strand break repair (53BP1, NBS1, RAD51 and DNA-PK). By these ways, Pbait and Dbait disorganize DNA repair, thereby sensitizing cells to various treatments. Single-strand breaks repair inhibition depends on direct trapping of the main proteins on both molecules. Double-strand breaks repair inhibition may be indirect, resulting from the phosphorylation of double-strand breaks repair proteins and chromatin targets by activated DNA-PK. The DNA repair inhibition by both molecules is confirmed by their synthetic lethality with BRCA mutations. PMID:23761435

  6. Inhibition of PARP1 by small interfering RNA enhances docetaxel activity against human prostate cancer PC3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenqi; Kong, Zhenzhen; Duan, Xiaolu; Zhu, Hanliang; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Shaohua; Liang, Yeping; Iliakis, George; Gui, Zhiming; Yang, Dong

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •PARP1 siRNA enhances docetaxel’s activity against PC3 cells. •PARP1 siRNA enhances docetaxel’s activity against EGFR/Akt/FOXO1 pathway. •PARP1 siRNA and PARP1 inhibitor differently affect the phosphorylation and expression of FOXO1. -- Abstract: Though poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors have benefits in combination with radiotherapy in prostate cancers, few is known about the exactly role and underlying mechanism of PARP1 in combination with chemotherapy agents. Here our data revealed that inhibition of PARP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) could enhance docetaxel’s activity against PC3 cells, which is associated with an accelerate repression of EGF/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Our results provide a novel role of PARP1 in transcription regulation of EGFR/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway and indicate that PARP1 siRNA combined with docetaxel can be an innovative treatment strategy to potentially improve outcomes in CRPC patients.

  7. A human tRNA synthetase is a potent PARP1-activating effector target for resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Sajish, Mathew; Schimmel, Paul

    2015-03-19

    Resveratrol is reported to extend lifespan and provide cardio-neuro-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer effects by initiating a stress response that induces survival genes. Because human tyrosyl transfer-RNA (tRNA) synthetase (TyrRS) translocates to the nucleus under stress conditions, we considered the possibility that the tyrosine-like phenolic ring of resveratrol might fit into the active site pocket to effect a nuclear role. Here we present a 2.1 Å co-crystal structure of resveratrol bound to the active site of TyrRS. Resveratrol nullifies the catalytic activity and redirects TyrRS to a nuclear function, stimulating NAD(+)-dependent auto-poly-ADP-ribosylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Downstream activation of key stress signalling pathways are causally connected to TyrRS-PARP1-NAD(+) collaboration. This collaboration is also demonstrated in the mouse, and is specifically blocked in vivo by a resveratrol-displacing tyrosyl adenylate analogue. In contrast to functionally diverse tRNA synthetase catalytic nulls created by alternative splicing events that ablate active sites, here a non-spliced TyrRS catalytic null reveals a new PARP1- and NAD(+)-dependent dimension to the physiological mechanism of resveratrol. PMID:25533949

  8. Synovial sarcoma cell lines showed reduced DNA repair activity and sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kondo, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Ohta, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma and a rare type of cancer. Unfortunately, effective chemotherapies for synovial sarcomas have not been established. In this report, we show that synovial sarcoma cell lines have reduced repair activity for DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide). We also observed reduced recruitment of RAD51 homologue (S. cerevisiae; RAD51) at sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in synovial sarcoma cell lines that had been exposed to IR. These findings showed that synovial sarcoma cell lines are defective in homologous recombination (HR) repair. Furthermore, we found that a poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (AZD2281; olaparib) effectively reduced the growth of synovial sarcoma cell lines in the presence of an alkylating agent (temozolomide). Our findings offer evidence that treatment combining a PARP inhibitor and an alkylating agent could have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of synovial sarcoma. PMID:27353471

  9. CDK2-dependent activation of PARP-1 is required for hormonal gene regulation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Roni H.G.; Castellano, Giancarlo; Bonet, Jaume; Le Dily, Francois; Font-Mateu, Jofre; Ballaré, Cecilia; Nacht, A. Silvina; Soronellas, Daniel; Oliva, Baldo; Beato, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene regulation implies that transcription factors gain access to genomic information via poorly understood processes involving activation and targeting of kinases, histone-modifying enzymes, and chromatin remodelers to chromatin. Here we report that progestin gene regulation in breast cancer cells requires a rapid and transient increase in poly-(ADP)-ribose (PAR), accompanied by a dramatic decrease of cellular NAD that could have broad implications in cell physiology. This rapid increase in nuclear PARylation is mediated by activation of PAR polymerase PARP-1 as a result of phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2. Hormone-dependent phosphorylation of PARP-1 by CDK2, within the catalytic domain, enhances its enzymatic capabilities. Activated PARP-1 contributes to the displacement of histone H1 and is essential for regulation of the majority of hormone-responsive genes and for the effect of progestins on cell cycle progression. Both global chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) and gene expression analysis show a strong overlap between PARP-1 and CDK2. Thus, progestin gene regulation involves a novel signaling pathway that connects CDK2-dependent activation of PARP-1 with histone H1 displacement. Given the multiplicity of PARP targets, this new pathway could be used for the pharmacological management of breast cancer. PMID:22948662

  10. PARP is activated in human asthma and its inhibition by olaparib blocks house dust mite-induced disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Ibba, Salome V; Wang, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Paulo; Al-Khami, Amir A; Lammi, Matthew R; Kim, Hogyoung; Zea, Arnold H; Davis, Christian; Okpechi, Samuel; Wyczechowska, Dorota; Al-Ghareeb, Kamel; Mansy, Moselhy S; Ochoa, Augusto; Naura, Amarjit S; Boulares, A Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Our laboratory established a role for poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) in asthma. To increase the clinical significance of our studies, it is imperative to demonstrate that PARP is actually activated in human asthma, to examine whether a PARP inhibitor approved for human testing such as olaparib blocks already-established chronic asthma traits in response to house dust mite (HDM), a true human allergen, in mice and to examine whether the drug modulates human cluster of differentiation type 4 (CD4(+)) T-cell function. To conduct the study, human lung specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a HDM-based mouse asthma model were used. Our results show that PARP is activated in PBMCs and lung tissues of asthmatics. PARP inhibition by olaparib or gene knockout blocked established asthma-like traits in mice chronically exposed to HDM including airway eosinophilia and hyper-responsiveness. These effects were linked to a marked reduction in T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine production without a prominent effect on interferon (IFN)-γ or interleukin (IL)-10. PARP inhibition prevented HDM-induced increase in overall cellularity, weight and CD4(+) T-cell population in spleens of treated mice whereas it increased the T-regulatory cell population. In CD3/CD28-stimulated human CD4 (+)T-cells, olaparib treatment reduced Th2 cytokine production potentially by modulating GATA binding protein-3 (gata-3)/IL-4 expression while moderately affecting T-cell proliferation. PARP inhibition inconsistently increased IL-17 in HDM-exposed mice and CD3/CD28-stimulated CD4(+) T cells without a concomitant increase in factors that can be influenced by IL-17. In the present study, we provide evidence for the first time that PARP-1 is activated in human asthma and that its inhibition is effective in blocking established asthma in mice. PMID:26205779

  11. PARP-1 Inhibition Attenuates Neuronal Loss, Microglia Activation and Neurological Deficits after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Loane, David J.; Zhao, Zaorui; Kabadi, Shruti V.; Hanscom, Marie; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Faden, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuronal cell death as well as microglial activation and related neurotoxicity that contribute to subsequent neurological dysfunction. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) induces neuronal cell death through activation of caspase-independent mechanisms, including release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and microglial activation. Administration of PJ34, a selective PARP-1 inhibitor, reduced cell death of primary cortical neurons exposed to N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a potent inducer of AIF-dependent cell death. PJ34 also attenuated lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced activation of BV2 or primary microglia, limiting NF-κB activity and iNOS expression as well as decreasing generation of reactive oxygen species and TNFα. Systemic administration of PJ34 starting as late as 24 h after controlled cortical impact resulted in improved motor function recovery in mice with TBI. Stereological analysis demonstrated that PJ34 treatment reduced the lesion volume, attenuated neuronal cell loss in the cortex and thalamus, and reduced microglial activation in the TBI cortex. PJ34 treatment did not improve cognitive performance in a Morris water maze test or reduce neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. Overall, our data indicate that PJ34 has a significant, albeit selective, neuroprotective effect after experimental TBI, and its therapeutic effect may be from multipotential actions on neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory pathways. PMID:24476502

  12. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and its cleavage products differentially modulate cellular protection through NF-kappaB-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Castri, Paola; Lee, Yang-Ja; Ponzio, Todd; Maric, Dragan; Spatz, Maria; Bembry, Joliet; Hallenbeck, John

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and its cleavage products regulate cell viability and NF-kappaB activity when expressed in neurons. PARP-1 cleavage generates a 24 kDa (PARP-1(24)) and an 89 kDa fragment (PARP-1(89)). Compared to WT (PARP-1WT), the expression of an uncleavable PARP-1 (PARP-1(UNCL)) or of PARP-1(24) conferred protection from oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) or OGD/restoration of oxygen and glucose (ROG) damage in vitro, whereas expression of PARP-1(89) was cytotoxic. Viability experiments were performed in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, as well as in rat primary cortical neurons. Following OGD, the higher viability in the presence of PARP-1UNCL or PARP-1(24) was not accompanied with decreased formation of poly(ADP-riboses) or higher NAD levels. PARP-1 is a known cofactor for NF-kappaB, hence we investigated whether PARP-1 cleavage influences the inflammatory response. All PARP-1 constructs mimicked PARP-1WT in regard to induction of NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus and its increased activation during ischemic challenge. However, expression of PARP-1(89) construct induced significantly higher NF-kB activity than PARP-1WT; and the same was true for NF-kappaB-dependent iNOS promoter binding activity. At a protein level, PARP-1UNCL and PARP-1(24) decreased iNOS (and lower levels of iNOS transcript) and COX-2, and increased Bcl-xL The increased levels of NF-kB and iNOS transcriptional activities, seen with cytotoxic PARP-189, were accompanied by higher protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS (and higher levels of INOS transcript) and lower protein expression of Bcl-xL Taken together, these findings suggest that PARP-1 cleavage products may regulate cellular viability and inflammatory responses in opposing ways during in vitro models of "ischemia". PMID:24333653

  13. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and its cleavage products differentially modulate cellular protection through NF-kB-dependent signaling

    PubMed Central

    Castri, Paola; Lee, Yang-ja; Ponzio, Todd; Maric, Dragan; Spatz, Maria; Bembry, Joliet; Hallenbeck, John

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and its cleavage products regulate cell viability and NF-kB activity when expressed in neurons. PARP-1 cleavage generates a 24kDa (PARP-124) and an 89kDa fragment (PARP-189). Compared to WT (PARP-1WT), the expression of an uncleavable PARP-1 (PARP-1UNCL) or of PARP-124 conferred protection from oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) or OGD/restoration of oxygen and glucose (ROG) damage in vitro, whereas expression of PARP-189 was cytotoxic. Viability experiments were performed in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, as well as in rat primary cortical neurons. Following OGD, the higher viability in the presence of PARP-1UNCL or PARP-124 was not accompanied with decreased formation of poly(ADP-riboses) or higher NAD levels. PARP-1 is a known cofactor for NF-kB, hence we investigated whether PARP-1 cleavage influences the inflammatory response. All PARP-1 constructs mimicked PARP-1WT in regards to induction of NF-kB translocation into the nucleus and its increased activation during ischemic challenge. However, expression of PARP-189 construct induced significantly higher NF-kB activity than PARP-1WT; and the same was true for NF-kB-dependent iNOS promoter binding activity. At a protein level, PARP-1UNCL and PARP-124 decreased iNOS (and lower levels of iNOS transcript) and COX-2, and increased Bcl-xL. The increased levels of NF-kB and iNOS transcriptional activities, seen with cytotoxic PARP-189, were accompanied by higher protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS (and higher levels of iNOS transcript) and lower protein expression of Bcl-xL. Taken together, these findings suggest that PARP-1 cleavage products may regulate cellular viability and inflammatory responses in opposing ways during in vitro models of “ischemia”. PMID:24333653

  14. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR Pathway following PARP Inhibition in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Seema; Diao, Lixia; Tong, Pan; Stewart, C. Allison; Masrorpour, Fatemeh; Fan, YouHong; Nilsson, Monique; Shen, Yuqiao; Heymach, John V.; Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options. We previously found that PARP is overexpressed in SCLC and that targeting PARP reduces cell line and tumor growth in preclinical models. However, SCLC cell lines with PI3K/mTOR pathway activation were relatively less sensitive to PARP inhibition. In this study, we investigated the proteomic changes in PI3K/mTOR and other pathways that occur following PAPR inhibition and/or knockdown in vitro and in vivo. Using reverse-phase protein array, we found the proteins most significantly upregulated following treatment with the PARP inhibitors olaparib and rucaparib were in the PI3K/mTOR pathway (p-mTOR, p-AKT, and pS6) (p≤0.02). Furthermore, amongst the most significantly down-regulated proteins were LKB1 and its targets AMPK and TSC, which negatively regulate the PI3K pathway (p≤0.042). Following PARP knockdown in cell lines, phosphorylated mTOR, AKT and S6 were elevated and LKB1 signaling was diminished. Global ATP concentrations increased following PARP inhibition (p≤0.02) leading us to hypothesize that the observed increased PI3K/mTOR pathway activation following PARP inhibition results from decreased ATP usage and a subsequent decrease in stress response signaling via LKB1. Based on these results, we then investigated whether co-targeting with a PARP and PI3K inhibitor (BKM-120) would work better than either single agent alone. A majority of SCLC cell lines were sensitive to BKM-120 at clinically achievable doses, and cMYC expression was the strongest biomarker of response. At clinically achievable doses of talazoparib (the most potent PARP inhibitor in SCLC clinical testing) and BKM-120, an additive effect was observed in vitro. When tested in two SCLC animal models, a greater than additive interaction was seen (p≤0.008). The data presented here suggest that combining PARP and PI3K inhibitors enhances the effect of either agent alone in preclinical models of SCLC

  15. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Promotes Autophagy to Facilitate Cisplatin Resistance in Melanoma Cells through the Activation of PARP1.

    PubMed

    Ge, Rui; Liu, Lin; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Weigang; Yang, Yuqi; Wang, Huina; Shi, Qiong; Guo, Sen; Yi, Xiuli; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen; Luan, Qi; Li, Chunying

    2016-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a key protein in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, has been shown to promote the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by facilitating the DNA repair process. However, the role of XPA in the resistance of melanoma to platinum-based drugs like cisplatin is largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that XPA was expressed at higher levels in cisplatin-resistant melanoma cells than in cisplatin-sensitive ones. Furthermore, the knockdown of XPA not only increased cellular apoptosis but also inhibited cisplatin-induced autophagy, which rendered the melanoma cells more sensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, we discovered that the increased XPA in resistant melanoma cells promoted poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and that the inhibition of PARP1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced autophagy. Finally, we proved that the inhibition of PARP1 and the autophagy process made resistant melanoma cells more susceptible to cisplatin treatment. Our study shows that XPA can promote cell-protective autophagy in a DNA repair-independent manner by enhancing the activation of PARP1 in melanoma cells resistant to cisplatin and that the XPA-PARP1-mediated autophagy process can be targeted to overcome cisplatin resistance in melanoma chemotherapy. PMID:26880244

  16. Interleukin-4 enhances PARP-dependent DNA repair activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Wojciech Michał; Wagner, Waldemar; Kania, Katarzyna Dominika; Dastych, Jarosław

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells possess several DNA repair mechanisms, including homologous recombination and the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system. There are two known NHEJ systems. The major mechanism depends on the catalytic unit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and DNA ligase IV, and an alternative mechanism (B-NHEJ) depends on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These systems are upregulated by genotoxic agents. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that is secreted by immune cells upon contact with certain genotoxic compounds and is known to regulate several genes encoding components of DNA repair systems in human monocytes. We have investigated the possible effects of IL-4 on the DNA repair process within murine and human cells exposed to selected genotoxic compounds. In a series of experiments, including the comet assay, cell surface annexin V staining, analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation, and a DNA end-joining assay, we observed that IL-4 decreased DNA damage in murine fibroblasts and human glioblastoma cells exposed to genotoxic agents and increased DNA ligation activity in the nuclei of these cells in a process that depended on PARP. These observations suggest that IL-4 is capable of upregulating the alternative NHEJ DNA repair mechanism in murine and human cells. PMID:24724620

  17. Pyrimidine Pool Disequilibrium Induced by a Cytidine Deaminase Deficiency Inhibits PARP-1 Activity, Leading to the Under Replication of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gemble, Simon; Ahuja, Akshay; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Dairou, Julien; Biard, Denis S. F.; Lambert, Sarah; Lopes, Massimo; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2015-01-01

    Genome stability is jeopardized by imbalances of the dNTP pool; such imbalances affect the rate of fork progression. For example, cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency leads to an excess of dCTP, slowing the replication fork. We describe here a novel mechanism by which pyrimidine pool disequilibrium compromises the completion of replication and chromosome segregation: the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when cells enter mitosis, leading to the formation of ultrafine anaphase bridges between sister-chromatids at “difficult-to-replicate” sites such as centromeres and fragile sites. Using molecular combing, electron microscopy and a sensitive assay involving cell imaging to quantify steady-state PAR levels, we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork speed. The stimulation of PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells restores replication and, thus, chromosome segregation. Moreover, increasing intracellular dCTP levels generates under-replication-induced sister-chromatid bridges as efficiently as PARP-1 knockdown. These results have direct implications for Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disease combining susceptibility to cancer and genomic instability. BS results from mutation of the BLM gene, encoding BLM, a RecQ 3’-5’ DNA helicase, a deficiency of which leads to CDA downregulation. BS cells thus have a CDA defect, resulting in a high frequency of ultrafine anaphase bridges due entirely to dCTP-dependent PARP-1 inhibition and independent of BLM status. Our study describes previously unknown pathological consequences of the distortion of dNTP pools and reveals an unexpected role for PARP-1 in preventing DNA under-replication and chromosome segregation defects. PMID:26181065

  18. Battle between influenza A virus and a newly identified antiviral activity of the PARP-containing ZAPL protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Zhou, Ligang; Chen, Guifang; Krug, Robert M

    2015-11-10

    Previous studies showed that ZAPL (PARP-13.1) exerts its antiviral activity via its N-terminal zinc fingers that bind the mRNAs of some viruses, leading to mRNA degradation. Here we identify a different antiviral activity of ZAPL that is directed against influenza A virus. This ZAPL antiviral activity involves its C-terminal PARP domain, which binds the viral PB2 and PA polymerase proteins, leading to their proteasomal degradation. After the PB2 and PA proteins are poly(ADP-ribosylated), they are associated with the region of ZAPL that includes both the PARP domain and the adjacent WWE domain that is known to bind poly(ADP-ribose) chains. These ZAPL-associated PB2 and PA proteins are then ubiquitinated, followed by proteasomal degradation. This antiviral activity is counteracted by the viral PB1 polymerase protein, which binds close to the PARP domain and causes PB2 and PA to dissociate from ZAPL and escape degradation, explaining why ZAPL only moderately inhibits influenza A virus replication. Hence influenza A virus has partially won the battle against this newly identified ZAPL antiviral activity. Eliminating PB1 binding to ZAPL would be expected to substantially increase the inhibition of influenza A virus replication, so that the PB1 interface with ZAPL is a potential target for antiviral development. PMID:26504237

  19. Transsynaptic signaling by activity-dependent cleavage of neuroligin-1.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Rui T; Kunz, Portia A; Kwon, Hyungbae; Mabb, Angela M; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Philpot, Benjamin D; Ehlers, Michael D

    2012-10-18

    Adhesive contact between pre- and postsynaptic neurons initiates synapse formation during brain development and provides a natural means of transsynaptic signaling. Numerous adhesion molecules and their role during synapse development have been described in detail. However, once established, the mechanisms of adhesive disassembly and its function in regulating synaptic transmission have been unclear. Here, we report that synaptic activity induces acute proteolytic cleavage of neuroligin-1 (NLG1), a postsynaptic adhesion molecule at glutamatergic synapses. NLG1 cleavage is triggered by NMDA receptor activation, requires Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and is mediated by proteolytic activity of matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9). Cleavage of NLG1 occurs at single activated spines, is regulated by neural activity in vivo, and causes rapid destabilization of its presynaptic partner neurexin-1β (NRX1β). In turn, NLG1 cleavage depresses synaptic transmission by abruptly reducing presynaptic release probability. Thus, local proteolytic control of synaptic adhesion tunes synaptic transmission during brain development and plasticity. PMID:23083741

  20. The dual action of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1 (PARP-1) inhibition in HIV-1 infection: HIV-1 LTR inhibition and diminution in Rho GTPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Rom, Slava; Reichenbach, Nancy L.; Dykstra, Holly; Persidsky, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Multifactorial mechanisms comprising countless cellular factors and virus-encoded transactivators regulate the transcription of HIV-1 (HIV). Since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) regulates numerous genes through its interaction with various transcription factors, inhibition of PARP-1 has surfaced recently as a powerful anti-inflammatory tool. We suggest a novel tactic to diminish HIV replication via PARP-1 inhibition in an in vitro model system, exploiting human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). PARP-1 inhibition was capable to lessen HIV replication in MDM by 60–80% after 7 days infection. Tat, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are known triggers of the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR), which can switch virus replication. Tat overexpression in MDM transfected with an LTR reporter plasmid resulted in a 4.2-fold increase in LTR activation; PARP inhibition caused 70% reduction of LTR activity. LTR activity, which increased 3-fold after PMA or TNFα treatment, was reduced by PARP inhibition (by 85–95%). PARP inhibition in MDM exhibited 90% diminution in NFκB activity (known to mediate TNFα- and PMA-induced HIV LTR activation). Cytoskeleton rearrangements are important in effective HIV-1 infection. PARP inactivation reduced actin cytoskeleton rearrangements by affecting Rho GTPase machinery. These discoveries suggest that inactivation of PARP suppresses HIV replication in MDM by via attenuation of LTR activation, NFκB suppression and its effects on the cytoskeleton. PARP appears to be essential for HIV replication and its inhibition may provide an effective approach to management of HIV infection. PMID:26379653

  1. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  2. PARP1 during embryo implantation and its upregulation by oestradiol in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anubha; Mahfooz, Sahil; Maurya, Vineet Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Basanna, Chadchan Sangappa; Kaur, Gurpreet; Hanif, Kashif; Jha, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy requires successful implantation of an embryo, which occurs during a restricted period defined as 'receptivity of the endometrium' and is influenced by the ovarian steroids progesterone and oestradiol. The role of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP1) in apoptosis is well established. However, it is also involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and tissue remodelling. Previous studies have described the presence of PARP in the uterus, but its exact role in embryo implantation is not yet elucidated. Hence, in this study, we studied the expression of PARP1 in the uterus during embryo implantation and decidualisation, and its regulation by ovarian steroids. Our results show upregulation of the native form of PARP1 (∼116 kDa) in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments of implantation and non-implantation sites at day 5 (0500 h), followed by downregulation at day 5 (1000 h), during the embryo implantation period. The transcript level of Parp1 was also augmented during day 5 (0500 h). Inhibition of PARP1 activity by the drug EB-47 decreased the number of embryo implantation sites and blastocysts at day 5 (1000 h). Further, cleavage of native PARP1 was due to the activity of caspase-3 during the peri-implantation stage (day 5 (0500 h)), and is also required for embryo implantation, as inhibition of its activity compromised blastocyst implantation. The native (∼116 kDa) and cleaved (∼89 kDa) forms of PARP1 were both elevated during decidualisation of the uterus. Furthermore, the expression level of PARP1 in the uterus was found to be under the control of the hormone oestrogen. Our results clearly demonstrate that PARP1 participates in the process of embryo implantation. PMID:24516177

  3. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  4. A new arylbenzofuran derivative functions as an anti-tumour agent by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting PARP activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongbo; Zeng, Xiaobin; Gao, Chunmei; Ming, Pinghong; Zhang, Jianping; Guo, Caiping; Zhou, Lanzhen; Lu, Yin; Wang, Lijun; Huang, Laiqiang; He, Xiangjiu; Mei, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that 7-hydroxy-5, 4’-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (HDAB) purified from Livistona chinensis is a key active agent. The present study investigated the function and molecular mechanism of HDAB. HDAB treatment of cervical cancer cells resulted in S phase arrest and apoptosis, together with cyclin A2 and CDK2 upregulation. Cyclin A2 siRNA and a CDK inhibitor efficiently relieved S phase arrest but increased the apoptosis rate. Mechanistic studies revealed that HDAB treatment significantly increased DNA strand breaks in an alkaline comet assay and induced ATM, CHK1, CHK2 and H2A.X phosphorylation. Wortmannin (a broad inhibitor of PIKKs) and CGK733 (a specific ATM inhibitor), but not LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) or NU7026 (a DNA-PK specific inhibitor), prevented H2A.X phosphorylation and γH2A.X-positive foci formation in the nuclei, reversed S phase arrest and promoted the HDAB-induced apoptosis, suggesting that HDAB is a DNA damaging agent that can activate the ATM-dependent DNA repair response, thereby contributing to cell cycle arrest. In addition, molecular docking and in vitro activity assays revealed that HDAB can correctly dock into the hydrophobic pocket of PARP-1 and suppress PARP-1 ADP-ribosylation activity. Thus, the results indicated that HDAB can function as an anti-cancer agent by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting PARP activity. PMID:26041102

  5. Role of PARP-1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Dhanraj; Qiu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) moieties on itself and its target proteins. PARP1 activity is frequently deregulated in various cancers and therefore it has emerged as a new drug target for cancer therapy. The role of PARP-1 in DNA repair has been well documented and BRCA mutations are implicated for determining the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Recent studies also point to a role of PARP-1 in transcription regulation which may contribute to oncogenic signaling and cancer progression. Given that efficacy of PARP inhibitors are also seen in patients not harboring BRCA mutations, some other mechanisms might also be involved. In the present review, we highlight the mechanisms by which PARP-1 regulates gene expression in prostate cancer and provide an overview of the ongoing clinical trials using PARP inhibitors in various cancers including prostate cancer. PMID:26069882

  6. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G; Lee, Gilbert R; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-02-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with mutations in BRCA genes. BRCA1 and BRCA2 have essential roles in repairing DNA double-strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907 (PARP1 pTyr907 or pY907). PARP1 pY907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. The combination of c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models, and we observed similar synergistic effects in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that the abundance of PARP1 pY907 may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients whose tumors show high c-Met expression and who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  7. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G.; Lee, Gilbert R.; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials1. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza™, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations. BRCA1 and BRCA2 play essential roles in repairing DNA double strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition2,3. Here we show that receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907. Phosphorylation of PARP1 Tyr907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Combining c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models. Similar synergistic effects were observed in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that PARP1 pTyr907 abundance may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients bearing tumors with high c-Met expression who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  8. PARP1 Inhibitors: antitumor drug design

    PubMed Central

    Malyuchenko, N. V.; Kotova, E. Yu.; Kulaeva, O. I.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.; Studitskiy, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) enzyme is one of the promising molecular targets for the discovery of antitumor drugs. PARP1 is a common nuclear protein (1–2 million molecules per cell) serving as a “sensor” for DNA strand breaks. Increased PARP1 expression is sometimes observed in melanomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and other neoplastic diseases. The PARP1 expression level is a prognostic indicator and is associated with a poor survival prognosis. There is evidence that high PARP1 expression and treatment-resistance of tumors are correlated. PARP1 inhibitors are promising antitumor agents, since they act as chemo- and radiosensitizers in the conventional therapy of malignant tumors. Furthermore, PARP1 inhibitors can be used as independent, effective drugs against tumors with broken DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, third-generation PARP1 inhibitors are being developed, many of which are undergoing Phase II clinical trials. In this review, we focus on the properties and features of the PARP1 inhibitors identified in preclinical and clinical trials. We also describe some problems associated with the application of PARP1 inhibitors. The possibility of developing new PARP1 inhibitors aimed at DNA binding and transcriptional activity rather than the catalytic domain of the protein is discussed. PMID:26483957

  9. Small molecule activators of pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kevin; Khleborodova, Asya; Pan, Jingyi; Ryan, Xiaozhou P.

    2009-01-01

    3′ Cleavage and polyadenylation are obligatory steps in the biogenesis of most mammalian pre-mRNAs. In vitro reconstitution of the 3′ cleavage reaction from human cleavage factors requires high concentrations of creatine phosphate (CP), though how CP activates cleavage is not known. Previously, we proposed that CP might work by competitively inhibiting a cleavage-suppressing serine/threonine (S/T) phosphatase. Here we show that fluoride/EDTA, a general S/T phosphatase inhibitor, activates in vitro cleavage in place of CP. Subsequent testing of inhibitors specific for different S/T phosphatases showed that inhibitors of the PPM family of S/T phosphatases, which includes PP2C, but not the PPP family, which includes PP1, PP2A, and PP2B, activated 3′ cleavage in vitro. In particular, NCI 83633, an inhibitor of PP2C, activated extensive 3′ cleavage at a concentration 50-fold below that required by fluoride or CP. The testing of structural analogs led to the identification of a more potent compound that activated 3′ cleavage at 200 μM. While testing CP analogs to understand the origin of its cleavage activation effect, we found phosphocholine to be a more effective activator than CP. The minimal structural determinants of 3′ cleavage activation by phosphocholine were identified. Our results describe a much improved small molecule activator of in vitro pre-mRNA cleavage, identify the molecular determinants of cleavage activation by phosphoamines such as phosphocholine, and suggest that a PPM family phosphatase is involved in the negative regulation of mammalian pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage. PMID:19155323

  10. Nicotinamide treatment reduces the levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activity in Aβ(1-42)-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Turunc Bayrakdar, E; Uyanikgil, Y; Kanit, L; Koylu, E; Yalcin, A

    2014-02-01

    The underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are still unclear. It is suggested that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation can cause neuroinflammation and cell death. In this study we searched the effects of nicotinamide (NA), endogenous PARP-1 inhibitor, on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the regulation of PARP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in amyloid beta peptide (1-42) (Aβ(1-42))-induced neurodegeneration. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups as control, Aβ(1-42), Aβ(1-42) + NA(100 and 500 mg/kg). All groups were stereotaxically injected bilaterally into the hippocampus with Aβ(1-42) or saline. After surgery NA administrations were made intraperitoneally (ip) for 7 days. In order to investigate the effects of Aβ(1-42) and NA, protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein levels of PARP-1, NF-κB, p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured in specific brain regions such as cortex and hippocampus. Aβ(1-42) treatment only increased the oxidative stress parameters and caused decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, mitochondrial function, and GSH levels. Also, overexpression of PARP-1, NF-κB, p53, Bax, and the decreased levels of Bcl-2 were observed in Aβ(1-42)-treated group. NA treatments against Aβ(1-42)-upregulated Bcl-2 and downregulated PARP-1, NF-κB, p53, and Bax levels. NA treatments also decreased the oxidative stress parameters and elevated antioxidant enzyme activities, GSH levels, and mitochondrial function against Aβ(1-42) treatment. These data suggest that NA may have a therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative processes due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activity. PMID:24151909

  11. Calpain and PARP Activation during Photoreceptor Cell Death in P23H and S334ter Rhodopsin Mutant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasvir; Mencl, Stine; Sahaboglu, Ayse; Farinelli, Pietro; van Veen, Theo; Zrenner, Eberhart; Ekström, Per; Paquet-Durand, François; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness. Many human cases are caused by mutations in the rhodopsin gene. An important question regarding RP pathology is whether different genetic defects trigger the same or different cell death mechanisms. To answer this question, we analysed photoreceptor degeneration in P23H and S334ter transgenic rats carrying rhodopsin mutations that affect protein folding and sorting respectively. We found strong activation of calpain and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in both mutants, concomitant with calpastatin down-regulation, increased oxidative DNA damage and accumulation of PAR polymers. These parameters were strictly correlated with the temporal progression of photoreceptor degeneration, mirroring earlier findings in the phosphodiesterase-6 mutant rd1 mouse, and suggesting execution of non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms. Interestingly, activation of caspases-3 and -9 and cytochrome c leakage—key events in apoptotic cell death—were observed only in the S334ter mutant, which also showed increased expression of PARP-1. The identification of the same metabolic markers triggered by different mutations in two different species suggests the existence of common cell death mechanisms, which is a major consideration for any mutation independent treatment. PMID:21765948

  12. Sox11 Reduces Caspase-6 Cleavage and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Waldron-Roby, Elaine; Hoerauf, Janine; Arbez, Nicolas; Zhu, Shanshan; Kulcsar, Kirsten; Ross, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The apoptotic cascade is an orchestrated event, whose final stages are mediated by effector caspases. Regulatory binding proteins have been identified for caspases such as caspase-3, -7, -8, and -9. Many of these proteins belong to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. By contrast, caspase-6 is not believed to be influenced by IAPs, and little is known about its regulation. We therefore performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using a constitutively inactive form of caspase-6 for bait in order to identify novel regulators of caspase-6 activity. Sox11 was identified as a potential caspase-6 interacting protein. Sox11 was capable of dramatically reducing caspase-6 activity, as well as preventing caspase-6 self- cleavage. Several regions, including amino acids 117–214 and 362–395 within sox11 as well as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) all contributed to the reduction in caspase-6 activity. Furthermore, sox11 was also capable of decreasing other effector caspase activity but not initiator caspases -8 and -9. The ability of sox11 to reduce effector caspase activity was also reflected in its capacity to reduce cell death following toxic insult. Interestingly, other sox proteins also had the ability to reduce caspase-6 activity but to a lesser extent than sox11. PMID:26505998

  13. Increasing cleavage specificity and activity of restriction endonuclease KpnI

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Kommireddy; Nagamalleswari, Easa; Zahran, Mai; Imhof, Petra; Xu, Shuang-yong; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chan, Siu-Hong; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2013-01-01

    Restriction enzyme KpnI is a HNH superfamily endonuclease requiring divalent metal ions for DNA cleavage but not for binding. The active site of KpnI can accommodate metal ions of different atomic radii for DNA cleavage. Although Mg2+ ion higher than 500 μM mediates promiscuous activity, Ca2+ suppresses the promiscuity and induces high cleavage fidelity. Here, we report that a conservative mutation of the metal-coordinating residue D148 to Glu results in the elimination of the Ca2+-mediated cleavage but imparting high cleavage fidelity with Mg2+. High cleavage fidelity of the mutant D148E is achieved through better discrimination of the target site at the binding and cleavage steps. Biochemical experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the mutation inhibits Ca2+-mediated cleavage activity by altering the geometry of the Ca2+-bound HNH active site. Although the D148E mutant reduces the specific activity of the enzyme, we identified a suppressor mutation that increases the turnover rate to restore the specific activity of the high fidelity mutant to the wild-type level. Our results show that active site plasticity in coordinating different metal ions is related to KpnI promiscuous activity, and tinkering the metal ion coordination is a plausible way to reduce promiscuous activity of metalloenzymes. PMID:23963701

  14. Combinations of PARP Inhibitors with Temozolomide Drive PARP1 Trapping and Apoptosis in Ewing's Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sonja J; Travers, Jon; Pshenichnaya, Irina; Kogera, Fiona A; Barthorpe, Syd; Mironenko, Tatiana; Richardson, Laura; Benes, Cyril H; Stratton, Michael R; McDermott, Ultan; Jackson, Stephen P; Garnett, Mathew J

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone tumor with a poor prognosis for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Ewing's sarcoma cells are acutely hypersensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition and this is being evaluated in clinical trials, although the mechanism of hypersensitivity has not been directly addressed. PARP inhibitors have efficacy in tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations, which confer deficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR). This drives dependence on PARP1/2 due to their function in DNA single-strand break (SSB) repair. PARP inhibitors are also cytotoxic through inhibiting PARP1/2 auto-PARylation, blocking PARP1/2 release from substrate DNA. Here, we show that PARP inhibitor sensitivity in Ewing's sarcoma cells is not through an apparent defect in DNA repair by HR, but through hypersensitivity to trapped PARP1-DNA complexes. This drives accumulation of DNA damage during replication, ultimately leading to apoptosis. We also show that the activity of PARP inhibitors is potentiated by temozolomide in Ewing's sarcoma cells and is associated with enhanced trapping of PARP1-DNA complexes. Furthermore, through mining of large-scale drug sensitivity datasets, we identify a subset of glioma, neuroblastoma and melanoma cell lines as hypersensitive to the combination of temozolomide and PARP inhibition, potentially identifying new avenues for therapeutic intervention. These data provide insights into the anti-cancer activity of PARP inhibitors with implications for the design of treatment for Ewing's sarcoma patients with PARP inhibitors. PMID:26505995

  15. EGFR activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, Heike N.; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared to wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of crosslinker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi Anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in-vitro and in-vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer. PMID:23966292

  16. Methylsulfonylmethane modulates apoptosis of LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells by targeting p53, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c and PARP proteins.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Arzu Z; Aktan, Fugen; Sunguroğlu, Asuman; Buyukbingol, Zeliha

    2014-12-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a non-toxic, natural organosulfur compound, which is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In recent years, MSM has been widely used as a dietary supplement for its beneficial effects against various diseases, especially arthritis. Despite being a popular supplement product, the mechanism of action of MSM is not well known. This study was designed to investigate the effects of MSM on cytotoxic signals induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. The results showed that MSM reversed apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations probably through the modulation of apoptotic proteins. After pre-treatment of cells with non-toxic doses of MSM; caspase-3 activation, p53 accumulation, cytochrome c release and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were significantly decreased and full length poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was significantly increased. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased with MSM pretreatment in activated macrophages. Since excess nitric oxide production causes apoptosis of macrophages, anti-apoptotic effects of MSM are thought to be mediated by its inhibitor effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and nitric oxide levels. More interestingly, higher doses of MSM exhibited biphasic effects, inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis of macrophages, increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. Thus, our results reveal the molecular mechanism of of MSM indicating that MSM supplementation may be beneficial for complications related to nitric oxide-dependent apoptosis in inflammatory conditions. However, the optimum concentration of MSM must be chosen carefully to elicit the desired effect. PMID:25211405

  17. Quantification of primary versus secondary C-H bond cleavage in alkane activation: Propane on Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, W.H.; Sun, Yongkui )

    1991-08-02

    The trapping-mediated dissociative chemisorption of three isotopes of propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, CH{sub 3}, CD{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, and C{sub 3}D{sub 8}) has been investigated on the Pt(110)-(1 {times} 2) surface, and both the apparent activation energies and the preexponential factors of the surface reaction rate coefficients have been measured. In addition, the probabilities of primary and secondary C-H bond cleavage for alkane activation on a surface were evaluated. The activation energy for primary C-H bond cleavage was 425 calories per mole greater than that of secondary C-H bond cleavage, and the two true activation energies that embody the single measured activation energy were determined for each of the three isotopes. Secondary C-H bond cleavage is also preferred on entropic grounds, and the magnitude of the effect was quantified.

  18. c-MYC Generates Repair Errors via Increased Transcription of Alternative-NHEJ Factors, LIG3 and PARP1, in Tyrosine Kinase-activated Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Muvarak, Nidal; Kelley, Shannon; Robert, Carine; Baer, Maria R.; Perrotti, Danilo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Civin, Curt; Scheibner, Kara; Rassool, Feyruz

    2015-01-01

    Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TKs) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and error-prone repair. The non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is a major pathway for DSB repair and is highly aberrant in TK-activated-leukemias; an alternative form of NHEJ (ALT-NHEJ) predominates, evidenced by increased expression of DNA ligase IIIα (LIG3) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1), increased frequency of large genomic deletions, and repair using DNA sequence microhomologies. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the TK target c-MYC plays a role in transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of LIG3 and PARP1 and contributes to the increased error-prone repair observed in TK-activated leukemias. c-MYC negatively regulates microRNAs miR-150 and miR-22 which demonstrate an inverse correlation with LIG3 and PARP1 expression in primary and cultured leukemia cells and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) human patient samples. Notably, inhibition of c-MYC and overexpression of miR-150 and -22 decreases ALT-NHEJ activity. Thus, BCR-ABL1 or FLT3/ITD induces c-MYC expression leads to genomic instability via augmented expression of ALT-NHEJ repair factors that generate repair errors. PMID:25828893

  19. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Sukhanova, Maria V; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M; Anarbaev, Rashid O; Curmi, Patrick A; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I

    2016-04-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages. PMID:26673720

  20. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sukhanova, Maria V.; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages. PMID:26673720

  1. Sirtuins are Unaffected by PARP Inhibitors Containing Planar Nicotinamide Bioisosteres.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Torun; Schüler, Herwig

    2016-03-01

    PARP-family ADP-ribosyltransferases (PARPs) and sirtuin deacetylases all use NAD(+) as cosubstrate for ADP-ribosyl transfer. PARP inhibitors are important research tools and several are being evaluated in cancer treatment. With the exception of a few tankyrase inhibitors, all current PARP inhibitors mimic the nicotinamide moiety in NAD(+) and block the nicotinamide binding pocket. We report here that while the activities of the four human sirtuin isoforms SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are blocked by sirtuin inhibitor Ex527 in vitro, they are unaffected by the seven clinical and commonly used PARP inhibitors niraparib, olaparib, rucaparib, talazoparib, veliparib, PJ34, and XAV939. These findings indicate that PARP inhibitors containing planar nicotinamide mimetics do not bind to sirtuin cofactor sites. In conclusion, a simple commercially available assay can be used to rule out interference of novel PARP inhibitors with sirtuin NAD(+) binding. PMID:26518726

  2. Specific detection of the cleavage activity of mycobacterial enzymes using a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, Morten Leth; Harmsen, Charlotte; Godbole, Adwait Anand; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes.We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the QD-based DNA Nanosensor. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06326d

  3. PARP-1 modulates amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25-35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25-35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25-35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25-35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25-35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25-35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  4. PARP-1 Modulates Amyloid Beta Peptide-Induced Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25–35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25–35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25–35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25–35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25–35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25–35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  5. Cordycepin induces apoptosis of C6 glioma cells through the adenosine 2A receptor-p53-caspase-7-PARP pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Shih-Hung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Liao, Chih-Chen; Wu, Ya-Chieh

    2014-06-01

    Cordycepin, 3'-deoxyadenosine from Cordyceps sinensis, has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects in several cancer cell lines. This study investigated the effect of cordycepin on a rat glioma cell line. Cordycepin caused apoptosis in C6 glioma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but did not affect the survival of primary cultured rat astrocytes. Cordycepin increased the total protein levels of p53 and phosphorylated p53 in the C6 cells. Levels of cleaved caspase-7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), but not cleaved caspase-3, were also increased after cordycepin treatment. Specific inhibitors for p53 and caspases abrogated cordycepin-induced caspase-7 and PARP cleavage, and prevented cordycepin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of p53 blocked cordycepin-induced cleavage of caspase-7 and PARP. Both adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist and small interference RNA (siRNA) knockdown of A2AR blocked cordycepin-induced apoptosis, p53 activation, and caspase-7 and PARP cleavage. These may provide a new strategy of cordycepin for glioma therapy in the future. PMID:24704558

  6. Morin Mitigates Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI)-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Induced PARP Over-Activation and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Komirishetty, Prashanth; Areti, Aparna; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is initiated or caused due to the primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system and is proposed to be linked to a cascade of events including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress aggravates the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration through poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) overactivation. Hence, the present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the phytoconstituent; morin in chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathy. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction of the left sciatic nerve in rats, and the effect of morin (15 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated by measuring behavioural and biochemical changes. Mechanical, chemical and thermal stimuli confirmed the CCI-induced neuropathic pain and treatment with morin significantly improved these behavioural deficits and improved the sciatic functional index by the 14th day after CCI induction. After 14 days of CCI induction, oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammatory markers were elevated in rat lumbar spinal cord. Oxidative stress induced PARP overactivation resulted in depleted levels of ATP and elevated levels of poly (ADP) ribose (PAR). Treatment with morin reduced the levels of nitrites, restored glutathione levels and abrogated the oxidant induced DNA damage. It also mitigated the increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Protein expression studies confirmed the PARP inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity of morin. Findings of this study suggest that morin, by virtue of its antioxidant properties, limited PARP overactivation and neuroinflammation and protected against CCI induced functional, behavioural and biochemical deficits. PMID:27084773

  7. Activation of the Kexin from Schizosaccharomyces pombe Requires Internal Cleavage of Its Initially Cleaved Prosequence

    PubMed Central

    Powner, Dale; Davey, John

    1998-01-01

    Members of the kexin family of processing enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of many proproteins during their transport through the secretory pathway. The enzymes themselves are made as inactive precursors, and we investigated the activation process by studying the maturation of Krp1, a kexin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using a cell-free translation-translocation system prepared from Xenopus eggs, we found that Krp1 is made as a preproprotein that loses the presequence during translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. The prosequence is also rapidly cleaved in a reaction that is autocatalytic and probably intramolecular and is inhibited by disruption of the P domain. Prosequence cleavage normally occurs at Arg-Tyr-Lys-Arg102↓ (primary cleavage site) but can occur at Lys-Arg82 (internal cleavage site) and/or Trp-Arg99 when the basic residues are removed from the primary site. Cleavage of the prosequence is necessary but not sufficient for activation, and Krp1 is initially unable to process substrates presented in trans. Full activation is achieved after further incubation in the extract and is coincident with the addition of O-linked sugars. O glycosylation is not, however, essential for activity, and the crucial event appears to be cleavage of the initially cleaved prosequence at the internal site. Our results are consistent with a model in which the cleaved prosequence remains noncovalently associated with the catalytic domain and acts as an autoinhibitor of the enzyme. Inhibition is then relieved by a second (internal) cleavage of the inhibitory prosequence. Further support for this model is provided by our finding that overexpression of a Krp1 prosequence lacking a cleavable internal site dramatically reduced the growth rate of otherwise wild-type S. pombe cells, an effect that was not seen after overexpression of the normal, internally cleavable, prosequence or prosequences that lack the Lys-Arg102 residues. PMID:9418887

  8. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs. PMID:24584631

  9. Carbon-Carbon Bond Cleavage in Activation of the Prodrug Nabumetone

    PubMed Central

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N. A.; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L.; De Voss, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs. PMID:24584631

  10. PARP-1 regulates the expression of caspase-11

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Lang; Hong, Seokheon; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Knockdown of PARP-1 suppresses the LPS-induced expression of caspase-11. {yields} Knockdown of PARP-1 suppresses the caspase-11 promoter activity following LPS stimulation. {yields} PARP-1 is recruited to the caspase-11 promoter region containing NF-{kappa}B-binding sites following LPS stimulation. {yields} PARP-1 inhibitors cannot suppress the caspase-11 induction. {yields} PARP-1 does not suppress IFN-{gamma}-induced expression of caspase-11. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a multifunctional enzyme that regulates DNA repair, cell death and transcription of inflammatory proteins. In the present study, we present evidence that PARP-1 regulates the expression of caspase-11 following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Knockdown of PARP-1 suppressed the LPS-induced expression of caspase-11 at both mRNA and protein levels as well as caspase-11 promoter activity. Importantly, PARP-1 was recruited to the caspase-11 promoter region containing predicted nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B-binding sites when examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. However, knockdown of PARP-1 did not suppress the expression of caspase-11 induced by interferon-{gamma} that activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 but not NF-{kappa}B. PARP-1 enzymatic activity was not required for the caspase-11 upregulation since pharmacological inhibitors of PARP-1 did not suppress the induction of caspase-11. Our results suggest that PARP-1, as a transcriptional cofactor for NF-{kappa}B, regulates the induction of caspase-11 at a transcriptional level.

  11. Distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by myoglobin with a designed heme active center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Du, Ke-Jie; Gao, Shu-Qin; He, Bo; Wen, Ge-Bo; Tan, Xiangshi; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse biological functions, of which myoglobin (Mb) is a representative protein. In this study, the O2 carrier Mb was shown to cleave double stranded DNA upon aerobic dithiothreitol-induced reduction, which is fine-tuned by an additional distal histidine, His29 or His43, engineered in the heme active center. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and inhibition studies suggested that free radicals including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are responsible for efficient DNA cleavage via an oxidative cleavage mechanism. On the other hand, L29E Mb, with a distinct heme active center involving three water molecules in the met form, was found to exhibit an excellent DNA cleavage activity that was not depending on O2. Inhibition and ligation studies demonstrated for the first time that L29E Mb cleaves double stranded DNA into both the nicked circular and linear forms via a hydrolytic cleavage mechanism, which resembles native endonucleases. This study provides valuable insights into the distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by heme proteins, and lays down a base for creating artificial DNA endonucleases by rational design of heme proteins. Moreover, this study suggests that the diverse functions of heme proteins can be fine-tuned by rational design of the heme active center with a hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:26775281

  12. Trial watch – inhibiting PARP enzymes for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sistigu, Antonella; Manic, Gwenola; Obrist, Florine; Vitale, Ilio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability. Despite this potential oncosuppressive role, upregulation and/or overactivation of PARP1 or other PARP enzymes has been reported in a variety of human neoplasms. Over the last few decades, several pharmacologic inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2 have been assessed in preclinical and clinical studies showing potent antineoplastic activity, particularly against homologous recombination (HR)-deficient ovarian and breast cancers. In this Trial Watch, we describe the impact of PARP enzymes and PARylation in cancer, discuss the mechanism of cancer cell killing by PARP1 inactivation, and summarize the results of recent clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and therapeutic profile of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308587

  13. Trial watch - inhibiting PARP enzymes for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sistigu, Antonella; Manic, Gwenola; Obrist, Florine; Vitale, Ilio

    2016-03-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability. Despite this potential oncosuppressive role, upregulation and/or overactivation of PARP1 or other PARP enzymes has been reported in a variety of human neoplasms. Over the last few decades, several pharmacologic inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2 have been assessed in preclinical and clinical studies showing potent antineoplastic activity, particularly against homologous recombination (HR)-deficient ovarian and breast cancers. In this Trial Watch, we describe the impact of PARP enzymes and PARylation in cancer, discuss the mechanism of cancer cell killing by PARP1 inactivation, and summarize the results of recent clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and therapeutic profile of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308587

  14. TCDD-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7) mono-ADP-ribosylates and co-activates liver X receptors.

    PubMed

    Bindesbøll, Christian; Tan, Susanna; Bott, Debbie; Cho, Tiffany; Tamblyn, Laura; MacPherson, Laura; Grønning-Wang, Line; Nebb, Hilde Irene; Matthews, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Members of the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family catalyse the ADP-ribosylation of target proteins and are known to play important roles in many cellular processes, including DNA repair, differentiation and transcription. The majority of PARPs exhibit mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity rather than PARP activity; however, little is known about their biological activity. In the present study, we report that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP), mono-ADP-ribosylates and positively regulates liver X receptor α (LXRα) and LXRβ activity. Overexpression of TIPARP enhanced LXR-reporter gene activity. TIPARP knockdown or deletion reduced LXR regulated target gene expression levels in HepG2 cells and inTiparp(-/-)mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) respectively. Deletion and mutagenesis studies showed that TIPARP's zinc-finger and catalytic domains were required to enhance LXR activity. Protein interaction studies using TIPARP and LXRα/β peptide arrays revealed that LXRs interacted with an N-terminal sequence (a.a. 209-236) of TIPARP, which also overlapped with a putative co-activator domain of TIPARP (a.a. 200-225). Immunofluorescence studies showed that TIPARP and LXRα or LXRβ co-localized in the nucleus.In vitroribosylation assays provided evidence that TIPARP mono-ADP-ribosylated both LXRα and LXRβ. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies revealed that ADP-ribosylase macrodomain 1 (MACROD1), but not MACROD2, interacted with LXRs in a TIPARP-dependent manner. This was complemented by reporter gene studies showing that MACROD1, but not MACROD2, prevented the TIPARP-dependent increase in LXR activity. GW3965-dependent increases in hepatic Srebp1 mRNA and protein expression levels were reduced inTiparp(-/-)mice compared withTiparp(+/+)mice. Taken together, these data identify a new mechanism of LXR regulation that involves TIPARP, ADP-ribosylation and MACROD1. PMID:26814197

  15. Defective Mitophagy in XPA via PARP1 Hyperactivation and NAD+/SIRT1 Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Lear E.; Kassahun, Henok; SenGupta, Tanima; Nilsen, Hilde; Mitchell, James R.; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegeneration and aging. We identify mitochondrial dysfunction in xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a nucleotide excision DNA repair disorder with severe neurodegeneration, in silico and in vivo. XPA deficient cells show defective mitophagy with excessive cleavage of PINK1 and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial abnormalities appear to be caused by decreased activation of the NAD+-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis triggered by hyperactivation of the DNA damage sensor PARP1. This phenotype is rescued by PARP1 inhibition or by supplementation with NAD+ precursors that also rescue the lifespan defect in xpa-1 nematodes. Importantly, this pathogenesis appears common to ataxia-telangiectasia and Cockayne syndrome, two other DNA repair disorders with neurodegeneration, but absent in XPC, a DNA repair disorder without neurodegeneration. Our findings reveal a novel nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk that is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial health. PMID:24813611

  16. ARTD1 (PARP1) activation and NAD+ in DNA repair and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Fouquerel, Elise; Sobol, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+, is a small metabolite coenzyme that is essential for the progress of crucial cellular pathways including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and mitochondrial respiration. These processes consume and produce both oxidative and reduced forms of NAD (NAD+ and NADH). NAD+ is also important for ADP(ribosyl)ation reactions mediated by the ADP-ribosyltransferase enzymes (ARTDs) or deacetylation reactions catalysed by the sirtuins (SIRTs) which use NAD+ as a substrate. In this review, we highlight the significance of NAD+ catabolism in DNA repair and cell death through its utilization by ARTDs and SIRTs. We summarize the current findings on the involvement of ARTD1 activity in DNA repair and most specifically its involvement in the trigger of cell death mediated by energy depletion. By sharing the same substrate, the activities of ARTDs and SIRTs are tightly linked and dependent on each other and are thereby involved in the same cellular processes that play an important role in cancer biology, inflammatory diseases and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25283336

  17. Metal ion specificities for folding and cleavage activity in the Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Jennifer L.; Canny, Marella D.; Azimi, Ehsan; Pardi, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various metal ions on cleavage activity and global folding have been studied in the extended Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to probe global folding as a function of various monovalent and divalent metal ions in this ribozyme. The divalent metals ions Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+ have a relatively small variation (less than sixfold) in their ability to globally fold the hammerhead ribozyme, which contrasts with the very large difference (>10,000-fold) in apparent rate constants for cleavage for these divalent metal ions in single-turnover kinetic experiments. There is still a very large range (>4600-fold) in the apparent rate constants for cleavage for these divalent metal ions measured in high salt (2 M NaCl) conditions where the ribozyme is globally folded. These results demonstrate that the identity of the divalent metal ion has little effect on global folding of the Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme, whereas it has a very large effect on the cleavage kinetics. Mechanisms by which the identity of the divalent metal ion can have such a large effect on cleavage activity in the Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme are discussed. PMID:18755844

  18. Combinations of PARP Inhibitors with Temozolomide Drive PARP1 Trapping and Apoptosis in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pshenichnaya, Irina; Kogera, Fiona A.; Barthorpe, Syd; Mironenko, Tatiana; Richardson, Laura; Benes, Cyril H.; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Jackson, Stephen P.; Garnett, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone tumor with a poor prognosis for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Ewing’s sarcoma cells are acutely hypersensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition and this is being evaluated in clinical trials, although the mechanism of hypersensitivity has not been directly addressed. PARP inhibitors have efficacy in tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations, which confer deficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR). This drives dependence on PARP1/2 due to their function in DNA single-strand break (SSB) repair. PARP inhibitors are also cytotoxic through inhibiting PARP1/2 auto-PARylation, blocking PARP1/2 release from substrate DNA. Here, we show that PARP inhibitor sensitivity in Ewing’s sarcoma cells is not through an apparent defect in DNA repair by HR, but through hypersensitivity to trapped PARP1-DNA complexes. This drives accumulation of DNA damage during replication, ultimately leading to apoptosis. We also show that the activity of PARP inhibitors is potentiated by temozolomide in Ewing’s sarcoma cells and is associated with enhanced trapping of PARP1-DNA complexes. Furthermore, through mining of large-scale drug sensitivity datasets, we identify a subset of glioma, neuroblastoma and melanoma cell lines as hypersensitive to the combination of temozolomide and PARP inhibition, potentially identifying new avenues for therapeutic intervention. These data provide insights into the anti-cancer activity of PARP inhibitors with implications for the design of treatment for Ewing’s sarcoma patients with PARP inhibitors. PMID:26505995

  19. Initial activation of EpCAM cleavage via cell-to-cell contact

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is frequently over-expressed in simple epithelia, progenitors, embryonic and tissue stem cells, carcinoma and cancer-initiating cells. Besides functioning as a homophilic adhesion protein, EpCAM is an oncogenic receptor that requires regulated intramembrane proteolysis for activation of its signal transduction capacity. Upon cleavage, the extracellular domain EpEX is released as a soluble ligand while the intracellular domain EpICD translocates into the cytoplasm and eventually into the nucleus in combination with four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 2 (FHL2) and β-catenin, and drives cell proliferation. Methods EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were investigated under varying density conditions using confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, cell counting, and conditional cell systems. Results EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were dependent on adequate cell-to-cell contact. If cell-to-cell contact was prohibited EpCAM did not provide growth advantages. If cells were allowed to undergo contact to each other, EpCAM transmitted proliferation signals based on signal transduction-related cleavage processes. Accordingly, the pre-cleaved version EpICD was not dependent on cell-to-cell contact in order to induce c-myc and cell proliferation, but necessitated nuclear translocation. For the case of contact-inhibited cells, although cleavage of EpCAM occurred, nuclear translocation of EpICD was reduced, as were EpCAM effects. Conclusion Activation of EpCAM's cleavage and oncogenic capacity is dependent on cellular interaction (juxtacrine) to provide for initial signals of regulated intramembrane proteolysis, which then support signalling via soluble EpEX (paracrine). PMID:19925656

  20. Stereospecific PARP trapping by BMN 673 and comparison with olaparib and rucaparib.

    PubMed

    Murai, Junko; Huang, Shar-Yin N; Renaud, Amèlie; Zhang, Yiping; Ji, Jiuping; Takeda, Shunichi; Morris, Joel; Teicher, Beverly; Doroshow, James H; Pommier, Yves

    2014-02-01

    Anti-PARP drugs were initially developed as catalytic inhibitors to block the repair of DNA single-strand breaks. We recently reported that several PARP inhibitors have an additional cytotoxic mechanism by trapping PARP-DNA complexes, and that both olaparib and niraparib act as PARP poisons at pharmacologic concentrations. Therefore, we have proposed that PARP inhibitors should be evaluated based both on catalytic PARP inhibition and PARP-DNA trapping. Here, we evaluated the novel PARP inhibitor, BMN 673, and compared its effects on PARP1 and PARP2 with two other clinical PARP inhibitors, olaparib and rucaparib, using biochemical and cellular assays in genetically modified chicken DT40 and human cancer cell lines. Although BMN 673, olaparib, and rucaparib are comparable at inhibiting PARP catalytic activity, BMN 673 is ∼100-fold more potent at trapping PARP-DNA complexes and more cytotoxic as single agent than olaparib, whereas olaparib and rucaparib show similar potencies in trapping PARP-DNA complexes. The high level of resistance of PARP1/2 knockout cells to BMN 673 demonstrates the selectivity of BMN 673 for PARP1/2. Moreover, we show that BMN 673 acts by stereospecific binding to PARP1 as its enantiomer, LT674, is several orders of magnitude less efficient. BMN 673 is also approximately 100-fold more cytotoxic than olaparib and rucaparib in combination with the DNA alkylating agents methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and temozolomide. Our study demonstrates that BMN 673 is the most potent clinical PARP inhibitor tested to date with the highest efficiency at trapping PARP-DNA complexes. PMID:24356813

  1. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  2. Selective inhibition of PARP10 using a chemical genetics strategy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rory K; Carter-O'Connell, Ian; Cohen, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    The lack of inhibitors that are selective for individual poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family members has limited our understanding of their roles in cells. Here, we describe a chemical genetics approach for generating selective inhibitors of an engineered variant of PARP10. We synthesized a series of C-7 substituted 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (dq) analogues designed to selectively inhibit a mutant of PARP10 (LG-PARP10) that contains a unique pocket in its active site. A dq analogue containing a bromo at the C-7 position demonstrated a 10-fold selectivity for LG-PARP10 compared to its WT counterpart. This study provides a platform for the development of selective inhibitors of individual PARP family members that will be useful for decoding their cellular functions. PMID:26231158

  3. PARP is involved in replicative aging in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kothe, Gregory O.; Kitamura, Maki; Masutani, Mitsuko; Selker, Eric U.; Inoue, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Modification of proteins by the addition of poly(ADP-ribose) is carried out by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs have been implicated in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes, but no universal function has been established. A study of the Aspergillus nidulans PARP ortholog (PrpA) revealed that the protein is essential and involved in DNA repair, reminiscent of findings using mammalian systems. We found that a Neurospora PARP orthologue (NPO) is dispensable for cell survival, DNA repair and epigenetic silencing but that replicative aging of mycelia is accelerated in an npo mutant strain. We propose that PARPs may control aging as proposed for Sirtuins, which also consume NAD+ and function either as mono(ADP-ribose) transferases or protein deacetylases. PARPs may regulate aging by impacting NAD+/NAM availability, thereby influencing Sirtuin activity, or they may function in alternative NAD+-dependent or NAD+-independent aging pathways. PMID:20045739

  4. PARP inhibitors and more.

    PubMed

    Bose, Chinmoy K; Basu, Nirban

    2015-01-01

    Polyadenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) lends a panoramic view to the inner mystery of protection of integrity of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell genome. They are a balancing part of an even more dynamic equilibrium of normalcy against daily assaults. PARP finds its companion candidates in other tumor suppressors, with the most prominent and glaring one being breast cancer (BRCA) 1 and 2. The strength of both is split by PARP inhibitors, inculcating the synthetic lethality of tumor cell, which is now in the market for ovarian cancer treatment. There are many reasons for the resistance of such inhibitors, which are now becoming clinically important. These are seen along with other damage repair approaches. PMID:26097394

  5. PARP inhibitors and more

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Chinmoy K.; Basu, Nirban

    2015-01-01

    Polyadenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) lends a panoramic view to the inner mystery of protection of integrity of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell genome. They are a balancing part of an even more dynamic equilibrium of normalcy against daily assaults. PARP finds its companion candidates in other tumor suppressors, with the most prominent and glaring one being breast cancer (BRCA) 1 and 2. The strength of both is split by PARP inhibitors, inculcating the synthetic lethality of tumor cell, which is now in the market for ovarian cancer treatment. There are many reasons for the resistance of such inhibitors, which are now becoming clinically important. These are seen along with other damage repair approaches. PMID:26097394

  6. Common and unique genetic interactions of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases PARP1 and PARP2 with DNA double-strand break repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajib; Roy, Sanchita; Kamyab, Johan; Dantzer, Francoise; Franco, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian cells, chromatin poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) at sites of DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) is mediated by two highly related enzymes, PARP1 and PARP2. However, enzyme-specific genetic interactions with other DSB repair factors remain largely undefined. In this context, it was previously shown that mice lacking PARP1 and H2AX, a histone variant that promotes DSB repair throughout the cell cycle, or the core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor Ku80 are not viable, while mice lacking PARP1 and the noncore NHEJ factor DNA-PKcs are severely growth retarded and markedly lymphoma-prone. Here, we have examined the requirement for PARP2 in these backgrounds. We find that, like PARP1, PARP2 is essential for viability in mice lacking H2AX. Moreover, treatment of H2AX-deficient primary fibroblasts or B lymphocytes with PARP inhibitors leads to activation of the G2/M checkpoint and accumulation of chromatid-type breaks in a lineage- and gene-dose dependent manner. In marked contrast to PARP1, loss of PARP2 does not result in additional phenotypes in growth, development or tumorigenesis in mice lacking either Ku80 or DNA-PKcs. Altogether these findings highlight specific nonoverlapping functions of PARP1 and PARP2 at H2AX-deficient chromatin during replicative phases of the cell cycle and uncover a unique requirement for PARP1 in NHEJ-deficient cells. PMID:27373144

  7. [Cancer therapy by PARP inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases(PARP) synthesize the ADP-ribose polymers onto proteins and play a role in DNA repair. PARP inhibitors block the repair of single-strand breaks, which in turn gives rise to double-strand breaks during DNA replication. Thus, PARP inhibitors elicit synthetic lethality in cancer with BRCA1/2 loss-of-function mutations that hamper homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks. Olaparib, the first-in-class PARP inhibitor, was approved for treatment of BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer in Europe and the United States in 2014. Other PARP inhibitors under clinical trials include rucaparib, niraparib, veliparib, and the "PARP-trapping" BMN-673. BRCA1/2 sequencing is an FDA-approved companion diagnostics, which predicts the cancer vulnerability to PARP inhibition. Together, synthetic lethal PARP inhibition is a novel promising strategy for cancer intervention even in cases without prominent driver oncogenes. PMID:26281686

  8. Trapping of PARP1 and PARP2 by Clinical PARP Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murai, Junko; Huang, Shar-yin N; Das, Benu Brata; Renaud, Amelie; Zhang, Yiping; Doroshow, James H; Ji, Jiuping; Takeda, Shunichi; Pommier, Yves

    2012-11-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of PARP are thought to mediate their antitumor effects as catalytic inhibitors that block repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). However, the mechanism of action of PARP inhibitors with regard to their effects in cancer cells is not fully understood. In this study, we show that PARP inhibitors trap the PARP1 and PARP2 enzymes at damaged DNA. Trapped PARP-DNA complexes were more cytotoxic than unrepaired SSBs caused by PARP inactivation, arguing that PARP inhibitors act in part as poisons that trap PARP enzyme on DNA. Moreover, the potency in trapping PARP differed markedly among inhibitors with niraparib (MK-4827) > olaparib (AZD-2281) > veliparib (ABT-888), a pattern not correlated with the catalytic inhibitory properties for each drug. We also analyzed repair pathways for PARP-DNA complexes using 30 genetically altered avian DT40 cell lines with preestablished deletions in specific DNA repair genes. This analysis revealed that, in addition to homologous recombination, postreplication repair, the Fanconi anemia pathway, polymerase β, and FEN1 are critical for repairing trapped PARP-DNA complexes. In summary, our study provides a new mechanistic foundation for the rational application of PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. PMID:23118055

  9. HMG-box domain stimulation of RAG1/2 cleavage activity is metal ion dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kriatchko, Aleksei N; Bergeron, Serge; Swanson, Patrick C

    2008-01-01

    Background RAG1 and RAG2 initiate V(D)J recombination by assembling a synaptic complex with a pair of antigen receptor gene segments through interactions with their flanking recombination signal sequence (RSS), and then introducing a DNA double-strand break at each RSS, separating it from the adjacent coding segment. While the RAG proteins are sufficient to mediate RSS binding and cleavage in vitro, these activities are stimulated by the architectural DNA binding and bending factors HMGB1 and HMGB2. Two previous studies (Bergeron et al., 2005, and Dai et al., 2005) came to different conclusions regarding whether only one of the two DNA binding domains of HMGB1 is sufficient to stimulate RAG-mediated binding and cleavage of naked DNA in vitro. Here we test whether this apparent discrepancy is attributed to the choice of divalent metal ion and the concentration of HMGB1 used in the cleavage reaction. Results We show here that single HMG-box domains of HMGB1 stimulate RAG-mediated RSS cleavage in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of Mn2+, but not Mg2+. Interestingly, the inability of a single HMG-box domain to stimulate RAG-mediated RSS cleavage in Mg2+ is overcome by the addition of partner RSS to promote synapsis. Furthermore, we show that mutant forms of HMGB1 which otherwise fail to stimulate RAG-mediated RSS cleavage in Mg2+ can be substantially rescued when Mg2+ is replaced with Mn2+. Conclusion The conflicting data published previously in two different laboratories can be substantially explained by the choice of divalent metal ion and abundance of HMGB1 in the cleavage reaction. The observation that single HMG-box domains can promote RAG-mediated 23-RSS cleavage in Mg2+ in the presence, but not absence, of partner RSS suggests that synaptic complex assembly in vitro is associated with conformational changes that alter how the RAG and/or HMGB1 proteins bind and bend DNA in a manner that functionally replaces the role of one of the HMG-box domains

  10. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Keestra, A. Marijke; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB–dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  11. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Keestra, A Marijke; van Putten, Jos P M

    2011-03-22

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  12. Effects of abamectin exposure on male fertility in rats: potential role of oxidative stress-mediated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Tasatargil, Arda; Tekcan, Merih; Sati, Leyla; Gungor, Ece; Isbir, Mehmet; Demir, Ramazan

    2011-12-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of abamectin pesticide, little is known about its action on male fertility. To explore the effects of exposure to abamectin on male fertility and its mechanism, low (1mg/kg/day) and high dose (4 mg/kg/day) abamectin were applied to male rats by oral gavage for 1week and for 6weeks. Weight of testes, serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm dynamics and histopathology of testes were used to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of abamectin-exposed rats. Abamectin level was determined at high concentrations in plasma and testicular tissues of male rats exposed to this pesticide. The testes weights of animals and serum testosterone concentrations did not show any significant changes after abamectin exposure. Abamectin administration was associated with decreased sperm count and motility and increased seminiferous tubule damage. In addition, significant elevations in the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-modified proteins and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) expression, as markers for oxidative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, were observed in testes of rats exposed to abamectin. These results showed that abamectin exposure induces testicular damage and affects sperm dynamics. Oxidative stress-mediated PARP activation might be one of the possible mechanism(s) underlying testicular damage induced by abamectin. PMID:21945325

  13. The role of chordin fragments generated by partial tolloid cleavage in regulating BMP activity.

    PubMed

    Troilo, Helen; Barrett, Anne L; Wohl, Alexander P; Jowitt, Thomas A; Collins, Richard F; Bayley, Christopher P; Zuk, Alexandra V; Sengle, Gerhard; Baldock, Clair

    2015-10-01

    Chordin-mediated regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family growth factors is essential in early embryogenesis and adult homoeostasis. Chordin binds to BMPs through cysteine-rich von Willebrand factor type C (vWC) homology domains and blocks them from interacting with their cell surface receptors. These domains also self-associate and enable chordin to target related proteins to fine-tune BMP regulation. The chordin-BMP inhibitory complex is strengthened by the secreted glycoprotein twisted gastrulation (Tsg); however, inhibition is relieved by cleavage of chordin at two specific sites by tolloid family metalloproteases. As Tsg enhances this cleavage process, it serves a dual role as both promoter and inhibitor of BMP signalling. Recent developments in chordin research suggest that rather than simply being by-products, the cleavage fragments of chordin continue to play a role in BMP regulation. In particular, chordin cleavage at the C-terminus potentiates its anti-BMP activity in a type-specific manner. PMID:26517884

  14. The role of chordin fragments generated by partial tolloid cleavage in regulating BMP activity

    PubMed Central

    Troilo, Helen; Barrett, Anne L.; Wohl, Alexander P.; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Collins, Richard F.; Bayley, Christopher P.; Zuk, Alexandra V.; Sengle, Gerhard; Baldock, Clair

    2015-01-01

    Chordin-mediated regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family growth factors is essential in early embryogenesis and adult homoeostasis. Chordin binds to BMPs through cysteine-rich von Willebrand factor type C (vWC) homology domains and blocks them from interacting with their cell surface receptors. These domains also self-associate and enable chordin to target related proteins to fine-tune BMP regulation. The chordin–BMP inhibitory complex is strengthened by the secreted glycoprotein twisted gastrulation (Tsg); however, inhibition is relieved by cleavage of chordin at two specific sites by tolloid family metalloproteases. As Tsg enhances this cleavage process, it serves a dual role as both promoter and inhibitor of BMP signalling. Recent developments in chordin research suggest that rather than simply being by-products, the cleavage fragments of chordin continue to play a role in BMP regulation. In particular, chordin cleavage at the C-terminus potentiates its anti-BMP activity in a type-specific manner. PMID:26517884

  15. Internal cleavages of the autoinhibitory prodomain are required for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activation, although furin cleavage alone generates inactive proteinase.

    PubMed

    Golubkov, Vladislav S; Cieplak, Piotr; Chekanov, Alexei V; Ratnikov, Boris I; Aleshin, Alexander E; Golubkova, Natalya V; Postnova, Tatiana I; Radichev, Ilian A; Rozanov, Dmitri V; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-09-01

    The functional activity of invasion-promoting membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is elevated in cancer. This elevated activity promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. MT1-MMP is synthesized as a zymogen, the latency of which is maintained by its prodomain. Excision by furin was considered sufficient for the prodomain release and MT1-MMP activation. We determined, however, that the full-length intact prodomain released by furin alone is a potent autoinhibitor of MT1-MMP. Additional MMP cleavages within the prodomain sequence are required to release the MT1-MMP enzyme activity. Using mutagenesis of the prodomain sequence and mass spectrometry analysis of the prodomain fragments, we demonstrated that the intradomain cleavage of the PGD/L(50) site initiates the MT1-MMP activation, whereas the (108)RRKR(111)/Y(112) cleavage by furin completes the removal and the degradation of the autoinhibitory prodomain and the liberation of the functional activity of the emerging enzyme of MT1-MMP. PMID:20605791

  16. Internal Cleavages of the Autoinhibitory Prodomain Are Required for Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation, although Furin Cleavage Alone Generates Inactive Proteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Cieplak, Piotr; Chekanov, Alexei V.; Ratnikov, Boris I.; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Golubkova, Natalya V.; Postnova, Tatiana I.; Radichev, Ilian A.; Rozanov, Dmitri V.; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2010-01-01

    The functional activity of invasion-promoting membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is elevated in cancer. This elevated activity promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. MT1-MMP is synthesized as a zymogen, the latency of which is maintained by its prodomain. Excision by furin was considered sufficient for the prodomain release and MT1-MMP activation. We determined, however, that the full-length intact prodomain released by furin alone is a potent autoinhibitor of MT1-MMP. Additional MMP cleavages within the prodomain sequence are required to release the MT1-MMP enzyme activity. Using mutagenesis of the prodomain sequence and mass spectrometry analysis of the prodomain fragments, we demonstrated that the intradomain cleavage of the PGD↓L50 site initiates the MT1-MMP activation, whereas the 108RRKR111↓Y112 cleavage by furin completes the removal and the degradation of the autoinhibitory prodomain and the liberation of the functional activity of the emerging enzyme of MT1-MMP. PMID:20605791

  17. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity.

    PubMed

    Ibba, Salome' V; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Lammi, Matthew R; Mishra, Anil; Boulares, A Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma. PMID:27524861

  18. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Pyakurel, Kusma; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma. PMID:27524861

  19. The active site of RNA polymerase II participates in transcript cleavage within arrested ternary complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, M D; Izban, M G; Luse, D S

    1994-01-01

    RNA polymerase II may become arrested during transcript elongation, in which case the ternary complex remains intact but further RNA synthesis is blocked. To relieve arrest, the nascent transcript must be cleaved from the 3' end. RNAs of 7-17 nt are liberated and transcription continues from the newly exposed 3' end. Factor SII increases elongation efficiency by strongly stimulating the transcript cleavage reaction. We show here that arrest relief can also occur by the addition of pyrophosphate. This generates the same set of cleavage products as factor SII, but the fragments produced with pyrophosphate have 5'-triphosphate termini. Thus, the active site of RNA polymerase II, in the presence of pyrophosphate, appears to be capable of cleaving phosphodiester linkages as far as 17 nt upstream of the original site of polymerization, leaving the ternary complex intact and transcriptionally active. Images PMID:8058756

  20. Urokinase links plasminogen activation and cell adhesion by cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Valentina; Sarra Ferraris, Gian Maria; Madsen, Jeppe B; Lupia, Michela; Andreasen, Peter A; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-07-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system including urokinase (uPA), its inhibitor (PAI-1) and its cell surface receptor (uPAR) have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes related to tissue homoeostasis. Firstly, the binding of uPA to uPAR favours extracellular proteolysis by enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation. Secondly, it promotes cell adhesion and signalling through binding of the provisional matrix protein vitronectin. We now report that uPA and plasmin induces a potent negative feedback on cell adhesion through specific cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin. Cleavage of vitronectin by uPA displays a remarkable receptor dependence and requires concomitant binding of both uPA and vitronectin to uPAR Moreover, we show that PAI-1 counteracts the negative feedback and behaves as a proteolysis-triggered stabilizer of uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin. These findings identify a novel and highly specific function for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of cell adhesion to vitronectin. The cleavage of vitronectin by uPA and plasmin results in the release of N-terminal vitronectin fragments that can be detected in vivo, underscoring the potential physiological relevance of the process. PMID:27189837

  1. Mercury Detoxification by Bacteria: Simulations of Transcription Activation and Mercury-Carbon Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hao-Bo; Parks, Jerry M; Johs, Alexander; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize recent work from our laboratory and provide new perspective on two important aspects of bacterial mercury resistance: the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MerR, and the enzymatic cleavage of the Hg-C bond in methylmercury by the organomercurial lyase, MerB. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of MerR reveal an opening-and-closing dynamics, which may be involved in initiating transcription of mercury resistance genes upon Hg(II) binding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on an active-site model of the enzyme reveal how MerB catalyzes the Hg-C bond cleavage using cysteine coordination and acid-base chemistry. These studies provide insight into the detailed mechanisms of microbial gene regulation and defense against mercury toxicity.

  2. [PARP inhibitors and radiotherapy: rational and prospects for a clinical use].

    PubMed

    Pernin, V; Mégnin-Chanet, F; Pennaneach, V; Fourquet, A; Kirova, Y; Hall, J

    2014-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a ubiquitous protein modification involved in the regulation of many cellular processes that is carried out by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family. The PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARP-3 are the only PARPs known to be activated by DNA damage. The absence of PARP-1 and PARP-2, that are both activated by DNA damage and participate in DNA damage repair processes, results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. PARP inhibitors that compete with NAD(+) at the enzyme's activity site can be used in BRCA-deficient cells as single agent therapies acting through the principle of synthetic lethality exploiting these cells deficient DNA double-strand break repair. Preclinical data showing an enhancement of the response of tumors to radiation has been documented for several PARP inhibitors. However, whether this is due exclusively to impaired DNA damage responses or whether tumor re-oxygenation contributes to this radio-sensitization via the vasoactive effects of the PARP inhibitors remains to be fully determined. These promising results have paved the way for the evaluation of PARP inhibitors in combination with radiotherapy in phase I and phase II clinical trials for malignant glioma, head and neck, and breast cancers. A number of challenges remain that are also reviewed in this article, including the optimization of treatment schedules for combined therapies and the validation of biomarkers that will identify which patients will most benefit from either PARP inhibitors in combination with radiotherapy. PMID:25441760

  3. Activation of the furin endoprotease is a multiple-step process: requirements for acidification and internal propeptide cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E D; VanSlyke, J K; Thulin, C D; Jean, F; Thomas, G

    1997-01-01

    Activation of furin requires autoproteolytic cleavage of its 83-amino acid propeptide at the consensus furin site, Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg107/. This RER-localized cleavage is necessary, but not sufficient, for enzyme activation. Rather, full activation of furin requires exposure to, and correct routing within, the TGN/endosomal system. Here, we identify the steps in addition to the initial propeptide cleavage necessary for activation of furin. Exposure of membrane preparations containing an inactive RER-localized soluble furin construct to either: (i) an acidic and calcium-containing environment characteristic of the TGN; or (ii) mild trypsinization at neutral pH, resulted in the activation of the endoprotease. Taken together, these results suggest that the pH drop facilitates the removal of a furin inhibitor. Consistent with these findings, following cleavage in the RER, the furin propeptide remains associated with the enzyme and functions as a potent inhibitor of the endoprotease. Co-immunoprecipitation studies coupled with analysis by mass spectrometry show that release of the propeptide at acidic pH, and hence activation of furin, requires a second cleavage within the autoinhibitory domain at a site containing a P6 arginine (-Arg70-Gly-Val-Thr-Lys-Arg75/-). The significance of this cleavage in regulating the compartment-specific activation of furin, and the relationship of the furin activation pathway to those of other serine endoproteases are discussed. PMID:9130696

  4. PARP6 is a Regulator of Hippocampal Dendritic Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeffrey Y.; Wang, Kang; Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Adelman, John P.; Cohen, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation) of mammalian proteins was first described as a post-translational modification catalyzed by bacterial toxins. It is now known that endogenous MARylation occurs in mammalian cells and is catalyzed by 11 members of the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family of proteins (17 in humans). The physiological roles of these PARPs remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that PARP6, a neuronally enriched PARP that catalyzes MARylation, regulates hippocampal dendrite morphogenesis, a process that is critical for proper neural circuit formation during development. Knockdown of PARP6 significantly decreased dendritic complexity in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo. Expression of wild-type PARP6 increased dendritic complexity; conversely, expression of a catalytically inactive PARP6 mutant, or a cysteine-rich domain deletion mutant that has significantly reduced catalytic activity, decreased dendritic complexity. The identification of PARP6 as a regulator of dendrite morphogenesis supports a role for MARylation in neurons during development. PMID:26725726

  5. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles with peroxidase-like activity enhance the cleavage of biological macromolecules for biofilm elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GaoCurrent Address: University Of Pennsylvania, School Of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa 19104, Usa. E.-Mail: Gaoliz@Dental. Upenn. Edu, Lizeng; Giglio, Krista M.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Sondermann, Holger; Travis, Alexander J.

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a ``green chemical'' that has various cleaning and disinfectant uses, including as an anti-bacterial agent for hygienic and medical treatments. However, its efficacy is limited against biofilm-producing bacteria, because of poor penetration into the protective, organic matrix. Here we show new applications for ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNPs) with peroxidase-like activity in potentiating the efficacy of H2O2 in biofilm degradation and prevention. Our data show that MNPs enhanced oxidative cleavage of biofilm components (model nucleic acids, proteins, and oligosaccharides) in the presence of H2O2. When challenged with live, biofilm-producing bacteria, the MNP-H2O2 system efficiently broke down the existing biofilm and prevented new biofilms from forming, killing both planktonic bacteria and those within the biofilm. By enhancing oxidative cleavage of various substrates, the MNP-H2O2 system provides a novel strategy for biofilm elimination, and other applications utilizing oxidative breakdown.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a ``green chemical'' that has various cleaning and disinfectant uses, including as an anti-bacterial agent for hygienic and medical treatments. However, its efficacy is limited against biofilm-producing bacteria, because of poor penetration into the protective, organic matrix. Here we show new applications for ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNPs) with peroxidase-like activity in potentiating the efficacy of H2O2 in biofilm degradation and prevention. Our data show that MNPs enhanced oxidative cleavage of biofilm components (model nucleic acids, proteins, and oligosaccharides) in the presence of H2O2. When challenged with live, biofilm-producing bacteria, the MNP-H2O2 system efficiently broke down the existing biofilm and prevented new biofilms from forming, killing both planktonic bacteria and those within the biofilm. By enhancing oxidative cleavage of various substrates, the MNP-H2O2 system provides a novel

  6. Yeast SREBP cleavage activation requires the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase complex

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Emerson V.; Nwosu, Christine C.; Tong, Zongtian; Roguev, Assen; Cummins, Timothy D.; Kim, Dong-Uk; Hayles, Jacqueline; Park, Han-Oh; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Powell, David W.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Espenshade, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammalian lipid homeostasis requires proteolytic activation of membrane-bound sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors through sequential action of the Golgi Site-1 and Site-2 proteases. Here, we report that while SREBP function is conserved in fungi, fission yeast employs a different mechanism for SREBP cleavage. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified four genes defective for SREBP cleavage, dsc1–4, encoding components of a transmembrane Golgi E3 ligase complex with structural homology to the Hrd1 E3 ligase complex involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The Dsc complex binds SREBP and cleavage requires components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc4, the Dsc1 RING E3 ligase and the proteasome. dsc mutants display conserved aggravating genetic interactions with components of the multivesicular body pathway in fission yeast and budding yeast, which lacks SREBP. Together, these data suggest that the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase complex functions in a post-ER pathway for protein degradation. PMID:21504829

  7. Cell cycle-specific cleavage of Scc2 regulates its cohesin deposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Julie; Fara, Tyler; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Trejo, Michael; Luong, Nancy; Hansen, Kirk C.; Megee, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), efficient DNA repair, and the regulation of some metazoan genes require the association of cohesins with chromosomes. Cohesins are deposited by a conserved heterodimeric loading complex composed of the Scc2 and Scc4 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but how the Scc2/Scc4 deposition complex regulates the spatiotemporal association of cohesin with chromosomes is not understood. We examined Scc2 chromatin association during the cell division cycle and found that the affinity of Scc2 for chromatin increases biphasically during the cell cycle, increasing first transiently in late G1 phase and then again later in G2/M. Inactivation of Scc2 following DNA replication reduces cellular viability, suggesting that this post S-phase increase in Scc2 chromatin binding affinity is biologically relevant. Interestingly, high and low Scc2 chromatin binding levels correlate strongly with the presence of full-length or amino-terminally cleaved forms of Scc2, respectively, and the appearance of the cleaved Scc2 species is promoted in vitro either by treatment with specific cell cycle-staged cellular extracts or by dephosphorylation. Importantly, Scc2 cleavage eliminates Scc2–Scc4 physical interactions, and an scc2 truncation mutant that mimics in vivo Scc2 cleavage is defective for cohesin deposition. These observations suggest a previously unidentified mechanism for the spatiotemporal regulation of cohesin association with chromosomes through cell cycle regulation of Scc2 cohesin deposition activity by Scc2 dephosphorylation and cleavage. PMID:24778232

  8. NMR structure of the active conformation of the Varkud satellite ribozyme cleavage site

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Mitchell, G. Thomas; Gendron, Patrick; Major, François; Andersen, Angela A.; Collins, Richard A.; Legault, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    Substrate cleavage by the Neurospora Varkud satellite (VS) ribozyme involves a structural change in the stem-loop I substrate from an inactive to an active conformation. We have determined the NMR solution structure of a mutant stem-loop I that mimics the active conformation of the cleavage site internal loop. This structure shares many similarities, but also significant differences, with the previously determined structures of the inactive internal loop. The active internal loop displays different base-pairing interactions and forms a novel RNA fold composed exclusively of sheared G-A base pairs. From chemical-shift mapping we identified two Mg2+ binding sites in the active internal loop. One of the Mg2+ binding sites forms in the active but not the inactive conformation of the internal loop and is likely important for catalysis. Using the structure comparison program mc-search, we identified the active internal loop fold in other RNA structures. In Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA, this RNA fold is directly involved in a long-range tertiary interaction. An analogous tertiary interaction may form between the active internal loop of the substrate and the catalytic domain of the VS ribozyme. The combination of NMR and bioinformatic approaches presented here has identified a novel RNA fold and provides insights into the structural basis of catalytic function in the Neurospora VS ribozyme. PMID:12782785

  9. Therapeutic Applications of PARP Inhibitors: Anticancer Therapy and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Nicola; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the current and potential clinical translation of pharmacological inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) for the therapy of various diseases. The first section of the present review summarizes the available preclinical and clinical data with PARP inhibitors in various forms of cancer. In this context, the role of PARP in single-strand DNA break repair is relevant, leading to replication-associated lesions that cannot be repaired if homologous recombination (HRR) repair is defective, and the synthetic lethality of PARP inhibitors in HRR-defective cancer. HRR defects are classically associated with BRCA1 and 2 mutations associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer, but there may be many other causes of HRR defects. Thus, PARP inhibitors may be the drugs of choice for BRCA mutant breast and ovarian cancers, and extend beyond these tumors if appropriate biomarkers can be developed to identify HRR defects. Multiple lines of preclinical data demonstrate that PARP inhibition increases cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay in combination with temozolomide, topoisomerase inhibitors and ionizing radiation. Both single agent and combination clinical trials are underway. The final part of the first section of the present review summarizes the current status of the various PARP inhibitors that are in various stages of clinical development. The second section of the present review summarizes the role of PARP in selected non-oncologic indications. In a number of severe, acute diseases (such as stroke, neurotrauma, circulatory shock and acute myocardial infarction) the clinical translatability of PARP inhibition is supported by multiple lines of preclinical data, as well as observational data demonstrating PARP activation in human tissue samples. In these disease indications, PARP overactivation due to oxidative and nitrative stress drives cell necrosis and pro-inflammatory gene expression, which contributes to disease pathology

  10. Caspase-10 triggers Bid cleavage and caspase cascade activation in FasL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Milhas, Delphine; Cuvillier, Olivier; Therville, Nicole; Clavé, Patricia; Thomsen, Mogens; Levade, Thierry; Benoist, Hervé; Ségui, Bruno

    2005-05-20

    In contrast to caspase-8, controversy exists as to the ability of caspase-10 to mediate apoptosis in response to FasL. Herein, we have shown activation of caspase-10, -3, and -7 as well as B cell lymphoma-2-interacting domain (Bid) cleavage and cytochrome c release in caspase-8-deficient Jurkat (I9-2) cells treated with FasL. Apoptosis was clearly induced as illustrated by nuclear and DNA fragmentation. These events were inhibited by benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, indicating that caspases were functionally and actively involved. Benzyloxycarbonyl-AEVD-fluoromethyl ketone, a caspase-10 inhibitor, had a comparable effect. FasL-induced cell death was not completely abolished by caspase inhibitors in agreement with the existence of a cytotoxic caspase-independent pathway. In subpopulations of I9-2 cells displaying distinct caspase-10 expression levels, cell sensitivity to FasL correlated with caspase-10 expression. A robust caspase activation, Bid cleavage, and DNA fragmentation were observed in cells with high caspase-10 levels but not in those with low levels. In vitro, caspase-10, as well as caspase-8, could cleave Bid to generate active truncated Bid (p15). Altogether, our data strongly suggest that caspase-10 can serve as an initiator caspase in Fas signaling leading to Bid processing, caspase cascade activation, and apoptosis. PMID:15772077

  11. Active site fingerprinting and pharmacophore screening strategies for the identification of dual inhibitors of protein kinase C [Formula: see text] and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1).

    PubMed

    Chadha, Navriti; Silakari, Om

    2016-08-01

    Current clinical studies have revealed that diabetic complications are multifactorial disorders that target two or more pathways. The majority of drugs in clinical trial target aldose reductase and protein kinase C ([Formula: see text]), while recent studies disclosed a significant role played by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In light of this, the current study was aimed to identify novel dual inhibitors of [Formula: see text] and PARP-1 using a pharmaco-informatics methodology. Pharmacophore-based 3D QSAR models for these two targets were generated using HypoGen and used to screen three commercially available chemical databases to identify dual inhibitors of [Formula: see text] and PARP-1. Overall, 18 hits were obtained from the screening process; the hits were filtered based on their drug-like properties and predicted binding affinities (docking analysis). Important amino acid residues were predicted by developing a fingerprint of the active site using alanine-scanning mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. The stability of the complexes (18 hits with both proteins) and their final binding orientations were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Thus, novel hits have been predicted to have good binding affinities for [Formula: see text] and PARP-1 proteins, which could be further investigated for in vitro/in vivo activity. PMID:27216445

  12. Effects of 2′-O-Methyl Nucleotide Substitution on EcoRI Endonuclease Cleavage Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guojie; Zhao, Bin; Tong, Zhaoxue; Mu, Runqing; Guan, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sugar pucker conformation on DNA-protein interactions, we used 2′-O-methyl nucleotide (2′-OMeN) to modify the EcoRI recognition sequence -TGAATTCT-, and monitored the enzymatic cleavage process using FRET method. The 2′-O-methyl nucleotide has a C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation different from the C2′-endo sugar pucker conformation of native DNA nucleotides. The initial reaction velocities were measured and the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax were derived using Michaelis-Menten equation. Experimental results showed that 2′-OMeN substitutions for the EcoRI recognition sequence decreased the cleavage efficiency for A2, A3 and T4 substitutions significantly, and 2′-OMeN substitution for T5 residue inhibited the enzymatic activity completely. In contrast, substitutions for G1 and C6 could maintain the original activity. 2′-fluoro nucleic acid (2′-FNA) and locked nucleic acid (LNA) having similar C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation also demonstrated similar enzymatic results. This position-dependent enzymatic cleavage property might be attributed to the phosphate backbone distortion caused by the switch from C2′-endo to C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation, and was interpreted on the basis of the DNA-EcoRI structure. These 2′-modified nucleotides could behave as a regulatory element to modulate the enzymatic activity in vitro, and this property will have potential applications in genetic engineering and biomedicine. PMID:24194862

  13. Initiation of Apoptosis by Granzyme B Requires Direct Cleavage of Bid, but Not Direct Granzyme B–Mediated Caspase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Vivien R.; Davis, Joanne E.; Cancilla, Michael; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Ruefli, Astrid A.; Sedelies, Karin; Browne, Kylie A.; Trapani, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The essential upstream steps in granzyme B–mediated apoptosis remain undefined. Herein, we show that granzyme B triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through direct cleavage of Bid; however, cleavage of procaspases was stalled when mitochondrial disruption was blocked by Bcl-2. The sensitivity of granzyme B–resistant Bcl-2–overexpressing FDC-P1 cells was restored by coexpression of wild-type Bid, or Bid with a mutation of its caspase-8 cleavage site, and both types of Bid were cleaved. However, Bid with a mutated granzyme B cleavage site remained intact and did not restore apoptosis. Bid with a mutation preventing its interaction with Bcl-2 was cleaved but also failed to restore apoptosis. Rapid Bid cleavage by granzyme B (<2 min) was not delayed by Bcl-2 overexpression. These results clearly placed Bid cleavage upstream of mitochondrial Bcl-2. In granzyme B–treated Jurkat cells, endogenous Bid cleavage and loss of mitochondrial membrane depolarization occurred despite caspase inactivation with z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone or Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Initial partial processing of procaspase-3 and -8 was observed irrespective of Bcl-2 overexpression; however, later processing was completely abolished by Bcl-2. Overall, our results indicate that mitochondrial perturbation by Bid is necessary to achieve a lethal threshold of caspase activity and cell death due to granzyme B. PMID:11085743

  14. A New Nanobody-Based Biosensor to Study Endogenous PARP1 In Vitro and in Live Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Buchfellner, Andrea; Yurlova, Larisa; Nüske, Stefan; Scholz, Armin M; Bogner, Jacqueline; Ruf, Benjamin; Zolghadr, Kourosh; Drexler, Sophie E; Drexler, Guido A; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Romer, Tina; Friedl, Anna A; Rothbauer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a key player in DNA repair, genomic stability and cell survival and it emerges as a highly relevant target for cancer therapies. To deepen our understanding of PARP biology and mechanisms of action of PARP1-targeting anti-cancer compounds, we generated a novel PARP1-affinity reagent, active both in vitro and in live cells. This PARP1-biosensor is based on a PARP1-specific single-domain antibody fragment (~ 15 kDa), termed nanobody, which recognizes the N-terminus of human PARP1 with nanomolar affinity. In proteomic approaches, immobilized PARP1 nanobody facilitates quantitative immunoprecipitation of functional, endogenous PARP1 from cellular lysates. For cellular studies, we engineered an intracellularly functional PARP1 chromobody by combining the nanobody coding sequence with a fluorescent protein sequence. By following the chromobody signal, we were for the first time able to monitor the recruitment of endogenous PARP1 to DNA damage sites in live cells. Moreover, tracing of the sub-nuclear translocation of the chromobody signal upon treatment of human cells with chemical substances enables real-time profiling of active compounds in high content imaging. Due to its ability to perform as a biosensor at the endogenous level of the PARP1 enzyme, the novel PARP1 nanobody is a unique and versatile tool for basic and applied studies of PARP1 biology and DNA repair. PMID:26950694

  15. A New Nanobody-Based Biosensor to Study Endogenous PARP1 In Vitro and in Live Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nüske, Stefan; Scholz, Armin M.; Bogner, Jacqueline; Ruf, Benjamin; Zolghadr, Kourosh; Drexler, Sophie E.; Drexler, Guido A.; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Romer, Tina; Friedl, Anna A.; Rothbauer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a key player in DNA repair, genomic stability and cell survival and it emerges as a highly relevant target for cancer therapies. To deepen our understanding of PARP biology and mechanisms of action of PARP1-targeting anti-cancer compounds, we generated a novel PARP1-affinity reagent, active both in vitro and in live cells. This PARP1-biosensor is based on a PARP1-specific single-domain antibody fragment (~ 15 kDa), termed nanobody, which recognizes the N-terminus of human PARP1 with nanomolar affinity. In proteomic approaches, immobilized PARP1 nanobody facilitates quantitative immunoprecipitation of functional, endogenous PARP1 from cellular lysates. For cellular studies, we engineered an intracellularly functional PARP1 chromobody by combining the nanobody coding sequence with a fluorescent protein sequence. By following the chromobody signal, we were for the first time able to monitor the recruitment of endogenous PARP1 to DNA damage sites in live cells. Moreover, tracing of the sub-nuclear translocation of the chromobody signal upon treatment of human cells with chemical substances enables real-time profiling of active compounds in high content imaging. Due to its ability to perform as a biosensor at the endogenous level of the PARP1 enzyme, the novel PARP1 nanobody is a unique and versatile tool for basic and applied studies of PARP1 biology and DNA repair. PMID:26950694

  16. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  17. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Junqi; Keppler, Brian D.; Wise, Robert R.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation. PMID:25950582

  18. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Junqi; Keppler, Brian D; Wise, Robert R; Bent, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation. PMID:25950582

  19. Synthesis of isatin thiosemicarbazones derivatives: In vitro anti-cancer, DNA binding and cleavage activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amna Qasem; Teoh, Siang Guan; Salhin, Abdussalam; Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Majid, A. M. S. Abdul

    New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (kb = 5.03-33.00 × 105 M-1) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47 × 104 M-1) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.

  20. Cleavage Activation of Human-adapted Influenza Virus Subtypes by Kallikrein-related Peptidases 5 and 12*

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    A critical step in the influenza virus replication cycle is the cleavage activation of the HA precursor. Cleavage activation of influenza HA enables fusion with the host endosome, allowing for release of the viral genome into the host cell. To date, studies have determined that HA activation is driven by trypsin-like host cell proteases, as well as yet to be identified bacterial proteases. Although the number of host proteases that can activate HA is growing, there is still uncertainty regarding which secreted proteases are able to support multicycle replication of influenza. In this study, we have determined that the kallikrein-related peptidases 5 and 12 are secreted from the human respiratory tract and have the ability to cleave and activate HA from the H1, H2, and H3 subtypes. Each peptidase appears to have a preference for particular influenza subtypes, with kallikrein 5 cleaving the H1 and H3 subtypes most efficiently and kallikrein 12 cleaving the H1 and H2 subtypes most efficiently. Cleavage analysis using HA cleavage site peptide mimics revealed that the amino acids neighboring the arginine cleavage site affect cleavage efficiency. Additionally, the thrombolytic zymogens plasminogen, urokinase, and plasma kallikrein have all been shown to cleave and activate influenza but are found circulating mainly as inactive precursors. Kallikrein 5 and kallikrein 12 were examined for their ability to activate the thrombolytic zymogens, and both resulted in activation of each zymogen, with kallikrein 12 being a more potent activator. Activation of the thrombolytic zymogens may therefore allow for both direct and indirect activation of the HA of human-adapted influenza viruses by kallikrein 5 and kallikrein 12. PMID:23612974

  1. Retinoid-induced apoptosis and Sp1 cleavage occur independently of transcription and require caspase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, F J; Pfahl, M

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential regulators of many important biological functions, including cell growth and differentiation, development, homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. Natural retinoids such as all-trans retinoic acid can induce cell differentiation and inhibit growth of certain cancer cells. We recently identified a novel class of synthetic retinoids with strong anti-cancer cell activities in vitro and in vivo which can induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we analyzed the DNA binding activity of several transcription factors in T cells treated with apoptotic retinoids. We found that the DNA binding activity of the general transcription factor Sp1 is lost in retinoid-treated T cells undergoing apoptosis. A truncated Sp1 protein is detected by immunoblot analysis, and cytosolic protein extracts prepared from apoptotic cells contain a protease activity which specifically cleaves purified Sp1 in vitro. This proteolysis of Sp1 can be inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetamide, indicating that a cysteine protease mediates cleavage of Sp1. Furthermore, inhibition of Sp1 cleavage by ZVAD-fmk and ZDEVD-fmk suggests that caspases are directly involved in this event. In fact, caspases 2 and 3 are activated in T cells after treatment with apoptotic retinoids. The peptide inhibitors also blocked retinoid-induced apoptosis, as well as processing of caspases and proteolysis of Sp1 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in intact cells. Degradation of Sp1 occurs early during apoptosis and is therefore likely to have profound effects on the basal transcription status of the cell. Interestingly, retinoid-induced apoptosis does not require de novo mRNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that a novel mechanism of retinoid signaling is involved, triggering cell death in a transcriptional activation-independent, caspase-dependent manner. PMID:9343396

  2. A zinc site in the C-terminal domain of RAG1 is essential for DNA cleavage activity

    PubMed Central

    Gwyn, Lori M.; Peak, Mandy M.; De, Pallabi; Rahman, Negar S.; Rodgers, Karla K.

    2009-01-01

    The recombination activating protein, RAG1, a key component of the V(D)J recombinase, binds multiple Zn2+ ions in its catalytically-required core region. However, the role of zinc in the DNA cleavage activity of RAG1 is not well-resolved. To address this issue, we determined the stoichiometry of Zn2+ ions bound to the catalytically active core region of RAG1 under various conditions. Using metal quantitation methods, we determined that core RAG1 can bind up to four Zn2+ ions. Stripping the full complement of bound Zn2+ ions to produce apo-protein abrogated DNA cleavage activity. Moreover, even partial removal of zinc-binding equivalents resulted in a significant diminishment of DNA cleavage activity, as compared to holo-Zn2+ core RAG1. Mutants of the intact core RAG1 and the isolated core RAG1 domains were studied to identify the location of zinc-binding sites. Significantly, the C-terminal domain in core RAG1 binds at least two Zn2+ ions, with one zinc-binding site containing C902 and C907 as ligands (termed the CC zinc site) and H937 and H942 coordinating a Zn2+ ion in a separate site (HH zinc site). The latter zinc-binding site is essential for DNA cleavage activity, given that the H937A and H942A mutants were defective in both in vitro DNA cleavage assays and cellular recombination assays. Furthermore, as mutation of the active site residue E962 reduces Zn2+ coordination, we propose that the HH zinc site is located in close proximity to the DDE active site. Overall, these results demonstrate that Zn2+ serves an important auxiliary role for RAG1 DNA cleavage activity. Furthermore, we propose that one of the zinc-binding sites is linked to the active site of core RAG1 directly or indirectly by E962. PMID:19500590

  3. Nanopharmaceutical approach using pelargonidin towards enhancement of efficacy for prevention of alloxan-induced DNA damage in L6 cells via activation of PARP and p53.

    PubMed

    Samadder, Asmita; Abraham, Suresh K; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Alloxan is an environmental food contaminant that causes DNA damage in living cells and induces hyperglycemia. Pelargonidin (PG), an active ingredient found in extract of various fruits and vegetables, has been nanoencapsulated (NPG) with poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and tested for efficacy in prevention of alloxan (ALX)-induced DNA damage in L6 cells in vitro. Glucose uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, glucose transporter 4, glucokinase levels and mechanism of activation of DNA repair proteins (PARP and p53) have been studied in ALX-induced L6 cells. Drug-DNA interaction has been analyzed using calf thymus DNA as target through circular dichroism and melting temperature profile. NPGs were physico-chemically characterized by standard protocols using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Pre-treatment with both PG and/or NPG was effective in reducing ALX-induced oxidative stress and showed favourable effects for protection against DNA damage by activating DNA repair cascades. Results suggested ∼10-fold increase in efficacy of NPG than PG in prevention of alloxan-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:26943895

  4. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles with peroxidase-like activity enhance the cleavage of biological macromolecules for biofilm elimination

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lizeng; Giglio, Krista M.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Sondermann, Holger; Travis, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a “green chemical” that has various cleaning and disinfectant uses, including as an anti-bacterial agent for hygienic and medical treatments. However, its efficacy is limited against biofilm-producing bacteria, because of poor penetration of the protective, organic matrix. Here we show new applications for ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNP) with peroxidase-like activity in potentiating the efficacy of H2O2 in biofilm degradation and prevention. Our data show that MNP enhanced oxidative cleavage of biofilm components (model nucleic acids, proteins, and oligosaccharides) in the presence of H2O2. When challenged with live, biofilm-producing bacteria, the MNP-H2O2 system efficiently broke down existing biofilm and prevented new biofilm from forming, killing both planktonic bacteria and those within biofilm. By enhancing oxidative cleavage of various substrates, the MNP-H2O2 system provides a novel strategy for biofilm elimination, and other applications utilizing oxidative breakdown. PMID:24468900

  5. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by Dioxin Targets Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) for ADP-ribosylation via 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (TiPARP)*

    PubMed Central

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Zhang, Sheng; Ram, Payal; Rifkind, Arleen B.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of the environmental toxin and carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) include a wasting syndrome associated with decreased gluconeogenesis. TCDD is a potent activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand activated transcription factor. The relationship between gene activation by the AHR and TCDD toxicities is not well understood. We recently identified a pathway by which the AHR target gene TiPARP (TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) contributes to TCDD suppression of transcription of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key regulator of gluconeogenesis, by consuming NAD+ and decreasing Sirtuin 1 activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), a transcriptional activator of PEPCK. We report here that TCDD-induced TiPARP also targets PEPCK for ADP-ribosylation. Both cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of PEPCK were found to undergo ADP-ribosylation. Unexpectedly, AHR suppression also enhanced ADP-ribosylation and did so by a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-independent mechanism. This report 1) identifies ADP-ribosylation as a new posttranslational modification for PEPCK, 2) describes a pathway by which transcriptional induction of TiPARP by the AHR can lead to a downstream posttranslational change in a TCDD target protein (PEPCK), and 3) reveals that the AHR exerts complex, previously unidentified modulatory effects on ADP-ribosylation. PMID:23770670

  6. Proteolytic Activation of the Human Epithelial Sodium Channel by Trypsin IV and Trypsin I Involves Distinct Cleavage Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Haerteis, Silke; Krappitz, Annabel; Krappitz, Matteus; Murphy, Jane E.; Bertog, Marko; Krueger, Bettina; Nacken, Regina; Chung, Hyunjae; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Korbmacher, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic activation is a unique feature of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the physiologically relevant proteases remain to be identified. The serine protease trypsin I can activate ENaC in vitro but is unlikely to be the physiologically relevant activating protease in ENaC-expressing tissues in vivo. Herein, we investigated whether human trypsin IV, a form of trypsin that is co-expressed in several extrapancreatic epithelial cells with ENaC, can activate human ENaC. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, we monitored proteolytic activation of ENaC currents and the appearance of γENaC cleavage products at the cell surface. We demonstrated that trypsin IV and trypsin I can stimulate ENaC heterologously expressed in oocytes. ENaC cleavage and activation by trypsin IV but not by trypsin I required a critical cleavage site (Lys-189) in the extracellular domain of the γ-subunit. In contrast, channel activation by trypsin I was prevented by mutating three putative cleavage sites (Lys-168, Lys-170, and Arg-172) in addition to mutating previously described prostasin (RKRK178), plasmin (Lys-189), and neutrophil elastase (Val-182 and Val-193) sites. Moreover, we found that trypsin IV is expressed in human renal epithelial cells and can increase ENaC-mediated sodium transport in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Thus, trypsin IV may regulate ENaC function in epithelial tissues. Our results show, for the first time, that trypsin IV can stimulate ENaC and that trypsin IV and trypsin I activate ENaC by cleavage at distinct sites. The presence of distinct cleavage sites may be important for ENaC regulation by tissue-specific proteases. PMID:24841206

  7. PIASy Mediates SUMO-2/3 Conjugation of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) on Mitotic Chromosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyunju; Al-Ani, Gada; Deckert, Katelyn; Kirkpatrick, Donald; Gygi, Steven P.; Dasso, Mary; Azuma, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    PIASy is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligase that modifies chromosomal proteins in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts and plays an essential role in mitotic chromosome segregation. We have isolated a novel SUMO-2/3-modified mitotic chromosomal protein and identified it as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). PARP1 was robustly conjugated to SUMO-2/3 on mitotic chromosomes but not on interphase chromatin. PIASy promotes SUMOylation of PARP1 both in egg extracts and in vitro reconstituted SUMOylation assays. Through tandem mass spectrometry analysis of mitotically SUMOylated PARP1, we identified a residue within the BRCA1 C-terminal domain of PARP1 (lysine 482) as its primary SUMOylation site. Mutation of this residue significantly reduced PARP1 SUMOylation in egg extracts and enhanced the accumulation of species derived from modification of secondary lysine residues in assays using purified components. SUMOylation of PARP1 did not alter in vitro PARP1 enzyme activity, poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation), nor did inhibition of SUMOylation of PARP1 alter the accumulation of PARP1 on mitotic chromosomes, suggesting that SUMOylation regulates neither the intrinsic activity of PARP1 nor its localization. However, loss of SUMOylation increased PARP1-dependent PARylation on isolated chromosomes, indicating SUMOylation controls the capacity of PARP1 to modify other chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:20228053

  8. New PARP targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Sejal; Chang, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) modify target proteins post-translationally with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) or mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) using NAD+ as substrate. The best-studied PARPs generate PAR modifications and include PARP1 and the tankyrase PARP5a, both of which are targets for cancer therapy with inhibitors in either clinical trials or preclinical development. There are 15 additional PARPs, the majority of which modify proteins with MAR, and their biology is less well understood. Recent data identify potentially cancer relevant functions for these PARPs, indicating that we need to understand more about these PARPs in order to target them effectively. PMID:24898058

  9. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Holt, Andrew; Kandasamy, Arulmozhi D.; Pacher, Pal; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a ubiquitously expressed zinc-dependent endopeptidase, and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme regulating DNA repair, are activated by nitroxidative stress associated with various pathologies. As MMP-2 plays a detrimental role in heart injuries resulting from enhanced nitroxidative stress, where PARP and MMP inhibitors are beneficial, we hypothesized that PARP inhibitors may affect MMP-2 activity. Using substrate degradation assays to determine MMP-2 activity we found that four PARP inhibitors (3-AB, PJ-34, 5-AIQ, and EB-47) inhibited 64 kDa MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values of PJ-34 and 5-AIQ were in the high micromolar range and comparable to those of known MMP-2 inhibitors doxycycline, minocycline or o-phenanthroline, whereas those for 3-AB and EB-47 were in the millimolar range. Co-incubation of PARP inhibitors with doxycycline showed an additive inhibition of MMP-2 that was significant for 3-AB alone. These data demonstrate that the protective effects of some PARP inhibitors may include inhibition of MMP-2 activity. PMID:19619515

  10. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L'Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. Principal Findings The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. Conclusions/Significance S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with

  11. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L'Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2009-09-25

    Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with models for receptor activation in which ligand-binding or

  12. Release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-caspase-9 following lysosomal photodamage involves bid cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Reiners, JJ; Caruso, JA; Mathieu, P; Chelladurai, B; Yin, X-M; Kessel, D

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocols employing lysosomal sensitizers induce apoptosis via a mechanism that causes cytochrome c release prior to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The current study was designed to determine how lysosomal photodamage initiates mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the photosensitizer N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6) localized to the lysosomes. Irradiation of cultures preloaded with NPe6 induced the rapid destruction of lysosomes, and subsequent cleavage/activation of Bid, pro-caspases-9 and -3. Pro-caspase-8 was not activated. Release of cytochrome c occurred at about the time of Bid cleavage and preceded the loss of ΔΨm. Extracts of purified lysosomes catalyzed the in vitro cleavage of cytosolic Bid, but not pro-caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B, L and D activities did not suppress Bid cleavage or pro-caspases-9 and -3 activation. These studies demonstrate that photodamaged lysosomes trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by releasing proteases that activate Bid. PMID:12181744

  13. Insights into the binding of PARP inhibitors to the catalytic domain of human tankyrase-2

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Lam, Robert; Voytyuk, Oleksandr; Romanov, Vladimir; Gordon, Roni; Gebremeskel, Simon; Vodsedalek, Jakub; Thompson, Christine; Beletskaya, Irina; Battaile, Kevin P.; Pai, Emil F.; Rottapel, Robert; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.

    2014-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family represents a new class of therapeutic targets with diverse potential disease indications. PARP1 and PARP2 inhibitors have been developed for breast and ovarian tumors manifesting double-stranded DNA-repair defects, whereas tankyrase 1 and 2 (TNKS1 and TNKS2, also known as PARP5a and PARP5b, respectively) inhibitors have been developed for tumors with elevated β-catenin activity. As the clinical relevance of PARP inhibitors continues to be actively explored, there is heightened interest in the design of selective inhibitors based on the detailed structural features of how small-molecule inhibitors bind to each of the PARP family members. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of the human TNKS2 PARP domain in complex with 16 various PARP inhibitors are reported, including the compounds BSI-201, AZD-2281 and ABT-888, which are currently in Phase 2 or 3 clinical trials. These structures provide insight into the inhibitor-binding modes for the tankyrase PARP domain and valuable information to guide the rational design of future tankyrase-specific inhibitors. PMID:25286857

  14. Insights into the binding of PARP inhibitors to the catalytic domain of human tankyrase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wei; Lam, Robert; Voytyuk, Oleksandr; Romanov, Vladimir; Gordon, Roni; Gebremeskel, Simon; Vodsedalek, Jakub; Thompson, Christine; Beletskaya, Irina; Battaile, Kevin P.; Pai, Emil F.; Rottapel, Robert; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.

    2014-07-31

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family represents a new class of therapeutic targets with diverse potential disease indications. PARP1 and PARP2 inhibitors have been developed for breast and ovarian tumors manifesting double-stranded DNA-repair defects, whereas tankyrase 1 and 2 (TNKS1 and TNKS2, also known as PARP5a and PARP5b, respectively) inhibitors have been developed for tumors with elevated β-catenin activity. As the clinical relevance of PARP inhibitors continues to be actively explored, there is heightened interest in the design of selective inhibitors based on the detailed structural features of how small-molecule inhibitors bind to each of the PARP family members. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of the human TNKS2 PARP domain in complex with 16 various PARP inhibitors are reported, including the compounds BSI-201, AZD-2281 and ABT-888, which are currently in Phase 2 or 3 clinical trials. These structures provide insight into the inhibitor-binding modes for the tankyrase PARP domain and valuable information to guide the rational design of future tankyrase-specific inhibitors.

  15. Insights into the binding of PARP inhibitors to the catalytic domain of human tankyrase-2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qiu, Wei; Lam, Robert; Voytyuk, Oleksandr; Romanov, Vladimir; Gordon, Roni; Gebremeskel, Simon; Vodsedalek, Jakub; Thompson, Christine; Beletskaya, Irina; Battaile, Kevin P.; et al

    2014-07-31

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family represents a new class of therapeutic targets with diverse potential disease indications. PARP1 and PARP2 inhibitors have been developed for breast and ovarian tumors manifesting double-stranded DNA-repair defects, whereas tankyrase 1 and 2 (TNKS1 and TNKS2, also known as PARP5a and PARP5b, respectively) inhibitors have been developed for tumors with elevated β-catenin activity. As the clinical relevance of PARP inhibitors continues to be actively explored, there is heightened interest in the design of selective inhibitors based on the detailed structural features of how small-molecule inhibitors bind to each of the PARP family members. Here, themore » high-resolution crystal structures of the human TNKS2 PARP domain in complex with 16 various PARP inhibitors are reported, including the compounds BSI-201, AZD-2281 and ABT-888, which are currently in Phase 2 or 3 clinical trials. These structures provide insight into the inhibitor-binding modes for the tankyrase PARP domain and valuable information to guide the rational design of future tankyrase-specific inhibitors.« less

  16. Kinetic isotope effects for RNA cleavage by 2'-O- transphosphorylation: Nucleophilic activation by specific base

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michael E; Dai, Qing; Gu, Hong; Kellerman, Dan; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Anderson, Vernon E

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the interactions between catalysts and transition states during RNA strand cleavage, primary 18O kinetic isotope effects and solvent D2O isotope effects were measured to probe the mechanism of base-catalyzed 2'-O-transphosphorylation of the RNA dinucleotide 5'-UpG-3'. The observed 18O KIEs for the nucleophilic 2'-O and in the 5'-O leaving group at pH 14 are both large relative to reactions of phosphodiesters with good leaving groups, indicating that the reaction catalyzed by hydroxide has a transition state (TS) with advanced phosphorus-oxygen bond fission to the leaving group (18kLG = 1.034 ± 0.004) and phosphorous-nucleophile bond formation (18kNUC = 0.984 ± 0.004). A breakpoint in the pH dependence of the 2'-O-transphosphorylation rate to a pH independent phase above pH 13 has been attributed to the pKa of the 2'-OH nucleophile. A smaller nucleophile KIE is observed at pH 12 (18kNUC = 0.995 ± 0.004) that is interpreted as the combined effect of the equilibrium isotope effect (~1.02) on deprotonation of the 2′-hydroxyl nucleophile and the intrinsic KIE on the nucleophilic addition step (ca. 0.981). An alternative mechanism in which the hydroxide ion acts as a general base is considered unlikely given the lack of a solvent deuterium isotope effect above the breakpoint in the pH versus rate profile. These results represent the first direct analysis of the transition state for RNA strand cleavage. The primary 18O KIE results and the lack of a kinetic solvent deuterium isotope effect together provide strong evidence for a late transition state and 2'-O nucleophile activation by specific base catalysis. PMID:20669950

  17. Parp3 negatively regulates immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Robert, Isabelle; Gaudot, Léa; Rogier, Mélanie; Heyer, Vincent; Noll, Aurélia; Dantzer, Françoise; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo

    2015-05-01

    To generate highly specific and adapted immune responses, B cells diversify their antibody repertoire through mechanisms involving the generation of programmed DNA damage. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) are initiated by the recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to immunoglobulin loci and by the subsequent generation of DNA lesions, which are differentially processed to mutations during SHM or to double-stranded DNA break intermediates during CSR. The latter activate the DNA damage response and mobilize multiple DNA repair factors, including Parp1 and Parp2, to promote DNA repair and long-range recombination. We examined the contribution of Parp3 in CSR and SHM. We find that deficiency in Parp3 results in enhanced CSR, while SHM remains unaffected. Mechanistically, this is due to increased occupancy of AID at the donor (Sμ) switch region. We also find evidence of increased levels of DNA damage at switch region junctions and a bias towards alternative end joining in the absence of Parp3. We propose that Parp3 plays a CSR-specific role by controlling AID levels at switch regions during CSR. PMID:26000965

  18. Quantitative site-specific ADP-ribosylation profiling of DNA-dependent PARPs.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Defoy, Daniel; Bourassa, Sylvie; Langelier, Marie-France; Riccio, Amanda A; Pascal, John M; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Droit, Arnaud; Poirier, Guy G

    2015-06-01

    An important feature of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) is their ability to readily undergo automodification upon activation. Although a growing number of substrates were found to be poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated, including histones and several DNA damage response factors, PARPs themselves are still considered as the main acceptors of poly(ADP-ribose). By monitoring spectral counts of specific hydroxamic acid signatures generated after the conversion of the ADP-ribose modification onto peptides by hydroxylamine hydrolysis, we undertook a thorough mass spectrometry mapping of the glutamate and aspartate ADP-ribosylation sites onto automodified PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARP-3. Thousands of hydroxamic acid-conjugated peptides were identified with high confidence and ranked based on their spectral count. This semi-quantitative approach allowed us to locate the preferentially targeted residues in DNA-dependent PARPs. In contrast to what has been reported in the literature, automodification of PARP-1 is not predominantly targeted towards its BRCT domain. Our results show that interdomain linker regions that connect the BRCT to the WGR module and the WGR to the PRD domain undergo prominent ADP-ribosylation during PARP-1 automodification. We also found that PARP-1 efficiently automodifies the D-loop structure within its own catalytic fold. Interestingly, additional major ADP-ribosylation sites were identified in functional domains of PARP-1, including all three zinc fingers. Similar to PARP-1, specific residues located within the catalytic sites of PARP-2 and PARP-3 are major targets of automodification following their DNA-dependent activation. Together our results suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation hot spots make a dominant contribution to the overall automodification process. PMID:25800440

  19. PARP Inhibition Restores Extrinsic Apoptotic Sensitivity in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Karpel-Massler, Georg; Pareja, Fresia; Aimé, Pascaline; Shu, Chang; Chau, Lily; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Crary, John F.; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to apoptosis is a paramount issue in the treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM). We show that targeting PARP by the small molecule inhibitors, Olaparib (AZD-2281) or PJ34, reduces proliferation and lowers the apoptotic threshold of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods The sensitizing effects of PARP inhibition on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and potential toxicity were analyzed using viability assays and flow cytometry in established GBM cell lines, low-passage neurospheres and astrocytes in vitro. Molecular analyses included western blots and gene silencing. In vivo, effects on tumor growth were examined in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model. Results The combination treatment of PARP inhibitors and TRAIL led to an increased cell death with activation of caspases and inhibition of formation of neurospheres when compared to single-agent treatment. Mechanistically, pharmacological PARP inhibition elicited a nuclear stress response with up-regulation of down-stream DNA-stress response proteins, e.g., CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homology protein (CHOP). Furthermore, Olaparib and PJ34 increased protein levels of DR5 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In turn, siRNA-mediated suppression of DR5 mitigated the effects of TRAIL/PARP inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. In addition, suppression of PARP-1 levels enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in malignant glioma cells. Treatment of human astrocytes with the combination of TRAIL/PARP inhibitors did not cause toxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of TRAIL and PJ34 significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Conclusions PARP inhibition represents a promising avenue to overcome apoptotic resistance in GBM. PMID:25531448

  20. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative arylalkylation of activated alkenes: dual C-H bond cleavage of an arene and acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Mu, Xin; Liu, Guosheng

    2011-12-23

    Not one but two: The title reaction proceeds through the dual C-H bond cleavage of both aniline and acetonitrile. The reaction affords a variety of cyano-bearing indolinones in excellent yield. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that this reaction involves a fast arylation of the olefin and a rate-determining C-H activation of the acetonitrile. PMID:22076660

  1. PARP3 is a sensor of nicked nucleosomes and monoribosylates histone H2BGlu2

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Gabrielle J.; Polo, Luis M.; Zeng, Zhihong; Rulten, Stuart L.; Hoch, Nicolas C.; Paomephan, Pathompong; Xu, Yingqi; Sweet, Steve M.; Thorne, Alan W.; Oliver, Antony W.; Matthews, Steve J.; Pearl, Laurence H.; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    PARP3 is a member of the ADP-ribosyl transferase superfamily that we show accelerates the repair of chromosomal DNA single-strand breaks in avian DT40 cells. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal that PARP3 employs a conserved DNA-binding interface to detect and stably bind DNA breaks and to accumulate at sites of chromosome damage. PARP3 preferentially binds to and is activated by mononucleosomes containing nicked DNA and which target PARP3 trans-ribosylation activity to a single-histone substrate. Although nicks in naked DNA stimulate PARP3 autoribosylation, nicks in mononucleosomes promote the trans-ribosylation of histone H2B specifically at Glu2. These data identify PARP3 as a molecular sensor of nicked nucleosomes and demonstrate, for the first time, the ribosylation of chromatin at a site-specific DNA single-strand break. PMID:27530147

  2. Photocytotoxic oxovanadium(IV) complexes showing light-induced DNA and protein cleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Pijus K; Saha, Sounik; Majumdar, Ritankar; Dighe, Rajan R; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2010-02-01

    Oxovanadium(IV) complexes [VO(L)(B)]Cl(2) (1-3), where L is bis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine and B is 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq) or dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz), have been prepared, characterized, and their photo-induced DNA and protein cleavage activity studied. The photocytotoxicity of complex 3 has been studied using adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The phen complex 1, structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, shows the presence of a vanadyl group in six-coordinate VON(5) coordination geometry. The ligands L and phen display tridentate and bidentate N-donor chelating binding modes, respectively. The complexes exhibit a d-d band near 740 nm in 15% DMF-Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2). The phen and dpq complexes display an irreversible cathodic cyclic voltammetric response near -0.8 V in 20% DMF-Tris-HCl buffer having 0.1 M KCl as supporting electrolyte. The dppz complex 3 exhibits a quasi-reversible voltammogram near -0.6 V (vs SCE) that is assignable to the V(IV)-V(III) couple. The complexes bind to calf thymus DNA giving binding constant values in the range of 6.6 x 10(4)-2.9 x 10(5) M(-1). The binding site size, thermal melting and viscosity binding data suggest DNA surface and/or groove binding nature of the complexes. The complexes show poor "chemical nuclease" activity in dark in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid or hydrogen peroxide. The dpq and dppz complexes are efficient photocleavers of plasmid DNA in UV-A light of 365 nm via a mechanistic pathway that involves formation of both singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. The complexes show significant photocleavage of DNA in near-IR light (>750 nm) via hydroxyl radical pathway. Among the three complexes, the dppz complex 3 shows significant BSA and lysozyme protein cleavage activity in UV-A light of 365 nm via hydroxyl radical pathway. The dppz complex 3 also exhibits photocytotoxicity in non-small cell lung carcinoma/human lung

  3. Tunable DNA cleavage activity promoted by copper(ii) ternary complexes with N-donor heterocyclic ligands.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, T; Silva-Caldeira, P P; Pich, C T; Pereira-Maia, E C; Terenzi, H

    2016-06-01

    Several small molecules have the capacity to cleave DNA promptly at high yields, even under mild conditions. Usually, this activity has no constraints, occurring without external or user control. Here, we demonstrate that UV-light exposure can greatly enhance the DNA cleavage activity promoted by four ternary copper(ii) complexes. A remarkable photocontrolled activity was achieved, which may be interesting for chemical and biochemical applications. PMID:27168172

  4. Analysis of Carotenoid Isomerase Activity in a Prototypical Carotenoid Cleavage Enzyme, Apocarotenoid Oxygenase (ACO)*

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuewu; Kiser, Philip D.; Che, Tao; Carey, Paul R.; Golczak, Marcin; Shi, Wuxian; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage enzymes (CCEs) constitute a group of evolutionarily related proteins that metabolize a variety of carotenoid and non-carotenoid substrates. Typically, these enzymes utilize a non-heme iron center to oxidatively cleave a carbon-carbon double bond of a carotenoid substrate. Some members also isomerize specific double bonds in their substrates to yield cis-apocarotenoid products. The apocarotenoid oxygenase from Synechocystis has been hypothesized to represent one such member of this latter category of CCEs. Here, we developed a novel expression and purification protocol that enabled production of soluble, native ACO in quantities sufficient for high resolution structural and spectroscopic investigation of its catalytic mechanism. High performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ACO exclusively formed all-trans products. We also found that linear polyoxyethylene detergents previously used for ACO crystallization strongly inhibited the apocarotenoid oxygenase activity of the enzyme. We crystallized the native enzyme in the absence of apocarotenoid substrate and found electron density in the active site that was similar in appearance to the density previously attributed to a di-cis-apocarotenoid intermediate. Our results clearly demonstrated that ACO is in fact a non-isomerizing member of the CCE family. These results indicate that careful selection of detergent is critical for the success of structural studies aimed at elucidating structures of CCE-carotenoid/retinoid complexes. PMID:24648526

  5. Enhancing cellular uptake of activable cell-penetrating peptide-doxorubicin conjugate by enzymatic cleavage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Gao, Wei; Xiang, Bai; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The use of activable cell-penetrating peptides (ACPPs) as molecular imaging probes is a promising new approach for the visualization of enzymes. The cell-penetrating function of a polycationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is efficiently blocked by intramolecular electrostatic interactions with a polyanionic peptide. Proteolysis of a proteinase-sensitive substrate present between the CPP and polyanionic peptide affords dissociation of both domains and enables the activated CPP to enter cells. This ACPP strategy could also be used to modify antitumor agents for tumor-targeting therapy. Here, we aimed to develop a conjugate of ACPP with antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) sensitive to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) for tumor-targeting therapy purposes. The ACPP-DOX conjugate was successfully synthesized. Enzymatic cleavage of ACPP-DOX conjugate by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 indicated that the activation of ACPP-DOX occurred in an enzyme concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and laser confocal microscope studies revealed that the cellular uptake of ACPP-DOX was enhanced after enzymatic-triggered activation and was higher in HT-1080 cells (overexpressed MMPs) than in MCF-7 cells (under-expressed MMPs). The antiproliferative assay showed that ACPP had little toxicity and that ACPP-DOX effectively inhibited HT-1080 cell proliferation. These experiments revealed that the ACPP-DOX conjugate could be triggered by MMP-2/9, which enabled the activated CPP-DOX to enter cells. ACPP-DOX conjugate may be a potential prodrug delivery system used to carry antitumor drugs for MMP-related tumor therapy. PMID:22619516

  6. BCL2 suppresses PARP1 function and non-apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Chaitali; Day, Tovah; Kopp, Nadja; van Bodegom, Diederik; Davids, Matthew S.; Ryan, Jeremy; Bird, Liat; Kommajosyula, Naveen; Weigert, Oliver; Yoda, Akinori; Fung, Hua; Brown, Jennifer R.; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.; Letai, Anthony; Weinstock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    BCL2 suppresses apoptosis by binding the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic factors and thereby regulating outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Many tumor types, including B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, are dependent on BCL2 for survival, but become resistant to apoptosis after treatment. Here we identified a direct interaction between the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 and the enzyme poly(ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1), which suppresses PARP1 enzymatic activity and inhibits PARP1-dependent DNA repair in diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 displaced PARP1 from BCL2 in a dose-dependent manner, re-establishing PARP1 activity and DNA repair and promoting non-apoptotic cell death. This form of cell death was unaffected by resistance to single-agent ABT-737 that results from upregulation of anti-apoptotic BCL2 family members. Based on the ability of BCL2 to suppress PARP1 function, we hypothesized that ectopic BCL2 expression would kill PARP inhibitor-sensitive cells. Strikingly, BCL2 expression reduced the survival of PARP inhibitor-sensitive breast cancer and lung cancer cells by 90-100%, and these effects were reversed by ABT-737. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that a novel interaction between BCL2 and PARP1 blocks PARP1 enzymatic activity and suppresses PARP1-dependent repair. Targeted disruption of the BCL2-PARP1 interaction therefore may represent a potential therapeutic approach for BCL2-expressing tumors resistant to apoptosis. PMID:22689920

  7. Structurally diverse low molecular weight activators of the mammalian pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage reaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min Ting; Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The 3′ end formation of mammalian pre-mRNA contributes to gene expression regulation by setting the downstream boundary of the 3′ untranslated region, which in many genes carries regulatory sequences. A large number of protein cleavage factors participate in this pre-mRNA processing step, but chemical tools to manipulate this process are lacking. Guided by a hypothesis that a PPM1 family phosphatase negatively regulates the 3′ cleavage reaction, we have found a variety of new small molecule activators of the in vitro reconstituted pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage reaction. New activators include a cyclic peptide PPM1D inhibitor, a dipeptide with modifications common to histone tails, abscisic acid and an improved L-arginine β-naphthylamide analog. The minimal concentration required for in vitro cleavage has been improved from 200 μM to the 200 nM-100 μM range. These compounds provide unexpected leads in the search for small molecule tools able to affect pre-mRNA 3′ end formation. PMID:24373842

  8. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  9. Self-cleavage of Human CLCA1 Protein by a Novel Internal Metalloprotease Domain Controls Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Activation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T.; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Roswit, William T.; Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Heier, Richard F.; Romero, Arthur G.; Nichols, Colin G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. PMID:23112050

  10. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  11. Rapid Evolution of PARP Genes Suggests a Broad Role for ADP-Ribosylation in Host-Virus Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew D.; Young, Janet M.; Kerns, Julie A.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation are common molecular targets of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of other post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions is less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by proteins encoded by the PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly characterized. However, one PARP protein, PARP13/ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive (diversifying) selection in primates. Such evolution is typical of domains that are locked in antagonistic ‘arms races’ with viral factors. To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we performed evolutionary analyses on all primate PARP genes to search for signatures of rapid evolution. Contrary to expectations that most PARP genes are involved in ‘housekeeping’ functions, we found that nearly one-third of PARP genes are evolving under strong recurrent positive selection. We identified a >300 amino acid disordered region of PARP4, a component of cytoplasmic vault structures, to be rapidly evolving in several mammalian lineages, suggesting this region serves as an important host-pathogen specificity interface. We also found positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, the only three human genes that contain both PARP domains and macrodomains. Macrodomains uniquely recognize, and in some cases can reverse, protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed strong signatures of recurrent positive selection throughout the macro-PARP macrodomains. Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have undergone repeated rounds of gene birth and loss during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that implicated several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrated a role for virally encoded macrodomains in host immune evasion, our

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Cleavage by Caspase 8 and Mitochondrial Membrane Association Activate the BH3-only Protein Bid during TRAIL-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Zhang, Jingjing; O'Neill, Katelyn L; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Quadros, Rolen M; Tu, Yaping; Luo, Xu

    2016-05-27

    The BH3-only protein Bid is known as a critical mediator of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis following death receptor activation. However, since full-length Bid possesses potent apoptotic activity, the role of a caspase-mediated Bid cleavage is not established in vivo In addition, due to the fact that multiple caspases cleave Bid at the same site in vitro, the identity of the Bid-cleaving caspase during death receptor signaling remains uncertain. Moreover, as Bid maintains its overall structure following its cleavage by caspase 8, it remains unclear how Bid is activated upon cleavage. Here, Bid-deficient (Bid KO) colon cancer cells were generated by gene editing, and were reconstituted with wild-type or mutants of Bid. While the loss of Bid blocked apoptosis following treatment by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), this blockade was relieved by re-introduction of the wild-type Bid. In contrast, the caspase-resistant mutant Bid(D60E) and a BH3 defective mutant Bid(G94E) failed to restore TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By generating Bid/Bax/Bak-deficient (TKO) cells, we demonstrated that Bid is primarily cleaved by caspase 8, not by effector caspases, to give rise to truncated Bid (tBid) upon TRAIL treatment. Importantly, despite the presence of an intact BH3 domain, a tBid mutant lacking the mitochondrial targeting helices (α6 and α7) showed diminished apoptotic activity. Together, these results for the first time establish that cleavage by caspase 8 and the subsequent association with the outer mitochondrial membrane are two critical events that activate Bid during death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27053107

  16. Structural Implications for Selective Targeting of PARPs

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Jamin D.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Armen, Roger S.; Pascal, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes that use NAD+ as a substrate to synthesize polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) as post-translational modifications of proteins. PARPs have important cellular roles that include preserving genomic integrity, telomere maintenance, transcriptional regulation, and cell fate determination. The diverse biological roles of PARPs have made them attractive therapeutic targets, which have fueled the pursuit of small molecule PARP inhibitors. The design of PARP inhibitors has matured over the past several years resulting in several lead candidates in clinical trials. PARP inhibitors are mainly used in clinical trials to treat cancer, particularly as sensitizing agents in combination with traditional chemotherapy to reduce side effects. An exciting aspect of PARP inhibitors is that they are also used to selectivity kill tumors with deficiencies in DNA repair proteins (e.g., BRCA1/2) through an approach termed “synthetic lethality.” In the midst of the tremendous efforts that have brought PARP inhibitors to the forefront of modern chemotherapy, most clinically used PARP inhibitors bind to conserved regions that permits cross-selectivity with other PARPs containing homologous catalytic domains. Thus, the differences between therapeutic effects and adverse effects stemming from pan-PARP inhibition compared to selective inhibition are not well understood. In this review, we discuss current literature that has found ways to gain selectivity for one PARP over another. We furthermore provide insights into targeting other domains that make up PARPs, and how new classes of drugs that target these domains could provide a high degree of selectivity by affecting specific cellular functions. A clear understanding of the inhibition profiles of PARP inhibitors will not only enhance our understanding of the biology of individual PARPs, but may provide improved therapeutic options for patients. PMID:24392349

  17. PARP1 inhibitors attenuate AKT phosphorylation via the upregulation of PHLPP1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Huibo; Davis, Ben C.; Liang, Jiyong; Cui, Rutao; Chen, Sai-Juan; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} PARP1 inhibitors cause a cytotoxic effect independent of DNA repair impairment. {yields} PARP1 inhibitors attenuated AKT-FOXO3A signaling by activating PHLPP1. {yields} PHLPP1 regulates the sensitivity of cancer cells to PARP1 inhibitors. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors are emerging as an important class of drugs for treating BRCA-deficient cancers. Recent discoveries have shown that PARP1 inhibitors may treat other cancer patients in addition to the relatively small proportion of patients carrying BRCA mutations. However, the additional targets by which PARP1 inhibitor-mediated tumor suppression remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that two PARP1 inhibitors, PJ-34 and 3-AB, attenuate AKT phosphorylation at serine 473 (S473) independent of DNA repair impairment. These inhibitors decrease the AKT-associated phosphorylation of FOXO3A, enhance the nuclear retention of FOXO3A, and activate its transcriptional activity. We further demonstrate that treatment with PJ-34 or 3-AB dramatically increases the level of PHLPP1. Overexpression of PHLPP1 enhances the PARP1 inhibitor-induced downregulation of AKT phosphorylation and increases tumor cell death. In contrast, knockdown of PHLPP1 abrogates the PARP1 inhibitor-mediated AKT inhibition and desensitizes cells to its treatment. Therefore, our findings not only show the robust role of PARP1 inhibitors in AKT inhibition but also develop a novel strategy to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment via PARP1 inhibitor-induced PHLPP1 upregulation.

  18. Differential reaction kinetics, cleavage complex formation, and nonamer binding domain dependence dictate the structure-specific and sequence-specific nuclease activity of RAGs.

    PubMed

    Naik, Abani Kanta; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2012-01-20

    During V(D)J recombination, RAG (recombination-activating gene) complex cleaves DNA based on sequence specificity. Besides its physiological function, RAG has been shown to act as a structure-specific nuclease. Recently, we showed that the presence of cytosine within the single-stranded region of heteroduplex DNA is important when RAGs cleave on DNA structures. In the present study, we report that heteroduplex DNA containing a bubble region can be cleaved efficiently when present along with a recombination signal sequence (RSS) in cis or trans configuration. The sequence of the bubble region influences RAG cleavage at RSS when present in cis. We also find that the kinetics of RAG cleavage differs between RSS and bubble, wherein RSS cleavage reaches maximum efficiency faster than bubble cleavage. In addition, unlike RSS, RAG cleavage at bubbles does not lead to cleavage complex formation. Finally, we show that the "nonamer binding region," which regulates RAG cleavage on RSS, is not important during RAG activity in non-B DNA structures. Therefore, in the current study, we identify the possible mechanism by which RAG cleavage is regulated when it acts as a structure-specific nuclease. PMID:22119487

  19. Prediction of PARP Inhibition with Proteochemometric Modelling and Conformal Prediction.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Ciriano, Isidro; Bender, Andreas; Malliavin, Thérèse

    2015-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play a key role in DNA damage repair. PARP inhibitors act as chemo- and radio- sensitizers and thus potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents. Although PARP inhibitors are currently investigated as chemotherapeutic agents, their cross-reactivity with other members of the PARP family remains unclear. Here, we apply Proteochemometric Modelling (PCM) to model the activity of 181 compounds on 12 human PARPs. We demonstrate that PCM (R0 (2) test =0.65-0.69; RMSEtest =0.95-1.01 °C) displays higher performance on the test set (interpolation) than Family QSAR and Family QSAM (Tukey's HSD, α 0.05), and outperforms Inductive Transfer knowledge among targets (Tukey's HSD, α 0.05). We benchmark the predictive signal of 8 amino acid and 11 full-protein sequence descriptors, obtaining that all of them (except for SOCN) perform at the same level of statistical significance (Tukey's HSD, α 0.05). The extrapolation power of PCM to new compounds (RMSE=1.02±0.80 °C) and targets (RMSE=1.03±0.50 °C) is comparable to interpolation, although the extrapolation ability is not uniform across the chemical and the target space. For this reason, we also provide confidence intervals calculated with conformal prediction. In addition, we present the R package conformal, which permits the calculation of confidence intervals for regression and classification caret models. PMID:27490382

  20. Processing of the yellow fever virus nonstructural polyprotein: a catalytically active NS3 proteinase domain and NS2B are required for cleavages at dibasic sites.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, T J; Grakoui, A; Rice, C M

    1991-01-01

    The vaccinia virus-T7 transient expression system was used to further examine the role of the NS3 proteinase in processing of the yellow fever (YF) virus nonstructural polyprotein in BHK cells. YF virus-specific polyproteins and cleavage products were identified by immunoprecipitation with region-specific antisera, by size, and by comparison with authentic YF virus polypeptides. A YF virus polyprotein initiating with a signal sequence derived from the E protein fused to the N terminus of NS2A and extending through the N-terminal 356 amino acids of NS5 exhibited processing at the 2A-2B, 2B-3, 3-4A, 4A-4B, and 4B-5 cleavage sites. Similar results were obtained with polyproteins whose N termini began within NS2A (position 110) or with NS2B. When the NS3 proteinase domain was inactivated by replacing the proposed catalytic Ser-138 with Ala, processing at all sites was abolished. The results suggest that an active NS3 proteinase domain is necessary for cleavage at the diabasic nonstructural cleavage sites and that cleavage at the proposed 4A-4B signalase site requires prior cleavage at the 4B-5 site. Cleavages were not observed with a polyprotein whose N terminus began with NS3, but cleavage at the 4B-5 site could be restored by supplying the the NS2B protein in trans. Several experimental results suggested that trans cleavage at the 4B-5 site requires association of NS2B and the NS3 proteinase domain. Coexpression of different proteinases and catalytically inactive polyprotein substrates revealed that trans cleavage at the 2B-3 and 4B-5 sites was relatively efficient when compared with trans cleavage at the 2A-2B and 3-4A sites. Images PMID:1833562

  1. Detection of endopeptidase activity and analysis of cleavage specificity using a radiometric solid-phase enzymatic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Jean, F.; Basak, A.; Chretien, M.; Lazure, C. , Quebec )

    1991-05-01

    A radiometric procedure to detect the presence of proteolytic enzymes and analyze their substrate specificity is described. The enzymatic activity is first measured by the release into solution of a radiolabeled reporter group from an immobilized peptidyl substrate. Two peptidyl substrates encompassing multiple cleavage sites, a derivative of Leu-enkephalin and a peptide related to the bait region of human {alpha} 2-macroglobulin, are prepared and linked via a spacer molecule to an insoluble support. The labeled peptides released are then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The position of the released peptides upon chromatography allows direct identification of the sites of cleavage. The assay, using a radioactive iodinated tyrosine residue as reporter group, is extremely sensitive (less than 0.02 pg/ml of trypsin), reproducible, and easy to perform while yielding unambiguous identification of the sites of cleavage. This assay can be used to detect the presence of enzymatic activities and/or of enzyme inhibitors. Furthermore, it can be easily adapted to detect from a variety of sources all four classes of enzymes known by using appropriate peptidyl substrate sequences, buffer, pH, and incubation conditions.

  2. Two Spin-State Reactivity in the Activation and Cleavage of CO2 by [ReO2](.).

    PubMed

    Canale, Valentino; Robinson, Robert; Zavras, Athanasios; Khairallah, George N; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Yates, Brian F; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2016-05-19

    The rhenium dioxide anion [ReO2](-) reacts with carbon dioxide in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer to produce [ReO3](-) corresponding to activation and cleavage of a C-O bond. Isotope labeling experiments using [Re(18)O2](-) reveal that (18)O/(16)O scrambling does not occur prior to cleavage of the C-O bond. Density functional theory calculations were performed to examine the mechanism for this oxygen atom abstraction reaction. Because the spins of the ground states are different for the reactant and product ions ((3)[ReO2](-) versus (1)[ReO3](-)), both reaction surfaces were examined in detail and multiple [O2Re-CO2](-) intermediates and transition structures were located and minimum energy crossing points were calculated. The computational results show that the intermediate [O2Re(η(2)-C,O-CO2)](-) species most likely initiates C-O bond activation and cleavage. The stronger binding affinity of CO2 within this species and the greater instabilities of other [O2Re-CO2)](-) intermediates are significant enough that oxygen atom exchange is avoided. PMID:27193088

  3. Cytokine-mediated β-cell damage in PARP-1-deficient islets

    PubMed Central

    Meares, Gordon P.; Hughes, Katherine J.; Hansen, Polly A.; Corbett, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is an abundant nuclear protein that is activated by DNA damage; once active, it modifies nuclear proteins through attachment of poly(ADP)-ribose units derived from β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). In mice, the deletion of PARP-1 attenuates tissue injury in a number of animal models of human disease, including streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Also, inflammatory cell signaling and inflammatory gene expression are attenuated in macrophages isolated from endotoxin-treated PARP-1-deficient mice. In this study, the effects of PARP-1 deletion on cytokine-mediated β-cell damage and macrophage activation were evaluated. There are no defects in inflammatory mediator signaling or inflammatory gene expression in macrophages and islets isolated from PARP-1-deficient mice. While PARP-1 deficiency protects islets against cytokine-induced islet cell death as measured by biochemical assays of membrane polarization, the genetic absence of PARP-1 does not effect cytokine-induced inhibition of insulin secretion or cytokine-induced DNA damage in islets. While PARP-1 deficiency appears to provide protection from cell death, it fails to provide protection against the inhibitory actions of cytokines on insulin secretion or the damaging actions on islet DNA integrity. PMID:22535743

  4. Substitution of conserved residues within the active site alters the cleavage religation equilibrium of DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Colley, William C; van der Merwe, Marie; Vance, John R; Burgin, Alex B; Bjornsti, Mary-Ann

    2004-12-24

    Eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I (Top1p) catalyzes the relaxation of supercoiled DNA and constitutes the cellular target of camptothecin (CPT). Mutation of conserved residues in close proximity to the active site tyrosine (Tyr(727) of yeast Top1p) alters the DNA cleavage religation equilibrium, inducing drug-independent cell lethality. Previous studies indicates that yeast Top1T722Ap and Top1N726Hp cytotoxicity results from elevated levels of covalent enzyme-DNA intermediates. Here we show that Top1T722Ap acts as a CPT mimetic by exhibiting reduced rates of DNA religation, whereas increased Top1N726Hp.DNA complexes result from elevated DNA binding and cleavage. We also report that the combination of the T722A and N726H mutations in a single protein potentiates the cytotoxic action of the enzyme beyond that induced by co-expression of the single mutants. Moreover, the addition of CPT to cells expressing the double top1T722A/N726H mutant did not enhance cell lethality. Thus, independent alterations in DNA cleavage and religation contribute to the lethal phenotype. The formation of distinct cytotoxic lesions was also evidenced by the different responses induced by low levels of these self-poisoning enzymes in isogenic strains defective for the Rad9 DNA damage checkpoint, processive DNA replication, or ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Substitution of Asn(726) with Phe or Tyr also produces self-poisoning enzymes, implicating stacking interactions in the increased kinetics of DNA cleavage by Top1N726Hp and Top1N726Fp. In contrast, replacing the amide side chain of Asn(726) with Gln renders Top1N726Qp resistant to CPT, suggesting that the orientation of the amide within the active site is critical for effective CPT binding. PMID:15489506

  5. Tautomerization lowers the activation barriers for N-glycosidic bond cleavage of protonated uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T

    2016-09-21

    The gas-phase conformations of protonated uridine, [Urd+H](+), and its 2'-deoxy form, protonated 2'-deoxyuridine, [dUrd+H](+), have been examined in detail previously by infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy techniques. Both 2,4-dihydroxy tautomers and O4 protonated conformers of [Urd+H](+) and [dUrd+H](+) were found to coexist in the experiments with the 2,4-dihydroxy tautomers dominating the population. In the present study, the kinetic energy dependence of the collision-induced dissociation behavior of [Urd+H](+) and [dUrd+H](+) are examined using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer to probe the mechanisms and energetics for activated dissociation of these protonated nucleosides. The primary dissociation pathways observed involve N-glycosidic bond cleavage leading to competitive elimination of protonated or neutral uracil. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) for these N-glycosidic bond cleavage pathways are mapped out via electronic structure calculations for the mixture of 2,4-dihydroxy tautomers and O4 protonated conformers of [Urd+H](+) and [dUrd+H](+) populated in the experiments. The calculated activation energies (AEs) and heats of reaction (ΔHrxns) for N-glycosidic bond cleavage at both the B3LYP and MP2(full) levels of theory are compared to the measured values. The agreement between experiment and theory indicates that B3LYP provides better estimates of the energetics of the species along the PESs for N-glycosidic bond cleavage than MP2, and that the 2,4-dihydroxy tautomers, which are stabilized by strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, predominantly influence the observed threshold dissociation behavior of [Urd+H](+) and [dUrd+H](+). PMID:27536972

  6. Extracellular granzyme K mediates endothelial activation through the cleavage of protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mehul; Merkulova, Yulia; Raithatha, Sheetal; Parkinson, Leigh G; Shen, Yue; Cooper, Dawn; Granville, David J

    2016-05-01

    Granzymes are a family of serine proteases that were once thought to function exclusively as mediators of cytotoxic lymphocyte-induced target cell death. However, non-apoptotic roles for granzymes, including granzyme K (GzK), have been proposed. As recent studies have observed elevated levels of GzK in the plasma of patients diagnosed with clinical sepsis, we hypothesized that extracellular GzK induces a proinflammatory response in endothelial cells. In the present study, extracellular GzK proteolytically activated protease-activated receptor-1 leading to increased interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 production in endothelial cells. Enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 along with an increased capacity for adherence of THP-1 cells was also observed. Characterization of downstream pathways implicated the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, and both the p38 and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 pathways in cytokine production. GzK also increased tumour necrosis factor α-induced inflammatory adhesion molecule expression. Furthermore, the physiological inhibitor of GzK, inter-α-inhibitor protein, significantly inhibited GzK activity in vitro. In summary, extracellular GzK promotes a proinflammatory response in endothelial cells. PMID:26936634

  7. Cleavage at the 586aa caspase-6 site in mutant huntingtin influences caspase-6 activation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rona K.; Deng, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery; Vaid, Kuljeet; Cowan, Catherine; Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Metzler, Martina; Bissada, Nagat; Wang, Lili; Faull, Richard L. M.; Gray, Michelle; Yang, X. William; Raymond, Lynn A.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Caspase cleavage of huntingtin (htt) and nuclear htt accumulation represent early neuropathological changes in brains of patients with Huntington disease (HD). However the relationship between caspase cleavage of htt and caspase activation patterns in the pathogenesis of HD remains poorly understood. The lack of a phenotype in YAC mice expressing caspase-6-resistant (C6R) mutant htt (mhtt) highlights proteolysis of htt at the 586aa caspase-6 (casp6) site as a key mechanism in the pathology of HD. The goal of this study was to investigate how proteolysis of htt at residue 586 plays a role in the pathogenesis of HD and determine whether inhibiting casp6 cleavage of mhtt alters cell death pathways in vivo. Here we demonstrate that activation of casp6, and not caspase-3, is observed before onset of motor abnormalities in human and murine HD brain. Active casp6 levels correlate directly with CAG size and inversely with age of onset. In contrast, in vivo expression of C6R mhtt attenuates caspase activation. Increased casp6 activity and apoptotic cell death is evident in primary striatal neurons expressing caspase-cleavable, but not C6R, mhtt following NMDA application. Pretreatment with a casp6 inhibitor rescues the apoptotic cell death observed in this paradigm. These data demonstrate that activation of casp6 is an early marker of disease in HD. Furthermore, these data provide a clear link between excitotoxic pathways and proteolysis and suggest that C6R mhtt protects against neurodegeneration by influencing the activation of neuronal cell death and excitotoxic pathways operative in HD. PMID:21068307

  8. A PARP1-ERK2 synergism is required for the induction of LTP

    PubMed Central

    Visochek, L.; Grigoryan, G.; Kalal, A.; Milshtein-Parush, H.; Gazit, N.; Slutsky, I.; Yeheskel, A.; Shainberg, A.; Castiel, A.; Seger, R.; Langelier, M. F.; Dantzer, F.; Pascal, J. M.; Segal, M.; Cohen-Armon, M.

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, a post-translational modification of DNA-binding proteins, initiating the cell response to single-strand DNA damage, was also required for long-term memory acquisition in a variety of learning paradigms. Our findings disclose a molecular mechanism based on PARP1-Erk synergism, which may underlie this phenomenon. A stimulation induced PARP1 binding to phosphorylated Erk2 in the chromatin of cerebral neurons caused Erk-induced PARP1 activation, rendering transcription factors and promoters of immediate early genes (IEG) accessible to PARP1-bound phosphorylated Erk2. Thus, Erk-induced PARP1 activation mediated IEG expression implicated in long-term memory. PARP1 inhibition, silencing, or genetic deletion abrogated stimulation-induced Erk-recruitment to IEG promoters, gene expression and LTP generation in hippocampal CA3-CA1-connections. Moreover, a predominant binding of PARP1 to single-strand DNA breaks, occluding its Erk binding sites, suppressed IEG expression and prevented the generation of LTP. These findings outline a PARP1-dependent mechanism required for LTP generation, which may be implicated in long-term memory acquisition and in its deterioration in senescence. PMID:27121568

  9. A PARP1-ERK2 synergism is required for the induction of LTP.

    PubMed

    Visochek, L; Grigoryan, G; Kalal, A; Milshtein-Parush, H; Gazit, N; Slutsky, I; Yeheskel, A; Shainberg, A; Castiel, A; Seger, R; Langelier, M F; Dantzer, F; Pascal, J M; Segal, M; Cohen-Armon, M

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, a post-translational modification of DNA-binding proteins, initiating the cell response to single-strand DNA damage, was also required for long-term memory acquisition in a variety of learning paradigms. Our findings disclose a molecular mechanism based on PARP1-Erk synergism, which may underlie this phenomenon. A stimulation induced PARP1 binding to phosphorylated Erk2 in the chromatin of cerebral neurons caused Erk-induced PARP1 activation, rendering transcription factors and promoters of immediate early genes (IEG) accessible to PARP1-bound phosphorylated Erk2. Thus, Erk-induced PARP1 activation mediated IEG expression implicated in long-term memory. PARP1 inhibition, silencing, or genetic deletion abrogated stimulation-induced Erk-recruitment to IEG promoters, gene expression and LTP generation in hippocampal CA3-CA1-connections. Moreover, a predominant binding of PARP1 to single-strand DNA breaks, occluding its Erk binding sites, suppressed IEG expression and prevented the generation of LTP. These findings outline a PARP1-dependent mechanism required for LTP generation, which may be implicated in long-term memory acquisition and in its deterioration in senescence. PMID:27121568

  10. Investigating the allosteric reverse signalling of PARP inhibitors with microsecond molecular dynamic simulations and fluorescence anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Jean-Rémy; Carotti, Andrea; Passeri, Daniela; Filipponi, Paolo; Liscio, Paride; Camaioni, Emidio; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The inhibition of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members is a strategy pursued for the development of novel therapeutic agents in a range of diseases, including stroke, cardiac ischemia, cancer, inflammation and diabetes. Even though some PARP-1 inhibitors have advanced to clinical setting for cancer therapy, a great deal of attention is being devoted to understand the polypharmacology of current PARP inhibitors. Besides blocking the catalytic activity, recent works have shown that some PARP inhibitors exhibit a poisoning activity, by trapping the enzyme at damaged sites of DNA and forming cytotoxic complexes. In this study we have used microsecond molecular dynamics to study the allosteric reverse signalling that is at the basis of such an effect. We show that Olaparib, but not Veliparib and HYDAMTIQ, is able to induce a specific conformational drift of the WGR domain of PARP-1, which stabilizes PARP-1/DNA complex through the locking of several salt bridge interactions. Fluorescence anisotropy assays support such a mechanism, providing the first experimental evidence that HYDAMTIQ, a potent PARP inhibitor with neuroprotective properties, is less potent than Olaparib to trap PARP-1/DNA complex. PMID:25062913

  11. PARP inhibition and postinfarction myocardial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Halmosi, Robert; Deres, Laszlo; Gal, Roland; Eros, Krisztian; Sumegi, Balazs; Toth, Kalman

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease accounts for the greatest proportion of cardiovascular diseases therefore it is the major cause of death worldwide. Its therapeutic importance is indicated by still high mortality of myocardial infarction, which is one of the most severe forms of CVDs. Moreover, the risk of developing heart failure is very high among survivors. Heart failure is accompanied by high morbidity and mortality rate, therefore this topic is in the focus of researchers' interest. After a myocardial infarct, at first ventricular hypertrophy develops as a compensatory mechanism to decrease wall stress but finally leads to left ventricular dilation. This phenomenon is termed as myocardial remodeling. The main characteristics of underlying mechanisms involve cardiomyocyte growth, vessel changes and increased collagen production, in all of which several mechanical stress induced neurohumoral agents, oxidative stress and signal transduction pathways are involved. The long term activation of these processes ultimately leads to left ventricular dilation and heart failure with decreased systolic function. Oxidative stress causes DNA breaks producing the activation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) enzyme that leads to energy depletion and unfavorable modulation of different kinase cascades (Akt-1/GSK-3β, MAPKs, various PKC isoforms) and thus it promotes the development of heart failure. Therefore inhibition of PARP enzyme could offer a promising new therapeutical approach to prevent the onset of heart failure among postinfarction patients. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive summary about the most significant experimental results and mechanisms in postinfarction remodeling. PMID:27392900

  12. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  13. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  14. PARP-1 Hyperactivation and Reciprocal Elevations in Intracellular Ca2+ During ROS-Induced Nonapoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Xie, Ruiye; Munoz, Frances M.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and many other pathological conditions. DNA strand breaks caused by ROS lead to the activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), the excessive activation of which can result in cell death. We have utilized a model in which 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of hydroquinone, causes ROS-dependent cell death in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2), to further elucidate the role of PARP-1 in ROS-dependent cell death. TGHQ-induced ROS generation, DNA strand breaks, hyperactivation of PARP-1, rapid depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), elevations in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and subsequent nonapoptotic cell death in both a PARP- and Ca2+-dependent manner. Thus, inhibition of PARP-1 with PJ34 completely blocked TGHQ-mediated accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers and NAD consumption, and delayed HK-2 cell death. In contrast, chelation of intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA completely abrogated TGHQ-induced cell death. Ca2+ chelation also attenuated PARP-1 hyperactivation. Conversely, inhibition of PARP-1 modulated TGHQ-mediated changes in Ca2+ homeostasis. Interestingly, PARP-1 hyperactivation was not accompanied by the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the nucleus, a process usually associated with PARP-dependent cell death. Thus, pathways coupling PARP-1 hyperactivation to cell death are likely to be context-dependent, and therapeutic strategies designed to target PARP-1 need to recognize such variability. Our studies provide new insights into PARP-1-mediated nonapoptotic cell death, during which PARP-1 hyperactivation and elevations in intracellular Ca2+ are reciprocally coupled to amplify ROS-induced nonapoptotic cell death. PMID:24752504

  15. Structural Basis of Detection and Signaling of DNA Single-Strand Breaks by Human PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Eustermann, Sebastian; Wu, Wing-Fung; Langelier, Marie-France; Yang, Ji-Chun; Easton, Laura E.; Riccio, Amanda A.; Pascal, John M.; Neuhaus, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is a key eukaryotic stress sensor that responds in seconds to DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), the most frequent genomic damage. A burst of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis initiates DNA damage response, whereas PARP-1 inhibition kills BRCA-deficient tumor cells selectively, providing the first anti-cancer therapy based on synthetic lethality. However, the mechanism underlying PARP-1’s function remained obscure; inherent dynamics of SSBs and PARP-1’s multi-domain architecture hindered structural studies. Here we reveal the structural basis of SSB detection and how multi-domain folding underlies the allosteric switch that determines PARP-1’s signaling response. Two flexibly linked N-terminal zinc fingers recognize the extreme deformability of SSBs and drive co-operative, stepwise self-assembly of remaining PARP-1 domains to control the activity of the C-terminal catalytic domain. Automodifcation in cis explains the subsequent release of monomeric PARP-1 from DNA, allowing repair and replication to proceed. Our results provide a molecular framework for understanding PARP inhibitor action and, more generally, allosteric control of dynamic, multi-domain proteins. PMID:26626479

  16. Caspase Activation and Specific Cleavage of Substrates after Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Cytopathic Effect in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carthy, Christopher M.; Granville, David J.; Watson, Kathleen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Wilson, Janet E.; Yang, Decheng; Hunt, David W. C.; McManus, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, induces cytopathic changes in cell culture systems and directly injures multiple susceptible organs and tissues in vivo, including the myocardium, early after infection. Biochemical analysis of the cell death pathway in CVB3-infected HeLa cells demonstrated that the 32-kDa proform of caspase 3 is cleaved subsequent to the degenerative morphological changes seen in infected HeLa cells. Caspase activation assays confirm that the cleaved caspase 3 is proteolytically active. The caspase 3 substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a DNA repair enzyme, and DNA fragmentation factor, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of an endonuclease responsible for DNA fragmentation, were degraded at 9 h following infection, yielding their characteristic cleavage fragments. Inhibition of caspase activation by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (ZVAD.fmk) did not inhibit the virus-induced cytopathic effect, while inhibition of caspase activation by ZVAD.fmk in control apoptotic cells induced by treatment with the porphyrin photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A and visible light inhibited the apoptotic phenotype. Caspase activation and cleavage of substrates may not be responsible for the characteristic cytopathic effect produced by picornavirus infection yet may be related to late-stage alterations of cellular homeostatic processes and structural integrity. PMID:9696873

  17. PARP3 is a sensor of nicked nucleosomes and monoribosylates histone H2B(Glu2).

    PubMed

    Grundy, Gabrielle J; Polo, Luis M; Zeng, Zhihong; Rulten, Stuart L; Hoch, Nicolas C; Paomephan, Pathompong; Xu, Yingqi; Sweet, Steve M; Thorne, Alan W; Oliver, Antony W; Matthews, Steve J; Pearl, Laurence H; Caldecott, Keith W

    2016-01-01

    PARP3 is a member of the ADP-ribosyl transferase superfamily that we show accelerates the repair of chromosomal DNA single-strand breaks in avian DT40 cells. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal that PARP3 employs a conserved DNA-binding interface to detect and stably bind DNA breaks and to accumulate at sites of chromosome damage. PARP3 preferentially binds to and is activated by mononucleosomes containing nicked DNA and which target PARP3 trans-ribosylation activity to a single-histone substrate. Although nicks in naked DNA stimulate PARP3 autoribosylation, nicks in mononucleosomes promote the trans-ribosylation of histone H2B specifically at Glu2. These data identify PARP3 as a molecular sensor of nicked nucleosomes and demonstrate, for the first time, the ribosylation of chromatin at a site-specific DNA single-strand break. PMID:27530147

  18. PARP-1 inhibition influences the oxidative stress response of the human lens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew J.O.; Ball, Simon S.R.; Bowater, Richard P.; Wormstone, I. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is best characterised for its involvement in DNA repair. PARP-1 activity is also linked to cell fate, confounding its roles in maintaining genome integrity. The current study assessed the functional roles of PARP-1 within human lens cells in response to oxidative stress. The human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens cultures were used as experimental systems. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to induce oxidative stress and cell death was assessed by LDH release. The functional influence of PARP-1 was assessed using targeted siRNA and chemical inhibition (by AG14361). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess PARP-1 expression and the alkaline comet assay determined the levels of DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 was generally observed in the cell nucleus in both the FHL124 cell line and whole human lenses. PARP-1 inhibition rendered FHL124 cells more susceptible to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Interestingly, reduction of PARP-1 activity significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death relative to control cells. Inhibition of PARP-1 in whole human lenses resulted in a reduced level of lens opacity and cell death following exposure to H2O2 relative to matched pair controls. Thus, we show that PARP-1 could play a role in the fate of human lens cells, and these first observations in human lenses suggest that it could impact on lens opacity. Further studies are required to elucidate the regulatory processes that give rise to these effects. PMID:26990173

  19. PARP-1 inhibition influences the oxidative stress response of the human lens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J O; Ball, Simon S R; Bowater, Richard P; Wormstone, I Michael

    2016-08-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is best characterised for its involvement in DNA repair. PARP-1 activity is also linked to cell fate, confounding its roles in maintaining genome integrity. The current study assessed the functional roles of PARP-1 within human lens cells in response to oxidative stress. The human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens cultures were used as experimental systems. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to induce oxidative stress and cell death was assessed by LDH release. The functional influence of PARP-1 was assessed using targeted siRNA and chemical inhibition (by AG14361). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess PARP-1 expression and the alkaline comet assay determined the levels of DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 was generally observed in the cell nucleus in both the FHL124 cell line and whole human lenses. PARP-1 inhibition rendered FHL124 cells more susceptible to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Interestingly, reduction of PARP-1 activity significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death relative to control cells. Inhibition of PARP-1 in whole human lenses resulted in a reduced level of lens opacity and cell death following exposure to H2O2 relative to matched pair controls. Thus, we show that PARP-1 could play a role in the fate of human lens cells, and these first observations in human lenses suggest that it could impact on lens opacity. Further studies are required to elucidate the regulatory processes that give rise to these effects. PMID:26990173

  20. PARP1 Gene Knock-Out Increases Resistance to Retinal Degeneration without Affecting Retinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Sahaboglu, Ayse; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Kaur, Jasvir; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Huber, Gesine; Fahl, Edda; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Zrenner, Eberhart; Ekström, Per; Löwenheim, Hubert; Seeliger, Mathias; Paquet-Durand, François

    2010-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness in humans. Previously, excessive activation of enzymes belonging to the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) group was shown to be involved in photoreceptor degeneration in the human homologous rd1 mouse model for RP. Since there are at least 16 different PARP isoforms, we investigated the exact relevance of the predominant isoform - PARP1 - for photoreceptor cell death using PARP1 knock-out (KO) mice. In vivo and ex vivo morphological analysis using optic coherence tomography (OCT) and conventional histology revealed no major alterations of retinal phenotype when compared to wild-type (wt). Likewise, retinal function as assessed by electroretinography (ERG) was normal in PARP1 KO animals. We then used retinal explant cultures derived from wt, rd1, and PARP1 KO animals to test their susceptibility to chemically induced photoreceptor degeneration. Since photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 retina is triggered by a loss-of-function in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6), we used selective PDE6 inhibition to emulate the rd1 situation on non-rd1 genotypes. While wt retina subjected to PDE6 inhibition showed massive photoreceptor degeneration comparable to rd1 retina, in the PARP1 KO situation, cell death was robustly reduced. Together, these findings demonstrate that PARP1 activity is in principle dispensable for normal retinal function, but is of major importance for photoreceptor degeneration under pathological conditions. Moreover, our results suggest that PARP dependent cell death or PARthanatos may play a major role in retinal degeneration and highlight the possibility to use specific PARP inhibitors for the treatment of RP. PMID:21124852

  1. Transcriptional Reprogramming and Resistance to Colonic Mucosal Injury in Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1)-deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Larmonier, Claire B; Shehab, Kareem W; Laubitz, Daniel; Jamwal, Deepa R; Ghishan, Fayez K; Kiela, Pawel R

    2016-04-22

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize and bind branched polymers of ADP-ribose to acceptor proteins using NAD as a substrate and participate in the control of gene transcription and DNA repair. PARP1, the most abundant isoform, regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediator cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, and inhibition of PARP1 enzymatic activity reduced or ameliorated autoimmune diseases in several experimental models, including colitis. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the protective effects of PARP1 inhibition in colitis and the cell types in which Parp1 deletion has the most significant impact are unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of Parp1 deletion on the innate immune response to mucosal injury and on the gut microbiome composition. Parp1 deficiency was evaluated in DSS-induced colitis in WT, Parp1(-/-), Rag2(-/-), and Rag2(-/-)×Parp1(-/-) double knock-out mice. Genome-wide analysis of the colonic transcriptome and fecal 16S amplicon profiling was performed. Compared with WT, we demonstrated that Parp1(-/-) were protected from dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis and that this protection was associated with a dramatic transcriptional reprogramming in the colon. PARP1 deficiency was also associated with a modulation of the colonic microbiota (increases relative abundance of Clostridia clusters IV and XIVa) and a concomitant increase in the frequency of mucosal CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The protective effects conferred by Parp1 deletion were lost in Rag2(-/-) × Parp1(-/-) mice, highlighting the role of the adaptive immune system for full protection. PMID:26912654

  2. Metal-based netropsin mimics showing AT-selective DNA binding and DNA cleavage activity at red light.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ashis K; Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2007-10-29

    Copper(II) bis-arginate [Cu(l-arg)2](NO3)2 (1) and [Cu(l-arg)(phen)Cl]Cl (2) as mimics of the minor-groove-binding natural antibiotic netropsin show preferential binding to the AT-rich region of double-stranded DNA. The complexes with a d-d band near 600 nm display oxidative DNA cleavage activity on photoirradiation at UV-A light of 365 nm and at red light of 647.1 nm (Ar-Kr laser) in a metal-assisted photoexcitation process forming singlet oxygen (1O2) species in a type-2 pathway. PMID:17880211

  3. DNA Cleavage and Condensation Activities of Mono- and Binuclear Hybrid Complexes and Regulation by Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Dai, Mingxing; Zhang, Chunping; Jiang, Bingying; Xu, Junqiang; Zhou, Dewen; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid complexes with N,N'-bis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine and cyclen moieties are novel enzyme mimics and controlled DNA release materials, which could interact with DNA through three models under different conditions. In this paper, the interactions between plasmid DNA and seven different complexes were investigated, and the methods to change the interaction patterns by graphene oxide (GO) or concentrations were also investigated. The cleavage of pUC19 DNA promoted by target complexes were via hydrolytic or oxidative mechanisms at low concentrations ranging from 3.13 × 10(-7) to 6.25 × 10(-5) mol/L. Dinuclear complexes 2a and 2b can promote the cleavage of plasmid pUC19 DNA to a linear form at pH values below 7.0. Furthermore, binuclear hybrid complexes could condense DNA as nanoparticles above 3.13 × 10(-5) mol/L and partly release DNA by graphene oxide with π-π stacking. Meanwhile, the results also reflected that graphene oxide could prevent DNA from breaking down. Cell viability assays showed dinuclear complexes were safe to normal human hepatic cells at relative high concentrations. The present work might help to develop novel strategies for the design and synthesis of DNA controllable releasing agents, which may be applied to gene delivery and also to exploit the new application for GO. PMID:27428945

  4. Expression of a naturally occurring angiotensin AT(1) receptor cleavage fragment elicits caspase-activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, Julia L; Singh, Akannsha; DeHaro, Dawn; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2011-11-01

    Several transmembrane receptors are documented to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. Our prior studies indicate that a population of the 7-transmembrane angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT(1)R) is cleaved in a ligand-augmented manner after which the cytoplasmic, carboxy-terminal cleavage fragment (CF) traffics to the nucleus. In the present report, we determine the precise cleavage site within the AT(1)R by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Cleavage occurs between Leu(305) and Gly(306) at the junction of the seventh transmembrane domain and the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal domain. To evaluate the function of the CF distinct from the holoreceptor, we generated a construct encoding the CF as an in-frame yellow fluorescent protein fusion. The CF accumulates in nuclei and induces apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. All cell types show nuclear fragmentation and disintegration, as well as evidence for phosphotidylserine displacement in the plasma membrane and activated caspases. RASMCs specifically showed a 5.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in CF-induced active caspases compared with control and a 7.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in cleaved caspase-3 (Asp174). Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was upregulated 4.8-fold (P < 0.001) in CF expressing cardiomyoblasts and colocalized with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). CF expression also induces DNA laddering, the gold-standard for apoptosis in all cell types studied. CF-induced apoptosis, therefore, appears to be a general phenomenon as it is observed in multiple cell types including smooth muscle cells and cardiomyoblasts. PMID:21813711

  5. Construction of HBV-specific ribozyme and its recombinant with HDV and their cleavage activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shu-Juan; Xiang, Kai-Jun; Huang, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Rong; Qi, Xue-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To construct the recombinant of HDV cDNA and HBV-specific ribozyme gene by recombinant PCR in order to use HDV as a transporting vector carrying HBV-specific ribozyme into liver cells for inhibiting the replication of HBV. METHODS: We separately cloned the ribozyme (RZ) gene and recombinant DVRZ (comprising HDV cDNA and HBV-specific ribozyme gene) into the downstream of T7 promoter of pTAdv-T vector and studied the in vitro cleavage activity of their transcripts (rRZ, rDVRZ) on target RNA (rBVCF) from in vitro transcription of HBV C gene fragment(BVCF). RESULTS: Both the simple (rRZ) and the recombinant ribozyme rDVRZ could efficiently catalyze the cleavage of target RNA (rBVCF) under different temperatures (37 °C, 42 °C and 55 °C) and Mg2+ concentrations (10 mmol/L, 15 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L) and their catalytic activity tended to increase as the temperature was rising. But the activity of rRZ was evidently higher than that of rDVRZ. CONCLUSION: The recombinant of HDV cDNA and ribozyme gene had the potential of being further explored and used in gene therapy of HBV infection. PMID:11819602

  6. Investigation of PARP-1, PARP-2, and PARG interactomes by affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr), a post-translational modification involved in several important biological processes, namely surveillance of genome integrity, cell cycle progression, initiation of the DNA damage response, apoptosis, and regulation of transcription. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), on the other hand, catabolizes pADPr and thereby accounts for the transient nature of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Our investigation of the interactomes of PARP-1, PARP-2, and PARG by affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) aimed, on the one hand, to confirm current knowledge on these interactomes and, on the other hand, to discover new protein partners which could offer insights into PARPs and PARG functions. Results PARP-1, PARP-2, and PARG were immunoprecipitated from human cells, and pulled-down proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis prior to in-gel trypsin digestion. Peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Our AP-MS experiments resulted in the identifications of 179 interactions, 139 of which are novel interactions. Gene Ontology analysis of the identified protein interactors points to five biological processes in which PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARG may be involved: RNA metabolism for PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARG; DNA repair and apoptosis for PARP-1 and PARP-2; and glycolysis and cell cycle for PARP-1. Conclusions This study reveals several novel protein partners for PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARG. It provides a global view of the interactomes of these proteins as well as a roadmap to establish the systems biology of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:20388209

  7. A New Signaling Pathway for HCV Inhibition by Estrogen: GPR30 Activation Leads to Cleavage of Occludin by MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Ulitzky, Laura; Lafer, Manuel M; KuKuruga, Mark A; Silberstein, Erica; Cehan, Nicoleta; Taylor, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Poor outcome in response to hepatitis C virus, including higher viral load, hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis, is more associated with men and postmenopausal women than with premenopausal women and women receiving hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that β-estradiol plays an innate role in preventing viral infection and liver disease. Consequently, most research in the field has concluded that estrogen affects HCV replication through viral interactions with estrogen receptor-α. Previously, estrogen-like antagonists, including Tamoxifen, were shown to reduce HCV RNA production and prevent viral entry, although the authors did not identify host factors involved. Estrogen can act alternatively through the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor, GPR30. Here, human hepatoma Huh7.5 cells were infected with HCV J6/JFH-1 and treated with estrogen or Tamoxifen, resulting in a marked decrease in detectable virus. The effect was mimicked by G1, a GPR30-specific agonist, and was reversed by the GPR30-specific antagonist, G15. While previous studies have demonstrated that estrogen down-regulated occludin in cervical cancer cells, its action on liver cells was unknown. Occludin is a tight junction protein and HCV receptor and here we report that activation and cellular export of MMP-9 led to the cleavage of occludin upon estrogen treatment of liver cells. This is the first report of the cleavage of an HCV receptor in response to estrogen. We also identify the occludin cleavage site in extracellular Domain D; the motif required for HCV entry and spread. This pathway gives new insight into a novel innate antiviral pathway and the suboptimal environment that estrogen provides for the proliferation of the virus. It may also explain the disparate host-virus responses to HCV demonstrated by the two sexes. Moreover, these data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may have beneficial antiviral enhancement properties for HCV-infected postmenopausal women and

  8. A New Signaling Pathway for HCV Inhibition by Estrogen: GPR30 Activation Leads to Cleavage of Occludin by MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Ulitzky, Laura; Lafer, Manuel M.; KuKuruga, Mark A.; Silberstein, Erica; Cehan, Nicoleta; Taylor, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    Poor outcome in response to hepatitis C virus, including higher viral load, hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis, is more associated with men and postmenopausal women than with premenopausal women and women receiving hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that β-estradiol plays an innate role in preventing viral infection and liver disease. Consequently, most research in the field has concluded that estrogen affects HCV replication through viral interactions with estrogen receptor-α. Previously, estrogen-like antagonists, including Tamoxifen, were shown to reduce HCV RNA production and prevent viral entry, although the authors did not identify host factors involved. Estrogen can act alternatively through the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor, GPR30. Here, human hepatoma Huh7.5 cells were infected with HCV J6/JFH-1 and treated with estrogen or Tamoxifen, resulting in a marked decrease in detectable virus. The effect was mimicked by G1, a GPR30-specific agonist, and was reversed by the GPR30-specific antagonist, G15. While previous studies have demonstrated that estrogen down-regulated occludin in cervical cancer cells, its action on liver cells was unknown. Occludin is a tight junction protein and HCV receptor and here we report that activation and cellular export of MMP-9 led to the cleavage of occludin upon estrogen treatment of liver cells. This is the first report of the cleavage of an HCV receptor in response to estrogen. We also identify the occludin cleavage site in extracellular Domain D; the motif required for HCV entry and spread. This pathway gives new insight into a novel innate antiviral pathway and the suboptimal environment that estrogen provides for the proliferation of the virus. It may also explain the disparate host-virus responses to HCV demonstrated by the two sexes. Moreover, these data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may have beneficial antiviral enhancement properties for HCV-infected postmenopausal women and

  9. Determination of the protease cleavage site repertoire—The RNase H but not the RT domain is essential for foamy viral protease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Spannaus, Ralf; Bodem, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, the foamy virus protease is only active as a protease-reverse transcriptase fusion protein and requires viral RNA for activation. Maturation of foamy viral proteins seems to be restricted to a single cleavage site in Gag and Pol. We provide evidence that unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity, which is unique among retroviruses. Analyses of the cleavage site sequences of the Gag and Pol cleavage sites revealed a high similarity compared to those of Lentiviruses. We show that positions P2' and P2 are invariant and that Gag and Pol cleavage sites are processed with similar efficiencies. The RNase H domain is essential for protease activity, but can functionally be substituted by RNase H domains of other retroviruses. Thus, the RNase H domain might be involved in the stabilization of the protease dimer, while the RT domain is essential for RNA dependent protease activation. - Highlights: • Unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity of foamy viruses. • Positions P2 and P2' are invariant in the foamy viral cleavage sites. • The RNaseH domain is essential for protease activity. • The RNaseH domains of other retroviruses support foamy viral protease activity.

  10. Coordination of DNA repair by NEIL1 and PARP-1: a possible link to aging

    PubMed Central

    Noren Hooten, Nicole; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Kompaniez, Kari; Jacob, Kimberly D.; Moore, Brittany R.; Nagle, Julia; Barnes, Janice; Lohani, Althaf; Evans, Michele K.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage accumulates with age and is repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This process is initiated by DNA glycosylases, which remove damaged bases in a substrate-specific manner. The DNA glycosylases human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and NEIL1, a mammalian homolog of Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII, have overlapping yet distinct substrate specificity. Recently, we reported that OGG1 binds to the Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a DNA damage sensor protein that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates nuclear proteins in response to DNA damage and other cellular signals. Here, we show that NEIL1 and PARP-1 bind both in vitro and in vivo. PARP-1 binds to the C-terminal-100 amino acids of NEIL1 and NEIL1 binds to the BRCT domain of PARP-1. NEIL1 stimulates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1. Furthermore, NEIL-deficient fibroblasts have impaired poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of cellular proteins after DNA damage, which can be rescued by NEIL1 expression. Additionally, PARP-1 inhibits NEIL1 incision activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with the idea of impaired DNA repair during aging, we observed differential binding of PARP-1 to recombinant NEIL1 in older mice compared to younger mice. These data further support the idea that dynamic interplay between different base excision repair proteins is important for efficient BER. PMID:23104860

  11. Enhancing Cell Nucleus Accumulation and DNA Cleavage Activity of Anti-Cancer Drug via Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chong; Wu, Congyu; Zhou, Xuejiao; Han, Ting; Xin, Xiaozhen; Wu, Jiaying; Zhang, Jingyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2013-10-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) maintain the intrinsic layered structural motif of graphene but with smaller lateral size and abundant periphery carboxylic groups, and are more compatible with biological system, thus are promising nanomaterials for therapeutic applications. Here we show that GQDs have a superb ability in drug delivery and anti-cancer activity boost without any pre-modification due to their unique structural properties. They could efficiently deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to the nucleus through DOX/GQD conjugates, because the conjugates assume different cellular and nuclear internalization pathways comparing to free DOX. Also, the conjugates could enhance DNA cleavage activity of DOX markedly. This enhancement combining with efficient nuclear delivery improved cytotoxicity of DOX dramatically. Furthermore, the DOX/GQD conjugates could also increase the nuclear uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX to drug-resistant cancer cells indicating that the conjugates may be capable to increase chemotherapy efficacy of anti-cancer drugs that are suboptimal due to the drug resistance.

  12. The RNA cleavage activity of RNA polymerase III is mediated by an essential TFIIS-like subunit and is important for transcription termination

    PubMed Central

    Chédin, Stéphane; Riva, Michel; Schultz, Patrick; Sentenac, André; Carles, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    Budding yeast RNA polymerase III (Pol III) contains a small, essential subunit, named C11, that is conserved in humans and shows a strong homology to TFIIS. A mutant Pol III, heterocomplemented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe C11, was affected in transcription termination in vivo. A purified form of the enzyme (Pol III Δ), deprived of C11 subunit, initiated properly but ignored pause sites and was defective in termination. Remarkably, Pol III Δ lacked the intrinsic RNA cleavage activity of complete Pol III. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that Pol III RNA cleavage activity is mediated by C11. Mutagenesis in C11 of two conserved residues, which are critical for the TFIIS-dependent cleavage activity of Pol II, is lethal. Immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that C11 is localized on the mobile thumb-like stalk of the polymerase. We propose that C11 allows the enzyme to switch between an RNA elongation and RNA cleavage mode and that the essential role of the Pol III RNA cleavage activity is to remove the kinetic barriers to the termination process. The integration of TFIIS function into a specific Pol III subunit may stem from the opposite requirements of Pol III and Pol II in terms of transcript length and termination efficiency. PMID:9869639

  13. Regulation of FOXO1-mediated transcription and cell proliferation by PARP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamaki, Jun-ichi; Daitoku, Hiroaki; Yoshimochi, Kenji; Miwa, Masanao; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2009-05-08

    Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors play an important role in a wide range of biological processes, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, and gluconeogenesis through regulation of gene expression. In this study, we demonstrated that PARP-1 functions as a negative regulator of FOXO1. We showed that PARP-1 directly binds to and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates FOXO1 protein. PARP-1 represses FOXO1-mediated expression of cell cycle inhibitor p27{sup Kip1} gene. Notably, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity was not required for the repressive effect of PARP-1 on FOXO1 function. Furthermore, knockdown of PARP-1 led to a decrease in cell proliferation in a manner dependent on FOXO1 function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that PARP-1 is recruited to the p27{sup Kip1} gene promoter through a binding to FOXO1. These results suggest that PARP-1 acts as a corepressor for FOXO1, which could play an important role in proper cell proliferation by regulating p27{sup Kip1} gene expression.

  14. Chemical genetic discovery of PARP targets reveals a role for PARP-1 in transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan A; Zhang, Yajie; Jiang, Hong; Hussey, Kristine M; Shrimp, Jonathan H; Lin, Hening; Schwede, Frank; Yu, Yonghao; Kraus, W Lee

    2016-07-01

    Poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes that modulate diverse biological processes through covalent transfer of ADP-ribose from the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) onto substrate proteins. Here we report a robust NAD(+) analog-sensitive approach for PARPs, which allows PARP-specific ADP-ribosylation of substrates that is suitable for subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Using this approach, we mapped hundreds of sites of ADP-ribosylation for PARPs 1, 2, and 3 across the proteome, as well as thousands of PARP-1-mediated ADP-ribosylation sites across the genome. We found that PARP-1 ADP-ribosylates and inhibits negative elongation factor (NELF), a protein complex that regulates promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Depletion or inhibition of PARP-1 or mutation of the ADP-ribosylation sites on NELF-E promotes Pol II pausing, providing a clear functional link between PARP-1, ADP-ribosylation, and NELF. This analog-sensitive approach should be broadly applicable across the PARP family and has the potential to illuminate the ADP-ribosylated proteome and the molecular mechanisms used by individual PARPs to mediate their responses to cellular signals. PMID:27256882

  15. Pannexin 1, an ATP Release Channel, Is Activated by Caspase Cleavage of Its Pore-associated C-terminal Autoinhibitory Region*♦

    PubMed Central

    Sandilos, Joanna K.; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Chekeni, Faraaz B.; Armstrong, Allison J.; Walk, Scott F.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Pannexin 1 (PANX1) channels mediate release of ATP, a “find-me” signal that recruits macrophages to apoptotic cells; PANX1 activation during apoptosis requires caspase-mediated cleavage of PANX1 at its C terminus, but how the C terminus inhibits basal channel activity is not understood. Here, we provide evidence suggesting that the C terminus interacts with the human PANX1 (hPANX1) pore and that cleavage-mediated channel activation requires disruption of this inhibitory interaction. Basally silent hPANX1 channels localized on the cell membrane could be activated directly by protease-mediated C-terminal cleavage, without additional apoptotic effectors. By serial deletion, we identified a C-terminal region just distal to the caspase cleavage site that is required for inhibition of hPANX1; point mutations within this small region resulted in partial activation of full-length hPANX1. Consistent with the C-terminal tail functioning as a pore blocker, we found that truncated and constitutively active hPANX1 channels could be inhibited, in trans, by the isolated hPANX1 C terminus either in cells or when applied directly as a purified peptide in inside-out patch recordings. Furthermore, using a cysteine cross-linking approach, we showed that relief of inhibition following cleavage requires dissociation of the C terminus from the channel pore. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism of hPANX1 channel regulation whereby the intact, pore-associated C terminus inhibits the full-length hPANX1 channel and a remarkably well placed caspase cleavage site allows effective removal of key inhibitory C-terminal determinants to activate hPANX1. PMID:22311983

  16. The activation of DNA damage detection and repair responses in cleavage-stage rat embryos by a damaged paternal genome.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Lisanne; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2012-06-01

    Male germ cell DNA damage, after exposure to radiation, exogenous chemicals, or chemotherapeutic agents, is a major cause of male infertility. DNA-damaged spermatozoa can fertilize oocytes; this is of concern because there is limited information on the capacity of early embryos to repair a damaged male genome or on the fate of these embryos if repair is inadequate. We hypothesized that the early activation of DNA damage response in the early embryo is a critical determinant of its fate. The objective of this study was to assess the DNA damage response and mitochondrial function as a measure of the energy supply for DNA repair and general health in cleavage-stage embryos sired by males chronically exposed to an anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide. Male rats were treated with saline or cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and mated to naturally cycling females. Pronuclear two- and eight-cell embryos were collected for immunofluorescence analysis of mitochondrial function and biomarkers of the DNA damage response: γH2AX foci, 53BP1 reactivity, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymer formation. Mitochondrial activities did not differ between embryos sired by control- and cyclophosphamide-exposed males. At the two-cell stage, there was no treatment-related increase in DNA double-strand breaks; by the eight-cell stage, a significant increase was noted, as indicated by increased medium and large γH2AX foci. This was accompanied by a dampened DNA repair response, detected as a decrease in the nuclear intensity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers. The micronuclei formed in cyclophosphamide-sired embryos contained large γH2AX foci and enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) polymer and 53BP1 reactivity compared with their nuclear counterparts. Thus, paternal cyclophosphamide exposure activated a DNA damage response in cleavage-stage embryos. Furthermore, this damage response may be useful in assessing embryo quality and developmental competence. PMID:22454429

  17. Modulation of PARP-1 and PARP-2 expression by L-carnosine and trehalose after LPS and INFγ-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Spina-Purrello, Vittoria; Giliberto, Salvatrice; Barresi, Vincenza; Nicoletti, Vincenzo G; Giuffrida Stella, Anna Maria; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2010-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play a crucial role in DNA damage surveillance through their nick sensor functions. Since PARPs' over activation leads to an excessive consumption of NAD(+) and ATP depletion, these enzymes also are involved in the early events of programmed cell death as well as in necrosis. In order to verify the protective action of L: -carnosine and trehalose against NO induced cell death, in the present study we examined their effects on the expression of PARP-1, PARP-2 and iNOS in primary rat astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cells, treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (INFγ), through semi-quantitative PCR and western analysis. To further characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying L-carnosine and trehalose action, we measured cell viability, nitrite production and LDH release. The data obtained clearly demonstrate that in the stress model employed L-carnosine and trehalose down regulate PARP-1 and PARP-2 expression in both cell phenotypes, thus suggesting their possible application in clinical trials. PMID:21053069

  18. PARP1 and phospho-p65 protein expression is increased in human HER2-positive breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jennifer; Klepczyk, Lisa; Keene, Kimberly; Wei, Shi; Li, Yufeng; Forero, Andres; Grizzle, William; Wielgos, Monica; Brazelton, Jason; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Yang, Eddy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown that basal breast cancers, which may have an inherent “BRCAness” phenotype and sensitivity to inhibitors of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP), express elevated levels of PARP1. Our lab recently reported that HER2+ breast cancers also exhibit sensitivity to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) by attenuating the NF-kB pathway. In this study, we assessed PARP1 and phospho-p65, a marker of activated NF-kB levels in human breast cancer tissues. Methods PARP1 and PARP2 copy number, mRNA, and protein expression was assessed by interrogating the PAM-50 defined breast cancer patient set from the TCGA using the cBioPortal. PARP1 and phospho-p65 immunohistochemistry and correlation to clinical parameters was conducted using 307 primary breast cancer specimens (132 basal, 82 luminal, 93 HER2+) through univariate and multivariate analyses. Results In the PAM50 breast cancer data set, PARP1 and 2 expression was altered in 24/58 (41%) HER2+, 32/81 (40%) basal, and 75/324 (23%) luminal A/B breast cancer patients. This correlated with a statistically significant increase in PARP1 protein levels in HER2+ and basal but not luminal breast cancers (p=0.003, p=0.027, p=0.289, respectively). No change in PARP2 protein level was observed. Interestingly, using breast cancer specimens from 307 patients, HER2 positivity correlated with elevated PARP1 expression (p<0.0001) and was three times more likely than HER2 negative breast cancers to exhibit high PARP1 levels. No significant differences were noted between race, ER status, or PR status for PARP1 expression. Additionally, we found a significant correlation between HER2 status and phospho-p65 expression (p<0.0001). Lastly, a direct correlation between PARP1 and phospho-p65 (p<0.0001) was noted. Conclusions These results indicate a potential connection between HER2, PARP1, and phospho-p65. Furthermore, these data suggest that the PARPi sensitivity we previously observed in HER2+ breast cancer cells may be due

  19. The Role of an Active Site Mg2+ in HDV Ribozyme Self-Cleavage: Insights from QM/MM Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Mlýnský, Vojtěch; Šponer, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is a catalytic RNA motif embedded in the human pathogenic HDV RNA. It catalyzes self-cleavage of its sugar-phosphate backbone with direct participation of the active site cytosine C75. Biochemical and structural data support a general acid role of C75. Here, we used hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations to probe the reaction mechanism and changes in Gibbs energy along the ribozyme's reaction pathway with an N3-protonated C75H+ in the active site, which acts as the general acid, and a partially hydrated Mg2+ ion with one deprotonated, inner-shell coordinated water molecule that acts as the general base. We followed eight reaction paths with distinct position and coordination of the catalytically important active site Mg2+ ion. For six of them, we observed feasible activation barriers ranging from 14.2 to 21.9 kcal/mol, indicating that the specific position of the Mg2+ ion in the active site is predicted to strongly affect the kinetics of self-cleavage. The deprotonation of the U-1(2′-OH) nucleophile and the nucleophilic attack of the resulting U-1(2′-O−) on the scissile phosphodiester are found to be separate steps, as deprotonation precedes the nucleophilic attack. This sequential mechanism of the HDV ribozyme differs from the concerted nucleophilic activation and attack suggested for the hairpin ribozyme. We estimated the pKa of the U-1(2′-OH) group to range from 8.8 to 11.2, suggesting that the pKa is lowered by several units from that of a free ribose, comparable to and most likely smaller than the pKa of the solvated active site Mg2+ ion. Our results thus support the notion that the structure of the HDV ribozyme, and particularly the positioning of the active site Mg2+ ion, facilitates deprotonation and activation of the 2′-OH nucleophile. PMID:25412464

  20. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, Harald J.J. . E-mail: h.moonen@grat.unimaas.nl; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.

  1. Identification of novel PARP-1 inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Kevin; Kulkarni, Shridhar S; Bdzhola, Volodymyr G; Golub, Andriy G; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M; Talele, Tanaji T

    2013-11-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant and ubiquitous chromatin-bound nuclear protein. PARP-1, a DNA repair enzyme, has been in the limelight as a chemotherapeutic target. In this study, we demonstrated the successful use of structure-based virtual screening to identify inhibitors of PARP-1 from Otava databases comprised of nearly 260,000 compounds. Five novel inhibitors belonging to thienopyrimidinone, isoquinolinoquinazolinone, pyrroloquinazolinone, and cyclopentenothienopyrimidinone scaffolds revealed inhibitory potencies with IC50 values ranged from 9.57μM to 0.72μM. Structural features relevant to the activity of these novel compounds within the active site of PARP-1 are discussed in detail and will guide future SAR investigation on these scaffolds. PMID:24074844

  2. Efficient DNA cleavage mediated by mononuclear mixed ligand copper(II) phenolate complexes: the role of co-ligand planarity on DNA binding and cleavage and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Jaividhya, Paramasivam; Dhivya, Rajkumar; Akbarsha, Mohamad Abdulkadhar; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2012-09-01

    The new mononuclear copper(II) complexes [Cu(L)(H(2)O)(2)](+)1 and [Cu(L)(diimine)](+)2-6, where LH=2-[(2-dimethylaminoethylimino)methyl]phenol and diimine=2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (2), or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (3), or dipyrido[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline (dpq) (4) or dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (5) or 11,12-dimethyldipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dmdppz) (6), have been isolated and characterized. The X-ray crystal structures of 2 contains the monomeric complex molecule with a trigonal bipyramidal distorted square pyramidal (TBPDSP) coordination geometry, while 4 and 6 with square pyramidal distorted trigonal bipyramidal (SPDTBP) coordination geometry. The amine nitrogen of -NMe(2) group of the tridentate primary ligand is located at one of the corners of the square plane in 2 and 6 but in the axial position in 4. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements to understand the effect of diimine co-ligands on the mode and extent of DNA binding. The complexes 4 and 5 interact with calf thymus DNA more strongly than the other complexes through partial intercalation of the extended planar ring of the dpq (4) and dppz (5) co-ligands with the DNA base stack. All the complexes, except 1, effect the double strand DNA cleavage of plasmid DNA and 5 cleaves plasmid DNA in the absence of a reductant at a concentration (40 μM) lower than 4. It is remarkable that all the complexes display cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human cervical epidermoid carcinoma cell lines (ME 180) with potency higher than the currently used chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin and that 5 exhibits cytotoxicity higher than the other complexes. PMID:22841366

  3. Genome-Wide Profiling of PARP1 Reveals an Interplay with Gene Regulatory Regions and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nalabothula, Narasimharao; Al-jumaily, Taha; Eteleeb, Abdallah M.; Flight, Robert M.; Xiaorong, Shao; Moseley, Hunter; Rouchka, Eric C.; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a nuclear enzyme involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and gene expression. PARP1 interactions with chromatin architectural multi-protein complexes (i.e. nucleosomes) alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in gene expression. Chromatin structure impacts gene regulatory processes including transcription, splicing, DNA repair, replication and recombination. It is important to delineate whether PARP1 randomly associates with nucleosomes or is present at specific nucleosome regions throughout the cell genome. We performed genome-wide association studies in breast cancer cell lines to address these questions. Our studies show that PARP1 associates with epigenetic regulatory elements genome-wide, such as active histone marks, CTCF and DNase hypersensitive sites. Additionally, the binding of PARP1 to chromatin genome-wide is mutually exclusive with DNA methylation pattern suggesting a functional interplay between PARP1 and DNA methylation. Indeed, inhibition of PARylation results in genome-wide changes in DNA methylation patterns. Our results suggest that PARP1 controls the fidelity of gene transcription and marks actively transcribed gene regions by selectively binding to transcriptionally active chromatin. These studies provide a platform for developing our understanding of PARP1’s role in gene regulation. PMID:26305327

  4. DNA Cleavage, Cytotoxic Activities, and Antimicrobial Studies of Ternary Copper(II) Complexes of Isoxazole Schiff Base and Heterocyclic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Chityala, Vijay Kumar; Sathish Kumar, K; Macha, Ramesh; Tigulla, Parthasarathy; Shivaraj

    2014-01-01

    Novel mixed ligand bivalent copper complexes [Cu. L. A. ClO 4 ] and [Cu. L. A] where "L" is Schiff bases, namely 2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-4-bromophenol (DMIIMBP)/2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-4-chlorophenol (DMIIMCP), and "A" is heterocyclic compound, such as 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)/2,2(1)-bipyridyl (bipy)/8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine)/5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (5-Cl-oxine), have been synthesized. These complexes have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis, ESR, elemental analysis, magnetic moments, TG, and DTA. On the basis of spectral studies and analytical data, five-coordinated square pyramidal/four-coordinated square planar geometry is assigned to all complexes. The ligands and their ternary complexes with Cu(II) have been screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi by paper disc method. The antimicrobial studies of Schiff bases and their metal complexes showed significant activity and further it is observed that the metal complexes showed more activity than corresponding Schiff bases. In vitro antitumor activity of Cu(II) complexes was assayed against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cancer cells and it was observed that few complexes exhibit good antitumor activity on HeLa cell lines. The DNA cleavage studies have also been carried out on pBR 322 and it is observed that these Cu(II) complexes are capable of cleaving supercoiled plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 and UV light. PMID:24895493

  5. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Anna; Holthoff, Emily; Vadali, Shanthi; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204). Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages. PMID:26934296

  6. Nanopharmaceutical Approach for Enhanced Anti-cancer Activity of Betulinic Acid in Lung-cancer Treatment via Activation of PARP: Interaction with DNA as a Target

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Das, Sreemanti; Paul, Avijit; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relative efficacies of a derivative of betulinic acid (dBA) and its poly (lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nano-encapsulated form in A549 lung cancer cells in vivo and in co-mutagen [sodium arsenite (SA) + benzo]undefined[a]pyrene (BaP)]-induced lung cancer in mice in vivo. Methods: dBA was loaded with PLGA nanoparticles by using the standard solvent displacement method. The sizes and morphologies of nano-dBA (NdBA) were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their intracellular localization was verified by using confocal microscopy. The binding and interaction of NdBA with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA) as a target were analyzed by using conventional circular dichroism (CD) and melting temperature (Tm) profile data. Apoptotic signalling cascades in vitro and in vivo were studied by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the ability of NdBA to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was also examined. The stage of cell cycle arrest was confirmed by using a fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) data analysis. Results: The average size of the nanoparticles was ~ 110 nm. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the presence of NdBA in the cellular cytoplasm. The bio-physical properties of dBA and NdBA ascertained from the CD and the Tm profiles revealed that NdBA had greater interaction with the target DNA than dBA did. Both dBA and NdBA arrested cell proliferation at G0/G1, NdBA showing the greater effect. NdBA also induced a greater degree of cytotoxicity in A549 cells, but it had an insignificant cytotoxic effect in normal L6 cells. The results of flow cytometric, cytogenetial and histopathological studies in mice revealed that NdBA caused less nuclear condensation and DNA damage than dBA did. TEM images showed the presence of NdBA in brain samples of NdBA fed mice, indicating its ability to cross the BBB. Conclusion: Thus, compared to dBA, NdBA appears to have greater chemoprotective

  7. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Synthesis of N-Unprotected Indoles from Imidamides and Diazo Ketoesters via C-H Activation and C-C/C-N Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Yu, Songjie; Li, Xingwei

    2016-02-19

    The synthesis of N-unprotected indoles has been realized via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation of imidamides with α-diazo β-ketoesters. The reaction occurs with the release of an amide coproduct, which originates from both the imidamide and the diazo as a result of C═N cleavage of the imidamide and C-C(acyl) cleavage of the diazo. A rhodacyclic intermediate has been isolated and a plausible mechanism has been proposed. PMID:26824751

  8. Proteolytic regulation of epithelial sodium channels by urokinase plasminogen activator: cutting edge and cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong-Long; Zhao, Runzhen; Komissarov, Andrey A; Chang, Yongchang; Liu, Yongfeng; Matthay, Michael A

    2015-02-27

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) level is extremely elevated in the edematous fluid of acutely injured lungs and pleurae. Elevated PAI-1 specifically inactivates pulmonary urokinase-type (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activators (tPA). We hypothesized that plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis may alter epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, a key player in clearing edematous fluid. Two-chain urokinase (tcuPA) has been found to strongly stimulate heterologous human αβγ ENaC activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This activity of tcuPA was completely ablated by PAI-1. Furthermore, a mutation (S195A) of the active site of the enzyme also prevented ENaC activation. By comparison, three truncation mutants of the amino-terminal fragment of tcuPA still activated ENaC. uPA enzymatic activity was positively correlated with ENaC current amplitude prior to reaching the maximal level. In sharp contrast to uPA, neither single-chain tPA nor derivatives, including two-chain tPA and tenecteplase, affected ENaC activity. Furthermore, γ but not α subunit of ENaC was proteolytically cleaved at ((177)GR↓KR(180)) by tcuPA. In summary, the underlying mechanisms of urokinase-mediated activation of ENaC include release of self-inhibition, proteolysis of γ ENaC, incremental increase in opening rate, and activation of closed (electrically "silent") channels. This study for the first time demonstrates multifaceted mechanisms for uPA-mediated up-regulation of ENaC, which form the cellular and molecular rationale for the beneficial effects of urokinase in mitigating mortal pulmonary edema and pleural effusions. PMID:25555911

  9. TIMELESS Forms a Complex with PARP1 Distinct from Its Complex with TIPIN and Plays a Role in the DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Young, Lauren M; Marzio, Antonio; Perez-Duran, Pablo; Reid, Dylan A; Meredith, Daniel N; Roberti, Domenico; Star, Ayelet; Rothenberg, Eli; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Pagano, Michele

    2015-10-20

    PARP1 is the main sensor of single- and double-strand breaks in DNA and, in building chains of poly(ADP-ribose), promotes the recruitment of many downstream signaling and effector proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR). We show a robust physical interaction between PARP1 and the replication fork protein TIMELESS, distinct from the known TIMELESS-TIPIN complex, which activates the intra-S phase checkpoint. TIMELESS recruitment to laser-induced sites of DNA damage is dependent on its binding to PARP1, but not PARP1 activity. We also find that the PARP1-TIMELESS complex contains a number of established PARP1 substrates, and TIMELESS mutants unable to bind PARP1 are impaired in their ability to bind PARP1 substrates. Further, PARP1 binding to certain substrates and their recruitment to DNA damage lesions is impaired by TIMELESS knockdown, and TIMELESS silencing significantly impairs DNA double-strand break repair. We hypothesize that TIMELESS cooperates in the PARP1-mediated DDR. PMID:26456830

  10. Mechanistic insight into conjugated N-N bond cleavage by Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation of pyrazolones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weirong; Liu, Yuxia; Bi, Siwei

    2015-08-14

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the detailed mechanism of Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation of pyrazolones with PhC≡CPh. It is found that (1) the methylene C-H activation is prior to the phenyl C-H activation, (2) the N-N bond cleavage is realized via Rh(III) → Rh(I) → Rh(III) rather than via Rh(III) → Rh(V) → Rh(III). The zwitterionic Rh(I) complex is identified to be a key intermediate in promoting the N-N bond cleavage. (3) Different from the Rh(III)-catalyzed hydrazine-directed C-H activation for indole synthesis, the rate-determining step of the reaction studied in this work is the Rh(III) → Rh(I) → Rh(III) process resulting in the N-N bond cleavage rather than the alkyne insertion step. The present theoretical study provides new insight into the mechanism of the conjugated N-N bond cleavage. PMID:26138233

  11. Asymmetric Cleavage of B-Carotene Yields a Transcriptional Repressor of Retinoid X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B-Carotene and its metabolites exert a broad range of effects, in part by regulating transcriptional responses through specific nuclear receptor activation. Symmetric cleavage of B-carotene can yield 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cisRA), the natural ligand for the nuclear receptor RXR, the obligate heterod...

  12. Bioenergetic Impairment in Animal and Cellular Models of Alzheimer's Disease: PARP-1 Inhibition Rescues Metabolic Dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Mosca, Luciana; Forte, Elena; Correani, Virginia; Fontana, Mario; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Maras, Bruno; d'Erme, Maria

    2016-08-10

    Amyloid-beta peptide accumulation in the brain is one of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. The amyloid aggregation process is associated with the generation of free radical species responsible for mitochondrial impairment and DNA damage that in turn activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosylation), a post-translational modification of proteins, cleaving the substrate NAD+ and transferring the ADP-ribose moieties to the enzyme itself or to an acceptor protein to form branched polymers of ADP-ribose. In this paper, we demonstrate that a mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in Alzheimer's transgenic mice TgCRND8, in SH-SY5Y treated with amyloid-beta and in 7PA2 cells. Moreover, PARP-1 activation contributes to the functional energetic decline affecting cytochrome oxidase IV protein levels, oxygen consumption rates, and membrane potential, resulting in cellular bioenergetic deficit. We also observed, for the first time, an increase of pyruvate kinase 2 expression, suggesting a modulation of the glycolytic pathway by PARP-1. PARP-1 inhibitors are able to restore both mitochondrial impairment and pyruvate kinase 2 expression. The overall data here presented indicate a pivotal role for this enzyme in the bioenergetic network of neuronal cells and open new perspectives for investigating molecular mechanisms underlying energy charge decline in Alzheimer's disease. In this scenario, PARP-1 inhibitors might represent a novel therapeutic intervention to rescue cellular energetic metabolism. PMID:27567805

  13. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Targeted radiosensitization with PARP1 inhibition: optimization of therapy and identification of biomarkers of response in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Felix Y; Speers, Corey; Liu, Meilan; Jackson, William C; Moon, Dominic; Rinkinen, Jacob; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Jagsi, Reshma; Pierce, Lori J

    2014-08-01

    Sustained locoregional control of breast cancer is a significant issue for certain patients. Inhibition of PARP1 is a promising strategy for radiosensitization (RS). We sought to optimize therapy with PARP1 inhibition and radiation (RT) by establishing the most effective treatment schedule, degree of PARP1-mediated RS, and identify early biomarkers predictive of efficacy in breast cancer models. Using clonogenic survival assays, we assessed intrinsic radiosensitivity and RS induced by PARP1 inhibition in breast cancer cell lines. Potential biomarkers of response were evaluated using western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence with validation in vivo using tumor xenograft experiments. Across a panel of BC and normal breast epithelial cell lines, the PARP1 inhibitor ABT-888 preferentially radiosensitizes breast cancer (vs. normal) cells with enhancement ratios (EnhR) up to 2.3 independent of intrinsic BC subtype or BRCA mutational status. Concurrent and adjuvant therapy resulted in the highest EnhR of all schedules tested. The degree of RS did not correlate with pretreatment markers of PARP1 activity, DNA damage/repair, or cell cycle distribution. Increases in PARP1 activity 24 h after RT were associated with sensitivity after combination treatment. Findings were confirmed in breast cancer xenograft models. Our study demonstrates that PARP1 inhibition improves the therapeutic index of RT independent of BC subtype or BRCA1 mutational status and that PARP1 activity may serve as a clinically relevant biomarker of response. These studies have led to a clinical trial (TBCRC024) incorporating intratreatment biomarker analyses of PARP1 inhibitors and RT in breast cancer patients. PMID:25104443

  16. The status of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in ovarian cancer, part 1: olaparib.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rowan E; Ledermann, Jonathan A

    2016-08-01

    Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity in epithelial ovarian cancer. Following the observation in vitro that PARP inhibition is synthetically lethal in tumors with BRCA mutations, PARP inhibition has become the first genotype-directed therapy for BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated ovarian cancer. However, it is becoming clear that PARP inhibition also may have clinical utility in cancers associated with defects or aberrations in DNA repair that are unrelated to BRCA mutations. Deficient DNA repair mechanisms are present in approximately 30% to 50% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the most common histologic subtype. Olaparib is the best-studied PARP inhibitor to date, and a number of phase 3 trials with this agent are underway. This article reviews the development of olaparib for ovarian cancer and discusses the current evidence for its use, ongoing studies, future research directions, and the challenges ahead. PMID:27487106

  17. Predictions of Cleavability of Calpain Proteolysis by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis Using Newly Determined Cleavage Sites and Catalytic Efficiencies of an Oligopeptide Array*

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Koyama, Suguru; Ono, Yasuko; Hata, Shoji; Ojima, Koichi; Shindo, Mayumi; duVerle, David; Ueno, Mika; Kitamura, Fujiko; Doi, Naoko; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca2+-regulated cysteine proteases that are essential for various cellular functions. Mammalian conventional calpains (calpain-1 and calpain-2) modulate the structure and function of their substrates by limited proteolysis. Thus, it is critically important to determine the site(s) in proteins at which calpains cleave. However, the calpains' substrate specificity remains unclear, because the amino acid (aa) sequences around their cleavage sites are very diverse. To clarify calpains' substrate specificities, 84 20-mer oligopeptides, corresponding to P10-P10′ of reported cleavage site sequences, were proteolyzed by calpains, and the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) were globally determined by LC/MS. This analysis revealed 483 cleavage site sequences, including 360 novel ones. The kcat/Kms for 119 sites ranged from 12.5–1,710 M−1s−1. Although most sites were cleaved by both calpain-1 and −2 with a similar kcat/Km, sequence comparisons revealed distinct aa preferences at P9-P7/P2/P5′. The aa compositions of the novel sites were not statistically different from those of previously reported sites as a whole, suggesting calpains have a strict implicit rule for sequence specificity, and that the limited proteolysis of intact substrates is because of substrates' higher-order structures. Cleavage position frequencies indicated that longer sequences N-terminal to the cleavage site (P-sites) were preferred for proteolysis over C-terminal (P′-sites). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses using partial least-squares regression and >1,300 aa descriptors achieved kcat/Km prediction with r = 0.834, and binary-QSAR modeling attained an 87.5% positive prediction value for 132 reported calpain cleavage sites independent of our model construction. These results outperformed previous calpain cleavage predictors, and revealed the importance of the P2, P3′, and P4′ sites, and P1-P2 cooperativity. Furthermore, using our

  18. Predictions of Cleavability of Calpain Proteolysis by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis Using Newly Determined Cleavage Sites and Catalytic Efficiencies of an Oligopeptide Array.

    PubMed

    Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Koyama, Suguru; Ono, Yasuko; Hata, Shoji; Ojima, Koichi; Shindo, Mayumi; duVerle, David; Ueno, Mika; Kitamura, Fujiko; Doi, Naoko; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine proteases that are essential for various cellular functions. Mammalian conventional calpains (calpain-1 and calpain-2) modulate the structure and function of their substrates by limited proteolysis. Thus, it is critically important to determine the site(s) in proteins at which calpains cleave. However, the calpains' substrate specificity remains unclear, because the amino acid (aa) sequences around their cleavage sites are very diverse. To clarify calpains' substrate specificities, 84 20-mer oligopeptides, corresponding to P10-P10' of reported cleavage site sequences, were proteolyzed by calpains, and the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) were globally determined by LC/MS. This analysis revealed 483 cleavage site sequences, including 360 novel ones. Thekcat/Kms for 119 sites ranged from 12.5-1,710 M(-1)s(-1) Although most sites were cleaved by both calpain-1 and -2 with a similarkcat/Km, sequence comparisons revealed distinct aa preferences at P9-P7/P2/P5'. The aa compositions of the novel sites were not statistically different from those of previously reported sites as a whole, suggesting calpains have a strict implicit rule for sequence specificity, and that the limited proteolysis of intact substrates is because of substrates' higher-order structures. Cleavage position frequencies indicated that longer sequences N-terminal to the cleavage site (P-sites) were preferred for proteolysis over C-terminal (P'-sites). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses using partial least-squares regression and >1,300 aa descriptors achievedkcat/Kmprediction withr= 0.834, and binary-QSAR modeling attained an 87.5% positive prediction value for 132 reported calpain cleavage sites independent of our model construction. These results outperformed previous calpain cleavage predictors, and revealed the importance of the P2, P3', and P4' sites, and P1-P2 cooperativity. Furthermore, using our binary-QSAR model

  19. Targeted radiosensitization of ETS fusion-positive prostate cancer through PARP1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Han, Sumin; Brenner, J Chad; Sabolch, Aaron; Jackson, Will; Speers, Corey; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Knudsen, Karen E; Lawrence, Theodore S; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Feng, Felix Y

    2013-10-01

    ETS gene fusions, which result in overexpression of an ETS transcription factor, are considered driving mutations in approximately half of all prostate cancers. Dysregulation of ETS transcription factors is also known to exist in Ewing's sarcoma, breast cancer, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We previously discovered that ERG, the predominant ETS family member in prostate cancer, interacts with the DNA damage response protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in human prostate cancer specimens. Therefore, we hypothesized that the ERG-PARP1 interaction may confer radiation resistance by increasing DNA repair efficiency and that this radio-resistance could be reversed through PARP1 inhibition. Using lentiviral approaches, we established isogenic models of ERG overexpression in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. In both cell lines, ERG overexpression increased clonogenic survival following radiation by 1.25 (±0.07) fold (mean ± SEM) and also resulted in increased PARP1 activity. PARP1 inhibition with olaparib preferentially radiosensitized ERG-positive cells by a factor of 1.52 (±0.03) relative to ERG-negative cells (P < .05). Neutral and alkaline COMET assays and immunofluorescence microscopy assessing γ-H2AX foci showed increased short- and long-term efficiencies of DNA repair, respectively, following radiation that was preferentially reversed by PARP1 inhibition. These findings were verified in an in vivo xenograft model. Our findings demonstrate that ERG overexpression confers radiation resistance through increased efficiency of DNA repair following radiation that can be reversed through inhibition of PARP1. These results motivate the use of PARP1 inhibitors as radiosensitizers in patients with localized ETS fusion-positive cancers. PMID:24204199

  20. PARP1 Is a TRF2-associated Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase and Protects Eroded Telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yie; Wu, Jun; Schreiber, Valerie; Dunlap, John; Dantzer, Francoise; Wang, Yisong

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  1. PARP1 is a TRF2-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and protects eroded telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Marla V; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  2. [PARP1 inhibitors: contemporary attempts at their use in anticancer therapy and future perspective].

    PubMed

    Wiśnik, Ewelina; Ryksa, Marcin; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Current cancer therapies are based mainly on the use of compounds that cause DNA damage. Unfortunately, even the combination therapies do not give rewarding effects, due to the high efficiency of DNA damage repair mechanisms in tumor cells. Therefore, the present studies should be focused on proteins that are involved in DNA repair systems. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is an example of a protein commonly known as an enzyme that plays a role in the detection of DNA damage and repair. Activation of PARP1 in response to DNA damage leads to poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins contributing to DNA repair systems, therefore facilitating the maintenance of genome stability. On the other hand, inhibition of PARP1 enzyme results in the accumulation of DNA damage, which in turn contributes to cell death. Studies on inhibitors of PARP1 are still ongoing, and some of them are currently in the third phase of clinical trials. To date, only one representative of the PARP1 inhibitors, called olaparib, has been approved for anti-cancer therapy in the EU and the USA. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates a role of this protein in various intracellular processes such as bioenergetics, proliferation, regulation of gene expression, cell death as well as immunoregulation. A number of different intracellular processes regulated by PARP1 give rise to potential wider use of PARP1 inhibitors in treatment of other diseases, including immune or autoimmune disorders. PMID:27117104

  3. The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Petra; Hegedűs, Csaba; Salazar Ayestarán, Nerea; Juarranz, Ángeles; Kövér, Katalin E; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László

    2016-08-01

    A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5J/cm(2)) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ-34+UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and -8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ-34+UVA causes DNA damage and caspase-mediated cell death independently of PARP-1 inhibition. PMID:27427773

  4. DNA Cleavage, Cytotoxic Activities, and Antimicrobial Studies of Ternary Copper(II) Complexes of Isoxazole Schiff Base and Heterocyclic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chityala, Vijay Kumar; Sathish Kumar, K.; Macha, Ramesh; Tigulla, Parthasarathy; Shivaraj

    2014-01-01

    Novel mixed ligand bivalent copper complexes [Cu. L. A. ClO4] and [Cu. L. A] where “L” is Schiff bases, namely 2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-4-bromophenol (DMIIMBP)/2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-4-chlorophenol (DMIIMCP), and “A” is heterocyclic compound, such as 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)/2,21-bipyridyl (bipy)/8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine)/5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (5-Cl-oxine), have been synthesized. These complexes have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis, ESR, elemental analysis, magnetic moments, TG, and DTA. On the basis of spectral studies and analytical data, five-coordinated square pyramidal/four-coordinated square planar geometry is assigned to all complexes. The ligands and their ternary complexes with Cu(II) have been screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi by paper disc method. The antimicrobial studies of Schiff bases and their metal complexes showed significant activity and further it is observed that the metal complexes showed more activity than corresponding Schiff bases. In vitro antitumor activity of Cu(II) complexes was assayed against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cancer cells and it was observed that few complexes exhibit good antitumor activity on HeLa cell lines. The DNA cleavage studies have also been carried out on pBR 322 and it is observed that these Cu(II) complexes are capable of cleaving supercoiled plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 and UV light. PMID:24895493

  5. CsrA activates flhDC expression by protecting flhDC mRNA from RNase E-mediated cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Yakhnin, Alexander V.; Baker, Carol S.; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Yakhnin, Helen; Berezin, Igor; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Summary Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that controls expression of several hundred Escherichia coli genes. CsrA protein represses translation of numerous genes by binding to mRNA and inhibiting ribosome access. CsrA also activates gene expression, although an activation mechanism has not been reported. CsrA activates flhDC expression, encoding the master regulator of flagellum biosynthesis and chemotaxis, by stabilizing the mRNA. Computer modeling, gel mobility shift, and footprint analyses identified two CsrA binding sites extending from positions 1–12 (BS1) and 44–55 (BS2) of the 198-nt flhDC leader transcript. flhD'-'lacZ expression was reduced by mutations in csrA and/or the CsrA binding sites. The position of BS1 suggested that bound CsrA might inhibit 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage of flhDC mRNA. Consistent with this hypothesis, CsrA protected flhDC leader RNA from RNase E cleavage in vitro and protection depended on BS1 and BS2. Primer extension studies identified flhDC decay intermediates in vivo that correspond to in vitro RNase E cleavage sites. Deletion of these RNase E cleavage sites resulted in increased flhD'-'lacZ expression. Data from mRNA decay studies and quantitative primer extension assays support a model in which bound CsrA activates flhDC expression by inhibiting the 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage pathway. PMID:23305111

  6. CsrA activates flhDC expression by protecting flhDC mRNA from RNase E-mediated cleavage.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Baker, Carol S; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Yakhnin, Helen; Berezin, Igor; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that controls expression of several hundred Escherichia coli genes. CsrA protein represses translation of numerous genes by binding to mRNA and inhibiting ribosome access. CsrA also activates gene expression, although an activation mechanism has not been reported. CsrA activates flhDC expression, encoding the master regulator of flagellum biosynthesis and chemotaxis, by stabilizing the mRNA. Computer modelling, gel mobility shift and footprint analyses identified two CsrA binding sites extending from positions 1-12 (BS1) and 44-55 (BS2) of the 198 nt flhDC leader transcript. flhD'-'lacZ expression was reduced by mutations in csrA and/or the CsrA binding sites. The position of BS1 suggested that bound CsrA might inhibit 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage of flhDC mRNA. Consistent with this hypothesis, CsrA protected flhDC leader RNA from RNase E cleavage in vitro and protection depended on BS1 and BS2. Primer extension studies identified flhDC decay intermediates in vivo that correspond to in vitro RNase E cleavage sites. Deletion of these RNase E cleavage sites resulted in increased flhD'-'lacZ expression. Data from mRNA decay studies and quantitative primer extension assays support a model in which bound CsrA activates flhDC expression by inhibiting the 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage pathway. PMID:23305111

  7. In vitro peptide cleavage assay for detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A activity in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gold standard assay for measuring the activity and typing of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins is the mouse bioassay. The mouse bioassay is sensitive, robust and does not require specialized equipment. However, the mouse bioassay is slow, not practical for many settings and results in the death ...

  8. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems. PMID:26848046

  9. The 'cleavage' activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A site-directed mutants and naturally occurring '2A-like' sequences.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M L; Hughes, L E; Luke, G; Mendoza, H; ten Dam, E; Gani, D; Ryan, M D

    2001-05-01

    The 2A/2B cleavage of aphtho- and cardiovirus 2A polyproteins is mediated by their 2A proteins 'cleaving' at their own C termini. We have analysed this activity using artificial reporter polyprotein systems comprising green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked via foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) -- forming a single, long, open reading frame. Analysis of the distribution of radiolabel showed a high proportion of the in vitro translation products (approximately 90%) were in the form of the 'cleavage' products GUS and [GFP2A]. Alternative models have been proposed to account for the 'cleavage' activity: proteolysis by a host-cell proteinase, autoproteolysis or a translational effect. To investigate the mechanism of this cleavage event constructs encoding site-directed mutant and naturally occurring '2A-like' sequences were used to program in vitro translation systems and the gel profiles analysed. Analysis of site-directed mutant 2A sequences showed that 'cleavage' occurred in constructs in which all the candidate nucleophilic residues were substituted -- with the exception of aspartate-12. This residue is not, however, conserved amongst all functional '2A-like' sequences. '2A-like' sequences were identified within insect virus polyproteins, the NS34 protein of type C rotaviruses, repeated sequences in Trypanosoma spp. and a eubacterial alpha-glucosiduronasesequence(Thermatoga maritima aguA). All of the 2A-like sequences analysed were active (to various extents), other than the eubacterial alpha-glucosiduronase 2A-like sequence. This method of control of protein biogenesis may well not, therefore, be confined to members of the PICORNAVIRIDAE: Taken together, these data provide additional evidence that neither FMDV 2A nor '2A-like' sequences are autoproteolytic elements. PMID:11297677

  10. TspanC8 tetraspanins differentially regulate the cleavage of ADAM10 substrates, Notch activation and ADAM10 membrane compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Stéphanie; Saint-Pol, Julien; Fernandez, Laurent; Nguyen, Viet; Charrin, Stéphanie; Boucheix, Claude; Brou, Christel; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The metalloprotease ADAM10 mediates the shedding of the ectodomain of various cell membrane proteins, including APP, the precursor of the amyloid peptide Aβ, and Notch receptors following ligand binding. ADAM10 associates with the members of an evolutionary conserved subgroup of tetraspanins, referred to as TspanC8, which regulate its exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that 4 of these TspanC8 (Tspan5, Tspan14, Tspan15 and Tspan33) which positively regulate ADAM10 surface expression levels differentially impact ADAM10-dependent Notch activation and the cleavage of several ADAM10 substrates, including APP, N-cadherin and CD44. Sucrose gradient fractionation, single molecule tracking and quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of the repertoire of molecules co-immunoprecipitated with Tspan5, Tspan15 and ADAM10 show that these two tetraspanins differentially regulate ADAM10 membrane compartmentalization. These data represent a unique example where several tetraspanins differentially regulate the function of a common partner protein through a distinct membrane compartmentalization. PMID:26686862

  11. Loss of TINCR expression promotes proliferation, metastasis through activating EpCAM cleavage in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe-ying; Chang, Ya-ya; Zheng, Lin; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Yu-han; Zhang, Wen-juan; Li, Xue-nong

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in kinds of human diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). TINCR, a 3.7 kb long non coding RNA, was associated with cell differentiation in keratinocyte and gastric cancer cells. However, little is known about the role of TINCR in regulation CRC progression. Here, we showed that lncRNA TINCR was associated with CRC proliferation and metastasis. TINCR was statistically downregulated in CRC tissues and metastatic CRC cell lines compared with their counterparts. TINCR was reversely correlated with CRC progression and promoted tumor cells growth, metastasis in vivo and in vitro. While overexpression of TINCR had opposite effect. In addition, we also found that TINCR specifically bound to EpCAM through RNA IP and RNA pull down assays. Loss of TINCR promoted hydrolysis of EpCAM and then released EpICD, subsequently, activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Further studies shown that c-Myc repressed the expression of TINCR through repressing sp1 transcriptive activity, which established a positive feedback loop controlling c-Myc and TINCR expression. These findings elucidate that loss of TINCR expression promotes proliferation and metastasis in CRC and it could be considered as a potential cancer suppressor gene. PMID:27009809

  12. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications.

    PubMed

    Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia-induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68(+) intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage-derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction-related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases. PMID:26567242

  13. Mimicking Cdk2 phosphorylation of Bcl-xL at Ser73 results in caspase activation and Bcl-xL cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Seng, NS; Megyesi, J; Tarcsafalvi, A; Price, PM

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, yet its efficacy is limited by nephrotoxicity. The severity of nephrotoxicity is associated with the extent of kidney cell death. Previously, we found that cisplatin-induced kidney cell death was dependent on Cdk2 activation, and inhibition of Cdk2 protected cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Using an in vitro kination assay, we showed that Cdk2 phosphorylated Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family proteins, at serine 73. We also found that this phosphorylated Bcl-xL participated in cell death, as a phosphomimetic mutant of Bcl-xL at the serine 73 site (S73D-Bcl-xL) activated caspases. We now find that S73D-Bcl-xL was cleaved at D61 and D76, which are putative caspase cleavage sites, to generate 15-kDa and 12-kDa fragments. Unlike full-length Bcl-xL, these cleavage products of Bcl-xL were previously reported to be pro-apoptotic. We sought to determine whether these Bcl-xL fragments were necessary for the induction of cell death by S73D-Bcl-xL. Mutation of these caspase cleavage sites prevented the formation of the 15-kDa and 12-kDa Bcl-xL cleavage products, but apoptosis still persisted in a S73D modified Bcl-xL. Our findings show that Cdk2 phosphorylation of Bcl-xL at Ser73, but not the Bcl-xL cleavage products, is necessary and sufficient to induce cell death.

  14. On PAR with PARP: cellular stress signaling through poly(ADP-ribose) and PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Kraus, W. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cellular stress responses are mediated through a series of regulatory processes that occur at the genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. These responses require a complex network of sensors and effectors from multiple signaling pathways, including the abundant and ubiquitous nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 functions at the center of cellular stress responses, where it processes diverse signals and, in response, directs cells to specific fates (e.g., DNA repair vs. cell death) based on the type and strength of the stress stimulus. Many of PARP-1's functions in stress response pathways are mediated by its regulated synthesis of PAR, a negatively charged polymer, using NAD+ as a donor of ADP-ribose units. Thus, PARP-1's functions are intimately tied to nuclear NAD+ metabolism and the broader metabolic profile of the cell. Recent studies in cell and animal models have highlighted the roles of PARP-1 and PAR in the response to a wide variety of extrinsic and intrinsic stress signals, including those initiated by oxidative, nitrosative, genotoxic, oncogenic, thermal, inflammatory, and metabolic stresses. These responses underlie pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation-related diseases, and metabolic dysregulation. The development of PARP inhibitors is being pursued as a therapeutic approach to these conditions. In this review, we highlight the newest findings about PARP-1's role in stress responses in the context of the historical data. PMID:22391446

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity, DNA cleavage and SOD-mimic activity of copper(II) mixed-ligand quinolinonato complexes.

    PubMed

    Buchtík, Roman; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Vančo, Ján

    2012-11-01

    Six mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes with the composition [Cu(qui)(L)]BF(4)·xH(2)O (1-6), where Hqui=2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone, L=2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), bis(2-pyridyl)amine (ambpy) (3), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (mphen) (4), 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (nphen) (5) and bathophenanthroline (bphen) (6), were prepared, fully characterized and studied for their in vitro cytotoxicity on human osteosarcoma (HOS) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cancer cell lines. The overall promising results of the cytotoxicity were found for all the complexes, while the best results were achieved for complex 6, with IC(50)=2.6 ± 0.8 μM (HOS), and 1.3 ± 0.5 μM (MCF7). The interactions of the Cu(II) complexes 1-6 with calf thymus DNA were investigated by the UV-visible spectral titration. An agarose-gel electrophoretic method of oxidative damage determination to circular plasmid pUC19 was used to assess the ability of the complexes to act as chemical nucleases. A high effectiveness of DNA cleavage was observed for 2, 4 and 5. In vitro antioxidative activity of the complexes was studied by the superoxide dismutase-mimic (SOD-mimic) method. The best result was afforded by complex 1 with IC(50)=4.7 ± 1.0 μM, which corresponds to 10.2% of the native Cu,Zn-SOD enzyme activity. The ability of the tested complexes to interact with sulfur-containing biomolecules (cysteine and reduced glutathione) at physiological levels was proved by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). PMID:23022693

  16. The anti-apoptotic effect of leukotriene D4 involves the prevention of caspase 8 activation and Bid cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Katarina; Juhas, Maria; Sjölander, Anita

    2003-01-01

    We have shown in a previous study that leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) signalling increases cell survival and proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells [Ohd, Wikström and Sjölander (2000) Gastroenterology 119, 1007-1018]. This is highly interesting since inflammatory conditions of the bowel are associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer. The enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) is important in this context since it is up-regulated in colon cancer tissues and in tumour cell lines. Treatment with the COX-2-specific inhibitor N -(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methane sulphonamide has been shown previously to cause apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and we can now show that a mitochondrial pathway is employed. Inhibition of COX-2 causes release of cytochrome c, as shown by both Western-blot and microscopy studies, and as with apoptosis, this is significantly decreased by LTD(4). Since previous studies showed increased Bcl-2 levels on LTD(4) stimulation, we further studied apoptotic regulation at the mitochondrial level. From this we could exclude the involvement of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) as well as its pro-apoptotic counterpart Bax, since they are not expressed. Furthermore, the activity of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) was completely unaffected. However, inhibition of COX-2 caused cleavage of caspase 8 into a 41 kDa fragment associated with activation and caused the appearance of an activated 15 kDa fragment of Bid. This indicates that N -(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methane sulphonamide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspase 8, via generation of truncated Bid, and thereafter release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, LTD(4) not only reverses the effects induced by inhibition of COX-2 but also reduces the apoptotic potential by lowering the basal level of caspase 8 activation and truncated Bid

  17. Design, RNA cleavage and antiviral activity of new artificial ribonucleases derived from mono-, di- and tripeptides connected by linkers of different hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Tamkovich, Nikolay; Koroleva, Lyudmila; Kovpak, Mikhail; Goncharova, Elena; Silnikov, Vladimir; Vlassov, Valentin; Zenkova, Marina

    2016-03-15

    A novel series of metal-free artificial ribonucleases (aRNases) was designed, synthesized and assessed in terms of ribonuclease activity and ability to inactivate influenza virus WSN/A33/H1N1 in vitro. The compounds were built of two short peptide fragments, which include Lys, Ser, Arg, Glu and imidazole residues in various combinations, connected by linkers of different hydrophobicity (1,12-diaminododecane or 4,9-dioxa-1,12-diaminododecane). These compounds efficiently cleaved different RNA substrates under physiological conditions at rates three to five times higher than that of artificial ribonucleases described earlier and displayed RNase A-like cleavage specificity. aRNases with the hydrophobic 1,12-diaminododecane linker displayed ribonuclease activity 3-40 times higher than aRNases with the 4,9-dioxa-1,12-diaminododecane linker. The assumed mechanism of RNA cleavage was typical for natural ribonucleases, that is, general acid-base catalysis via the formation of acid/base pairs by functional groups of amino acids present in the aRNases; the pH profile of cleavage confirmed this mechanism. The most active aRNases under study exhibited high antiviral activity and entirely inactivated influenza virus A/WSN/33/(H1N1) after a short incubation period of viral suspension under physiological conditions. PMID:26899594

  18. Passive kimberlite intrusion into actively dilating dyke-fracture arrays: evidence from fibrous calcite veins and extensional fracture cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, I. J.; Viola, G.

    2004-09-01

    Calcite veins are invariably associated with en-echelon kimberlite dyke-fracture arrays. A detailed microstructural study of veining indicates four vein types. Type I stretched or ataxial veins are defined by high aspect ratio calcite fibers that are crystallographically continuous with calcite of the kimberlite matrix wall rock, by elongated phenocrystic phlogopite with sharp crystal terminations centered on contacts between adjacent calcite fibers and by phenocrystic phlogopite that grows or extends across these veins. Type I vein mineralogy indicates syn-dilational crystallization of vein minerals in local tensional areas within the kimberlite. Vein Types II (stretched to syntaxial elongate-blocky) and III (antitaxial) indicate late crystallization vein mineral growth during subsequent or repeated dilation. Calcite fibers in Type I to Type III veins are orthogonal to the contacts of their host dykes regardless of the orientation of vein margins. Type IV calcite veins, with blocky or mosaic/polycrystalline textures, are attributed to minor post-intrusion extension, which was potentially accompanied by repeated kimberlite intrusion within a given dyke array. Syn-crystallization/syn-intrusion Type I veins and an ubiquitous dyke-parallel fracture cleavage, in a zone up to 4 m on either side of dyke contacts, suggest that en-echelon kimberlite dyke-fracture arrays occupied the approximate center of zones of active dilation within the brittle carapace of the upper crust. Type II and III veins indicate that extension or dilation continued, independently of an occupying kimberlite fluid phase, after initial intrusion. Arrested mobile hydrofracturing, under low differential stress within the upper brittle or seismic carapace of the continental crust, followed by repeated dilation of the dyke-fracture system, is proposed as a mechanism for producing the features observed in this study. The conditions constrained in this study indicate passive dyke intrusion into dilating

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Pendant Arm-Pyridyltetrazole Copper(II) Complexes: DNA Binding/Cleavage Activity and Cytotoxic Studies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaik; Rao, Bommuluri Umamaheswara; Surendrababu, Manubolu Surya; Raju, Kalidindi Krishnam; Rao, Gollapalli Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L) has been reacted separately with Me2NCH2CH2Cl⋅HCl and ClCH2CH2OH to yield two regioisomers in each case, N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanamine (L1)/N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanamine (L2) and 2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanol (L3)/2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanol (L4), respectively. These ligands, L1-L4, have been coordinated with CuCl2 ⋅H2O in 1 : 1 composition to furnish the corresponding complexes 1-4. EPR Spectra of Cu complexes 1 and 3 were characteristic of square planar geometry, with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. Single X-ray crystallographic studies of 3 revealed that the Cu center has a square planar structure. DNA binding studies were carried out by UV/VIS absorption; viscosity and thermal denaturation studies revealed that each of these complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Investigation of nucleolytic cleavage activities of the complexes was carried out on double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by using a gel electrophoresis experiment under various conditions, where cleavage of DNA takes place by oxidative free-radical mechanism (OH(⋅)). In vitro anticancer activities of the complexes against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells revealed that the complexes inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The IC50 values of the complexes showed that Cu complexes exhibit comparable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard drug cisplatin. PMID:26460557

  20. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PMID:25635049

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease NHEJ both by acetylation of repair factors and trapping of PARP1 at DNA double-strand breaks in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Robert, Carine; Nagaria, Pratik K; Pawar, Nisha; Adewuyi, Adeoluwa; Gojo, Ivana; Meyers, David J; Cole, Philip A; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2016-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, and modulate the acetylation of proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Decreased NHEJ activity has been reported with HDACi treatment. However, mechanisms through which these effects are regulated in the context of chromatin are unclear. We show that pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), causes differential acetylation of DNA repair factors Ku70/Ku80 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1), and impairs NHEJ. Repair effects are reversed by treatments with p300/CBP inhibitor C646, with significantly decreased acetylation of PARP1. In keeping with these findings, TSA treatment significantly increases PARP1 binding to DSBs in chromatin. Notably, AML patients treated with HDACi entinostat (MS275) in vivo also show increased formation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR) that co-localizes with DSBs. Further, we demonstrate that PARP1 bound to chromatin increases with duration of TSA exposure, resembling PARP "trapping". Knockdown of PARP1 inhibits trapping and mitigates HDACi effects on NHEJ. Finally, combination of HDACi with potent PARP inhibitor talazoparib (BMN673) shows a dose-dependent increase in PARP "trapping", which correlates with increased apoptosis. These results provide a mechanism through which HDACi inhibits deacetylation and increases binding of PARP1 to DSBs, leading to decreased NHEJ and cytotoxicity of leukemia cells. PMID:27064363

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease NHEJ both by acetylation of repair factors and trapping of PARP1 at DNA double-strand breaks in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Carine; Nagaria, Pratik K.; Pawar, Nisha; Adewuyi, Adeoluwa; Gojo, Ivana; Meyers, David J.; Cole, Philip A.; Rassool, Feyruz V.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, and modulate the acetylation of proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Decreased NHEJ activity has been reported with HDACi treatment. However, mechanisms through which these effects are regulated in the context of chromatin are unclear. We show that pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), causes differential acetylation of DNA repair factors Ku70/Ku80 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1), and impairs NHEJ. Repair effects are reversed by treatments with p300/CBP inhibitor C646, with significantly decreased acetylation of PARP1. In keeping with these findings, TSA treatment significantly increases PARP1 binding to DSBs in chromatin. Notably, AML patients treated with HDACi entinostat (MS275) in vivo also show increased formation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR) that co-localizes with DSBs. Further, we demonstrate that PARP1 bound to chromatin increases with duration of TSA exposure, resembling PARP “trapping”. Knockdown of PARP1 inhibits trapping and mitigates HDACi effects on NHEJ. Finally, combination of HDACi with potent PARP inhibitor talazoparib (BMN673) shows a dose-dependent increase in PARP “trapping”, which correlates with increased apoptosis. These results provide a mechanism through which HDACi inhibits deacetylation and increases binding of PARP1 to DSBs, leading to decreased NHEJ and cytotoxicity of leukemia cells. PMID:27064363

  3. Is There an Epigenetic Component Underlying the Resistance of Triple-Negative Breast Cancers to Parp Inhibitors?

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Amanda; Panasci, Lawrence; Witcher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing post-translational modifications through the addition of poly(ADP-ribose) chains (known as PARylation). Modification by PARylation modulates numerous cellular processes including transcription, chromatin remodeling, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair. In particular, the role of Parp activation in response to DNA damage has been intensely studied. Tumors bearing mutations of the breast cancer susceptibility genes, Brca1/2, are prone to DNA breakages whose restoration into functional double-strand DNA is Parp dependent. This concept has been exploited therapeutically in Brca mutated breast and ovarian tumors, where acute sensitivity to Parp inhibitors is observed. Based on in vitro and clinical studies it remains unclear to what extent Parp inhibitors can be utilized beyond treating Brca mutated tumors. This review will focus on the often overlooked roles of PARylation in chromatin remodeling, epigenetics, and transcription to explain why some cancers may be unresponsive to Parp inhibition. We predict that understanding the impact of PARylation on gene expression will lead to alternative approaches to manipulate the Parp pathway for therapeutic benefit. PMID:23293602

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA binding and photo-induced DNA cleavage activity of (S-methyl-L-cysteine)copper(II) complexes of heterocyclic bases.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ashis K; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2007-02-01

    Ternary S-methyl-L-cysteine (SMe-l-cys) copper(II) complexes [Cu(SMe-L-cys)(B)(H(2)O)](X) (1-4), where the heterocyclic base B is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, 1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 2), dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq, 3) and dipyridophenazine (dppz, 4), and X is ClO(4)(-) (1-3) or NO(3)(-) (4), are prepared and their DNA binding and cleavage properties studied. Complexes 2 and 4 are structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Both the crystal structures show distorted square-pyramidal (4+1) CuN(3)O(2) coordination geometry of the complexes in which the N,O-donor S-methyl-L-cysteine and N,N-donor heterocyclic base bind at the basal plane with a water molecule as the axial ligand. In addition, the dppz structure shows the presence of a 1D-chain formed due to covalent linkage of the carboxylate oxygen atom belonging to another molecule at the elongated axial site. The crystal structures show chemically significant non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding involving the axial aqua ligand and pi-pi interactions between dppz ligands. The complexes display a d-d band in the range of 605-654 nm in aqueous dimethylformamide (DMF) solution (9:1 v/v). The redox active complexes show quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near 0.1 V in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The complexes show good binding affinity to calf thymus (CT) DNA giving the order: 4 (dppz)>3 (dpq)>2 (phen)>1 (bpy). The intrinsic binding constants, obtained from UV-visible spectroscopic studies, are 1.3x10(4) and 2.15 x 10(4) M(-1) for 3 and 4, respectively. Control DNA cleavage experiments using pUC19 supercoiled (SC) DNA and minor groove binder distamycin suggest major groove binding propensity for the dppz complex, while the phen and dpq complexes bind at the minor groove of DNA. Complexes 2-4 show DNA cleavage activity in dark in the presence of a reducing agent 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) via a mechanistic pathway involving formation of hydroxyl radical as the reactive

  5. Differential, dominant activation and inhibition of Notch signalling and APP cleavage by truncations of PSEN1 in human disease.

    PubMed

    Newman, Morgan; Wilson, Lachlan; Verdile, Giuseppe; Lim, Anne; Khan, Imran; Moussavi Nik, Seyyed Hani; Pursglove, Sharon; Chapman, Gavin; Martins, Ralph N; Lardelli, Michael

    2014-02-01

    PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1) is the major locus for mutations causing familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) and is also mutated in Pick disease of brain, familial acne inversa and dilated cardiomyopathy. It is a critical facilitator of Notch signalling and many other signalling pathways and protein cleavage events including production of the Amyloidβ (Aβ) peptide from the AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP). We previously reported that interference with splicing of transcripts of the zebrafish orthologue of PSEN1 creates dominant negative effects on Notch signalling. Here, we extend this work to show that various truncations of human PSEN1 (or zebrafish Psen1) protein have starkly differential effects on Notch signalling and cleavage of zebrafish Appa (a paralogue of human APP). Different truncations can suppress or stimulate Notch signalling but not Appa cleavage and vice versa. The G183V mutation possibly causing Pick disease causes production of aberrant transcripts truncating the open reading frame after exon 5 sequence. We show that the truncated protein potentially translated from these transcripts avidly incorporates into very stable Psen1-dependent higher molecular weight complexes and suppresses cleavage of Appa but not Notch signalling. In contrast, the truncated protein potentially produced by the P242LfsX11 acne inversa mutation has no effect on Appa cleavage but, unexpectedly, enhances Notch signalling. Our results suggest novel hypotheses for the pathological mechanisms underlying these diseases and illustrate the importance of investigating the function of dominant mutations at physiologically relevant expression levels and in the normally heterozygous state in which they cause human disease rather than in isolation from healthy alleles. PMID:24101600

  6. Role of trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192 in the enzymatic and cytotonic activities of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, C C; Messer, R J; Cieplak, W

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin have suggested that proteolytic cleavage plays an important role in the expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and toxicity. Specifically, several studies have implicated a trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192, which lies within an exposed region subtended by a disulfide bond in the intact A subunit, in toxicity. To investigate the role of this modification in the enzymatic and cytotonic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin, the response of purified, recombinant A subunit to tryptic activation and the effect of substituting arginine 192 with glycine on the activities of the holotoxin were examined. The recombinant A subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin exhibited significant levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity that were only nominally increased (approximately twofold) by prior limited trypsinolysis. The enzymatic activity also did not appear to be affected by auto-ADP-ribosylation that occurs during the high-level synthesis of the recombinant A subunit in E. coli. A mutant form of the holotoxin containing the arginine 192-to-glycine substitution exhibited levels of cytotonic activity for CHO cells that were similar to that of the untreated, wild-type holotoxin but exhibited a marked delay in the ability to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells. The results indicate that trypsin-like cleavage of the A subunit of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin at arginine 192 is not requisite to the expression of enzymatic activity by the A subunit and further reveal that this modification, although it enhances the biological and enzymatic activities of the toxin, is not absolutely required for the enterotoxin to elicit cytotonic effects. Images PMID:7927684

  7. PARP and CHK inhibitors interact to cause DNA damage and cell death in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Ridder, Thomas; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The present studies examined viability and DNA damage levels in mammary carcinoma cells following PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitor drug combination exposure. PARP1 inhibitors [AZD2281 ; ABT888 ; NU1025 ; AG014699] interacted with CHK1 inhibitors [UCN-01 ; AZD7762 ; LY2603618] to kill mammary carcinoma cells. PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors interacted to increase both single strand and double strand DNA breaks that correlated with increased γH2AX phosphorylation. Treatment of cells with CHK1 inhibitors increased the phosphorylation of CHK1 and ERK1/2. Knock down of ATM suppressed the drug-induced increases in CHK1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and enhanced tumor cell killing by PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors. Expression of dominant negative MEK1 enhanced drug-induced DNA damage whereas expression of activated MEK1 suppressed both the DNA damage response and tumor cell killing. Collectively our data demonstrate that PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors interact to kill mammary carcinoma cells and that increased DNA damage is a surrogate marker for the response of cells to this drug combination. PMID:23917378

  8. Flavone as PARP-1 inhibitor: its effect on lipopolysaccharide induced gene-expression.

    PubMed

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Moonen, Harald J J; Brauers, Karen; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; Wouters, Emiel F M; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja J

    2007-11-14

    The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) which was initially known for its role in the repair of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, has also been reported to play a mediating role in the inflammatory response. Studies with PARP-1 knockout models have shown that PARP-1 is a co-activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), although this appears not to require its enzyme activity. In addition, drug-induced inhibition of the enzyme activity of PARP-1 was observed to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, the flavonoid compound flavone was demonstrated to significantly inhibit the enzyme activity of PARP-1. Further evaluation of flavone in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-treated human pulmonary epithelial and vascular endothelial cells revealed that both the decrease in NAD(+) levels, as well as the formation of PAR-polymers was dose-dependently attenuated by flavone. In addition, flavone was found to reduce the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in pulmonary epithelial cells, which was confirmed by transcription analysis. Furthermore, the transcription Inhibitor kappa B alpha (of IkappaBalpha) was significantly increased by flavone. The results of the present study indicate that the flavonoid flavone could be a potential candidate for application in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PARP-1 inhibition could have beneficial effects in such diseases as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and diabetes, by preservation of cellular NAD(+) levels and attenuating inflammatory conditions. PMID:17643414

  9. Metal-catalyzed activation of ethers via C-O bond cleavage: a new strategy for molecular diversity.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Zarate, Cayetana; Martin, Ruben

    2014-12-01

    In 1979, the seminal work of Wenkert set the standards for the utilization of aryl and vinyl ethers as coupling partners via C-O bond-cleavage. Although the topic remained dormant for almost three decades, the last few years have witnessed a renaissance in this area of expertise, experiencing an exponential growth and becoming a significant discipline within the cross-coupling arena. The means to utilize readily accessible aryl or vinyl ethers as counterparts does not only represent a practical, powerful and straightforward alternative to organic halides, but also constitutes an excellent opportunity to improve our chemical knowledge about a relatively unexplored area of expertise. This review summarizes the most significant developments in the area of C-O bond-cleavage when employing aryl or vinyl ethers, providing a detailed overview of the current state of the art and including future aspects, when applicable. PMID:25157613

  10. Vasoactivity of Rucaparib, a PARP-1 Inhibitor, is a Complex Process that Involves Myosin Light Chain Kinase, P2 Receptors, and PARP Itself

    PubMed Central

    McCrudden, Cian M.; O’Rourke, Martin G.; Cherry, Kim E.; Yuen, Hiu-Fung; O’Rourke, Declan; Babur, Muhammad; Telfer, Brian A.; Thomas, Huw D.; Keane, Patrick; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan; Hagan, Chris; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Shaw, Chris; Williams, Kaye J.; Curtin, Nicola J.; Hirst, David G.; Robson, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), as monotherapy or to supplement the potencies of other agents, is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. We previously reported that the first PARP inhibitor to enter clinical trial, rucaparib (AG014699), induced vasodilation in vivo in xenografts, potentiating response to temozolomide. We now report that rucaparib inhibits the activity of the muscle contraction mediator myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) 10-fold more potently than its commercially available inhibitor ML-9. Moreover, rucaparib produces additive relaxation above the maximal degree achievable with ML-9, suggesting that MLCK inhibition is not solely responsible for dilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis using L-NMMA also failed to impact rucaparib’s activity. Rucaparib contains the nicotinamide pharmacophore, suggesting it may inhibit other NAD+-dependent processes. NAD+ exerts P2 purinergic receptor-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Indiscriminate blockade of the P2 purinergic receptors with suramin abrogated rucaparib-induced vasodilation in rat arterial tissue without affecting ML-9-evoked dilation, although the specific receptor subtypes responsible have not been unequivocally identified. Furthermore, dorsal window chamber and real time tumor vessel perfusion analyses in PARP-1-/- mice indicate a potential role for PARP in dilation of tumor-recruited vessels. Finally, rucaparib provoked relaxation in 70% of patient-derived tumor-associated vessels. These data provide tantalising evidence of the complexity of the mechanism underlying rucaparib-mediated vasodilation. PMID:25689628

  11. Vasoactivity of rucaparib, a PARP-1 inhibitor, is a complex process that involves myosin light chain kinase, P2 receptors, and PARP itself.

    PubMed

    McCrudden, Cian M; O'Rourke, Martin G; Cherry, Kim E; Yuen, Hiu-Fung; O'Rourke, Declan; Babur, Muhammad; Telfer, Brian A; Thomas, Huw D; Keane, Patrick; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan; Hagan, Chris; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Shaw, Chris; Williams, Kaye J; Curtin, Nicola J; Hirst, David G; Robson, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), as monotherapy or to supplement the potencies of other agents, is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. We previously reported that the first PARP inhibitor to enter clinical trial, rucaparib (AG014699), induced vasodilation in vivo in xenografts, potentiating response to temozolomide. We now report that rucaparib inhibits the activity of the muscle contraction mediator myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) 10-fold more potently than its commercially available inhibitor ML-9. Moreover, rucaparib produces additive relaxation above the maximal degree achievable with ML-9, suggesting that MLCK inhibition is not solely responsible for dilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis using L-NMMA also failed to impact rucaparib's activity. Rucaparib contains the nicotinamide pharmacophore, suggesting it may inhibit other NAD+-dependent processes. NAD+ exerts P2 purinergic receptor-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Indiscriminate blockade of the P2 purinergic receptors with suramin abrogated rucaparib-induced vasodilation in rat arterial tissue without affecting ML-9-evoked dilation, although the specific receptor subtypes responsible have not been unequivocally identified. Furthermore, dorsal window chamber and real time tumor vessel perfusion analyses in PARP-1-/- mice indicate a potential role for PARP in dilation of tumor-recruited vessels. Finally, rucaparib provoked relaxation in 70% of patient-derived tumor-associated vessels. These data provide tantalising evidence of the complexity of the mechanism underlying rucaparib-mediated vasodilation. PMID:25689628

  12. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Elena; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α4β1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  13. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α 4 β 1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  14. Cleavage at both Arg306 and Arg506 is required and sufficient for timely and efficient inactivation of factor Va by activated protein C*

    PubMed Central

    Barhoover, Melissa A.; Kalafatis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Activated protein C (APC) inactivates membrane-bound factor Va following cleavages of the heavy chain at Arg306, Arg506, and Arg679. Objectives To examine which cleavage is most important for inactivation, recombinant factor V molecules were constructed as follows: factor V306Q (R306→Q), factor V506Q (R506→Q), and factor V306Q/506Q (R306→Q and R506→Q). Methods The recombinant molecules were expressed in mammalian cells, purified, and assayed prior and after incubation with APC and lipids for 30 min (factor Vai) in clotting assays and in an assay using purified reagents and saturating concentrations of factor Va. Results Clotting assays demonstrated that factor VaiWT, factor Vai306Q and factor Vai506Q were devoid of activity, while factor Vai306Q/506Q maintained ~70% activity following a 30 minute incubation with APC. Prothrombinase assembled with all mutant cofactor molecules before and after treatment with APC had Km values similar to values found with prothrombinase assembled with factor VaWT. Prothrombinase assembled with factor VaiWT demonstrated 20-fold reduction in kcat, while prothrombinase assembled with factor Vai506Q had a 2-fold reduction in kcat as compared to prothrombinase assembled with factor VaWT. In contrast, factor Vai306Q and factor Vai306Q/506Q didn’t show any loss in kcat under similar experimental conditions. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that: 1) the activity of an APC-treated factor Va molecule bearing a single mutation at Arg306 or Arg506 depends on the assay used; and 2) regardless of the assay employed, in the absence of the APC-cleavage sites at Arg306 and Arg506, the active cofactor is unable to be significantly inactivated by APC in the presence of a membrane surface. PMID:21467919

  15. ExpandplusCrystal Structures of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Zinc Fingers Bound to DNA

    SciTech Connect

    M Langelier; J Planck; S Roy; J Pascal

    2011-12-31

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has two homologous zinc finger domains, Zn1 and Zn2, that bind to a variety of DNA structures to stimulate poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis activity and to mediate PARP-1 interaction with chromatin. The structural basis for interaction with DNA is unknown, which limits our understanding of PARP-1 regulation and involvement in DNA repair and transcription. Here, we have determined crystal structures for the individual Zn1 and Zn2 domains in complex with a DNA double strand break, providing the first views of PARP-1 zinc fingers bound to DNA. The Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA structures establish a novel, bipartite mode of sequence-independent DNA interaction that engages a continuous region of the phosphodiester backbone and the hydrophobic faces of exposed nucleotide bases. Biochemical and cell biological analysis indicate that the Zn1 and Zn2 domains perform distinct functions. The Zn2 domain exhibits high binding affinity to DNA compared with the Zn1 domain. However, the Zn1 domain is essential for DNA-dependent PARP-1 activity in vitro and in vivo, whereas the Zn2 domain is not strictly required. Structural differences between the Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA complexes, combined with mutational and structural analysis, indicate that a specialized region of the Zn1 domain is re-configured through the hydrophobic interaction with exposed nucleotide bases to initiate PARP-1 activation.

  16. Reduction of acute photodamage in skin by topical application of a novel PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Beatrix; Magyarlaki, Marta; Csete, Bela; Nemeth, Jozsef; Rabloczky, Gyorgy; Bernath, Sandor; Literáti Nagy, Peter; Sümegi, Balazs

    2002-03-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) components of sunlight induce damage to the DNA in skin cells, which is considered to be the initiating step in the harmful biological effects of UV radiation. Repair of DNA damage results in the formation of single-strand DNA breaks, which activate the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overactivation of PARP worsens the oxidative cell damage and impairs the energy metabolism, raising the possibility that moderation of PARP activation following DNA damage may protect skin cells from UV radiation. The topical effects of the novel PARP inhibitor O-(3-pyperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amidoxime monohydrochloride (BGP-15M) were investigated on UV-induced skin damage in a hairless mouse model. For evaluation of the UV-induced acute photodamage to the skin and the potential protective effect of BGP-15M, DNA injury was detected by measuring the formation of single-strand DNA breaks and counting the resulting sunburn (apoptotic) cells. The ADP-ribosylation of PARP was assessed by Western blot analysis and then quantified. In addition, the UV-induced immunosuppression was investigated by the immunostaining of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 expressions in epidermal cells. The signs of inflammation were examined clinically and histochemically. Besides its primary effect in decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP, topically applied BGP-15M proved to be protective against solar and artificial UV radiation-induced acute skin damage. The DNA injury was decreased (P<0.01). An inhibition of immunosuppression was observed by down-regulation of the epidermal production of cytokines IL-10 and TNFalpha. In the mouse skin, clinical or histological signs of UV-induced inflammation could not be observed. These data suggest that BGP-15M directly interferes with UV-induced cellular processes and modifies the activity of PARP. The effects provided by topical application of the new PARP-regulator BGP-15M indicate that it

  17. Activation of an Mg2+-dependent DNA endonuclease of avian myeloblastosis virus alpha beta DNA polymerase by in vitro proteolytic cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Grandgenett, D P; Golomb, M; Vora, A C

    1980-01-01

    Partial chymotryptic digestion of purified avian myeloblastosis virus alpha beta DNA polymerase resulted in the activation of a Mg2+-dependent DNA endonuclease activity. Incubation of the polymerase-protease mixture in the presence of super-coiled DNA and Mg2+ permitted detection of the cleaved polymerase fragment possessing DNA nicking activity. Protease digestion conditions were established permitting selective cleavage of beta to alpha, which contained DNA polymerase and RNase H activity and to a family of polypeptides ranging in size from 30,000 to 34,000 daltons. These latter beta-unique fragments were purified by polyuridylate-Sepharose 4B chromatography and were shown to contain both DNA binding and DNA endonuclease activities. We have demonstrated that this group of polymerase fragments derived by chymotryptic digestion of alpha beta DNA polymerase is similar to the in vivo-isolated avian myeloblastosis virus p32pol in size, sequence, and DNA endonuclease activity. Images PMID:6154149

  18. Reversed DNA strand cleavage specificity in initiation of Cre-LoxP recombination induced by the His289Ala active-site substitution.

    PubMed

    Gelato, Kathy A; Martin, Shelley S; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2005-11-25

    selectively stabilize the "activated" phosphate conformation in order to promote cleavage. PMID:16242714

  19. The Elephant and the Blind Men: Making Sense of PARP Inhibitors in Homologous Recombination Deficient Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Silvana B; Patel, Anand G; Hurley, Rachel M; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is an important component of the base excision repair (BER) pathway as well as a regulator of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of HR-deficient cells with PARP inhibitors results in stalled and collapsed replication forks. Consequently, HR-deficient cells are extremely sensitive to PARP inhibitors. Several explanations have been advanced to explain this so-called synthetic lethality between HR deficiency and PARP inhibition: (i) reduction of BER activity leading to enhanced DNA double-strand breaks, which accumulate in the absence of HR; (ii) trapping of inhibited PARP1 at sites of DNA damage, which prevents access of other repair proteins; (iii) failure to initiate HR by poly(ADP-ribose) polymer-dependent BRCA1 recruitment; and (iv) activation of the NHEJ pathway, which selectively induces error-prone repair in HR-deficient cells. Here we review evidence regarding these various explanations for the ability of PARP inhibitors to selectively kill HR-deficient cancer cells and discuss their potential implications. PMID:24062981

  20. Dual role of glutathione in modulating camptothecin activity: depletion potentiates activity, but conjugation enhances the stability of the topoisomerase I-DNA cleavage complex.

    PubMed

    Gamcsik, M P; Kasibhatla, M S; Adams, D J; Flowers, J L; Colvin, O M; Manikumar, G; Wani, M; Wall, M E; Kohlhagen, G; Pommier, Y

    2001-11-01

    Depletion of glutathione (GSH) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines by pretreatment with the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine potentiated the activity of 10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin, SN-38 [7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-20(S)-camptothecin], topotecan, and 7-chloromethyl-10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin (CMMDC). The greatest potentiation was observed with the alkylating camptothecin CMMDC. Buthionine sulfoximine pretreatment also increased the number of camptothecin-induced DNA-protein crosslinks, indicating that GSH affects the mechanism of action of camptothecin. We also report that GSH interacts with CMMDC to form a stable conjugate, 7-(glutathionylmethyl)-10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin (GSMMDC), which is formed spontaneously in buffered solutions and in MCF-7 cells treated with CMMDC. GSMMDC was synthesized and found to be nearly as active as 10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin in a topoisomerase (topo) I-mediated DNA nicking assay. The resulting topo I cleavage complexes were remarkably stable. In cell culture, GSMMDC displayed potent growth-inhibitory activity against U937 and P388 leukemia cell lines. GSMMDC was not active against a topo I-deficient P388 cell line, indicating that topo I is its cellular target. Peptide-truncated analogues of GSMMDC were prepared and evaluated. All three derivatives [7-(gamma-glutamylcysteinylmethyl)-10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin, 7-(cysteinylglycylmethyl)-10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin, and 7-(cysteinylmethyl)-10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin] displayed topo I and cell growth-inhibitory activity. These results suggest that 7-peptidyl derivatives represent a new class of camptothecin analogues. PMID:12467234

  1. Involvement of PARP1 in the regulation of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Elena; Maiorano, John; Zhang, Qingyang; Eteleeb, Abdallah M; Convertini, Paolo; Chen, Jing; Infantino, Vittoria; Stamm, Stefan; Wang, Jiping; Rouchka, Eric C; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N

    2016-01-01

    Specialized chromatin structures such as nucleosomes with specific histone modifications decorate exons in eukaryotic genomes, suggesting a functional connection between chromatin organization and the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Through profiling the functional location of Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase, we observed that it is associated with the nucleosomes at exon/intron boundaries of specific genes, suggestive of a role for this enzyme in alternative splicing. Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase has previously been implicated in the PARylation of splicing factors as well as regulation of the histone modification H3K4me3, a mark critical for co-transcriptional splicing. In light of these studies, we hypothesized that interaction of the chromatin-modifying factor, Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase with nucleosomal structures at exon–intron boundaries, might regulate pre-mRNA splicing. Using genome-wide approaches validated by gene-specific assays, we show that depletion of PARP1 or inhibition of its PARylation activity results in changes in alternative splicing of a specific subset of genes. Furthermore, we observed that PARP1 bound to RNA, splicing factors and chromatin, suggesting that Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase serves as a gene regulatory hub to facilitate co-transcriptional splicing. These studies add another function to the multi-functional protein, Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase, and provide a platform for further investigation of this protein’s function in organizing chromatin during gene regulatory processes. PMID:27462443

  2. Enhanced efficacy of combined HDAC and PARP targeting in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rikke D; Gajjar, Madhavsai K; Jensen, Kamilla E; Hamerlik, Petra

    2016-05-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that targeting chromatin remodeling factors is as a promising strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). We and others have shown constitutive activation of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways in gliomas and suggested that targeting the DDR may improve the currently grim prognosis for patients. Based on our previous findings that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) increases radio-sensitivity of the notoriously radio-resistant GBM cells, we hypothesized that epigenetic down-regulation of the DDR responses and induction of oxidative stress via HDAC inhibition would contribute to more efficient targeting of this deadly disease. Our data show that SAHA, an HDAC class I + II inhibitor, in combination with olaparib (PARP inhibitor): i) enhanced inhibition of GBM cell survival, ii) induced apoptosis, and iii) impaired cell cycle progression. These results provide a pre-clinical rationale for combined administration of SAHA and olaparib, which are already individually in clinical trials. PMID:26794465

  3. Effects of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition on sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injuries in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Jiang, Ning; Xiao, Zhi-yong; Cheng, Jun-ping; Mei, Yi-zhou; Zheng, Pan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiao-rui; Zhou, Xin-bo

    2016-01-01

    Early studies with first-generation poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have already indicated some therapeutic potential for sulfur mustard (SM) injuries. The available novel and more potential PARP inhibitors, which are undergoing clinical trials as drugs for cancer treatment, bring it back to the centre of interest. However, the role of PARP-1 in SM-induced injury is not fully understood. In this study, we selected a high potent specific PARP inhibitor ABT-888 as an example to investigate the effect of PARP inhibitor in SM injury. The results showed that in both the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) and HaCaT cell model, PARP inhibitor ABT-888 can reduce cell damage induced by severe SM injury. ABT-888 significantly reduced SM induced edema and epidermal necrosis in MEVM. In the HaCaT cell model, ABT-888 can reduce SM-induced NAD+/ATP depletion and apoptosis/necrosis. Then, we studied the mechanism of PARP-1 in SM injury by knockdown of PARP-1 in HaCaT cells. Knockdown of PARP-1 protected cell viability and downregulated the apoptosis checkpoints, including p-JNK, p-p53, Caspase 9, Caspase 8, c-PARP and Caspase 3 following SM-induced injury. Furthermore, the activation of AKT can inhibit autophagy via the regulation of mTOR. Our results showed that SM exposure could significantly inhibit the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. Knockdown of PARP-1 reversed the SM-induced suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. In summary, the results of our study indicated that the protective effects of downregulation of PARP-1 in SM injury may be due to the regulation of apoptosis, necrosis, energy crisis and autophagy. However, it should be noticed that PARP inhibitor ABT-888 further enhanced the phosphorylation of H2AX (S139) after SM exposure, which indicated that we should be very careful in the application of PARP inhibitors in SM injury treatment because of the enhancement of DNA damage. PMID:27077006

  4. Mixed ligand ruthenium(III) complexes of benzaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazones with triphenylphosphine/triphenylarsine co-ligands: Synthesis, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidative and cytotoxic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.; Sathiyaraj, S.; Raja, G.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.

    2013-08-01

    The new ruthenium(III) complexes with 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), were prepared and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The title compounds act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the ligands and complexes were investigated by absorption spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. It reveals that the compounds bind to nitrogenous bases of DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed the significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes against MCF-7 cell line was assayed which showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  5. Cleavage Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 Protease and Identification of Novel Peptide Substrates and Boronate Inhibitors with Anti-bacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Akopian, Tatos; Kandror, Olga; Tsu, Christopher; Lai, Jack H; Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Zhao, Peng; Park, Annie; Wolf, Lisa; Dick, Lawrence R; Rubin, Eric J; Bachovchin, William; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2015-04-24

    The ClpP1P2 protease complex is essential for viability in Mycobacteria tuberculosis and is an attractive drug target. Using a fluorogenic tripeptide library (Ac-X3X2X1-aminomethylcoumarin) and by determining specificity constants (kcat/Km), we show that ClpP1P2 prefers Met ≫ Leu > Phe > Ala in the X1 position, basic residues or Trp in the X2 position, and Pro ≫ Ala > Trp in the X3 position. We identified peptide substrates that are hydrolyzed up to 1000 times faster than the standard ClpP substrate. These positional preferences were consistent with cleavage sites in the protein GFPssrA by ClpXP1P2. Studies of ClpP1P2 with inactive ClpP1 or ClpP2 indicated that ClpP1 was responsible for nearly all the peptidase activity, whereas both ClpP1 and ClpP2 contributed to protein degradation. Substrate-based peptide boronates were synthesized that inhibit ClpP1P2 peptidase activity in the submicromolar range. Some of them inhibited the growth of Mtb cells in the low micromolar range indicating that cleavage specificity of Mtb ClpP1P2 can be used to design novel anti-bacterial agents. PMID:25759383

  6. Evaluation of DNA-binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mononuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2013-11-01

    Two 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), and its ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the compounds bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes assayed against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  7. Cleavage Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 Protease and Identification of Novel Peptide Substrates and Boronate Inhibitors with Anti-bacterial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Tatos; Kandror, Olga; Tsu, Christopher; Lai, Jack H.; Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Zhao, Peng; Park, Annie; Wolf, Lisa; Dick, Lawrence R.; Rubin, Eric J.; Bachovchin, William; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    The ClpP1P2 protease complex is essential for viability in Mycobacteria tuberculosis and is an attractive drug target. Using a fluorogenic tripeptide library (Ac-X3X2X1-aminomethylcoumarin) and by determining specificity constants (kcat/Km), we show that ClpP1P2 prefers Met ≫ Leu > Phe > Ala in the X1 position, basic residues or Trp in the X2 position, and Pro ≫ Ala > Trp in the X3 position. We identified peptide substrates that are hydrolyzed up to 1000 times faster than the standard ClpP substrate. These positional preferences were consistent with cleavage sites in the protein GFPssrA by ClpXP1P2. Studies of ClpP1P2 with inactive ClpP1 or ClpP2 indicated that ClpP1 was responsible for nearly all the peptidase activity, whereas both ClpP1 and ClpP2 contributed to protein degradation. Substrate-based peptide boronates were synthesized that inhibit ClpP1P2 peptidase activity in the submicromolar range. Some of them inhibited the growth of Mtb cells in the low micromolar range indicating that cleavage specificity of Mtb ClpP1P2 can be used to design novel anti-bacterial agents. PMID:25759383

  8. Evaluation of DNA-binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mononuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2013-11-01

    Two 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL(1)) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL(2)), and its ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL(1) and HL(2) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the compounds bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes assayed against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations. PMID:23845986

  9. Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicle-associated proteolytic activity promotes bacterial invasion by mediating cleavage of intestinal epithelial cell E-cadherin and occludin.

    PubMed

    Elmi, Abdi; Nasher, Fauzy; Jagatia, Heena; Gundogdu, Ozan; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan; Dorrell, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) play an important role in the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni produces OMVs that trigger IL-8, IL-6, hBD-3 and TNF-α responses from T84 intestinal epithelial cells and are cytotoxic to Caco-2 IECs and Galleria mellonella larvae. Proteomic analysis of 11168H OMVs identified the presence of three proteases, HtrA, Cj0511 and Cj1365c. In this study, 11168H OMVs were shown to possess proteolytic activity that was reduced by pretreatment with specific serine protease inhibitors. OMVs isolated from 11168H htrA, Cj0511 or Cj1365c mutants possess significantly reduced proteolytic activity. 11168H OMVs are able to cleave both E-cadherin and occludin, but this cleavage is reduced with OMVs pretreated with serine protease inhibitors and also with OMVs isolated from htrA or Cj1365c mutants. Co-incubation of T84 monolayers with 11168H OMVs results in a visible reduction in both E-cadherin and occludin. The addition of 11168H OMVs to the co-culture of live 11168H bacteria with T84 cells results in enhanced levels of bacterial adhesion and invasion in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation of the cleavage of host cell structural proteins by C. jejuni OMVs should enhance our understanding of the interactions of this important pathogen with intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26451973

  10. Differential inhibition of restriction enzyme cleavage by chromophore-modified analogues of the antitumour antibiotics mithramycin and chromomycin reveals structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Sylvia; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A; Portugal, José

    2010-05-15

    Differential cleavage at three restriction enzyme sites was used to determine the specific binding to DNA of the antitumour antibiotics mithramycin A (MTA), chromomycin A(3) (CRO) and six chromophore-modified analogues bearing shorter side chains attached at C-3, instead of the pentyl chain. All these antibiotics were obtained through combinatorial biosynthesis in the producer organisms. MTA, CRO and their six analogues showed differences in their capacity for inhibiting the rate of cleavage by restriction enzymes that recognize C/G-rich tracts. Changes in DNA melting temperature produced by these molecules were also analyzed, as well as their antiproliferative activities against a panel of colon, ovarian and prostate human carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, the cellular uptake of several analogues was examined to identify whether intracellular retention was related to cytotoxicity. These experimental approaches provided mutually consistent evidence of a seeming correlation between the strength of binding to DNA and the antiproliferative activity of the chromophore-modified molecules. Four of the analogues (mithramycin SK, mithramycin SDK, chromomycin SK and chromomycin SDK) showed promising biological profiles. PMID:20093108

  11. Analysis of the complement sensitivity of oral treponemes and the potential influence of FH binding, FH cleavage and dentilisin activity on the pathogenesis of periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel P.; McDowell, John V.; Bell, Jessica K.; Goetting-Minesky, Melissa P.; Fenno, J. Christopher; Marconi, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Treponema denticola, a periopathogen, evades complement-mediated killing by binding the negative complement regulatory protein factor H (FH) to its surface via the FhbB protein. Paradoxically, bound FH is cleaved by T. denticola’s dentilisin protease, a process hypothesized to trigger localized dysregulation of complement activation in periodontal pockets. The ability of other oral treponemes to evade complement-mediated killing and bind and cleave FH has not been assessed. In this report, we demonstrate that representative isolates of T. socranskii, T. medium, T. pectinovorum and T. maltophilum are also serum resistant while T. vincentii and T. amylovorum are serum sensitive. While T. denticola’s ability to evade complement-mediated killing is strictly dependent on FH binding, other serum resistant treponemal species lack FhbB and do not bind FH indicating an FH-independent mechanism of complement evasion. To assess the influence of FhbB sequence variation on FH binding and cleavage by T. denticola, fhbB sequences were determined for 30 isolates. Three distinct phyletic types were identified. While all T. denticola strains bound FH and were serum resistant, differences in binding kinetics, dentilisin activity, and FH cleavage ability were observed. Based on these analyses, we hypothesize that the composition of the T. denticola population is a determining factor that influences the progression and severity of periodontal disease. PMID:24815960

  12. Synthesis, DNA binding and cleavage activities of copper (II) thiocyanate complex with 4-( N, N-dimethylamino)pyridine and N, N-dimethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-juan; Xu, Min; Xi, Pin-xian; Liu, Hong-yang; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Two novel copper(II) thiocyanate complexes with 4-( N, N-dimethylamino) pyridine and N, N-dimethylformamide( 1) and with4-( N, N-dimethylamino) pyridine ( 2) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Antioxidative activity tests in vitro showed that complex 1 has significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction and also oxygen free radicals, which is better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that complex 1 can bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode. Moreover, complex 1 has been found to cleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322.

  13. Synthesis, DNA binding and cleavage activities of copper (II) thiocyanate complex with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-juan; Xu, Min; Xi, Pin-xian; Liu, Hong-yang; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-10-15

    Two novel copper(II) thiocyanate complexes with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide (1) and with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) pyridine (2) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Antioxidative activity tests in vitro showed that complex 1 has significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction and also oxygen free radicals, which is better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that complex 1 can bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode. Moreover, complex 1 has been found to cleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322. PMID:21723777

  14. Charon Mediates Immune Deficiency-Driven PARP-1-Dependent Immune Responses in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbiao; Thomas, Colin; Tulin, Nikita; Lodhi, Niraj; Boamah, Ernest; Kolenko, Vladimir; Tulin, Alexei V

    2016-09-15

    Regulation of NF-κB nuclear translocation and stability is central to mounting an effective innate immune response. In this article, we describe a novel molecular mechanism controlling NF-κB-dependent innate immune response. We show that a previously unknown protein, termed as Charon, functions as a regulator of antibacterial and antifungal immune defense in Drosophila Charon is an ankyrin repeat-containing protein that mediates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-dependent transcriptional responses downstream of the innate immune pathway. Our results demonstrate that Charon interacts with the NF-κB ortholog Relish inside perinuclear particles and delivers active Relish to PARP-1-bearing promoters, thus triggering NF-κB/PARP-1-dependent transcription of antimicrobial peptides. Ablating the expression of Charon prevents Relish from targeting promoters of antimicrobial genes and effectively suppresses the innate immune transcriptional response. Taken together, these results implicate Charon as an essential mediator of PARP-1-dependent transcription in the innate immune pathway. Thus, to our knowledge, our results are the first to describe the molecular mechanism regulating translocation of the NF-κB subunit from cytoplasm to chromatin. PMID:27527593

  15. Senescent cells develop a PARP-1 and nuclear factor-κB-associated secretome (PNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ohanna, Mickaël; Giuliano, Sandy; Bonet, Caroline; Imbert, Véronique; Hofman, Véronique; Zangari, Joséphine; Bille, Karine; Robert, Caroline; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Hofman, Paul; Rocchi, Stéphane; Peyron, Jean-François; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Bertolotto, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma cells can enter the process of senescence, but whether they express a secretory phenotype, as reported for other cells, is undetermined. This is of paramount importance, because this secretome can alter the tumor microenvironment and the response to chemotherapeutic drugs. More generally, the molecular events involved in formation of the senescent-associated secretome have yet to be determined. We reveal here that melanoma cells experiencing senescence in response to diverse stimuli, including anti-melanoma drugs, produce an inflammatory secretory profile, where the chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) acts as a critical effector. Thus, we reveal how senescence induction might be involved in therapeutic failure in melanoma. We further provide a molecular relationship between senescence induction and secretome formation by revealing that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling cascade, activated during senescence, drives the formation of a secretome endowed with protumoral and prometastatic properties. Our findings also point to the existence of the PARP-1 and NF-κB-associated secretome, termed the PNAS, in nonmelanoma cells. Most importantly, inhibition of PARP-1 or NF-κB prevents the proinvasive properties of the secretome. Collectively, identification of the PARP-1/NF-κB axis in secretome formation opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention against cancers. PMID:21646373

  16. Concepts and Molecular Aspects in the Polypharmacology of PARP-1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Passeri, Daniela; Camaioni, Emidio; Liscio, Paride; Sabbatini, Paola; Ferri, Martina; Carotti, Andrea; Giacchè, Nicola; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2016-06-20

    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in PARP-1 inhibitors as promising anticancer agents with multifaceted functions. Particularly exciting developments include the approval of olaparib (Lynparza) for the treatment of refractory ovarian cancer in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations, and the increasing understanding of the polypharmacology of PARP-1 inhibitors. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the distinct levels of the polypharmacology of PARP-1 inhibitors, including 1) inter-family polypharmacology, 2) intra-family polypharmacology, and 3) multi-signaling polypharmacology. Progress made in gaining insight into the molecular basis of these multiple target-independent and target-dependent activities of PARP-1 inhibitors are discussed, with an outlook on the potential impact that a better understanding of polypharmacology may have in aiding the explanation as to why some drug candidates work better than others in clinical settings, albeit acting on the same target with similar inhibitory potency. PMID:26424664

  17. Effects of Niacin Restriction on Sirtuin and PARP Responses to Photodamage in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Claudia A.; Schnell, Stephanie A.; Jacobson, Elaine L.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), NAD+-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3), actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1–7). Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD+, the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention. PMID:22860104

  18. Synthesis, characterization, DNA interactions, DNA cleavage, radical scavenging activity, antibacterial, anti-proliferative and docking studies of new transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Chennam, Kishan Prasad; Ravi, Mudavath; Ushaiah, B; Srinu, V; Eslavath, Ravi Kumar; Devi, Ch Sarala

    2016-01-01

    The compound N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-ethyl-1, 4-dihydro-7-methyl-4-oxo-1, 8 naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazide (LH) and its Cu (II), Co (II) and Zn (II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. The absorption spectral titrations and competitive DNA binding studies depicted those complexes of title compound bind to CT-DNA through intercalation. Interestingly [Cu (II)-(L2)] showed relatively high binding constant value (6.61 x 10(5) M(-1)) compared to [Co (II)-(L2)] (4.378× 10(5) M(-1)) and [Zn (II)-(L2)] (3.1x10(5) M(-1)). Ligand and its complexes were also examined for DNA nuclease activity against pBR-322 plasmid DNA, which showed that [Cu (II)-(L2)] had the best hydrolytic cleavage property displaying prominent double-strand DNA cleavage. In addition, antioxidant activities of the ligand and its metal complexes investigated through scavenging effects for DPPH radical in- vitro, indicated their potentiality as good antioxidants. The in vitro anti-bacterial study inferred the better anti-bacterial activity of [Cu (II)-(L2)] and this was also correlated theoretically by employing docking studies wherein [Cu (II)-(L2)] displayed good Gold score and Chem score. Finally the in vitro anti- proliferative activity of studied compounds was tested against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Interestingly [Cu (II)-(L2)] displayed lower IC50 value and lower percentage of viability in both HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. PMID:26545354

  19. Characterization of a series of 4-aminoquinolines that stimulate caspase-7 mediated cleavage of TDP-43 and inhibit its function.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Joel A; McDonnell, Mark E; Velvadapu, Venkata; Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Reitz, Allen B

    2012-09-01

    Dysfunction of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is associated with neurodegeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here we examine the effects of a series of 4-aminoquinolines with affinity for TDP-43 upon caspase-7-induced cleavage of TDP-43 and TDP-43 cellular function. These compounds were mixed inhibitors of biotinylated TG6 binding to TDP-43, binding to both free and occupied TDP-43. Incubation of TDP-43 and caspase-7 in the presence of these compounds stimulated caspase-7 mediated cleavage of TDP-43. This effect was antagonized by the oligonucleotide TG12, prevented by denaturing TDP-43, and exhibited a similar relation of structure to function as for the displacement of bt-TG6 binding to TDP-43. In addition, the compounds did not affect caspase-7 enzyme activity. In human neuroglioma H4 cells, these compounds lowered levels of TDP-43 and increased TDP-43 C-terminal fragments via a caspase-dependent mechanism. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that this was due to induction of caspases 3 and 7 leading to increased PARP cleavage in H4 cells with similar rank order of the potency among the compounds tests for displacement of bt-TG6 binding. Exposure to these compounds also reduced HDAC-6, ATG-7, and increased LC3B, consistent with the effects of TDP-43 siRNA described by other investigators. These data suggest that such compounds may be useful biochemical probes to further understand both the normal and pathological functions of TDP-43, and its cleavage and metabolism promoted by caspases. PMID:22659571

  20. kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of Drosophila Notch

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Toby; Kidd, Simon; Young, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    Loss of Kuzbanian, a member of the ADAM family of metalloproteases, produces neurogenic phenotypes in Drosophila. It has been suggested that this results from a requirement for kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of the Notch ligand Delta. Using transgenic Drosophila expressing transmembrane Notch proteins, we show that kuzbanian, independent of any role in Delta processing, is required for the cleavage of Notch. We show that Kuzbanian can physically associate with Notch and that removal of kuzbanian activity by RNA-mediated interference in Drosophila tissue culture cells eliminates processing of ligand-independent transmembrane Notch molecules. Our data suggest that in Drosophila, kuzbanian can mediate S2 cleavage of Notch. PMID:11799064

  1. Synthesis, structure, DNA binding and DNA cleavage activity of oxovanadium(IV) N-salicylidene-S-methyldithiocarbazate complexes of phenanthroline bases.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Pijus K; Patra, Ashis K; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2008-07-01

    Ternary oxovanadium(IV) complexes [VO(salmdtc)(B)] (1-3), where salmdtc is dianionic N-salicylidene-S-methyldithiocarbazate and B is N,N-donor phenanthroline bases like 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), are prepared, characterized and their DNA binding and DNA cleavage activity studied. Complex 3 is structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure shows the presence of a vanadyl group in six-coordinate VN(3)O(2)S coordination geometry. The S-methyldithiocarbazate Schiff base acts as a tridentate NSO-donor ligand in a meridional binding mode. The N,N-donor heterocyclic base displays a chelating mode of binding with an N-donor site trans to the vanadyl oxo-group. The complexes show a d-d band in the range of 675-707 nm in DMF. They exhibit an irreversible oxidative cyclic voltammetric response near 0.9 V due to the V(V)/V(IV) couple and a quasi-reversible reductive V(IV)/V(III) redox couple near -1.0 V vs. SCE in DMF-0.1M TBAP. The complexes show good binding propensity to calf thymus DNA giving binding constant values in the range of 7.4 x 10(4)-2.3 x 10(5)M(-1). The thermal denaturation and viscosity binding data suggest DNA surface and/or groove binding nature of the complexes. The complexes show poor chemical nuclease activity in dark in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or hydrogen peroxide. The dpq and dppz complexes show efficient DNA cleavage activity in UV-A light of 365 nm via a type-II mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) as the reactive species. PMID:18279964

  2. MLH1 mediates PARP-dependent cell death in response to the methylating agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    PubMed Central

    McDaid, J R; Loughery, J; Dunne, P; Boyer, J C; Downes, C S; Farber, R A; Walsh, C P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Methylating agents such as N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) can cause cell cycle arrest and death either via caspase-dependent apoptosis or via a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent form of apoptosis. We wished to investigate the possible role of MLH1 in signalling cell death through PARP. Methods: Fibroblasts are particularly dependent on a PARP-mediated cell death response to methylating agents. We used hTERT-immortalised normal human fibroblasts (WT) to generate isogenic MLH1-depleted cells, confirmed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Drug resistance was measured by clonogenic and cell viability assays and effects on the cell cycle by cell sorting. Damage signalling was additionally investigated using immunostaining. Results: MLH1-depleted cells were more resistant to MNU, as expected. Despite having an intact G2/M checkpoint, the WT cells did not initially undergo cell cycle arrest but instead triggered cell death directly by PARP overactivation and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The MLH1-depleted cells showed defects in this pathway, with decreased staining for phosphorylated H2AX, altered PARP activity and reduced AIF translocation. Inhibitors of PARP, but not of caspases, blocked AIF translocation and greatly decreased short-term cell death in both WT and MLH1-depleted cells. This MLH1-dependent response to MNU was not blocked by inhibitors of ATM/ATR or p53. Conclusion: These novel data indicate an important role for MLH1 in signalling PARP-dependent cell death in response to the methylating agent MNU. PMID:19623177

  3. Early-stage epigenetic modification during somatic cell reprogramming by Parp1 and Tet2.

    PubMed

    Doege, Claudia A; Inoue, Keiichi; Yamashita, Toru; Rhee, David B; Travis, Skylar; Fujita, Ryousuke; Guarnieri, Paolo; Bhagat, Govind; Vanti, William B; Shih, Alan; Levine, Ross L; Nik, Sara; Chen, Emily I; Abeliovich, Asa

    2012-08-30

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using the pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (together referred to as OSKM). iPSC reprogramming erases somatic epigenetic signatures—as typified by DNA methylation or histone modification at silent pluripotency loci—and establishes alternative epigenetic marks of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we describe an early and essential stage of somatic cell reprogramming, preceding the induction of transcription at endogenous pluripotency loci such as Nanog and Esrrb. By day 4 after transduction with OSKM, two epigenetic modification factors necessary for iPSC generation, namely poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp1) and ten-eleven translocation-2 (Tet2), are recruited to the Nanog and Esrrb loci. These epigenetic modification factors seem to have complementary roles in the establishment of early epigenetic marks during somatic cell reprogramming: Parp1 functions in the regulation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) modification, whereas Tet2 is essential for the early generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the oxidation of 5mC (refs 3,4). Although 5hmC has been proposed to serve primarily as an intermediate in 5mC demethylation to cytosine in certain contexts, our data, and also studies of Tet2-mutant human tumour cells, argue in favour of a role for 5hmC as an epigenetic mark distinct from 5mC. Consistent with this, Parp1 and Tet2 are each needed for the early establishment of histone modifications that typify an activated chromatin state at pluripotency loci, whereas Parp1 induction further promotes accessibility to the Oct4 reprogramming factor. These findings suggest that Parp1 and Tet2 contribute to an epigenetic program that directs subsequent transcriptional induction at pluripotency loci during somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:22902501

  4. YM155, a survivin suppressant, triggers PARP-dependent cell death (parthanatos) and inhibits esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma xenografts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gaijing; Ju, Qiang; Zhou, Lanping; Liu, Fang; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrated that sepantronium bromide (YM155), a survivin suppressant, inhibited esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) growth in mice bearing human ESCC xenografts without affecting body weight. In cell culture, YM155 decreased survivin levels and caused PARP-1 activation, poly-ADP polymer formation, and AIF translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Genetic knockdown of PARP-1 or AIF abrogated YM155-induced parthanatos cell death. Furthermore, FOS, JUN and c-MYC gene transcription, which is stimulated by activated PARP-1, was increased following YM155 treatment. Our data demonstrate that YM155 did not trigger apoptosis, but induced parthanatos, a cell death dependent on PARP-1 hyper-activation, and support clinical development of YM155 in ESCC. PMID:26090615

  5. YM155, a survivin suppressant, triggers PARP-dependent cell death (parthanatos) and inhibits esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Mao, Yousheng; Han, Gaijing; Ju, Qiang; Zhou, Lanping; Liu, Fang; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2015-07-30

    Here we demonstrated that sepantronium bromide (YM155), a survivin suppressant, inhibited esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) growth in mice bearing human ESCC xenografts without affecting body weight. In cell culture, YM155 decreased survivin levels and caused PARP-1 activation, poly-ADP polymer formation, and AIF translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Genetic knockdown of PARP-1 or AIF abrogated YM155-induced parthanatos cell death. Furthermore, FOS, JUN and c-MYC gene transcription, which is stimulated by activated PARP-1, was increased following YM155 treatment. Our data demonstrate that YM155 did not trigger apoptosis, but induced parthanatos, a cell death dependent on PARP-1 hyper-activation, and support clinical development of YM155 in ESCC. PMID:26090615

  6. Copper complexes based on chiral Schiff-base ligands: DNA/BSA binding ability, DNA cleavage activity, cytotoxicity and mechanism of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Quan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Dong-Yan; Nie, Yan; Li, Zong-Jin; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jin-Lei; Yan, Shi-Ping

    2016-05-23

    Four copper(II) complexes with chiral Schiff-base ligands, [Cu(R-L(1))2]·EtOAc (1) and [Cu(S-L(1))2]·EtOAc (2), [Cu(R-L(2))2]·EtOAc (3) and [Cu(S-L(2))2]·EtOAc (4), (R/S-HL(1) = (R/S)-(1-naththyl)-salicylaldimine, R/S-HL(2) = (R/S)-(1-naththyl)-3-methoxysalicylaldimine, EtOAc = ethyl acetate) were synthesized to serve as artificial nucleases and anticancer drugs. All complexes and R/S-HL(1) ligands were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA was researched via several spectroscopy methods, which indicates that complexes bind to CT-DNA by moderate intercalation binding mode. Moreover, DNA cleavage experiments revealed that the complexes exhibited remarkable DNA cleavage activities in the presence of H2O2via the generation of hydroxyl radical. Particularly, complex 4 also could nick DNA with the production of (1)O2. And all complexes exhibited excellent cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-231, A549 and Hela human cancer cells in micromole magnitude. Furthermore, complex 4 exhibited comparable cytotoxic effect to cisplatin against the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cancer cells, as well as showed better anticancer ability to the three cancer cells than the other complexes. The results of cell cycle analysis indicated that complexes 3-4 could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 3 and 4 were subjected to apoptosis and death by generation of ROS and the activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, the chiral complexes 3 and 4 may induce cell apoptosis through extrinsic and mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, respectively. PMID:26994692

  7. Highly sensitive fluorescence assay of DNA methyltransferase activity via methylation-sensitive cleavage coupled with nicking enzyme-assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Wu, Yayan; Dong, Yanhua; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-04-15

    Herein, using DNA adenine methylation (Dam) methyltransferase (MTase) as a model analyte, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive fluorescence sensing platform for monitoring the activity and inhibition of DNA MTase was developed on the basis of methylation-sensitive cleavage and nicking enzyme-assisted signal amplification. In the presence of Dam MTase, an elaborately designed hairpin probe was methylated. With the help of methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease DpnI, the methylated hairpin probe could be cleaved to release a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Subsequently, this released ssDNA would hybridize with the molecular beacon (MB) to open its hairpin structure, resulting in the restoration of fluorescence signal as well as formation of the double-stranded recognition site for nicking enzyme Nt.BbvCI. Eventually, an amplified fluorescence signal was observed through the enzymatic recycling cleavage of MBs. Based on this unique strategy, a very low detection limit down to 0.06 U/mL was achieved within a short assay time (60 min) in one step, which is superior to those of most existing approaches. Owing to the specific site recognition of MTase toward its substrate, the proposed sensing system was able to readily discriminate Dam MTase from other MTase such as M.SssI and even detect the target in complex biological matrix. Furthermore, the application of the proposed sensing strategy for screening Dam MTase inhibitors was also demonstrated with satisfactory results. This novel method not only provides a promising platform for monitoring activity and inhibition of DNA MTases, but also shows great potentials in biological process researches, drugs discovery and clinical diagnostics. PMID:23202331

  8. Rationale for Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Combination Therapy with Camptothecins or Temozolomide Based on PARP Trapping versus Catalytic Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Junko; Zhang, Yiping; Morris, Joel; Ji, Jiuping; Takeda, Shunichi; Doroshow, James H.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exert their cytotoxicity primarily by trapping PARP-DNA complexes in addition to their NAD+-competitive catalytic inhibitory mechanism. PARP trapping is drug-specific, with olaparib exhibiting a greater ability than veliparib, whereas both compounds are potent catalytic PARP inhibitors. Here, we evaluated the combination of olaparib or veliparib with therapeutically relevant DNA-targeted drugs, including the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, the alkylating agent temozolomide, the cross-linking agent cisplatin, and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide at the cellular and molecular levels. We determined PARP-DNA trapping and catalytic PARP inhibition in genetically modified chicken lymphoma DT40, human prostate DU145, and glioblastoma SF295 cancer cells. For camptothecin, both PARP inhibitors showed highly synergistic effects due to catalytic PARP inhibition, indicating the value of combining either veliparib or olaparib with topoisomerase I inhibitors. On the other hand, for temozolomide, PARP trapping was critical in addition to catalytic inhibition, consistent with the fact that olaparib was more effective than veliparib in combination with temozolomide. For cisplatin and etoposide, olaparib only showed no or a weak combination effect, which is consistent with the lack of involvement of PARP in the repair of cisplatin- and etoposide-induced lesions. Hence, we conclude that catalytic PARP inhibitors are highly effective in combination with camptothecins, whereas PARP inhibitors capable of PARP trapping are more effective with temozolomide. Our study provides insights in combination treatment rationales for different PARP inhibitors. PMID:24650937

  9. Rationale for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination therapy with camptothecins or temozolomide based on PARP trapping versus catalytic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Murai, Junko; Zhang, Yiping; Morris, Joel; Ji, Jiuping; Takeda, Shunichi; Doroshow, James H; Pommier, Yves

    2014-06-01

    We recently showed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exert their cytotoxicity primarily by trapping PARP-DNA complexes in addition to their NAD(+)-competitive catalytic inhibitory mechanism. PARP trapping is drug-specific, with olaparib exhibiting a greater ability than veliparib, whereas both compounds are potent catalytic PARP inhibitors. Here, we evaluated the combination of olaparib or veliparib with therapeutically relevant DNA-targeted drugs, including the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, the alkylating agent temozolomide, the cross-linking agent cisplatin, and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide at the cellular and molecular levels. We determined PARP-DNA trapping and catalytic PARP inhibition in genetically modified chicken lymphoma DT40, human prostate DU145, and glioblastoma SF295 cancer cells. For camptothecin, both PARP inhibitors showed highly synergistic effects due to catalytic PARP inhibition, indicating the value of combining either veliparib or olaparib with topoisomerase I inhibitors. On the other hand, for temozolomide, PARP trapping was critical in addition to catalytic inhibition, consistent with the fact that olaparib was more effective than veliparib in combination with temozolomide. For cisplatin and etoposide, olaparib only showed no or a weak combination effect, which is consistent with the lack of involvement of PARP in the repair of cisplatin- and etoposide-induced lesions. Hence, we conclude that catalytic PARP inhibitors are highly effective in combination with camptothecins, whereas PARP inhibitors capable of PARP trapping are more effective with temozolomide. Our study provides insights in combination treatment rationales for different PARP inhibitors. PMID:24650937

  10. A mechanistic approach for the DNA binding of chiral enantiomeric L- and D-tryptophan-derived metal complexes of 1,2-DACH: cleavage and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Farukh; Muddassir, Mohd

    2011-03-01

    A new chiral series of potential antitumor metal-based complexes 1-3(a and b) of L- and D-tryptophan have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. Both enantiomers of 1-3 bind DNA noncovalently via phosphate interaction with slight preference of metal center for covalent coordination to nucleobases. The K(b) values of L-enantiomer, however, possess higher propensity for DNA binding in comparison with the D-enantiomeric analogs. The relative trend in K(b) values is as follows: 2(a) > 2(b) > 3(a) > 1(a) > 3(b) > 1(b). These observations together with the findings of circular dichoric and fluorescence studies reveal maximal potential of L-enantiomeric form of copper complex to bind DNA, thereby exerting its therapeutic effect. The complex 2a exhibits a remarkable DNA cleavage activity with pBR322DNA in the presence of different activators such as H(2) O(2) , ascorbic acid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and glutathione, suggesting the involvement of active oxygen species for the DNA scission. In vitro anticancer activity of complexes 1-3(a) were screened against 14 different human carcinoma cell lines of different histological origin, and the results reveal that 2a shows significant antitumor activity in comparison with both 1a and 3a and is particularly selective for MIAPACA2 (pancreatic cancer cell line). PMID:20928895

  11. General Base Catalysis for Cleavage by the Active-Site Cytosine of the Hepatitis Delta Virus Ribozyme: QM/MM Calculations Establish Chemical Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Banáš, Pavel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hánošová, Veronika; Svozil, Daniel; Walter, Nils G.

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is an RNA motif embedded in human pathogenic HDV RNA. Previous experimental studies have established that the active-site nucleotide C75 is essential for self-cleavage of the ribozyme, although its exact catalytic role in the process remains debated. Structural data from X-ray crystallography generally indicate that C75 acts as the general base that initiates catalysis by deprotonating the 2′-OH nucleophile at the cleavage site, while a hydrated magnesium ion likely protonates the 5′-oxygen leaving group. In contrast, some mechanistic studies support the role of C75 acting as general acid and thus being protonated before the reaction. We report combined quantum chemical/molecular mechanical calculations for the C75 general base pathway, utilizing the available structural data for the wild type HDV genomic ribozyme as a starting point. Several starting configurations differing in magnesium ion placement were considered and both one-dimensional and two-dimensional potential energy surface scans were used to explore plausible reaction paths. Our calculations show that C75 is readily capable of acting as the general base, in concert with the hydrated magnesium ion as the general acid. We identify a most likely position for the magnesium ion, which also suggests it acts as a Lewis acid. The calculated energy barrier of the proposed mechanism, ~20 kcal/mol, would lower the reaction barrier by ~15 kcal/mol compared to the uncatalyzed reaction and is in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:18686993

  12. Concurrent targeting of nitrosative stress-PARP pathway corrects functional, behavioral and biochemical deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Negi, Geeta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sharma, Shyam S.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxynitrite mediated nitrosative stress, an indisputable initiator of DNA damage and overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme activated after sensing DNA damage, are two crucial pathogenetic mechanisms in diabetic neuropathy. The intent of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst (PDC), FeTMPyP and a PARP inhibitor, 4-ANI against diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The end points of evaluation of the study included motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and nerve blood flow (NBF) for evaluating nerve functions; thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia for assessing nociceptive alterations, malondialdehyde and peroxynitrite levels to detect oxidative stress-nitrosative stress; NAD concentration in sciatic nerve to assess overactivation of PARP. Additionally immunohistochemical studies for nitrotyrosine and Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) was also performed. Treatment with the combination of FeTMPyP and 4-ANI led to significant improvement in nerve functions and pain parameters and also attenuated the oxidative-nitrosative stress markers. Further, the combination also reduced the overactivation of PARP as evident from increased NAD levels and decreased PAR immunopositivity in sciatic nerve microsections. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with the combination of a PDC and PARP inhibitor attenuates alteration in peripheral nerves in diabetic neuropathy (DN).

  13. C1q-TNF-related protein-9, a novel cardioprotetcive cardiokine, requires proteolytic cleavage to generate a biologically active globular domain isoform.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuexing; Lau, Wayne Bond; Su, Hui; Sun, Yang; Yi, Wei; Du, Yunhui; Christopher, Theodore; Lopez, Bernard; Wang, Yajing; Ma, Xin-Liang

    2015-05-15

    Prevalence and severity of postmyocardial infarction heart failure continually escalate in type 2 diabetes via incompletely understood mechanisms. The discovery of the cardiac secretomes, collectively known as "cardiokines", has significantly enhanced appreciation of the local microenvironment's influence on disease development. Recent studies demonstrated that C1q-TNF-related protein-9 (CTRP9), a newly discovered adiponectin (APN) paralog, is highly expressed in the heart. However, its relationship with APN (concerning diabetic cardiovascular injury in particular) remains unknown. Plasma CTRP9 levels are elevated in APN knockout and reduced in diabetic mice. In contrast to APN, which circulates as full-length multimers, CTRP9 circulates in the plasma primarily in the globular domain isoform (gCTRP9). Recombinant full-length CTRP9 (fCTRP9) was cleaved when incubated with cardiac tissue extracts, generating gCTRP9, a process inhibited by protease inhibitor cocktail. gCTRP9 rapidly activates cardiac survival kinases, including AMPK, Akt, and endothelial NOS. However, fCTRP9-mediated kinase activation is much less potent and significantly delayed. Kinase activation by fCTRP9, but not gCTRP9, is inhibited by protease inhibitor cocktail. These results demonstrate for the first time that the novel cardiokine CTRP9 undergoes proteolytic cleavage to generate gCTRP9, the dominant circulatory and actively cardioprotective isoform. Enhancing cardiac CTRP9 production and/or its proteolytic posttranslational modification are of therapeutic potential, attenuating diabetic cardiac injury. PMID:25783894

  14. Centralspindlin in Rappaport's cleavage signaling.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Cleavage furrow in animal cell cytokinesis is formed by cortical constriction driven by contraction of an actomyosin network activated by Rho GTPase. Although the role of the mitotic apparatus in furrow induction has been well established, there remain discussions about the detailed molecular mechanisms of the cleavage signaling. While experiments in large echinoderm embryos highlighted the role of astral microtubules, data in smaller cells indicate the role of central spindle. Centralspindlin is a constitutive heterotetramer of MKLP1 kinesin and the non-motor CYK4 subunit and plays crucial roles in formation of the central spindle and recruitment of the downstream cytokinesis factors including ECT2, the major activator of Rho during cytokinesis, to the site of division. Recent reports have revealed a role of this centralspindlin-ECT2 pathway in furrow induction both by the central spindle and by the astral microtubules. Here, a unified view of the stimulation of cortical contractility by this pathway is discussed. Cytokinesis, the division of the whole cytoplasm, is an essential process for cell proliferation and embryonic development. In animal cells, cytokinesis is executed using a contractile network of actin filaments driven by a myosin-II motor that constricts the cell cortex (cleavage furrow ingression) into a narrow channel between the two daughter cells, which is resolved by scission (abscission) [1-3]. The anaphase-specific organization of the mitotic apparatus (MA, spindle with chromosomes plus asters) positions the cleavage furrow and plays a major role in spatial coupling between mitosis and cytokinesis [4-6]. The nucleus and chromosomes are dispensable for furrow specification [7-10], although they contribute to persistent furrowing and robust completion in some cell types [11,12]. Likewise, centrosomes are not essential for cytokinesis, but they contribute to the general fidelity of cell division [10,13-15]. Here, classical models of cleavage furrow

  15. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  16. STAT6 and PARP Family Members in the Development of T Cell-dependent Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Purna; Kaplan, Mark H

    2016-08-01

    Allergic inflammation requires the orchestration of altered gene expression in the target tissue and in the infiltrating immune cells. The transcription factor STAT6 is critical in activating cytokine gene expression and cytokine signaling both in the immune cells and in target tissue cells including airway epithelia, keratinocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. STAT6 is activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 to mediate the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this review, we summarize the role of STAT6 in allergic diseases, its interaction with the co-factor PARP14 and the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 and PARP14 regulate gene transcription. PMID:27574499

  17. What Is the Place of PARP Inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer Treatment?

    PubMed

    Liu, Joyce F; Matulonis, Ursula A

    2016-05-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been one of the most exciting developments in the treatment of ovarian cancer in recent years. Demonstration of anti-cancer activity has led to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval of the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib as maintenance therapy in women with BRCA-mutated (BRCAm) ovarian cancer with platinum-sensitive recurrence following response to platinum therapy and the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approval of olaparib in relapsed germline BRCA-mutated (gBRCAm) ovarian cancer in women who have received at least three prior chemotherapy treatments, both occurring in 2014. Additional trials are underway or awaiting final analysis with olaparib, other PARPis, and PARPi combinations to further elucidate the activity of these drugs in various clinical settings. This review will focus on the current clinical experience and ongoing trials with PARPis in ovarian cancer. PMID:26984416

  18. E7449: A dual inhibitor of PARP1/2 and tankyrase1/2 inhibits growth of DNA repair deficient tumors and antagonizes Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiayi; Chang, Paul; Kolber-Simonds, Donna; Ackermann, Karen; Twine, Natalie C.; Shie, Jue-Lon; Miu, Jingzang Tao; Huang, Kuan-Chun; Moniz, George A.; Nomoto, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) impairs DNA damage repair, and early generation PARP1/2 inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, etc.) have demonstrated clinical proof of concept for cancer treatment. Here, we describe the development of the novel PARP inhibitor E7449, a potent PARP1/2 inhibitor that also inhibits PARP5a/5b, otherwise known as tankyrase1 and 2 (TNKS1 and 2), important regulators of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. E7449 inhibits PARP enzymatic activity and additionally traps PARP1 onto damaged DNA; a mechanism previously shown to augment cytotoxicity. Cells deficient in DNA repair pathways beyond homologous recombination were sensitive to E7449 treatment. Chemotherapy was potentiated by E7449 and single agent had significant antitumor activity in BRCA-deficient xenografts. Additionally, E7449 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cell lines, likely through TNKS inhibition. Consistent with this possibility, E7449 stabilized axin and TNKS proteins resulting in β-catenin de-stabilization and significantly altered expression of Wnt target genes. Notably, hair growth mediated by Wnt signaling was inhibited by E7449. A pharmacodynamic effect of E7449 on Wnt target genes was observed in tumors, although E7449 lacked single agent antitumor activity in vivo, a finding typical for selective TNKS inhibitors. E7449 antitumor activity was increased through combination with MEK inhibition. Particularly noteworthy was the lack of toxicity, most significantly the lack of intestinal toxicity reported for other TNKS inhibitors. E7449 represents a novel dual PARP1/2 and TNKS1/2 inhibitor which has the advantage of targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling addicted tumors. E7449 is currently in early clinical development. PMID:26513298

  19. E7449: A dual inhibitor of PARP1/2 and tankyrase1/2 inhibits growth of DNA repair deficient tumors and antagonizes Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Sharon; Chen, Zhihong; Wu, Jiayi; Chang, Paul; Kolber-Simonds, Donna; Ackermann, Karen; Twine, Natalie C; Shie, Jue-Lon; Miu, Jingzang Tao; Huang, Kuan-Chun; Moniz, George A; Nomoto, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) impairs DNA damage repair, and early generation PARP1/2 inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, etc.) have demonstrated clinical proof of concept for cancer treatment. Here, we describe the development of the novel PARP inhibitor E7449, a potent PARP1/2 inhibitor that also inhibits PARP5a/5b, otherwise known as tankyrase1 and 2 (TNKS1 and 2), important regulators of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. E7449 inhibits PARP enzymatic activity and additionally traps PARP1 onto damaged DNA; a mechanism previously shown to augment cytotoxicity. Cells deficient in DNA repair pathways beyond homologous recombination were sensitive to E7449 treatment. Chemotherapy was potentiated by E7449 and single agent had significant antitumor activity in BRCA-deficient xenografts. Additionally, E7449 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cell lines, likely through TNKS inhibition. Consistent with this possibility, E7449 stabilized axin and TNKS proteins resulting in β-catenin de-stabilization and significantly altered expression of Wnt target genes. Notably, hair growth mediated by Wnt signaling was inhibited by E7449. A pharmacodynamic effect of E7449 on Wnt target genes was observed in tumors, although E7449 lacked single agent antitumor activity in vivo, a finding typical for selective TNKS inhibitors. E7449 antitumor activity was increased through combination with MEK inhibition. Particularly noteworthy was the lack of toxicity, most significantly the lack of intestinal toxicity reported for other TNKS inhibitors. E7449 represents a novel dual PARP1/2 and TNKS1/2 inhibitor which has the advantage of targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling addicted tumors. E7449 is currently in early clinical development. PMID:26513298

  20. The Molybdenum Active Site of Formate Dehydrogenase Is Capable of Catalyzing C-H Bond Cleavage and Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Tobias; Schrapers, Peer; Utesch, Tillmann; Nimtz, Manfred; Rippers, Yvonne; Dau, Holger; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Haumann, Michael; Leimkühler, Silke

    2016-04-26

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are capable of performing the reversible oxidation of formate and are enzymes of great interest for fuel cell applications and for the production of reduced carbon compounds as energy sources from CO2. Metal-containing FDHs in general contain a highly conserved active site, comprising a molybdenum (or tungsten) center coordinated by two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide molecules, a sulfido and a (seleno-)cysteine ligand, in addition to a histidine and arginine residue in the second coordination sphere. So far, the role of these amino acids in catalysis has not been studied in detail, because of the lack of suitable expression systems and the lability or oxygen sensitivity of the enzymes. Here, the roles of these active site residues is revealed using the Mo-containing FDH from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Our results show that the cysteine ligand at the Mo ion is displaced by the formate substrate during the reaction, the arginine has a direct role in substrate binding and stabilization, and the histidine elevates the pKa of the active site cysteine. We further found that in addition to reversible formate oxidation, the enzyme is further capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite. We propose a mechanistic scheme that combines both functionalities and provides important insights into the distinct mechanisms of C-H bond cleavage and oxygen atom transfer catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase. PMID:27054466

  1. Cleavage of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) precursor to produce active IL-1 beta by a conserved extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, V; Majesky, M W; Li, L L; Black, R A; Musser, J M

    1993-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B), a conserved extracellular cysteine protease expressed by the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, was purified and shown to cleave inactive human interleukin 1 beta precursor (pIL-1 beta) to produce biologically active IL-1 beta. SPE B cleaves pIL-1 beta one residue amino-terminal to the site where a recently characterized endogenous human cysteine protease acts. IL-1 beta resulting from cleavage of pIL-1 beta by SPE B induced nitric oxide synthase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells and killed of the human melanoma A375 line. Two additional naturally occurring SPE B variants cleaved pIL-1 beta in a similar fashion. By demonstrating that SPE B catalyzes the formation of biologically active IL-1 beta from inactive pIL-1 beta, our data add a further dimension to an emerging theme in microbial pathogenesis that bacterial and viral virulence factors act directly on host cytokine pathways. The data also contribute to an enlarging literature demonstrating that microbial extracellular cysteine proteases are important in host-parasite interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7689226

  2. DNA Binding, Cleavage and Antibacterial Activity of Mononuclear Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) Complexes Derived from Novel Benzothiazole Schiff Bases.

    PubMed

    Vamsikrishna, Narendrula; Kumar, Marri Pradeep; Tejaswi, Somapangu; Rambabu, Aveli; Shivaraj

    2016-07-01

    A series of novel bivalent metal complexes M(L1)2 and M(L2)2 where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and L1 = 2-((benzo [d] thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl)-4-bromophenol [BTEMBP], L2 = 1-((benzo [d] thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl) naphthalen-2-ol [BTEMNAPP] were synthesized. All the compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, Mass, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-Vis, IR, ESR, spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Based on the analytical and spectral data four-coordinated square planar geometry is assigned to all the complexes. DNA binding properties of these complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. It is observed that these binary complexes strongly bind to calf thymus DNA by an intercalation mode. DNA cleavage efficacy of these complexes was tested in presence of H2O2 and UV light by gel electrophoresis and found that all the complexes showed better nuclease activity. Finally the compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against few pathogens and found that the complexes have potent biocidal activity than their free ligands. PMID:27165038

  3. Targeting PARP in Prostate Cancer: Novelty, Pitfalls, and Promise.

    PubMed

    Palmbos, Phillip L; Hussain, Maha H

    2016-05-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains a highly lethal disease with no curative therapeutic options. A significant subset of patients with prostate cancer harbor either germline or somatic mutations in DNA repair enzyme genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM. Emerging data suggest that drugs that target poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes may represent a novel and effective means of treating tumors with these DNA repair defects, including prostate cancers. Here we will review the molecular mechanism of action of PARP inhibitors and discuss how they target tumor cells with faulty DNA repair functions and transcriptional controls. We will review emerging data for the utility of PARP inhibition in the management of metastatic prostate cancer. Finally, we will place PARP inhibitors within the framework of precision medicine-based care of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:27188668

  4. Induction of cell death by ternary copper(II) complexes of L-tyrosine and diimines: role of coligands on DNA binding and cleavage and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sethu; Rajendiran, Venugopal; Palaniandavar, Mallayan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Srinag, Bangalore Suresh; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2009-02-16

    viscosity of DNA bound to 1 decreases, indicating the shortening of the DNA chain length by means of the formation of kinks or bends. All complexes exhibit effective DNA (pUC19 DNA) cleavage at 100 microM complex concentrations, and the order of DNA cleavage ability varies as 3 > 2 > 4 > 1. Interestingly, 3 exhibits a DNA cleavage rate constant that is higher than that of the other complexes only at 100 microM concentration, whereas 4 exhibits the highest cleavage rate constant at 80 microM complex concentration. The oxidative DNA cleavage follows the order 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Mechanistic studies reveal that the DNA cleavage pathway involves hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, only 4 displays efficient photonuclease activity upon irradiation with 365 nm light, which occurs through double-strand DNA breaks involving hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies on the nonsmall lung cancer (H-460) cell line show that the IC(50) values of 2-4 are more or less equal to cisplatin for the same cell line, indicating that they have the potential to act as very effective anticancer drugs in a time-dependent manner. The study of cytological changes reveals the higher induction of apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe for 4 and 3, respectively. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), DNA laddering, and AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining assays have also been employed in finding the extent of DNA damage. Flow cytometry analysis shows an increase in the percentage of cells with apoptotic morphological features in the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase for 4, whereas it shows mitotic catastrophe for 3. PMID:19140687

  5. Metal ion cooperativity in ribozyme cleavage of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Brännvall, Mathias; Kirsebom, Leif A.

    2001-01-01

    Combinations of chemical and genetic approaches were used to study the function of divalent metal ions in cleavage of RNA by the ribozyme RNase P RNA. We show that different divalent metal ions have differential effects on cleavage site recognition and rescue of cleavage activity by mixing divalent metal ions that do not promote cleavage by themselves. We conclude that efficient and correct cleavage is the result of cooperativity between divalent metal ions bound at different sites in the RNase P RNA-substrate complex. Complementation of a mutant RNase P RNA phenotype as a result of divalent metal ion replacement is demonstrated also. This finding together with other data indicate that one of the metal ions involved in this cooperativity is positioned near the cleavage site. The possibility that the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio might regulate the activity of biocatalysts that depend on RNA for activity is discussed. PMID:11606743

  6. Fibrinogen cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease and generation of antibodies that inhibit enzyme proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuka, Y V; Pillai, S; Gubba, S; Musser, J M; Olmsted, S B

    1999-09-01

    The extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes is a virulence factor that plays a significant role in host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcal protease is expressed as an inactive 40-kDa precursor that is autocatalytically converted into a 28-kDa mature (active) enzyme. Replacement of the single cysteine residue involved in formation of the enzyme active site with serine (C192S mutation) abolished detectable proteolytic activity and eliminated autocatalytic processing of zymogen to the mature form. In the present study, we investigated activity of the wild-type (wt) streptococcal protease toward human fibrinogen and bovine casein. The former is involved in blood coagulation, wound healing, and other aspects of hemostasis. Treatment with streptococcal protease resulted in degradation of the COOH-terminal region of fibrinogen alpha chain, indicating that fibrinogen may serve as an important substrate for this enzyme during the course of human infection. Polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant 40- and 28-kDa (r40- and r28-kDa) forms of the C192S streptococcal protease mutant exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers but demonstrated different inhibition activities toward proteolytic action of the wt enzyme. Activity of the wt protease was readily inhibited when the reaction was carried out in the presence of antibodies generated against r28-kDa C192S mutant. Antibodies produced against r40-kDa C192S mutant had no significant effect on proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of the NH(2)-terminal prosegment prevents generation of functionally active antibodies and indicate that inhibition activity of antibodies most likely depends on their ability to bind the active-site region epitope(s) of the protein. PMID:10456870

  7. Fibrinogen Cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes Extracellular Cysteine Protease and Generation of Antibodies That Inhibit Enzyme Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuka, Yury V.; Pillai, Subramonia; Gubba, Siddeswar; Musser, James M.; Olmsted, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes is a virulence factor that plays a significant role in host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcal protease is expressed as an inactive 40-kDa precursor that is autocatalytically converted into a 28-kDa mature (active) enzyme. Replacement of the single cysteine residue involved in formation of the enzyme active site with serine (C192S mutation) abolished detectable proteolytic activity and eliminated autocatalytic processing of zymogen to the mature form. In the present study, we investigated activity of the wild-type (wt) streptococcal protease toward human fibrinogen and bovine casein. The former is involved in blood coagulation, wound healing, and other aspects of hemostasis. Treatment with streptococcal protease resulted in degradation of the COOH-terminal region of fibrinogen α chain, indicating that fibrinogen may serve as an important substrate for this enzyme during the course of human infection. Polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant 40- and 28-kDa (r40- and r28-kDa) forms of the C192S streptococcal protease mutant exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers but demonstrated different inhibition activities toward proteolytic action of the wt enzyme. Activity of the wt protease was readily inhibited when the reaction was carried out in the presence of antibodies generated against r28-kDa C192S mutant. Antibodies produced against r40-kDa C192S mutant had no significant effect on proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of the NH2-terminal prosegment prevents generation of functionally active antibodies and indicate that inhibition activity of antibodies most likely depends on their ability to bind the active-site region epitope(s) of the protein. PMID:10456870

  8. The loss of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity prevents the amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and the formation of amyloid plaques in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Sonia; Xu, Ping; Ferrer, Isidre; Davis, Roger J; Tournier, Cathy

    2011-11-23

    Phosphorylation plays a central role in the dynamic regulation of the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the production of amyloid-β (Aβ), one of the clinically most important factors that determine the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This has led to the hypothesis that aberrant Aβ production associated with AD results from regulatory defects in signal transduction. However, conflicting findings have raised a debate over the identity of the signaling pathway that controls APP metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is essential for mediating the apoptotic response of neurons to Aβ. Furthermore, we discovered that the functional loss of JNK signaling in neurons significantly decreased the number of amyloid plaques present in the brain of mice carrying familial AD-linked mutant genes. This correlated with a reduction in Aβ production. Biochemical analyses indicate that the phosphorylation of APP at threonine 668 by JNK is required for γ-mediated cleavage of the C-terminal fragment of APP produced by β-secretase. Overall, this study provides genetic evidence that JNK signaling is required for the formation of amyloid plaques in vivo. Therefore, inhibition of increased JNK activity associated with aging or with a pathological condition constitutes a potential strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:22114267

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, DNA cleavage, superoxidase dismutase activity and antibacterial properties of some transition metal complexes of a novel bidentate Schiff base derived from isatin and 2-aminopyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Nitha, L P; Aswathy, R; Mathews, Niecy Elsa; Kumari, B Sindhu; Mohanan, K

    2014-01-24

    Complexes of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with a Schiff base, formed by the condensation of isatin with 2-aminopyrimidine have been synthesised and characterised through elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR, FAB mass and EPR spectral studies. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acts as neutral bidentate, coordinating to the metal ion through the carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. Molar conductance values adequately support the electrolytic nature of the complexes. On the basis of the above observations the complexes have been formulated as [M(ISAP)2]X2, where M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); X=Cl, OAc; ISAP=2-[N-indole-2-one]aminopyrimidine. The ligand and copper(II) complex were subjected to X-ray diffraction studies. The DNA cleavage study was monitored by gel electrophoresis method. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activities of the ligand and the metal complexes were checked using NBT assay. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds has been tested against gram negative and gram positive bacteria. PMID:24051284

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, DNA cleavage, superoxidase dismutase activity and antibacterial properties of some transition metal complexes of a novel bidentate Schiff base derived from isatin and 2-aminopyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitha, L. P.; Aswathy, R.; Mathews, Niecy Elsa; Sindhu kumari, B.; Mohanan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with a Schiff base, formed by the condensation of isatin with 2-aminopyrimidine have been synthesised and characterised through elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Vis, 1HNMR, FAB mass and EPR spectral studies. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acts as neutral bidentate, coordinating to the metal ion through the carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. Molar conductance values adequately support the electrolytic nature of the complexes. On the basis of the above observations the complexes have been formulated as [M(ISAP)2]X2, where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); X = Cl, OAc; ISAP = 2-[N-indole-2-one]aminopyrimidine. The ligand and copper(II) complex were subjected to X-ray diffraction studies. The DNA cleavage study was monitored by gel electrophoresis method. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activities of the ligand and the metal complexes were checked using NBT assay. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds has been tested against gram negative and gram positive bacteria.

  11. Evaluation of DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, radical scavenging and in vitro cytotoxic activities of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,4-dihydroxy benzylidene ligands.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-12-01

    The new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, 4-Methyl-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), 4-Methoxy-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)), 4-Bromo-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)), were synthesized and characterized by various spectro analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligands were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The DNA binding studies of the ligands and complexes were examined by absorption, fluorescence, viscosity and cyclic voltammetry methods. The results indicated that the ligands and complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis assay, which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleaving agents. The binding interaction of the ligands and complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic method. Antioxidant studies showed that the complexes have a strong radical scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibit significant anticancer activity. PMID:27612830

  12. Synthesis of mononuclear copper(II) complexes of acyclic Schiff's base ligands: Spectral, structural, electrochemical, antibacterial, DNA binding and cleavage activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Arumugam; Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Kang, Sung Kwon; Kim, Young-Inn; Ganesan, Vengatesan

    2014-03-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes (1&2) of ligands L1 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl)piperazine] or L2 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl) piperazine] have been synthesized and characterised. The single crystal X-ray study had shown that ligands L1 and L2 crystallize in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c space group. The mononuclear copper(II) complexes show one quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near cathodic region (-0.77 to -0.85 V) in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. Binding interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) investigated by absorption studies and fluorescence spectral studies show good binding affinity to CT DNA, which imply both the copper(II) complexes can strongly interact with DNA efficiently. The copper(II) complexes showed efficient oxidative cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as reducing agent through a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. The Schiff bases and their Cu(II) complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities which indicates that the complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands.

  13. A proportion of proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) only react with PR3 after cleavage of its N-terminal activation dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Fass, D N; Viss, M A; Hummel, A M; Tang, H; Homburger, H A; Specks, U

    1998-01-01

    ANCA directed against PR3 are highly specific for Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis, and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of small vessel vasculitis. Most PR3-ANCA are directed against conformational epitopes on PR3. This study was designed to determine whether the cleavage of the N-terminal activation dipeptide of PR3 is required for the binding of PR3-ANCA. Recombinant PR3 (rPR3) variants were expressed in the epithelial cell line, 293. As confirmed by radiosequencing, the rPR3 secreted into the 293 cell culture supernatant is N-terminally unprocessed. Two enzymatically inactive rPR3 mutants were expressed in 293 cells: rPR3-S176A and δ-rPR3-S176A. rPR3-S176A contains the N-propetide Ala-2-Glu-1, δ-rPR3-S176A does not. Culture supernatants of rPR3-S176A and δ-rPR3-S176A expressing 293 cells were used as sources of target antigen for PR3-ANCA testing by capture ELISA. Forty unselected consecutive PR3-ANCA+ sera were tested. With δ-rPR3-S176A as antigen all 40 were recognized, compared with only 34 of 40 when rPR3-S176A served as target antigen. The majority of the serum samples contained a mixture of antibodies reacting with epitopes accessible on the mature and on the proform of PR3. In conclusion, the cleavage of the N-terminal activation dipeptide of PR3 is not an absolute requirement for recognition by all PR3-ANCA. However, a substantial proportion of PR3-ANCA recognize (a) target antigen(s) exposed only after the conformational change of PR3 associated with the N-terminal processing. In 15% of sera this PR3-ANCA subset occurred exclusively. PR3-ANCA subtypes can be differentiated using specifically designed rPR3 variants as target antigens, and non-haematopoietic mammalian cells without regulated secretory pathway can be used for their expression. PMID:9822293

  14. Doxorubicin-induced necrosis is mediated by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) but is independent of p53

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeon-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Kwon; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Gui, Xiangai; Achek, Asma; Kim, Jae-Ho; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis, unregulated cell death, is characterized by plasma membrane rupture as well as nuclear and cellular swelling. However, it has recently been reported that necrosis is a regulated form of cell death mediated by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). PARP1 is thought to mediate necrosis by inducing DNA damage, although this remains unconfirmed. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of PARP1-mediated necrosis following doxorubicin (DOX)-induced DNA damage in human kidney proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. DOX initiated DNA damage response (DDR) and upregulated PARP1 and p53 expression, resulting in morphological changes similar to those observed during necrosis. Additionally, DOX induced mitochondrial hyper-activation, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial respiration and cytosolic ATP (cATP) production. However, DOX affected mitochondrial mass. DOX-induced DNA damage, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (cROS) generation, and mitochondrial hyper-activation decreased in cells with inhibited PARP1 expression, while generation of nitric oxide (NO) and mitochondrial ROS (mROS) remained unaffected. Moreover, DOX-induced DNA damage, cell cycle changes, and oxidative stress were not affected by p53 inhibition. These findings suggest that DNA damage induced necrosis through a PARP1-dependent and p53-independent pathway. PMID:26522181

  15. Biological and clinical significance of PARP1 protein expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Caracappa, Daniela; Benhasouna, Ahmed A; Alshareeda, Alaa; Nolan, Christopher C; Macmillan, R Douglas; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a key facilitator of DNA repair. PARP inhibitors have gained recent attention as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours including breast cancer (BC). However, the biological and clinical significance of PARP1 expression in BC and its role in DNA-damage response (DDR) remain to be defined. We investigated the expression of PARP1 expression, cleaved (PARP1c) and non-cleaved (PAR1nc) forms, in a large and well-characterised cohort of clinically annotated stage I-III operable BCs (n = 1,269) and 43 BRCA1-mutated BCs using immunohistochemistry. PARP1 expression was correlated to clinicopathological variables, outcome and expression of other key DNA repair proteins (BRCA1, RAD51, Ku70/80, PIASγ and CHK1). Expression of PARP1 was exclusively nuclear. 49 and 85 % of sporadic BC showed expression PARP1nc and PARP1c, respectively. In BRCA1-mutated tumours, PARP1nc/PARP1c was highly expressed (95 and 79 %, respectively). PARP1nc expression was positively associated with premenopausal younger age patients, larger size and higher tumour grade. PARP1 was positively associated with DDR-proteins; RAD51, BRCA1, CHK1 and PIASγ (p < 0.001). Negative association was found between PARP1nc and Ki67. PARP1c was associated with ER (p < 0.001). Different associations between PARP1 and DDR-proteins were observed when stratified based on ER/BRCA1 status. PARP1 was not an independent predictor of outcome in sporadic or BRCA1-mutated BC. Our results demonstrate a potential biological role for PARP1c and PARP1nc in DNA repair in BC based on the significant association with other key DNA damage repair proteins. These associations were not restricted to ER-negative or triple-negative subgroup. PMID:25528020

  16. The Zymogen-Enteropeptidase System: A Practical Approach to Study the Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Proteolytic Cleavage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizauro, Joao M., Jr.; Ferro, Jesus A.; de Lima, Andrea C. F.; Routman, Karina S.; Portella, Maria Celia

    2004-01-01

    The present research describes an efficient procedure to obtain high levels of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen by using a simple, rapid, and easily reproducible method. The extraction process and the time-course of activation of zymogens can be carried out in a single laboratory period, without sophisticated equipment. The main objective was to…

  17. Removal of cell surface heparan sulfate increases TACE activity and cleavage of ErbB4 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Määttä, Jorma A; Olli, Kaisa; Henttinen, Tiina; Tuittila, Minna T; Elenius, Klaus; Salmivirta, Markku

    2009-01-01

    Background Nuclear localization of proteolytically formed intracellular fragment of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase has been shown to promote cell survival, and nuclear localization of ErbB4 receptor has been described in human breast cancer. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) initiates the proteolytic cascade leading to ErbB4 intracellular domain formation. Interactions between matrix metalloproteases and heparan sulfate have been described, but the effect of cell surface heparan sulfate on TACE activity has not been previously described. Results As indicated by immunodetection of increased ErbB4 intracellular domain formation and direct enzyme activity analysis, TACE activity was substantially amplified by enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate. Conclusion In this communication, we suggest a novel role for cell surface heparan sulfate. Removal of cell surface heparan sulfate led to increased formation of ErbB4 intracellular domain. As ErbB4 intracellular domain has previously been shown to promote cell survival this finding may indicate a novel mechanism how HS degradation active in tumor tissue may favor cell survival. PMID:19171023

  18. Cleavage of Chordin by Xolloid Metalloprotease Suggests a Role for Proteolytic Processing in the Regulation of Spemann Organizer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Stefano; Agius, Eric; Lu, Bin; Goodman, Shelley; Dale, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Xolloid secreted metalloprotease, a tolloid-related protein, was found to cleave Chordin and Chordin/BMP-4 complexes at two specific sites in biochemical experiments. Xolloid mRNA blocks secondary axes caused by chordin, but not by noggin, follistatin, or dominant-negative BMP receptor, mRNA injection. Xolloid-treated Chordin protein was unable to antagonize BMP activity. Furthermore, Xolloid digestion released biologically active BMPs from Chordin/BMP inactive complexes. Injection of dominant-negative Xolloid mRNA indicated that the in vivo function of Xolloid is to limit the extent of Spemann’s organizer field. We propose that Xolloid regulates organizer function by a novel proteolytic mechanism involving a double inhibition pathway required to pattern the dorsoventral axis: XOLL⊣CHD⊣BMPs→BMPR PMID:9363949

  19. The cleavage of nuclear DNA into high molecular weight DNA fragments occurs not only during apoptosis but also accompanies changes in functional activity of the nonapoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Solov'yan, V T; Andreev, I O; Kolotova, T Y; Pogribniy, P V; Tarnavsky, D T; Kunakh, V A

    1997-08-25

    In this paper we demonstrate that apoptosis in primary culture of murine thymocytes and in continuously growing human cells is associated with the progressive disintegration of nuclear DNA into high molecular weight (HMW)-DNA fragments of about 50-150 kb. We also show that the formation of similarly sized HMW-DNA fragments takes place in the same cells in the absence of apoptotic inducers. Unlike an apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA, the formation of HMW-DNA fragments in nonapoptotic cells is rapidly induced, has no correlation with the cell death, and is not associated with the development of oligonucleosomal "ladder" or apoptotic changes in nuclear morphology. The disintegration of DNA into HMW-fragments is also observed in nuclei isolated from healthy, nonapoptosizing tissues of various eukaryotes. We show that the formation of HMW-DNA fragments in the absence of apoptotic inducers is strongly dependent on the ionic detergents, is responsive to the topoisomerase II-specific poison, teniposide, and is completely reversible under conditions that favor topoisomerase II-dependent rejoining reaction. Also, we demonstrate that the formation of HMW-DNA fragments in continuously growing cell lines caused either by serum deprivation or monolayer establishment is of a transient nature and rapidly reverses to the control level following serum addition or dilution of monolayer. The results suggest that the cleavage of nuclear DNA into HMW-DNA fragments is associated not only with apoptosis but also accompanies changes in functional activity of nonapoptotic cells. PMID:9281361

  20. The γ-secretase cleavage product of polycystin-1 regulates TCF and CHOP-mediated transcriptional activation through a p300-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Merrick, David; Chapin, Hannah; Baggs, Julie E; Yu, Zhiheng; Somlo, Stefan; Sun, Zhaoxia; Hogenesch, John B; Caplan, Michael J

    2012-01-17

    Mutations in Pkd1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1), cause autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We show that the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT) of PC1 is released by γ-secretase-mediated cleavage and regulates the Wnt and CHOP pathways by binding the transcription factors TCF and CHOP, disrupting their interaction with the common transcriptional coactivator p300. Loss of PC1 causes increased proliferation and apoptosis, while reintroducing PC1-CTT into cultured Pkd1 null cells reestablishes normal growth rate, suppresses apoptosis, and prevents cyst formation. Inhibition of γ-secretase activity impairs the ability of PC1 to suppress growth and apoptosis and leads to cyst formation in cultured renal epithelial cells. Expression of the PC1-CTT is sufficient to rescue the dorsal body curvature phenotype in zebrafish embryos resulting from either γ-secretase inhibition or suppression of Pkd1 expression. Thus, γ-secretase-dependent release of the PC1-CTT creates a protein fragment whose expression is sufficient to suppress ADPKD-related phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22178500

  1. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System.

    PubMed

    Pompey, Justine M; Foda, Bardees; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway. PMID:26230096

  2. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway. PMID:26230096

  3. PARP targeting counteracts gliomagenesis through induction of mitotic catastrophe and aggravation of deficiency in homologous recombination in PTEN-mutant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; Rodríguez, María Isabel; López-Jiménez, Laura; Rodríguez-Vargas, Jose M.; Martí Martín-Consuegra, Juan M.; Serrano-Sáenz, Santiago; Gavard, Julie; Mariano Ruiz de Almodóvar, J; Javier Oliver, F

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and one of the most aggressive cancers. PARP-1 is a nuclear protein involved in multiple facets of DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. In this study we dissected the action of PARP inhibition in different GBM cell lines with either functional or mutated PTEN that confers resistance to diverse therapies. In PTEN mutant cells, PARP inhibition induced a severe genomic instability, exacerbated homologous recombination repair (HR) deficiency and down-regulated the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) factor BUBR1, leading to mitotic catastrophe (MC). EGFR gene amplification also represents a signature of genetic abnormality in GBM. To more effectively target GBM cells, co-treatment with a PARP inhibitor and an EGFR blocker, erlotinib, resulted in a strong suppression of ERK1/2 activation and in vivo the combined effect elicited a robust reduction in tumour development. In conclusion, PARP inhibition targets PTEN-deficient GBM cells through accentuation of SAC repression and aggravation of HR deficiency, leading to the induction of genomic instability and eventually deriving to mitotic catastrophe (MC); the inhibition of PARP and co-treatment with an inhibitor of pro-survival pathways strongly retarded in vivo gliomagenesis. PMID:25576921

  4. Synthesis, characterization, optical band gap, in vitro antimicrobial activity and DNA cleavage studies of some metal complexes of pyridyl thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Bedier, R. A.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of Cr(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes of Schiff-bases derived from the condensation of 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-thiosemicarbazide and pyruvic acid (H2PTP) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Schiff-base exhibit thiol-thione tautomerism wherein sulfur plays an important role in the coordination. The coordination possibility of the Schiff-bases towards metal ions have been proposed in the light of elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), magnetic and thermal studies. IR spectra show that H2PTP is coordinated to the metal ions in a mononegative tridentate manner except in Cr(III) complex in which the ligand exhibits mononegative bidentate manner. The parameters total energy, binding energy, isolated atomic energy, electronic energy, heat of formation, dipole moment, HOMO and LUMO were calculated for the ligand and its complexes. Furthermore, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Also, the optical band gap (Eg) of the metal complexes has been calculated. The optical transition energy (Eg) is direct and equals 3.20, 3.27 and 3.26 eV for Cr, Mn and Ni complexes, respectively. The synthesized ligand, in comparison to its metal complexes is screened for its antibacterial activity against the bacterial species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Escherichia coli. The results show that the metal complexes be more potent in activity antibacterial than the parent Shciff base ligand towards one or more bacterial species. Finally, the biochemical studies showed that, Mn complex have powerful and complete degradation effect on DNA.

  5. CCT241533 is a potent and selective inhibitor of CHK2 which potentiates the cytotoxicity of PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Victoria E; Walton, Michael I; Eve, Paul D; Boxall, Katherine J; Antoni, Laurent; Caldwell, John J; Pearl, Laurence H; Oliver, Antony W; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    CHK2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ATM-mediated response to double strand DNA breaks. Its potential as a drug target is still unclear but inhibitors of CHK2 may increase the efficacy of genotoxic cancer therapies in a p53 mutant background by eliminating one of the checkpoints or DNA repair pathways contributing to cellular resistance. We report here the identification and characterization of a novel CHK2 kinase inhibitor, CCT241533. X-ray crystallography confirmed that CCT241533 bound to CHK2 in the ATP pocket. This compound inhibits CHK2 with an IC50 of 3 nM and shows minimal cross reactivity against a panel of kinases at 1 μM. CCT241533 blocked CHK2 activity in human tumor cell lines in response to DNA damage, as demonstrated by inhibition of CHK2 autophosphorylation at S516, band-shift mobility changes and HDMX degradation. CCT241533 did not potentiate the cytotoxicity of a selection of genotoxic agents in several cell lines. However, this compound significantly potentiates the cytotoxicity of two structurally distinct Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Clear induction of the pS516 CHK2 signal was seen with a PARP inhibitor alone and this activation was abolished by CCT241533, implying that the potentiation of PARP inhibitor cell killing by CCT241533 was due to inhibition of CHK2. Consequently CHK2 inhibitors may have therapeutic activity in combination with PARP inhibitors. PMID:21239475

  6. The Gonococcal NlpD Protein Facilitates Cell Separation by Activating Peptidoglycan Cleavage by AmiC

    PubMed Central

    Stohl, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Jonathan D.; Dillard, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Key steps in bacterial cell division are the synthesis and subsequent hydrolysis of septal peptidoglycan (PG), which allow efficient separation of daughter cells. Extensive studies in the Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli have revealed that this hydrolysis is highly regulated spatially and temporally. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate Gram-negative, diplococcal pathogen and is the only causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. We investigated how cell separation proceeds in this diplococcal organism. We demonstrated that deletion of the nlpD gene in strain FA1090 leads to poor growth and to an altered colony and cell morphology. An isopropyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (IPTG)-regulated nlpD complemented construct can restore these defects only when IPTG is supplied in the growth medium. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the nlpD mutant strain grew in large clumps containing live and dead bacteria, which was consistent with deficient cell separation. Biochemical analyses of purified NlpD protein showed that it was able to bind purified PG. Finally, we showed that, although NlpD has no hydrolase activity itself, NlpD potentiates the hydrolytic activity of AmiC. These results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae NlpD is required for proper cell growth and division through its interactions with the amidase AmiC. IMPORTANCE N. gonorrhoeae is the sole causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. The incidence of antibiotic-resistant gonococcal infections has risen sharply in recent years, and N. gonorrhoeae has been classified as a “superbug” by the CDC. Since there is a dearth of new antibiotics to combat gonococcal infections, elucidating the essential cellular process of N. gonorrhoeae may point to new targets for antimicrobial therapies. Cell division and separation is one such essential process. We identified and characterized the gonococcal nlpD gene and showed that

  7. Comparison of the specificities and catalytic activities of hammerhead ribozymes and DNA enzymes with respect to the cleavage of BCR-ABL chimeric L6 (b2a2) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, T; Warashina, M; Tanabe, T; Tani, K; Asano, S; Taira, K

    1997-08-01

    With the eventual goal of developing a treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), attempts have been made to design hammerhead ribozymes that can specifically cleave BCR-ABL fusion mRNA. In the case of L6 BCR-ABL fusion mRNA (b2a2 type; BCR exon 2 is fused to ABL exon 2), which has no effective cleavage sites for conventional hammerhead ribozymes near the BCR-ABL junction, it has proved very difficult to cleave the chimeric mRNA specifically. Several hammerhead ribozymes with relatively long junction-recognition sequences have poor substrate-specificity. Therefore, we explored the possibility of using newly selected DNA enzymes that can cleave RNA molecules with high activity to cleave L6 BCR-ABL fusion (b2a2) mRNA. In contrast to the results with the conventional ribozymes, the newly designed DNA enzymes, having higher flexibility for selection of cleavage sites, were able to cleave this chimeric RNA molecule specifically at sites close to the junction. Cleavage occurred only within the abnormal BCR-ABL mRNA, without any cleavage of the normal ABL or BCR mRNA. Thus, these chemically synthesized DNA enzymes seem to be potentially useful for application in vivo , especially for the treatment of CML, if we can develop exogenous delivery strategies. PMID:9224607

  8. Methane enhancement through oxidative cleavage and alkali solubilization pre-treatments for corn stover with anaerobic activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Bi, Jinhua; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Talha, Zahir Ahmed Ali; Huang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, thermo-chemical pre-treatment was adopted to evaluate methane production potential from corn stover by co-digesting it with anaerobic activated sludge. Three chemicals H2O2, Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected with two levels of concentration. All thermo-chemical pre-treatments were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance lignocellulosic digestibility and methane production. The results indicated that the methane yield by H2O2-1, H2O2-2, and NaOH-2 treated corn stover were 293.52, 310.50 and 279.42ml/g.VS which were 57.18%, 66.27% and 49.63% higher than the untreated corn stover respectively. In the previous studies pre-treatment time was reported in days but our method had reduced it to about one hour. H2O2-2 and NaOH-2 treatments remained prominent to increase lignocellulosic degradation vigorously up to 45% and 42% respectively. Process biochemistry during the anaerobic digestion process was taken into consideration to optimize the most feasible thermo-chemical pre-treatment for corn stover. PMID:26512865

  9. Activities of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Integration Protein In vitro: Specific Cleavage and Integration of HIV DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushman, Frederic D.; Craigie, Robert

    1991-02-01

    Growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after infection requires the integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into a chromosome of the host. Here we present a simple in vitro system that carries out the integration reaction and the use of this system to probe the mechanism of integration. The only HIV protein necessary is the integration (IN) protein, which has been overexpressed in insect cells and then partially purified. DNA substrates are supplied as oligonucleotides that match the termini of the linear DNA product of reverse transcription. In the presence of HIV IN protein, oligonucleotide substrates are cleaved to generate the recessed 3' ends that are the precursor for integration, and the cleaved molecules are efficiently inserted into a DNA target. Analysis of reaction products reveals that HIV IN protein joins 3' ends of the viral DNA to 5' ends of cuts made by IN protein in the DNA target. We have also used this assay to characterize the sequences at the ends of the viral DNA involved in integration. The assay provides a simple screen for testing candidate inhibitors of HIV IN protein; some such inhibitors might have useful antiviral activity.

  10. TGFβ Induces ‘BRCAness’ and Sensitivity to PARP Inhibition in Breast Cancer by Regulating DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Zhou, Weiying; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Ren, Xiubao; Somlo, George; Fong, Miranda Y.; Chin, Andrew R.; Li, Hui; Yu, Yang; Xu, Yang; O'Connor, Sean Timothy Francis; O'Connor, Timothy R.; Ann, David K.; Stark, Jeremy M.; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) proteins are multitasking cytokines, whose high levels at tumor sites generally correlate with poor prognosis in human cancer patients. Previously it was reported that TGFβ downregulates the expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in breast cancer (BC) cells through a miRNA-mediated mechanism. In this study, expression of a panel of DNA repair genes was examined, identifying breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) as a target downregulated by TGFβ through the miR-181 family. Correlations between the expression levels of TGFβ1 and the miR-181/BRCA1 axis were observed in primary breast tumor specimens. By downregulating BRCA1, ATM, and MSH2, TGFβ orchestrates DNA damage response (DDR) in certain BC cells to induce a ‘BRCAness’ phenotype, including impaired DNA repair efficiency and synthetic lethality to the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Xenograft tumors with active TGFβ signaling exhibited resistance to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin but increased sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor ABT-888. Combination of doxorubicin with ABT-888 significantly improved the treatment efficacy in TGFβ-active tumors. Thus, TGFβ can induce ‘BRCAness’ in certain BCs carrying wild-type BRCA genes and enhance the responsiveness to PARP inhibition, and the molecular mechanism behind this is characterized. Implications: These findings enable better selection of sporadic breast cancer patients for PARP interventions, which have exhibited beneficial effects in patients carrying BRCA mutations. PMID:25103497

  11. α-Cleavage of cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingjing; Kong, Qingzhong

    2012-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is subjected to various processing under physiological and pathological conditions, of which the α-cleavage within the central hydrophobic domain not only disrupts a region critical for both PrP toxicity and PrPC to PrPSc conversion but also produces the N1 fragment that is neuroprotective and the C1 fragment that enhances the pro-apoptotic effect of staurosporine in one report and inhibits prion in another. The proteases responsible for the α-cleavage of PrPC are controversial. The effect of ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM9 on N1 secretion clearly indicates their involvement in the α-cleavage of PrPC, but there has been no report of direct PrPC α-cleavage activity with any of the three ADAMs in a purified protein form. We demonstrated that, in muscle cells, ADAM8 is the primary protease for the α-cleavage of PrPC, but another unidentified protease(s) must also play a minor role. We also found that PrPC regulates ADAM8 expression, suggesting that a close examination on the relationships between PrPC and its processing enzymes may reveal novel roles and underlying mechanisms for PrPC in non-prion diseases such as asthma and cancer. PMID:23052041

  12. Minocycline inhibits PARP-1 expression and decreases apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    WU, YING; CHEN, YONGDONG; WU, QIANG; JIA, LILI; DU, XINHUA

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of minocycline on diabetic retinopathy-associated cellular apoptosis. A total of 40 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used as a diabetic retinopathy model following injection with streptozotocin. Among the 34 rats in which the diabetes model was successfully established, 24 rats were divided into two experimental groups: I and II (T1 and T2, respectively), and orally administered with various doses of minocycline. The remaining 10 rats served as the diabetic retinopathy control group. An additional group of 10 healthy SD rats with comparable weight served as normal controls. The rats in T1 and T2 groups were treated daily for eight consecutive weeks with minocycline at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were subsequently measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose were measured by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Retinal morphology was observed following hematoxylin and eosin staining, and retinal cell apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and caspase-3 activity assays. The amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave and oscillary potentials (OPs) were measured using visual electrophysiology, and compared among the four groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that in the diabetic rats, retinal PARP-1 gene expression was markedly upregulated, the number of apoptotic cells and the activity levels of caspase-3 were increased, and the amplitude of the ERG b-wave and the OPs were markedly lower as compared with the normal rats. Following treatment with minocycline, the abnormal expression of PARP-1 in the retina was inhibited, and cellular apoptosis was decreased. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that PARP-1 is involved in the

  13. Enhancing tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies therapy by PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yélamos, José; Galindo, Miguel; Navarro, Judith; Albanell, Joan; Rovira, Ana; Rojo, Federico; Oliver, Javier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a successful therapeutic approach in cancer. However, some patients do not achieve long-term clinical benefit and most mAbs only exert modest effects as monotherapies. Therefore, combinations with chemotherapy are currently being investigated. Emerging studies have shown a synergistic therapeutic effect of PARP inhibitors and mAbs in cancer. PARP enzymes catalytically cleave β-NAD+ and transfer the ADP-ribose moiety to acceptor proteins, modifying their function. In here, we update recent data about the therapeutic effect of the combination of PARP inhibitors with mAbs in cancer treatment and discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in this synergy. PMID:26942084

  14. New Approaches of PARP-1 Inhibitors in Human Lung Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem-Like Cells by Some Selected Anthraquinone-Derived Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dah-Shyong; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chou, Shih-Jie; Chen, Tsung-Chih; Lee, Chia-Chung; Chen, Chun-Liang; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Huang, Hsu-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and telomerase, as well as DNA damage response pathways are targets for anticancer drug development, and specific inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate anticancer activities of anthraquinone-derived tricyclic and tetracyclic small molecules and their structure-activity relationships with PARP-1 inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and NSCLC-overexpressing Oct4 and Nanog clone, which show high-expression of PARP-1 and more resistance to anticancer drug. We applied our library selected compounds to NCI's 60 human cancer cell-lines (NCI-60) in order to generate systematic profiling data. Based on our analysis, it is hypothesized that these drugs might be, directly and indirectly, target components to induce mitochondrial permeability transition and the release of pro-apoptotic factors as potential anti-NSCLC or PARP inhibitor candidates. Altogether, the most active NSC747854 showed its cytotoxicity and dose-dependent PARP inhibitory manner, thus it emerges as a promising structure for anti-cancer therapy with no significant negative influence on normal cells. Our studies present evidence that telomere maintenance should be taken into consideration in efforts not only to overcome drug resistance, but also to optimize the use of telomere-based therapeutics. These findings will be of great value to facilitate structure-based design of selective PARP inhibitors, in general, and telomerase inhibitors, in particular. Together, the data presented here expand our insight into the PARP inhibitors and support the resource-demanding lead optimization of structurally related small molecules for human cancer therapy. PMID:23451039

  15. Synthesis and characterization, antimicrobial activity, DNA binding and DNA cleavage studies of new 5-chloro-2-[4-phenylthiazol-2-yl-iminomethyl]phenol metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Zayed, Mohamed E.; Alharbi, Suliman A.

    2015-02-01

    New Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) complexes derived from bidentate Schiff base ligand, 5-chloro-2-[4-phenylthiazol-2-yl-iminomethyl]phenol (HL) have been synthesized. The molar ratio for all synthesized complexes is M: L = 1:2 which was established from the results of chemical analysis. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, (1H and 13C) NMR, mass, ESR, XRD, CV, fluorescence, and magnetic as well as thermal analysis measurements. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes were suggested that the Schiff base ligand behaves as a bi-dentate ligand through the azomethine nitrogen atom and phenolic oxygen atom. The crystal field splitting, Racah repulsion and nepheloauxetic parameters and determined from the electronic spectra of the complexes. The presence of co-ordinated water molecules were confirmed by thermal studies. The spectroscopic studies suggest the octahedral geometry. From the modeling studies, the bond length, bond angle, core-core interaction, heat of formation, electronic energy, binding energy, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moment had been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligand and their investigated complexes. Also, the thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern, Horowitz-Metzger and Piloyan-Novikova methods. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial studies of all compounds screened against pathogenic bacteria (two Gram +ve and three Gram -ve) and three antifungal to assess their inhibiting potential. The assay indicated that the inhibition potential is metal ion dependent. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by UV absorption method, and the mode of CT-DNA binding to the complexes has been explored. Furthermore, the DNA cleavage activity by the complexes was performed.

  16. The relationship of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activation protein and apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms with metabolic changes during weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Matinheikki, Jussi; Nenonen, Arja; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Lindi, Virpi; Hämelahti, Päivi; Laaksonen, Reijo; Fan, Yue-Mei; Kähönen, Mika; Fogelholm, Mikael; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2007-07-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and apolipoprotein E (apo E) regulate cellular and plasma lipid metabolism. Therefore, variations in the corresponding genes might influence weight reduction and obesity-associated metabolic changes. We investigated the relationships of SCAP (Ile796Val) and apo E polymorphisms on metabolic changes during weight reduction by using a 12-week very low-energy diet. Body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose, and insulin were assessed in 78 healthy premenopausal women (initial body mass index, 34 +/- 4 kg/m(2); age, 40 +/- 4 years) before and after the intervention. The SCAP genotype groups did not differ in the responses of any parameters measured during weight reduction. Apo E did not differentiate the weight loss, but the changes in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for the genotype groups apo E epsilon2/3, epsilon3/3, as well as epsilon3/4 and epsilon4/4 combined were -0.94 +/- 0.56 and -0.59 +/- 0.32, -0.71 +/- 0.49 and -0.49 +/- 0.45, and -0.55 +/- 0.47 and -0.37 +/- 0.39 mmol/L, respectively (P < .05 for both). In conclusion, neither the SCAP Ile796Val nor the apo E polymorphism was associated with weight loss in obese premenopausal women. However, the apo E-but not SCAP genotype-seems to be one of the modifying factors for serum cholesterol concentrations during very low-energy diet in obese premenopausal women. PMID:17570245

  17. Inhibition of PARP1-dependent end-joining contributes to Olaparib-mediated radiosensitization in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kötter, Annika; Cornils, Kerstin; Borgmann, Kerstin; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Mansour, Wael Y

    2014-12-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are considered to be optimal tools for specifically enhancing radiosensitivity. This effect has been shown to be replication-dependent and more profound in HR-deficient tumors. Here, we present a new mode of PARPi-mediated radiosensitization which was observed in four out of six HR-proficient tumor cell lines (responders) investigated, but not in normal cells. This effect is replication-independent, as the radiosensitization remained unaffected following the inhibition of replication using aphidicolin. We showed that responders are radiosensitized by Olaparib because their DSB-repair is switched to PARP1-dependent end-joining (PARP1-EJ), as evident by (i) the significant increase in the number of residual γH2AX foci following irradiation with 3Gy and treatment with Olaparib, (ii) the enhanced enrichment of PARP1 at the chromatin after 3Gy and (iii) the inhibition of end-joining activity measured by a specific reporter substrate upon Olaparib treatment. This is the first study which directly demonstrates the switch to PARP1-EJ in tumor cells and its contribution to the response to Olaparib as a radiosensitizer, findings which could widen the scope of application of PARPi in tumor therapy. PMID:25028150

  18. A Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, Dinaciclib, Impairs Homologous Recombination and Sensitizes Multiple Myeloma Cells to PARP Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Alagpulinsa, David A; Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Yaccoby, Shmuel; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    PARP1/2 are required for single-strand break repair, and their inhibition causes DNA replication fork collapse and double-strand break (DSB) formation. These DSBs are primarily repaired via homologous recombination (HR), a high-fidelity repair pathway. Should HR be deficient, DSBs may be repaired via error-prone nonhomologous end-joining mechanisms, or may persist, ultimately resulting in cell death. The combined disruption of PARP and HR activities thus produces synthetic lethality. Multiple myeloma cells are characterized by chromosomal instability and pervasive DNA damage, implicating aberrant DNA repair. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), upstream modulators of HR, are dysregulated in multiple myeloma. Here, we show that a CDK inhibitor, dinaciclib, impairs HR repair and sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to the PARP1/2 inhibitor ABT-888. Dinaciclib abolishes ABT-888-induced BRCA1 and RAD51 foci and potentiates DNA damage, indicated by increased γH2AX foci. Dinaciclib treatment reduces expression of HR repair genes, including Rad51, and blocks BRCA1 phosphorylation, a modification required for HR repair, thus inhibiting HR repair of chromosome DSBs. Cotreatment with dinaciclib and ABT-888 in vitro resulted in synthetic lethality of multiple myeloma cells, but not normal CD19(+) B cells, and slowed growth of multiple myeloma xenografts in SCID mice almost two-fold. These findings support combining dinaciclib with PARP inhibitors for multiple myeloma therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(2); 241-50. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26719576

  19. Increased transcript level of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) in human tricuspid compared with bicuspid aortic valves correlates with the stenosis severity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Edit; Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Caidahl, Kenneth; Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Department of Throracic Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Baeck, Magnus; Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathomechanism of calcific aortic valve stenosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the transcript levels for PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), acts as a DNA damage nick sensor in stenotic valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early stage of diseased tricuspid valves exhibited higher mRNA levels for PARP-1 compared to bicuspid valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mRNA levels for PARP-1 inversely correlated with the clinical stenosis severity in tricuspid valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data demonstrated that DNA damage pathways might be associated with stenosis severity only in tricuspid valves. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress may contribute to the hemodynamic progression of aortic valve stenosis, and is associated with activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1. The aim of the present study was to assess the transcriptional profile and the topological distribution of PARP-1 in human aortic valves, and its relation to the stenosis severity. Human stenotic aortic valves were obtained from 46 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery and used for mRNA extraction followed by quantitative real-time PCR to correlate the PARP-1 expression levels with the non invasive hemodynamic parameters quantifying the stenosis severity. Primary isolated valvular interstitial cells (VICs) were used to explore the effects of cytokines and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) on valvular PARP-1 expression. The thickened areas of stenotic valves with tricuspid morphology expressed significantly higher levels of PARP-1 mRNA compared with the corresponding part of bicuspid valves (0.501 vs 0.243, P = 0.01). Furthermore, the quantitative gene expression levels of PARP-1 were inversely correlated with the aortic valve area (AVA) (r = -0.46, P = 0.0469) and AVA indexed for body surface area (BSA) (r = -0.498; P = 0.0298) only in tricuspid aortic valves

  20. A Radiotracer Strategy to Quantify PARP-1 Expression In Vivo Provides a Biomarker That Can Enable Patient Selection for PARP Inhibitor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Makvandi, Mehran; Xu, Kuiying; Lieberman, Brian P; Anderson, Redmond-Craig; Effron, Samuel Sander; Winters, Harrison D; Zeng, Chenbo; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Pryma, Daniel A; Greenberg, Roger A; Mach, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability of PARP inhibitors for cancer therapy, a biomarker to clearly stratify patients for selection of this treatment remains lacking. Here we describe a radiotracer-based method that addresses this issue, using the novel compound [(125)I] KX1: as a PARP-1-selective radiotracer that can accurately measure PARP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo The pharmacologic properties of the PARP radiotracer [(125)I] KX1: was characterized in multiple cell lines where single-agent sensitivity was correlated with [(125)I] KX1: binding to PARP-1. In vivo evaluation of [(125)I] KX1: verified in vitro results, validating PARP radiotracers to define PARP-1 enzyme expression as an in vivo biomarker. Notably, PARP-1 expression as quantified by [(125)I] KX1: correlated positively with the cytotoxic sensitivity of cell lines evaluated with PARP inhibitors. Overall, our results defined a novel technology with the potential to serve as a companion diagnostic to identify patients most likely to respond therapeutically to a PARP inhibitor. Cancer Res; 76(15); 4516-24. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27261505

  1. Parp2 is required for the differentiation of post-meiotic germ cells: Identification of a spermatid-specific complex containing Parp1, Parp2, TP2 and HSPA2

    SciTech Connect

    Quenet, Delphine; Mark, Manuel; Govin, Jerome; Dorsselear, A. van; Schreiber, Valerie; Khochbin, Saadi; Dantzer, Francoise

    2009-10-01

    Spermiogenesis is a complex male germ cell post-meiotic differentiation process characterized by dramatic changes in chromatin structure and function, including chromatin condensation, transcriptional inhibition and the sequential replacement of histones by transition proteins and protamines. Recent advances, in mammalian cells, suggest a possible role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation catalyzed by Parp1 and/or Parp2 in this process. We have recently reported severely compromised spermiogenesis in Parp2-deficient mice characterized by a marked delay in nuclear elongation whose molecular mechanisms remain however unknown. Here, using in vitro protein-protein interaction assays, we show that Parp2 interacts significantly with both the transition protein TP2 and the transition chaperone HSPA2, whereas Parp1 binds weakly to HSPA2. Parp2-TP2 interaction is partly mediated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Only Parp1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates HSPA2. In addition, a detailed analysis of spermatid maturation in Parp2-deficient mice, combining immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic approaches, reveals a loss of spermatids expressing TP2, a defect in chromatin condensation and abnormal formation of the manchette microtubules that, together, contribute to spermatid-specific cell death. In conclusion, we propose both Parps as new participants of a spermatid-specific protein complex involved in genome reorganization throughout spermiogenesis.

  2. Cyclic hypoxia does not alter RAD51 expression or PARP inhibitor cell kill in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kumareswaran, Ramya; Chaudary, Naz; Jaluba, Karolina; Meng, Alice; Sykes, Jenna; Borhan, Asm; Hill, Richard P; Bristow, Robert G

    2015-09-01

    Solid tumors contain regions of chronic and cyclic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia can downregulate RAD51 and sensitize cells to PARP inhibition. Herein, we show that RAD51 expression, cell survival and toxicity to PARP inhibition is not affected under cyclic hypoxic conditions. This suggests that PARP inhibition may be selectively toxic in tumor sub-regions associated with chronic hypoxia. PMID:25842967

  3. PARP1 enhances lung adenocarcinoma metastasis by novel mechanisms independent of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Choi, E-B; Yang, A-Y; Kim, S C; Lee, J; Choi, J K; Choi, C; Kim, M-Y

    2016-09-01

    The role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in cancer has been extensively studied in the context of DNA repair, leading to clinical trials of PARP1 inhibitors in cancers defective in homologous recombination. However, the DNA repair-independent roles of PARP1 in carcinogenesis and metastasis, particularly in lung cancer metastasis, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that PARP1 promotes lung adenocarcinoma relapse to the brain and bones by regulating several steps of the metastatic process in a DNA repair-independent manner. We find that PARP1 expression is associated with overall and distant metastasis-free survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Consistent with this, genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 significantly attenuated the metastatic potential of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further investigation revealed that PARP1 potentiates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis by promoting invasion, anoikis resistance, extravasation and self-renewal of lung adenocarcinoma cells and also by modifying the brain microenvironment. Finally, we identified S100A4 and CLDN7 as novel transcriptional targets and clinically relevant effectors of PARP1. Collectively, our study not only revealed previously unknown functions of PARP1 in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis but also delineated the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-metastatic function of PARP1. Furthermore, these findings provide a foundation for the potential use of PARP1 inhibitors as a new treatment option for lung adenocarcinoma patients with elevated PARP1 expression. PMID:26898760

  4. Cleavage-quasi cleavage in ferritic and martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.; Edsinger, K.V.; Lucas, G.E.

    1997-12-31

    Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and SEM were used to characterize the sequence-of-events leading to cleavage in a low alloy pressure vessel steel and two 8--12 Cr martensitic steels as a function of temperature. While differences between the steels were observed, they shared some common characteristics that differ from the conventional view of cleavage. Most notably cleavage does not occur as a single weakest link event; rather it is the consequence of a critical condition when a previously nucleated dispersion of microcracks suddenly coalesce to form a large, rapidly propagating macroscopic crack. It is argued that the critical event can be treated as a bridging instability. The stabilizing effect of the ductile ligaments separating the cleavage facets increases with increasing temperature. Indeed, even in the ductile tearing regime cleavage facets form a significant fraction of nuclei for larger microvoids.

  5. Role of Biomarkers in the Development of PARP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Bratati; Dolfi, Sonia C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirshfield, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in DNA repair lead to genomic instability and play a critical role in cancer development. Understanding the process by which DNA damage repair is altered or bypassed in cancer may identify novel therapeutic targets and lead to improved patient outcomes. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has an important role in DNA repair, and novel therapeutics targeting PARP1 have been developed to treat cancers with defective DNA repair pathways. Despite treatment successes with PARP inhibitors (PARPi), intrinsic and acquired resistances have been observed. Preclinical studies and clinical trials in cancer suggest that combination therapy using PARPi and platinating agents is more effective than monotherapy in circumventing drug resistance mechanisms. Additionally, identification of biomarkers in response to PARPi will lead to improved patient selection for targeted cancer treatment. Recent technological advances have provided the necessary tools to examine many potential avenues to develop such biomarkers. This review examines the mechanistic rationale of PARP inhibition and potential biomarkers in their development for personalized therapy. PMID:26997874

  6. PARP-1 regulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hong; Horbinski, Craig; Hensley, Patrick J.; Matuszak, Emily A.; Atkinson, Timothy; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is involved in key cellular processes such as DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The role of PARP-1 in prostate cancer development and progression is not fully understood. The present study investigated the function of PARP-1 in prostate growth and tumorigenesis in vivo. Functional inactivation of PARP-1 by gene-targeted deletion led to a significant reduction in the prostate gland size in young PARP-1−/− mice (6 weeks) compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. To determine the effect of PARP-1 functional loss on prostate cancer onset, PARP-1−/− mice were crossed with the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Pathological assessment of prostate tumors revealed that TRAMP+/−, PARP-1−/− mice exhibited higher grade prostate tumors compared with TRAMP+/− PARP-1+/+ (16–28 weeks) that was associated with a significantly increased proliferative index and decreased apoptosis among the epithelial cells in TRAMP+/− PARP-1−/− prostate tumors. Furthermore tumors harboring PARP-1 loss, exhibited a downregulation of nuclear androgen receptor. Impairing PARP-1 led to increased levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smads that correlated with induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), as established by loss of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulation of N-cadherin and ZEB-1. Our findings suggest that impaired PARP-1 function promotes prostate tumorigenesis in vivo via TGF-β-induced EMT. Defining the EMT control by PARP-1 during prostate cancer progression is of translational significance for optimizing PARP-1 therapeutic targeting and predicting response in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:25173886

  7. Mixed ligand complexation of some transition metal ions in solution and solid state: Spectral characterization, antimicrobial, antioxidant, DNA cleavage activities and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, Sutha; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Selvaraj, Shanmugaperumal

    2013-04-01

    Equilibrium studies of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes involving a primary ligand 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and imidazoles viz., imidazole (him), benzimidazole (bim), histamine (hist) and L-histidine (his) as co-ligands(B) were carried out pH-metrically in aqueous medium at 310 ± 0.1 K with I = 0.15 M (NaClO4). In solution state, the stoichiometry of MABH, MAB and MAB2 species have been detected. The primary ligand(A) binds the central M(II) ions in a monodentate manner whereas him, bim, hist and his co-ligands(B) bind in mono, mono, bi and tridentate modes respectively. The calculated Δ log K, log X and log X' values indicate higher stability of the mixed ligand complexes in comparison to binary species. Stability of the mixed ligand complex equilibria follows the Irving-Williams order of stability. In vitro biological evaluations of the free ligand(A) and their metal complexes by well diffusion technique show moderate activities against common bacterial and fungal strains. Oxidative cleavage interaction of ligand(A) and their copper complexes with CT DNA is also studied by gel electrophoresis method in the presence of oxidant. In vitro antioxidant evaluations of the primary ligand(A), CuA and CuAB complexes by DPPH free radical scavenging model were carried out. In solid, the MAB type of M(II)sbnd 5-FU(A)sbnd his(B) complexes were isolated and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. Both the magnetic susceptibility and electronic spectral analysis suggest distorted octahedral geometry. Thermal studies on the synthesized mixed ligand complexes show loss of coordinated water molecule in the first step followed by decomposition of the organic residues subsequently. XRD and SEM analysis suggest that the microcrystalline nature and homogeneous morphology of MAB complexes. Further, the 3D molecular modeling and analysis for the mixed ligand MAB complexes have also been carried out.

  8. Thiosemicarbazone Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes as potential anticancer agents: syntheses, crystal structure, DNA cleavage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jia; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Li, Ang; Liu, Ya-Hong; Xie, Cheng-Zhi; Qiang, Zhao-Yan; Xu, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Four novel thiosemicarbazone metal complexes, [Cu(Am4M)(OAc)]·H2O (1), [Zn(HAm4M)Cl2] (2), [Zn2(Am4M)2Br2] (3) and [Zn2(Am4M)2(OAc)2]·2MeOH (4) [HAm4M=(Z)-2-(amino(pyridin-2-yl)methylene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide], have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, ESI-MS and IR. X-ray analysis revealed that complexes 1 and 2 are mononuclear, which possess residual coordination sites for Cu(II) ion in 1 and good leaving groups (Cl(-)) for Zn(II) ion in 2. Both 3 and 4 displayed dinuclear units, in which the metal atoms are doubly bridged by S atoms of two Am4M(-) ligands in 3 and by two acetate ions in bi- and mono-dentate forms, respectively, in 4. Their antiproliferative activities on human epithelial cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG-2) and human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) were screened. Inspiringly, IC50 value (11.2±0.9 μM) of complex 1 against HepG-2 cells was nearly 0.5 fold of that against human hepatic cell lines LO2, showing a lower toxicity to human liver cells. Additionally, it displayed a stronger inhibition on the viability of HepG-2 cells than cisplatin (IC50=25±3.1 μM), suggesting complex 1 might be a potential high efficient antitumor agent. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopic observation and flow cytometric analysis revealed that complex 1 could significantly suppress HepG-2 cell viability and induce apoptosis. Several indexes, such as DNA cleavage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, comet assay and cell cycle analysis indicated that the antitumor mechanism of complex 1 on HepG-2 cells might be via ROS-triggered apoptosis pathway. PMID:24690556

  9. Intracellular RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, A A; Amaral, J; Burke, J M

    1998-01-01

    Studies involving ribozyme-directed inactivation of targeted RNA molecules have met with mixed success, making clear the importance of methods to measure and optimize ribozyme activity within cells. The interpretation of biochemical assays for determining ribozyme activity in the cellular environment have been complicated by recent results indicating that hammerhead and hairpin ribozymes can cleave RNA following cellular lysis. Here, we report the results of experiments in which the catalytic activity of hairpin ribozymes is monitored following expression in mammalian cells, and in which post-lysis cleavage is rigorously excluded through a series of biochemical and genetic controls. Following transient transfection, self-processing transcripts containing active and inactive hairpin ribozymes together with cleavable and non-cleavable substrates were generated within the cytoplasm of mouse OST7-1 cells using T7 RNA polymerase. Unprocessed RNA and products ofintracellular cleavage were detected and analyzed using a primer-extension assay. Ribozyme-containing transcripts accumulated to a level of 4 x 10(4) copies per cell, and self-processing proceeded to an extent of >75% within cells. Cellular RNA processing was blocked by mutations within the ribozyme (G8A, G21U) or substrate (DeltaA-1) that, in vitro , eliminate cleavage without affecting substrate binding. In addition to self-processing activity, trans -cleavage reactions were supported by the ribozyme-containing product of the self-processing reaction, and by the ribozyme linked to the non-cleavable substrate analog. Ribozyme activity was present in extracts of cells expressing constructs with active ribozyme domains. These results provide direct biochemical evidence for the catalytic activity of the hairpin ribozyme in a cellular environment, and indicate that self-processing ribozyme transcripts may be well suited for cellular RNA-inactivation experiments. PMID:9671810

  10. Chromatin to clinic: The molecular rationale for PARP1 inhibitor function

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Karen E.; de Bono, Johann S.; Rubin, Mark A.; Feng, Felix Y.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors were recently shown to have clinical impact in a number of disease settings, particularly as related to cancer therapy, treatment for cardiovascular dysfunction, and suppression of inflammation. The molecular basis for PARP1 inhibitor function is complex, and appears to depend on the dual roles of PARP1 in DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation. Here, the mechanisms by which PARP-1 inhibitors elicit clinical response are discussed, and strategies for translating the preclinical elucidation of PARP-1 function into advances in disease management are reviewed. PMID:26091341

  11. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5-fluoro-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide derivatives as potent PARP-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Xuyan; Li, Hui; Ji, Dezhong; Li, Yuyan; Xu, Yungen; Zhu, Qihua

    2016-08-15

    A series of novel 5-fluorine-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide analogs were designed and synthesized. All target compounds were evaluated for their PARP-1 inhibitory activity. Compounds possessed high intrinsic PARP-1 inhibitory potency have been evaluated in vitro cellular assays to measure the potentiation effect of cytotoxic agents against cancer cell line. These efforts led to the identification of compound 10f, which displayed strong inhibition against the PARP-1 enzyme with an IC50 of 43.7nM, excellent cell inhibitory activity in HCT116 cells (IC50=7.4μM) and potentiation of temozolomide cytotoxicity in cancer cell line A549 (PF50=1.6). PMID:27353531

  12. Substrate-Triggered Activation of a Synthetic [Fe2(μ-O)2] Diamond Core for C–H Bond Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Genqiang; Pokutsa, Alexander; Que, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    An [FeIV2(μ-O)2] diamond core structure has been postulated for intermediate Q of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO-Q), the oxidant responsible for cleaving the strong C–H bond of methane and its hydroxylation. By extension, analogous species may be involved in the mechanisms of related diiron hydroxylases and desaturases. Due to the paucity of well-defined synthetic examples, there are few, if any, mechanistic studies on the oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates by complexes with high-valent [Fe2(μ-O)2] cores. We report here that water or alcohol substrates can activate synthetic [FeIIIFeIV(μ-O)2] complexes supported by tetradentate tris(pyridyl-2-methyl)amine ligands (1 and 2) by several orders of magnitude for C–H bond oxidation. On the basis of detailed kinetic studies, it is postulated that the activation results from Lewis base attack on the [FeIIIFeIV(μ-O)2] core, resulting in the formation of a more reactive species with a [X–FeIII–O–FeIV=O] ring-opened structure (1-X, 2-X, X = OH− or OR−). Treatment of 2 with methoxide at −80 °C forms the 2-methoxide adduct in high yield, which is characterized by an S = 1/2 EPR signal indicative of an antiferromagnetically coupled [S = 5/2 FeIII/S = 2 FeIV] pair. Even at this low temperature, the complex undergoes facile intramolecular C–H bond cleavage to generate formaldehyde, showing that the terminal high-spin FeIV=O unit is capable of oxidizing a C–H bond as strong as 96 kcal mol−1. This intramolecular oxidation of the methoxide ligand can in fact be competitive with intermolecular oxidation of triphenylmethane, which has a much weaker C–H bond (DC-H 81 kcal mol−1). The activation of the [FeIIIFeIV(μ-O)2] core is dramatically illustrated by the oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene by 2-methoxide, which has a second order rate constant that is 3.6 x 107-fold larger than that for the parent diamond core complex 2. These observations provide strong support for the DFT-based notion that an

  13. Reversed DNA Strand Cleavage Specificity in Initiation of Cre–LoxP Recombination Induced by the His289Ala Active-site Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Gelato, Kathy A.; Martin, Shelley S.; Baldwin, Enoch P.

    2010-01-01

    During the first steps of site-specific recombination, Cre protein cleaves and religates a specific homologous pair of LoxP strands to form a Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate. The HJ is resolved into recombination products through exchange of the second homologous strand pair. CreH289A, containing a His to Ala substitution in the conserved R-H-R catalytic motif, has a 150-fold reduced recombination rate and accumulates HJs. However, to produce these HJs, CreH289A exchanges the opposite set of strands compared to wild-type Cre (CreWT). To investigate how CreH289A and CreWT impose strand exchange order, we characterized their reactivities and strand cleavage preferences toward LoxP duplex and HJ substrates containing 8 bp spacer substitutions. Remarkably, CreH289A had different and often opposite strand exchange preferences compared to CreWT with nearly all substrates. CreH289N was much less perturbed, implying that overall recombination rate and strand exchange depend more on His289 hydrogen bonding capability than on its acid/base properties. LoxP substitutions immediately 5′(S1 nucleotide) or 3′(S1′nucleotide) of the scissile phosphate had large effects on substrate utilization and strand exchange order. S1′substitutions, designed to alter base-unstacking events concomitant with Cre-induced LoxP bending, caused HJ accumulation and dramatically inverted the cleavage preferences. That pre-formed HJs were resolved via either strand in vitro suggests that inhibition of the “conformational switch” isomerization required to trigger the second strand exchange accounts for the observed HJ accumulation. Rather than reflecting CreWT behavior, CreH289A accumulates HJs of opposite polarity through a combination of its unique cleavage specificity and an HJ isomerization defect. The overall implication is that cleavage specificity is mediated by sequence-dependent DNA deformations that influence the scissile phosphate positioning and reactivity. A role of His289

  14. PARP inhibition attenuates early brain injury through NF-κB/MMP-9 pathway in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ru; Xu, Hang-Zhe; Peng, Yu-Cong; Fan, Lin-Feng; Yan, Feng; Gu, Chi; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao

    2016-08-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play an important role in a range of neurological disorders, however, the role of PARP in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the role and the potential mechanisms of PARP in early brain injury after SAH. Eighty-nine male SD rats were randomly divided into the Sham group, SAH+Vehicle group and SAH+PARP inhibitor (PJ34) group. An endovascular perforation model was used to induce SAH in rats. PJ34 (10mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl) was intraperitoneally administered at 5min and 8h after SAH induction. Mortality, SAH grades, neurological function, evans blue extravasation, brain edema, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed. PJ34 reduced BBB permeability and brain edema, improved neurological function and attenuated neuronal cell death in the rat model of SAH. Moreover, PJ34 inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, decreased the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, reduced the expression of MMP-9, prevented the degradation of tight junction proteins, and decreased microglia activation. These data indicated that PARP inhibition through PJ34 might be an important therapeutic drug for SAH. PMID:27157545

  15. Perinatal asphyxia leads to PARP-1 overactivity, p65 translocation, IL-1β and TNF-α overexpression, and apoptotic-like cell death in mesencephalon of neonatal rats: prevention by systemic neonatal nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Neira-Peña, T; Rojas-Mancilla, E; Munoz-Vio, V; Perez, R; Gutierrez-Hernandez, M; Bustamante, D; Morales, P; Hermoso, M A; Gebicke-Haerter, P; Herrera-Marschitz, M

    2015-05-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a leading cause of neuronal damage in newborns, resulting in long-term neurological and cognitive deficits, in part due to impairment of mesostriatal and mesolimbic neurocircuitries. The insult can be as severe as to menace the integrity of the genome, triggering the overactivation of sentinel proteins, including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 overactivation implies increased energy demands, worsening the metabolic failure and depleting further NAD(+) availability. Using a global PA rat model, we report here evidence that hypoxia increases PARP-1 activity, triggering a signalling cascade leading to nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65, modulating the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, pro-inflammatory molecules, increasing apoptotic-like cell death in mesencephalon of neonate rats, monitored with Western blots, qPCR, TUNEL and ELISA. PARP-1 activity increased immediately after PA, reaching a maximum 1-8 h after the insult, while activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway was observed 8 h after the insult, with a >twofold increase of p65 nuclear translocation. IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels were increased 24 h after the insult, together with a >twofold increase in apoptotic-like cell death. A single dose of the PARP-1 inhibitor nicotinamide (0.8 mmol/kg, i.p.), 1 h post delivery, prevented the effect of PA on PARP-1 activity, p65 translocation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptotic-like cell death. The present study demonstrates that PA leads to PARP-1 overactivation, increasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death in mesencephalon, effects prevented by systemic neonatal nicotinamide administration, supporting the idea that PARP-1 inhibition represents a therapeutic target against the effects of PA. PMID:25835215

  16. The PARP inhibitor olaparib enhances the sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma to trabectedin

    PubMed Central

    Carcaboso, Angel M.; Herrero-Martín, David; García-Macías, María del Carmen; Sevillano, Vicky; Alonso, Diego; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; San-Segundo, Laura; Vila-Ubach, Monica; Rodrigues, Telmo; Fraile, Susana; Teodosio, Cristina; Mayo-Iscar, Agustín; Aracil, Miguel; Galmarini, Carlos María; Tirado, Oscar M.; Mora, Jaume; de Álava, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Recent preclinical evidence has suggested that Ewing Sarcoma (ES) bearing EWSR1-ETS fusions could be particularly sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPinh) in combination with DNA damage repair (DDR) agents. Trabectedin is an antitumoral agent that modulates EWSR1-FLI1 transcriptional functions, causing DNA damage. Interestingly, PARP1 is also a transcriptional regulator of EWSR1-FLI1, and PARPinh disrupts the DDR machinery. Thus, given the impact and apparent specificity of both agents with regard to the DNA damage/DDR system and EWSR1-FLI1 activity in ES, we decided to explore the activity of combining PARPinh and Trabectedin in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The combination of Olaparib and Trabectedin was found to be highly synergistic, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, and the accumulation of G2/M. The drug combination also enhanced γH2AX intranuclear accumulation as a result of DNA damage induction, DNA fragmentation and global DDR deregulation, while EWSR1-FLI1 target expression remained unaffected. The effect of the drug combination was corroborated in a mouse xenograft model of ES and, more importantly, in two ES patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in which the tumors showed complete regression. In conclusion, the combination of the two agents leads to a biologically significant deregulation of the DDR machinery that elicits relevant antitumor activity in preclinical models and might represent a promising therapeutic tool that should be further explored for translation to the clinical setting. PMID:26056084

  17. Identification of novel PARP-1 inhibitors: Drug design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhouling; Zhou, Youli; Zhao, Wei; Jiao, He; Chen, Yu; Yang, Yong; Li, Zhiyu

    2015-10-15

    A series of AG014699 derivatives containing a novel scaffold of 2,3-dihydro-1H-[1,2]diazepino[4,5,6-cd]indole-1,4(6H)-dione were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward PARP-1 enzyme and two cell lines, MCF-7 cells and the BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells. Our results demonstrated that of all AG014699 derivatives synthesized in this work, compounds 6 and 7 showed strong PARP-1 inhibitory activity (IC50=3.5 nM and 2.4 nM, respectively), only four and three times less potent than AG014699. Compound 6 also had significantly cell inhibitory activity against both MCF-7 cells (CC50=25.8 μM) and the BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells (CC50=5.4 μM), nearly as good as AG014699, indicating that it can be a promising compound for further evaluation. PMID:26342868

  18. Potentiation of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy by the PARP Inhibitor Olaparib

    PubMed Central

    Nonnekens, Julie; van Kranenburg, Melissa; Beerens, Cecile E.M.T.; Suker, Mustafa; Doukas, Michael; van Eijck, Casper H.J.; de Jong, Marion; van Gent, Dik C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastases expressing tumor-specific receptors can be targeted and treated by binding of radiolabeled peptides (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy or PRRT). For example, patients with metastasized somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be treated with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues, resulting in strongly increased progression-free survival and quality of life. There is nevertheless still room for improvement, as very few patients can be cured at this stage of disease. We aimed to specifically sensitize replicating tumor cells without further damage to healthy tissues. Thereto we investigated the DNA damaging effects of PRRT with the purpose to enhance these effects through modulation of the DNA damage response. Although PRRT induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), a larger fraction of the induced lesions are single strand breaks (expected to be similar to those induced by external beam radiotherapy) that require poly-[ADP-ribose]-polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity for repair. If these breaks cannot be repaired, they will cause replication fork arrest and DSB formation during replication. Therefore, we used the PARP-1 inhibitor Olaparib to increase the number of cytotoxic DSBs. Here we show that this new combination strategy synergistically sensitized somatostatin receptor expressing cells to PRRT. We observed increased cell death and reduced cellular proliferation compared to the PRRT alone. The enhanced cell death was caused by increased numbers of DSBs that are repaired with remarkably slow kinetics, leading to genome instability. Furthermore, we validated the increased DSB induction after PARP inhibitor addition in the clinically relevant model of living human NET slices. We expect that this combined regimen can thus augment current PRRT outcomes. PMID:27570553

  19. Potentiation of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy by the PARP Inhibitor Olaparib.

    PubMed

    Nonnekens, Julie; van Kranenburg, Melissa; Beerens, Cecile E M T; Suker, Mustafa; Doukas, Michael; van Eijck, Casper H J; de Jong, Marion; van Gent, Dik C

    2016-01-01

    Metastases expressing tumor-specific receptors can be targeted and treated by binding of radiolabeled peptides (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy or PRRT). For example, patients with metastasized somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be treated with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues, resulting in strongly increased progression-free survival and quality of life. There is nevertheless still room for improvement, as very few patients can be cured at this stage of disease. We aimed to specifically sensitize replicating tumor cells without further damage to healthy tissues. Thereto we investigated the DNA damaging effects of PRRT with the purpose to enhance these effects through modulation of the DNA damage response. Although PRRT induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), a larger fraction of the induced lesions are single strand breaks (expected to be similar to those induced by external beam radiotherapy) that require poly-[ADP-ribose]-polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity for repair. If these breaks cannot be repaired, they will cause replication fork arrest and DSB formation during replication. Therefore, we used the PARP-1 inhibitor Olaparib to increase the number of cytotoxic DSBs. Here we show that this new combination strategy synergistically sensitized somatostatin receptor expressing cells to PRRT. We observed increased cell death and reduced cellular proliferation compared to the PRRT alone. The enhanced cell death was caused by increased numbers of DSBs that are repaired with remarkably slow kinetics, leading to genome instability. Furthermore, we validated the increased DSB induction after PARP inhibitor addition in the clinically relevant model of living human NET slices. We expect that this combined regimen can thus augment current PRRT outcomes. PMID:27570553

  20. Combined inhibition of Wee1 and PARP1/2 for radiosensitization in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karnak, David; Engelke, Carl G.; Parsels, Leslie A.; Kausar, Tasneem; Wei, Dongping; Robertson, Jordan R.; Marsh, Katherine B.; Davis, Mary A.; Zhao, Lili; Maybaum, Jonathan; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Morgan, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While the addition of radiation to chemotherapy improves survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, more effective therapies are urgently needed. Thus, we investigated the radiosensitizing efficacy of the novel drug combination of Wee1 and PARP1/2 [poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1/2] inhibitors (AZD1775 and olaparib, respectively) in pancreatic cancer. Experimental Design Radiosensitization of AsPC-1 or MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells was assessed by clonogenic survival and tumor growth assays. Mechanistically, the effects of AZD1775, olaparib, and radiation on cell cycle, DNA damage (γH2AX) and HRR (homologous recombination repair) were determined. Results Treatment of AsPC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 cells with either AZD1775 or olaparib caused modest radiosensitization while treatment with the combination significantly increased radiosensitization. Radiosensitization by the combination of AZD1775 and olaparib was associated with G2 checkpoint abrogation and persistent DNA damage. In addition, AZD1775 inhibited HRR activity and prevented radiation-induced Rad51 focus formation. Finally, in vivo, in MiaPaCa-2-derived xenografts, olaparib did not radiosensitize, while AZD1775 produced moderate, yet significant, radiosensitization (P<0.05). Importantly, the combination of AZD1775 and olaparib produced highly significant radiosensitization (P<0.0001) evidenced by a 13-day delay in tumor volume doubling (vs radiation alone) and complete eradication of 20% of tumors. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of combined inhibition of Wee1 and PARP inhibitors for radiosensitizing pancreatic cancers and support the model that Wee1 inhibition sensitizes cells to PARP inhibitor-mediated radiosensitization through inhibition of HRR and abrogation of the G2 checkpoint, ultimately resulting in unrepaired, lethal DNA damage and radiosensitization. PMID:25117293

  1. Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic inflammation causes telomere shortening of gastric mucosa by promoting PARP-1-mediated non-homologous end joining of DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ping; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2016-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection leads to chronic gastritis and increased risk of gastric cancer. The mechanism involves chronic inflammation. We aimed to determine the mechanism by which H. pylori infection causes telomere shortening in inflammatory gastric mucosa. Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained from 20 patients with chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer caused by H. pylori infection. The specimens showed increased NF-κB and superoxide dismutase activities and elevated expressions of PARP-1 and γ-H2AX, all of which returned to normal levels after anti-H. pylori treatment, suggesting that oxidative DNA damage and PARP-1 overexpression might cause telomere shortening. In this report, we adopted DNA end joining assay and showed that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa had increased alternative NHEJ (non-homologous end joining), implicating that telomere shortening was caused by inflammation-mediated overproduction of reactive oxygen species and PARP-1, leading to telomere shortening. PMID:27450718

  2. Synthesis and SAR of novel tricyclic quinoxalinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Miyashiro, Julie; Woods, Keith W.; Park, Chang H.; Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Yan; Johnson, Eric F.; Bouska, Jennifer J.; Olson, Amanda M.; Luo, Yan; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Giranda, Vincent L.; Penning, Thomas D.

    2010-09-03

    Based on screening hit 1, a series of tricyclic quinoxalinones have been designed and evaluated for inhibition of PARP-1. Substitutions at the 7- and 8-positions of the quinoxalinone ring led to a number of compounds with good enzymatic and cellular potency. The tricyclic quinoxalinone class is sensitive to modifications of both the amine substituent and the tricyclic core. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies are presented.

  3. Role of the Active Site Guanine in the glmS Ribozyme Self-Cleavage Mechanism: Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Free Energy Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The glmS ribozyme catalyzes a self-cleavage reaction at the phosphodiester bond between residues A-1 and G1. This reaction is thought to occur by an acid–base mechanism involving the glucosamine-6-phosphate cofactor and G40 residue. Herein quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy simulations and pKa calculations, as well as experimental measurements of the rate constant for self-cleavage, are utilized to elucidate the mechanism, particularly the role of G40. Our calculations suggest that an external base deprotonates either G40(N1) or possibly A-1(O2′), which would be followed by proton transfer from G40(N1) to A-1(O2′). After this initial deprotonation, A-1(O2′) starts attacking the phosphate as a hydroxyl group, which is hydrogen-bonded to deprotonated G40, concurrent with G40(N1) moving closer to the hydroxyl group and directing the in-line attack. Proton transfer from A-1(O2′) to G40 is concomitant with attack of the scissile phosphate, followed by the remainder of the cleavage reaction. A mechanism in which an external base does not participate, but rather the proton transfers from A-1(O2′) to a nonbridging oxygen during nucleophilic attack, was also considered but deemed to be less likely due to its higher effective free energy barrier. The calculated rate constant for the favored mechanism is in agreement with the experimental rate constant measured at biological Mg2+ ion concentration. According to these calculations, catalysis is optimal when G40 has an elevated pKa rather than a pKa shifted toward neutrality, although a balance among the pKa’s of A-1, G40, and the nonbridging oxygen is essential. These results have general implications, as the hammerhead, hairpin, and twister ribozymes have guanines at a similar position as G40. PMID:25526516

  4. Novel enzymatic activity of cell free extract from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. UZO 3 catalyzes reductive cleavage of diaryl ether bonds of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuzoh; Nakamura, Masaya; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Nao; Ohyama, Keisuke; Kawakami, Takeshi; Sato, Kanna; Kajita, Shinya; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Fujii, Takeo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2011-04-01

    We characterized the ability of the cell free extract from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins degrading bacterium Geobacillus sp. UZO 3 to reduce even highly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins such as octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in incineration fly ash. The degradation of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7-DCDD) as a model dioxin catalyzed by the cell free extract from this strain implicates that the ether bonds of 2,7-DCDD molecule undergo reductive cleavage, since 4',5-dichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether and 4-chlorophenol were detected as intermediate products of 2,7-DCDD degradation. PMID:21435685

  5. Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, improves experimental colitis in mice with multiple targets against activated T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xing-Xin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Gu, Yan-Hong; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2012-09-15

    In the present paper, we aimed to examine the novel effects of cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, on murine experimental colitis. Cerebroside D significantly reduced the weight loss, mortality rate and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis induced by dexran sulfate sodium. This compound also decreased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β in intestinal tissue of mice with experimental colitis in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with markedly increased serum level of IL-10. Cerebroside D inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T cells activated by concanavalin A or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies. The compound did not show an effect on naive lymphocytes but prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. Moreover, the treatment of cerebroside D led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspase 3, 9, 12 and PARP. These results showed multiple effects of cerebroside D against activated T cells for a novel approach to treatment of colonic inflammation. Highlights: ► Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. ► The mechanism of the compound involved multiple effects against activated T cells. ► It regulated cytokine profiles in mice with experimental colitis. ► It prevented T cells from entering S and G2/M phases during activation. ► It led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspases and PARP.

  6. PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation: Fifty Years… and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over 50 years ago, the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) set a new field of science in motion - the field of poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases (PARPs) and ADP-ribosylation. The field is still flourishing today. The diversity of biological processes now known to require PARPs and ADP-ribosylation was practically unimaginable even two decades ago. From an initial focus on DNA damage detection and repair in response to genotoxic stresses, the field has expanded to include the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and RNA processing in a wide range of biological systems, including reproduction, development, aging, stem cells, inflammation, metabolism, and cancer. This special focus issue of Molecular Cell includes a collection of three Reviews, three Perspectives, and a SnapShot, which together summarize the current state of the field and suggest where it may be headed. PMID:26091339

  7. Femtosecond near-infrared laser microirradiation reveals a crucial role for PARP signaling on factor assemblies at DNA damage sites

    PubMed Central

    Saquilabon Cruz, Gladys Mae; Kong, Xiangduo; Silva, Bárbara Alcaraz; Khatibzadeh, Nima; Thai, Ryan; Berns, Michael W.; Yokomori, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Laser microirradiation is a powerful tool for real-time single-cell analysis of the DNA damage response (DDR). It is often found, however, that factor recruitment or modification profiles vary depending on the laser system employed. This is likely due to an incomplete understanding of how laser conditions/dosages affect the amounts and types of damage and the DDR. We compared different irradiation conditions using a femtosecond near-infrared laser and found distinct damage site recruitment thresholds for 53BP1 and TRF2 correlating with the dose-dependent increase of strand breaks and damage complexity. Low input-power microirradiation that induces relatively simple strand breaks led to robust recruitment of 53BP1 but not TRF2. In contrast, increased strand breaks with complex damage including crosslinking and base damage generated by high input-power microirradiation resulted in TRF2 recruitment to damage sites with no 53BP1 clustering. We found that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation distinguishes between the two damage states and that PARP activation is essential for rapid TRF2 recruitment while suppressing 53BP1 accumulation at damage sites. Thus, our results reveal that careful titration of laser irradiation conditions allows induction of varying amounts and complexities of DNA damage that are gauged by differential PARP activation regulating protein assembly at the damage site. PMID:26424850

  8. Efficacy of PARP inhibition in Pde6a mutant mouse models for retinitis pigmentosa depends on the quality and composition of individual human mutations

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, K; Sahaboglu, A; Zrenner, E; Ueffing, M; Ekström, P A R; Paquet-Durand, F

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited blinding disease, is caused by a variety of different mutations that affect retinal photoreceptor function and survival. So far there is neither effective treatment nor cure. We have previously shown that poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) acts as a common and critical denominator of cell death in photoreceptors, qualifying it as a potential target for future therapeutic intervention. A significant fraction of RP-causing mutations affect the genes for the rod photoreceptor phosphodiesterase 6A (PDE6A) subunit, but it is not known whether they all engage the same death pathway. Analysing three homozygous point mutations (Pde6a R562W, D670G, and V685M) and one compound heterozygous Pde6aV685M/R562W mutation in mouse models that match human RP patients, we demonstrate excessive activation of PARP, which correlated in time with the progression of photoreceptor degeneration. The causal involvement of PARP activity in the neurodegenerative process was confirmed in organotypic retinal explant cultures treated with the PARP-selective inhibitor PJ34, using different treatment time-points and durations. Remarkably, the neuroprotective efficacy of PARP inhibition correlated inversely with the strength of the genetically induced insult, with the D670G mutant showing the best treatment effects. Our results highlight PARP as a target for neuroprotective interventions in RP caused by PDE6A mutations and are a first attempt towards personalized, genotype-matched therapy development for RP. In addition, for each of the different mutant situations, our work identifies windows of opportunity for an optimal treatment regimen for further in vivo experimentation and possibly clinical studies. PMID:27551530

  9. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  10. Nuclear ULK1 promotes cell death in response to oxidative stress through PARP1.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A; Iyengar, R; Joo, J H; Li-Harms, X J; Wright, C; Marino, R; Winborn, B J; Phillips, A; Temirov, J; Sciarretta, S; Kriwacki, R; Peng, J; Shelat, A; Kundu, M

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause cellular damage and oxidative stress-induced cell death. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic process, is executed by autophagy (ATG) proteins, including the autophagy initiation kinase Unc-51-like kinase (ULK1)/ATG1. Although autophagy has been implicated to have both cytoprotective and cytotoxic roles in the response to ROS, the role of individual ATG proteins, including ULK1, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that ULK1 sensitizes cells to necrotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, we demonstrate that ULK1 localizes to the nucleus and regulates the activity of the DNA damage repair protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in a kinase-dependent manner. By enhancing PARP1 activity, ULK1 contributes to ATP depletion and death of H2O2-treated cells. Our study provides the first evidence of an autophagy-independent prodeath role for nuclear ULK1 in response to ROS-induced damage. On the basis of our data, we propose that the subcellular distribution of ULK1 has an important role in deciding whether a cell lives or dies on exposure to adverse environmental or intracellular conditions. PMID:26138443

  11. Free energy calculation provides insight into the action mechanism of selective PARP-1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ran

    2016-04-01

    Selective poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitor represents promising therapy against cancers with a good balance between efficacy and safety. Owing to the conserved structure between PARP-1 and PARP-2, most of the clinical and experimental drugs show equivalent inhibition against both targets. Most recently, it's disclosed a highly selective PARP-1 inhibitor (NMS-P118) with promising pharmacokinetic properties. Herein, we combined molecular simulation with free energy calculation to gain insights into the selective mechanism of NMS-P118. Our results suggest the reduction of binding affinity for PARP-2 is attributed to the unfavorable conformational change of protein, which is accompanied by a significant energy penalty. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis study further reveals the important role for a tyrosine residue of donor loop (Tyr889(PARP-1) and Tyr455(PARP-2)) in contributing to the ligand selectivity. Retrospective structural analysis indicates the ligand-induced movement of Tyr455(PARP-2) disrupts the intra-molecule hydrogen bonding network, which partially accounts for the "high-energy" protein conformation in the presence of NMS-P118. Interestingly, such effect isn't observed in other non-selective PARP inhibitors including BMN673 and A861695, which validates the computational prediction. Our work provides energetic insight into the subtle variations in the crystal structures and could facilitate rational design of new selective PARP inhibitor. PMID:26969680

  12. PARP6 acts as a tumor suppressor via downregulating Survivin expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Jin, Shengjian; Liu, Jing; Zuo, Xiaoxu; Mi, Sisi; Shao, Wenhuan; Ma, Xiaojuan; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Zeng, Sien; Tatsuka, Masaaki; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose groups to target proteins and are involved in a variety of biological processes. PARP6 is a novel member, and our previous findings suggest that PARP6 may act as a tumor suppressor via suppressing cell cycle progression. However, it is still unclear that PARP6 function besides growth suppression in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we examined tumor suppressive roles of PAPR6 in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We found that PARP6 inhibited colony formation, invasion and migration as well as cell proliferation. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of PARP6 decreased Survivin expression, which acts as an oncogene and is involved in apoptosis and mitosis. We confirmed the inverse correlation between PARP6 and Survivin expression in CRC cases by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, CRC cases with downregulation of PARP6 and upregulation of Survivin showed poor prognosis. In summary, PARP6 acts as a tumor suppressor via downregulating Survivin expression in CRC. PARP6 can be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target together with Survivin for CRC. PMID:26934315

  13. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  14. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HSP90 protein cleavage participates in arsenical As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptosis through inhibition of telomerase activity via JNK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.-C.; Yang, L.-Y.; Lin, H.-Y.; Wu, C.-Y.; Su, T.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of six arsenic compounds including As{sup +3}, MMA{sup +3}, DMA{sup +3}, As{sup +5}, MMA{sup +5}, and DMA{sup +5} on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3}, but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3} were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3} treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-treated NIH3T3 cells, and As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As{sup +3} or MMA{sup +3}. These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3} is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved.

  15. Permeability Transition Pore-dependent and PARP-mediated Depletion of Neuronal Pyridine Nucleotides During Anoxia and Glucose Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Sibel; Siegel, Alex; Polster, Brian M.; Fiskum, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of rat cortical neurons to combined oxygen and glucose deprivation results in loss of NAD(P)H autofluorescence that is only partially reversible following restoration of oxygen and glucose, suggesting catabolism of pyridine nucleotides. This study tested the hypothesis that metabolic inhibition caused by cyanide-induced chemical anoxia plus glucose deprivation promotes both release of mitochondrial NAD(H) in response to opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) and NAD(P)(H) degradation through activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The NAD(P)H autofluorescence of rat neonatal cortical neurons was monitored during and following acute (10 – 30 min) exposure to the respiratory inhibitor, cyanide, in the absence and presence of glucose. Because nitric oxide-derived peroxynitrite is a known activator of PARP, we additionally assessed the effect of a nitric oxide generating agent on the NAD(P)H autofluorescence response to chemical anoxia plus glucose deprivation. Cyanide induced a rapid increase in autofluorescence, followed by a steady decline promoted by the presence of nitric oxide. This decline was primarily due to NAD(H) catabolism, as verified by measurements of total NAD(H) present in cellular extracts. Catabolism was partially blocked by an inhibitor of PARP, by a PTP inhibitor, and by either glucose or pyruvate as a source of reducing power. Overall, data suggest that metabolic, oxidative, and nitrosative stress during in vitro neuronal anoxia and glucose deprivation result in release of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides in response to PTP opening and rapid, extensive NAD(H) degradation mediated by PARP activation. These events may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction that occurs in vivo during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and therefore represent prime targets for neuroprotection. PMID:25341378

  16. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer B; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9-gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9-gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  17. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Thyme, Summer B.; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G.; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9–gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9–gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  18. Assessment of preferential cleavage of an actively transcribed retroviral hybrid gene in murine cells by deoxyribonuclease I, bleomycin, neocarzinostatin, or ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, R.P.; Agostino, M.J.; McHugh, M.M.; Sigmund, R.D.; Beerman, T.A.

    1987-08-25

    Preferential cleavage induced by bleomycin, neocarzinostatin, or ionizing radiation in a transcribed cellular gene was evaluated through comparisons with deoxyribonuclease I. The glucocorticoid-inducible LTL gene previously described served as the specific DNA target. A Southern blot analysis was used to specifically assess cleavage of the LTL gene in nuclei isolated from cells either treated or untreated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Hypersensitivity of the gene to bleomycin or neocarzinostatin, which paralleled deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitivity, was evident only in nuclei isolated from dexamethasone-treated cells. Like deoxyribonuclease I, sites of dexamethasone-inducible drug hypersensitivity were coincident with the binding region for the glucocorticoid receptor found within the regulatory sequences of the LTL gene. In contrast, no hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation was evident. Although bleomycin and neocarzinostatin showed qualitatively similar preferences for the threshold LTL gene, quantitative evaluations of damage to total cellular DNA by filter elution showed that the relative specificity of bleomycin for the hypersensitive region was much less than that of either deoxyribonuclease I or neocarzinostatin.

  19. Utilization of Dioxygen by Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Zhang, Jianye; Kleinberg, Katie A; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2015-12-18

    Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are non-heme, Fe(II)-dependent enzymes that participate in biologically important metabolic pathways involving carotenoids and apocarotenoids, including retinoids, stilbenes, and related compounds. CCOs typically catalyze the cleavage of non-aromatic double bonds by dioxygen (O2) to form aldehyde or ketone products. Expressed only in vertebrates, the RPE65 sub-group of CCOs catalyzes a non-canonical reaction consisting of concerted ester cleavage and trans-cis isomerization of all-trans-retinyl esters. It remains unclear whether the former group of CCOs functions as mono- or di-oxygenases. Additionally, a potential role for O2 in catalysis by the RPE65 group of CCOs has not been evaluated to date. Here, we investigated the pattern of oxygen incorporation into apocarotenoid products of Synechocystis apocarotenoid oxygenase. Reactions performed in the presence of (18)O-labeled water and (18)O2 revealed an unambiguous dioxygenase pattern of O2 incorporation into the reaction products. Substitution of Ala for Thr at position 136 of apocarotenoid oxygenase, a site predicted to govern the mono- versus dioxygenase tendency of CCOs, greatly reduced enzymatic activity without altering the dioxygenase labeling pattern. Reevaluation of the oxygen-labeling pattern of the resveratrol-cleaving CCO, NOV2, previously reported to be a monooxygenase, using a purified enzyme sample revealed that it too is a dioxygenase. We also demonstrated that bovine RPE65 is not dependent on O2 for its cleavage/isomerase activity. In conjunction with prior research, the results of this study resolve key issues regarding the utilization of O2 by CCOs and indicate that dioxygenase activity is a feature common among double bond-cleaving CCOs. PMID:26499794

  20. Crystal Structure of Human ADP-ribose Transferase ARTD15/PARP16 Reveals a Novel Putative Regulatory Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Karlberg, Tobias; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Kallas, Åsa; Schüler, Herwig

    2012-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is involved in the regulation of DNA repair, transcription, and other processes. The 18 human ADP-ribose transferases with diphtheria toxin homology include ARTD1/PARP1, a cancer drug target. Knowledge of other family members may guide therapeutics development and help evaluate potential drug side effects. Here, we present the crystal structure of human ARTD15/PARP16, a previously uncharacterized enzyme. ARTD15 features an α-helical domain that packs against its transferase domain without making direct contact with the NAD+-binding crevice or the donor loop. Thus, this novel domain does not resemble the regulatory domain of ARTD1. ARTD15 displays auto-mono(ADP-ribosylation) activity and is affected by canonical poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. These results add to a framework that will facilitate research on a medically important family of enzymes. PMID:22661712

  1. Quantification of DNA cleavage specificity in Hi-C experiments

    PubMed Central

    Meluzzi, Dario; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Hi-C experiments produce large numbers of DNA sequence read pairs that are typically analyzed to deduce genomewide interactions between arbitrary loci. A key step in these experiments is the cleavage of cross-linked chromatin with a restriction endonuclease. Although this cleavage should happen specifically at the enzyme's recognition sequence, an unknown proportion of cleavage events may involve other sequences, owing to the enzyme's star activity or to random DNA breakage. A quantitative estimation of these non-specific cleavages may enable simulating realistic Hi-C read pairs for validation of downstream analyses, monitoring the reproducibility of experimental conditions and investigating biophysical properties that correlate with DNA cleavage patterns. Here we describe a computational method for analyzing Hi-C read pairs to estimate the fractions of cleavages at different possible targets. The method relies on expressing an observed local target distribution downstream of aligned reads as a linear combination of known conditional local target distributions. We validated this method using Hi-C read pairs obtained by computer simulation. Application of the method to experimental Hi-C datasets from murine cells revealed interesting similarities and differences in patterns of cleavage across the various experiments considered. PMID:26264668

  2. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, DNA-cleavage and antioxidant activities of 3-((5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylimino)methyl)quinoline-2(1H)-thione and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanand, B.; Mahendra Raj, K.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Schiff base 3-((5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylimino)methyl)quinoline-2(1H)-thione and its Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III), complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Visible, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and TGA data. The ligand and its metal complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus in minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) by cup plate method respectively, antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), which was compared with that of standard drugs vitamin-C and vitamin-E and DNA cleavage activity using calf-thymus DNA.

  3. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  4. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  5. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  6. Nonspecific cleavage of proteins using graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Tran, Minh-Hai; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Han, Jinwoo; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2014-04-15

    In this article, we report the intrinsic catalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) for the nonspecific cleavage of proteins. We used bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a recombinant esterase (rEstKp) from the cold-adapted bacterium Pseudomonas mandelii as test proteins. Cleavage of BSA and rEstKp was nonspecific regarding amino acid sequence, but it exhibited dependence on temperature, time, and the amount of GO. However, cleavage of the proteins did not result in complete hydrolysis into their constituent amino acids. GO also invoked hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters at moderate temperatures lower than those required for peptide hydrolysis regardless of chain length of the fatty acyl esters. Based on the results, the functional groups of GO, including alcohols, phenols, and carboxylates, can be considered as crucial roles in the GO-mediated hydrolysis of peptides and esters via general acid-base catalysis. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of GO as a carbocatalyst with nonspecific endopeptidase activity in biochemical reactions. PMID:24508487

  7. Activation of 12/23-RSS-Dependent RAG Cleavage by hSWI/SNF Complex in the Absence of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hansen; Ishii, Haruhiko; Pazin, Michael J.; Sen, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Maintenance of genomic integrity during antigen receptor gene rearrangements requires (1) regulated access of the V(D)J recombinase to specific loci and (2) generation of double-strand DNA breaks only after recognition of a pair of matched recombination signal sequences (RSSs). Here we recapitulate both key aspects of regulated recombinase accessibility in a cell-free system using plasmid substrates assembled into chromatin. We show that recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to both RSSs increases coupled cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. SWI/SNF functions by altering local chromatin structure in the absence of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription or histone modifications. These observations demonstrate a direct role for cis-sequence-regulated local chromatin remodeling in RAG1/2-dependent initiation of V(D)J recombination. PMID:18775324

  8. Parp-2 is required to maintain hematopoiesis following sublethal γ-irradiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Farrés, Jordi; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Martínez, Carlos; Lozano, Juan J.; Llacuna, Laura; Ampurdanés, Coral; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Dantzer, Françoise; Schreiber, Valérie; Villunger, Andreas; Bigas, Anna; Yélamos, José

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells self-renew for life to guarantee the continuous supply of all blood cell lineages. Here we show that Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (Parp-2) plays an essential role in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) survival under steady-state conditions and in response to stress. Increased levels of cell death were observed in HSPC from untreated Parp-2−/− mice, but this deficit was compensated by increased rates of self-renewal, associated with impaired reconstitution of hematopoiesis upon serial bone marrow transplantation. Cell death after γ-irradiation correlated with an impaired capacity to repair DNA damage in the absence of Parp-2. Upon exposure to sublethal doses of γ-irradiation, Parp-2−/− mice exhibited bone marrow failure that correlated with reduced long-term repopulation potential of irradiated Parp-2−/− HSPC under competitive conditions. In line with a protective role of Parp-2 against irradiation-induced apoptosis, loss of p53 or the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Puma restored survival of irradiated Parp-2−/− mice, whereas loss of Noxa had no such effect. Our results show that Parp-2 plays essential roles in the surveillance of genome integrity of HSPC by orchestrating DNA repair and restraining p53-induced and Puma-mediated apoptosis. The data may affect the design of drugs targeting Parp proteins and the improvement of radiotherapy-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:23678004

  9. PARP Inhibitors for Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma: Current Treatment Options and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sehouli, J.; Braicu, E. I.; Chekerov, R.

    2016-01-01

    More than simply a promising management option, PARP inhibitors can be regarded as a milestone in the development of personalised treatment of recurrent ovarian carcinoma. Their mechanism of action, known as “synthetic lethality”, is dependent on functional differences of the DNA repair mechanisms of healthy cells and tumour cells; cells that repair DNA damage less efficiently are particularly sensitive to PARP inhibitors. Olaparib, licensed for use this year, is the best-studied PARP inhibitor used for treatment of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC). The efficacy of PARP inhibitors appears to be increased when used in combination with other treatments. PMID:26941449

  10. PARP1 inhibition radiosensitizes HNSCC cells deficient in homologous recombination by disabling the DNA replication fork elongation response.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Stephanie; Hennes, Fabian; Parplys, Ann C; Seelbach, Jasna I; Mansour, Wael Y; Zielinski, Alexandra; Petersen, Cordula; Clauditz, Till S; Münscher, Adrian; Friedl, Anna A; Borgmann, Kerstin

    2016-03-01

    There is a need to develop new, more efficient therapies for head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. It is currently unclear whether defects in DNA repair genes play a role in HNSCCs' resistance to therapy. PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) were found to be "synthetic lethal" in cancers deficient in BRCA1/2 with impaired homologous recombination. Since tumors rarely have these particular mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARPi sensitivity. Effectiveness of combined irradiation and PARPi olaparib was evaluated in ten HNSCC cell lines, subdivided into HR-proficient and HR-deficient cell lines using a GFP-based reporter assay. Both groups were equally sensitive to PARPi alone. Combined treatment revealed stronger synergistic interactions in the HR-deficient group. Because HR is mainly active in S-Phase, replication processes were analyzed. A stronger impact of treatment on replication processes (p = 0.04) and an increased number of radial chromosomes (p = 0.003) were observed in the HR-deficient group. We could show that radiosensitization by inhibition of PARP1 strongly correlates with HR competence in a replication-dependent manner. Our observations indicate that PARP1 inhibitors are promising candidates for enhancing the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy via disabling DNA replication processes in HR-deficient HNSCCs. PMID:26799421

  11. PARP1 inhibition radiosensitizes HNSCC cells deficient in homologous recombination by disabling the DNA replication fork elongation response

    PubMed Central

    Parplys, Ann C.; Seelbach, Jasna I.; Mansour, Wael Y.; Zielinski, Alexandra; Petersen, Cordula; Clauditz, Till S.; Münscher, Adrian; Friedl, Anna A.; Borgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop new, more efficient therapies for head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. It is currently unclear whether defects in DNA repair genes play a role in HNSCCs' resistance to therapy. PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) were found to be “synthetic lethal” in cancers deficient in BRCA1/2 with impaired homologous recombination. Since tumors rarely have these particular mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARPi sensitivity. Effectiveness of combined irradiation and PARPi olaparib was evaluated in ten HNSCC cell lines, subdivided into HR-proficient and HR-deficient cell lines using a GFP-based reporter assay. Both groups were equally sensitive to PARPi alone. Combined treatment revealed stronger synergistic interactions in the HR-deficient group. Because HR is mainly active in S-Phase, replication processes were analyzed. A stronger impact of treatment on replication processes (p = 0.04) and an increased number of radial chromosomes (p = 0.003) were observed in the HR-deficient group. We could show that radiosensitization by inhibition of PARP1 strongly correlates with HR competence in a replication-dependent manner. Our observations indicate that PARP1 inhibitors are promising candidates for enhancing the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy via disabling DNA replication processes in HR-deficient HNSCCs. PMID:26799421

  12. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥25ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥10ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥300ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. PMID:23022514

  13. Mechanisms for Ribotoxin-induced Ribosomal RNA Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspase 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors cathepsin L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. PMID:23022514

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibits activation of caspases that cleave poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamins during Fas- and ceramide-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, O; Rosenthal, D S; Smulson, M E; Spiegel, S

    1998-01-30

    Ceramide, a sphingolipid generated by the hydrolysis of membrane-associated sphingomyelin, appears to play a role as a gauge of apoptosis. A further metabolite of ceramide, sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP), prevents ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and it has been suggested that the balance between intracellular ceramide and SPP levels may determine the cell fate (Cuvillier, O., Pirianov, G, Kleuser, B., Vanek, P. G., Coso, O. A., Gutkind, J. S., and Spiegel, S. (1996) Nature 381, 800-803). Here, we investigated the role of SPP and the protein kinase C activator, phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in the caspase cascade leading to the proteolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and lamins. In Jurkat T cells, Fas ligation or addition of exogenous C2-ceramide induced activations of caspase-3/CPP32 and caspase-7/Mch3 followed by PARP cleavage, effects that can be blocked either by SPP or TPA. Furthermore, both SPP and TPA inhibit the activation of caspase-6/Mch2 and subsequent lamin B cleavage. Ceramide, in contrast to Fas ligation, did not induce activation of caspase-8/FLICE and neither SPP nor TPA were able to prevent this activation. Thus, SPP, likely generated via protein kinase C-mediated activation of sphingosine kinase, suppresses the apoptotic pathway downstream of FLICE but upstream of the executioner caspases, caspase-3, -6, and -7. PMID:9446602

  15. Synthesis and structure of dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methy lamino)propyl]oxamide: evaluation of DNA/protein binding, DNA cleavage, and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Three new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methylamino)-propyl]oxamide (H3chmpoxd) and end-capped with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (dabt); and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), namely [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(phen)](ClO4)⋅CH3CN (1), [Cu2(chmpoxd)(dabt)(C2H5OH)](NO3) (2) and [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(bpy)](NO3)⋅CH3CN (3), were synthesized and structurally characterized. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the copper(II) ions bridged by the cis-chmpoxd(3-) ligands in the three complexes are in square-planar and square-pyramidal environments, respectively. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that these copper(II) complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage suggested that all the dicopper(II) complexes are active against the selected tumor cell lines, and the complex 1 exhibits the cleavage capacity for plasmid DNA. PMID:25837411

  16. Involvement of p38 MAPK in the Anticancer Activity of Cultivated Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shang-Min; Lai, Wan-Jung; Hong, Tzuwen; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Chen, Yen-Hsun; Kao, Cheng-Hsiang; Chu, Richard; Shen, Tang-Long; Li, Tsai-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a traditional Chinese medicine frequently used for tonic and therapeutic purposes. Reports from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that extracts of the cultivated fruiting bodies of C. militaris (CM) exhibit a potent cytotoxic effect against many cancer cell lines, especially human leukemia cells. Here, we further investigated the underlying mechanism through which CM is cytotoxic to cancer cells. The CM-mediated induction of PARP cleavage and its related DNA damage signal (γH2AX) was diminished by caspase inhibitor I. In contrast, a ROS scavenger failed to prevent CM-mediated leukemia cell death. Moreover, two signaling molecules, AKT and p38 MAPK, were activated during the course of apoptosis induction. Employing MTT analysis, we found that a p38 MAPK inhibitor but not an AKT inhibitor could rescue cells from CM-mediated cell death, as well as inhibit the cleavage of PARP, formation of apoptotic bodies and up-regulation of the γH2AX signal. These results suggest that CM-mediated leukemia cell death occurs through the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, indicating its potential therapeutic effects against human leukemia. PMID:26205966

  17. Synthesis, crystal structures and characterization of late first row transition metal complexes derived from benzothiazole core: anti-tuberculosis activity and special emphasis on DNA binding and cleavage property.

    PubMed

    Netalkar, Priya P; Netalkar, Sandeep P; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Revankar, Vidyanand K

    2014-05-22

    Air and moisture stable coordination compounds of late first row transition metals, viz. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), with a newly designed ligand, 2-(2-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)propan-1-ol (LH), were prepared and successfully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligand and nickel complex were unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The [Ni(LH)2]Cl2.3H2O complex is stabilized by intermolecular CH⋯π stacking interactions between the methyl hydrogen and the C18 atom of the phenyl ring (C11-H11B⋯C18) forming 1D zig-zag chain structure. Both, the ligand and its copper complex, were electrochemically active in the working potential range, showing quasi-reversible redox system. The interactions of all the compounds with calf thymus DNA have been comprehensively investigated using electronic absorption spectroscopy, viscosity, electrochemistry and thermal denaturation studies. The cleavage reaction on pBR322 DNA has been monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the ligand can bind to CT-DNA through partial intercalation, whereas the complexes bind electrostatically. Further, [Ni(LH)2]Cl2.3H2O and [CuLCl(H2O)2] complexes in the series have high binding and cleavage affinity towards pBR322 DNA. Additionally, all the compounds were screened for anti-tuberculosis activity. All the complexes revealed an MIC value of 0.8 μg/mL, which is almost 8 times active than standard used (Streptomycin, 6.25 μg/mL). PMID:24721314

  18. Mitoxantrone resistance in HL-60 leukemia cells: Reduced nuclear topoisomerase II catalytic activity and drug-induced DNA cleavage in association with reduced expression of the topoisomerase II. beta. isoform

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, W.G.; Slade, D.L.; Parr, R.L. ); Drake, F.H. )

    1991-10-15

    Mitoxantrone-resistant variants of the human HL-60 leukemia cell line are cross-resistant to several natural product and synthetic antineoplastic agents. The resistant cells (HL-60/MX2) retain sensitivity to the Vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, drugs that are typically associated with the classical multidrug resistance phenotype. Mitoxantrone accumulation and retention are equivalent in the sensitive and resistant cell types, suggesting that mitoxantrone resistance inn HL-60/MX2 cells might be associated with an alteration in the type II DNA topoisomerases. The authors discovered that topoisomerase II catalytic activity in 1.0 M NaCl nuclear extracts from the HL-60/MX2 variant was reduced 4- to 5-fold compared to that in the parental HL-60 cells. Studies were designed to minimize the proteolytic degradation of the topoisomerase II enzymes by extraction of whole cells with hot SDS. When nuclear extracts from the two cell types were normalized for equivalent catalytic activity, mitoxantrone inhibited the decatenation of kDNA by these extracts to an equal extent but levels of mitoxantrone-induced cleavage of {sup 32}P-labeled pBR322 DNA by nuclear extracts from HL-60/MX2 cells were 3- to 4-fold lower than in comparable HL-60 extracts. Resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor mitoxantrone in HL-60/MX2 is associated with reduced nuclear and whole cell topoisomerase II catalytic activity, immunologically undetectable levels of the 180-kDa topoisomerase II isozyme, and reduced mitoxantrone-induced cleavage of radiolabeled DNA by topoisomerase II in nuclear extracts from these cells.

  19. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Menissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C.; Chen,David J.

    2002-09-24

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.

  20. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  1. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  2. Association Between PARP1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Qin, Haifeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Liyu; Cao, Yanyan

    2016-05-01

    To systematically evaluate the association between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) rs1136410 T>C and brain tumor risk, a meta-analysis has been carried out. We performed a meta-analysis of 2004 brain tumor patients and 2944 controls by use of STATA version 12.0 to determine whether the risk of brain tumors was associated with the genotypes or alleles of rs1136410 T>C. We found a significantly decreased risk (ranging from 0.18- to 0.16-fold) in the dominant model (OR = 0.84, 95 % CI = 0.75-0.95), the C vs. T model (OR = 0.82, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.91), and the CT vs. TT model (OR = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.98). The same genetic models demonstrated noteworthy associations when analysis was restrained to glioma (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.75-0.96; OR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.92; OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.99, respectively). This meta-analysis suggests that PARP1 rs1136410 T>C may play a significant role in the protection against the development of brain tumors and glioma. PMID:25911198

  3. MGMT Expression Predicts PARP-Mediated Resistance to Temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Erice, Oihane; Smith, Michael P; White, Rachel; Goicoechea, Ibai; Barriuso, Jorge; Jones, Chris; Margison, Geoffrey P; Acosta, Juan C; Wellbrock, Claudia; Arozarena, Imanol

    2015-05-01

    Melanoma and other solid cancers are frequently resistant to chemotherapies based on DNA alkylating agents such as dacarbazine and temozolomide. As a consequence, clinical responses are generally poor. Such resistance is partly due to the ability of cancer cells to use a variety of DNA repair enzymes to maintain cell viability. Particularly, the expression of MGMT has been linked to temozolomide resistance, but cotargeting MGMT has proven difficult due to dose-limiting toxicities. Here, we show that the MGMT-mediated resistance of cancer cells is profoundly dependent on the DNA repair enzyme PARP. Both in vitro and in vivo, we observe that MGMT-positive cancer cells strongly respond to the combination of temozolomide and PARP inhibitors (PARPi), whereas MGMT-deficient cells do not. In melanoma cells, temozolomide induced an antiproliferative senescent response, which was greatly enhanced by PARPi in MGMT-positive cells. In summary, we provide compelling evidence to suggest that the stratification of patients with cancer upon the MGMT status would enhance the success of combination treatments using temozolomide and PARPi. PMID:25777962

  4. PARP-1 promotes autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway in CNE-2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells following ionizing radiation, while inhibition of autophagy contributes to the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, ZE-TAN; ZHAO, WEI; QU, SONG; LI, LING; LU, XIAO-DI; SU, FANG; LIANG, ZHONG-GUO; GUO, SI-YAN; ZHU, XIAO-DONG

    2015-01-01

    It was previously reported that poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulated ionizing radiation (IR)-induced autophagy in CNE-2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether PARP-1-mediated IR-induced autophagy occurred via activation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in CNE-2 cells. In addition, the effect of PARP-1 and AMPK inhibition on the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells was investigated. CNE-2 cells were treated with 10 Gy IR in the presence or absence of the AMPK activator 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). In addition, IR-treated CNE-2 cells were transfected with lentivirus-delivered small-hairpin RNA or treated with the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Western blot analysis was used to assess the protein expression of PARP-1, phosphorylated (p)-AMPK, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p-P70S6K. Cell viability and clone formation assays were performed to determine the effect of PARP-1 silencing and AMPK inhibition on the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells. The results showed that IR promoted PARP-1, p-AMPK and LC3-II protein expression as well as decreased p-P70S6K expression compared with that of the untreated cells. In addition, AICAR increased the expression of p-AMPK and LC3-II as well as decreased p-P70S6K expression compared with that of the IR-only group; however, AICAR did not increase PARP-1 expression. Furthermore, PARP-1 gene silencing decreased the expression of PARP-1, p-AMPK and LC3-II as well as increased p-P70S6K expression. Compound C decreased p-AMPK and LC3-II expression as well as increased p-P70S6K expression; however, Compound C did not increase PARP-1 expression. Western blot analysis detected limited expression of p-LKB1 in all treatment groups. Cell viability and clone formation assays revealed that PARP-1 or

  5. Simultaneous inhibition of ATR and PARP sensitizes colon cancer cell lines to irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sanad, Atlal; Wang, Yunzhe; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Panasci, Justin; Noë, Alycia; Rosca, Lorena; Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced DNA damage repair is one mechanism involved in colon cancer drug resistance. Thus, targeting molecular components of repair pathways with specific small molecule inhibitors may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. ABT-888 and VE-821, inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) and the serine/threonine-kinase Ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), respectively, were used to treat colon cancer cell lines in combination with the topoisomerase-I inhibitor irinotecan (SN38). Our findings show that each of these DNA repair inhibitors utilized alone at nontoxic single agent concentrations resulted in sensitization to SN38 producing a 1.4–3 fold reduction in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SN38 in three colon cancer cell lines. When combined together, nontoxic concentrations of ABT-888 and VE-821 produced a 4.5–27 fold reduction in the IC50 of SN38 with the HCT-116 colon cancer cells demonstrating the highest sensitization as compared to LoVo and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of all three agents was associated with maximal G2 −M arrest and enhanced DNA-damage (γH2AX) in all three colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism of this enhanced sensitization was associated with: (a) maximal suppression of SN38 induced PARP activity in the presence of both inhibitors and (b) ABT-888 producing partial abrogation of the VE-821 enhancement of SN38 induced DNA-PK phosphorylation, resulting in more unrepaired DNA damage; these alterations were only present in the HCT-116 cells which have reduced levels of ATM. This novel combination of DNA repair inhibitors may be useful to enhance the activity of DNA damaging chemotherapies such as irinotecan and help produce sensitization to this drug in colon cancer. PMID:26257651

  6. Beyond DNA repair, the immunological role of PARP-1 and its siblings

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Maria Manuela; Bennici, Elisabetta; Novelli, Flavia; Pioli, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more (up to some hundreds) ADP-ribose moieties to acceptor proteins. There are two major families of enzymes that catalyse this reaction: extracellular ADP-ribosyl-transferases (ARTs), which are bound to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or are secreted, and poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerases (PARPs), which are present in the cell nucleus and/or cytoplasm. Recent findings revealed a wide immunological role for ADP-ribosylating enzymes. ARTs, by sensing extracellular NAD concentration, can act as danger detectors. PARP-1, the prototypical representative of the PARP family, known to protect cells from genomic instability, is involved in the development of inflammatory responses and several forms of cell death. PARP-1 also plays a role in adaptive immunity by modulating the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T cells or by directly affecting the differentiation and functions of T and B cells. Both PARP-1 and PARP-14 (CoaSt6) knockout mice were described to display reduced T helper type 2 cell differentiation and allergic responses. Our recent findings showed that PARP-1 is involved in the differentiation of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, suggesting a role for PARP-1 in tolerance induction. Also ARTs regulate Treg cell homeostasis by promoting Treg cell apoptosis during inflammatory responses. PARP inhibitors ameliorate immune-mediated diseases in several experimental models, including rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and allergy. Together these findings show that ADP-ribosylating enzymes, in particular PARP-1, play a pivotal role in the regulation of immune responses and may represent a good target for new therapeutic approaches in immune-mediated diseases. PMID:23489378

  7. The hammerhead cleavage reaction in monovalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, E A; Bartel, D P

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Murray et al. (Chem Biol, 1998, 5:587-595) found that the hammerhead ribozyme does not require divalent metal ions for activity if incubated in high (> or =1 M) concentrations of monovalent ions. We further characterized the hammerhead cleavage reaction in the absence of divalent metal. The hammerhead is active in a wide range of monovalent ions, and the rate enhancement in 4 M Li+ is only 20-fold less than that in 10 mM Mg2+. Among the Group I monovalent metals, rate correlates in a log-linear manner with ionic radius. The pH dependence of the reaction is similar in 10 mM Mg2+, 4 M Li+, and 4 M Na+. The exchange-inert metal complex Co(NH3)3+ also supports substantial hammerhead activity. These results suggest that a metal ion does not act as a base in the reaction, and that the effects of different metal ions on hammerhead cleavage rates primarily reflect structural contributions to catalysis. PMID:11345433

  8. Viola plant cyclotide vigno 5 induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via cytochrome C release and caspases activation in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Mohammad Ali; Abagheri-Mahabadi, Nazanin; Hashempour, Hossein; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Gruber, Christian W; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Cyclotides describe a unique cyclic peptide family that displays a broad range of biological activities including uterotonic, anti-bacteria, anti-cancer and anti-HIV. The vigno cyclotides consist of vigno 1-10 were reported recently from Viola ignobilis. In the present study, we examined the effects of vigno 5, a natural cyclopeptide from V. ignobilis, on cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. We found that vigno 5-treated Hela cells were killed off by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner within 24h, and were characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis revealed that cytochrome C is released from mitochondria to cytosol, associated with the activation of caspase-9 and -3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overall, the results indicate that vigno 5 induces apoptosis in part via the mitochondrial pathway, which is associated with a release of cytochrome C and elevated activity of caspase-9 and -3 in Hela cells. PMID:26751970

  9. Cleavage mechanism in vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.; Donahue, E.; Lucas, G.E.

    1997-12-31

    The effect specimen geometry, loading rate and irradiation on the ductile-to-brittle transition in a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy were evaluated and modeled. Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and SEM were used to characterize the sequence-of-events leading to cleavage, as well as the CTOD at fracture initiation. This alloy undergoes normal stress-controlled transgranular cleavage below a transition temperature that depends primarily on the tensile properties and constraint. Thus an equivalent yield stress model is in good agreement with observed effects of loading rate and irradiation hardening. Predicted effects of specimen geometry based on a critical stress-area criteria and FEM simulations of crack tip fields were also found to be in agreement with experiment. Some interesting characteristics of the fracture process are also described.

  10. Cleavage of Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Enhances Inflammatory Signaling.

    PubMed

    Londino, James D; Gulick, Dexter; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2015-12-25

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a membrane glycoprotein immunoreceptor abundant in cells of monocyte lineage. SIRPα ligation by a broadly expressed transmembrane protein, CD47, results in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Here we observed that proteolysis of SIRPα during inflammation is regulated by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), resulting in the generation of a membrane-associated cleavage fragment in both THP-1 monocytes and human lung epithelia. We mapped a charge-dependent putative cleavage site near the membrane-proximal domain necessary for ADAM10-mediated cleavage. In addition, a secondary proteolytic cleavage within the membrane-associated SIRPα fragment by γ-secretase was identified. Ectopic expression of a SIRPα mutant plasmid encoding a proteolytically resistant form in HeLa cells inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway and suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to TNFα to a greater extent than expression of wild-type SIRPα. Conversely, overexpression of plasmids encoding the proteolytically cleaved SIRPα fragments in cells resulted in enhanced STAT-1 and NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, the data suggest that combinatorial actions of ADAM10 and γ-secretase on SIRPα cleavage promote inflammatory signaling. PMID:26534964

  11. PARP Inhibitors in Clinical Use Induce Genomic Instability in Normal Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shuhei; Murphy, Conleth G.; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Jasin, Maria; Moynahan, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are the first proteins involved in cellular DNA repair pathways to be targeted by specific inhibitors for clinical benefit. Tumors harboring genetic defects in homologous recombination (HR), a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway, are hypersensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). Early phase clinical trials with PARPi have been promising in patients with advanced BRCA1 or BRCA2-associated breast, ovary and prostate cancer and have led to limited approval for treatment of BRCA-deficient ovary cancer. Unlike HR-defective cells, HR-proficient cells manifest very low cytotoxicity when exposed to PARPi, although they mount a DNA damage response. However, the genotoxic effects on normal human cells when agents including PARPi disturb proficient cellular repair processes have not been substantially investigated. We quantified cytogenetic alterations of human cells, including primary lymphoid cells and non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic epithelial cell lines, exposed to PARPi at clinically relevant doses by both sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays and chromosome spreading. As expected, both olaparib and veliparib effectively inhibited poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR), and caused marked hypersensitivity in HR-deficient cells. Significant dose-dependent increases in SCEs were observed in normal and non-tumorigenic cells with minimal residual PAR activity. Clinically relevant doses of the FDA-approved olaparib led to a marked increase of SCEs (5-10-fold) and chromatid aberrations (2-6-fold). Furthermore, olaparib potentiated SCE induction by cisplatin in normal human cells. Our data have important implications for therapies with regard to sustained genotoxicity to normal cells. Genomic instability arising from PARPi warrants consideration, especially if these agents will be used in people with early stage cancers, in prevention strategies or for non-oncologic indications. PMID:27428646

  12. ARTEMIS nuclease facilitates apoptotic chromatin cleavage.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sébastien; Frit, Philippe; Biard, Denis; Salles, Bernard; Calsou, Patrick

    2009-10-15

    One hallmark of apoptosis is DNA degradation that first appears as high molecular weight fragments followed by extensive internucleosomal fragmentation. During apoptosis, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated. DNA-PK is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and its catalytic subunit is associated with the nuclease ARTEMIS. Here, we report that, on initiation of apoptosis in human cells by agents causing DNA DSB or by staurosporine or other agents, ARTEMIS binds to apoptotic chromatin together with DNA-PK and other DSB repair proteins. ARTEMIS recruitment to chromatin showed a time and dose dependency. It required DNA-PK protein kinase activity and was blocked by antagonizing the onset of apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor or on overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein. In the absence of ARTEMIS, no defect in caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and XRCC4 cleavage or in H2AX phosphorylation was observed and DNA-PK catalytic subunit was still phosphorylated on S2056 in response to staurosporine. However, DNA fragmentation including high molecular weight fragmentation was delayed in ARTEMIS-deficient cells compared with cells expressing ARTEMIS. In addition, ARTEMIS enhanced the kinetics of MLL gene cleavage at a breakage cluster breakpoint that is frequently translocated in acute or therapy-related leukemias. These results show a facilitating role for ARTEMIS at least in early, site-specific chromosome breakage during apoptosis. PMID:19808974

  13. PARP-1 inhibitors DPQ and PJ-34 negatively modulate proinflammatory commitment of human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Marina; Satriano, Cristina; Greca, Rossana; Stella, Anna Maria Giuffrida; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Spina-Purrello, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are recognized as key regulators of cell survival or death. PARP-1 is essential to the repair of DNA single-strand breaks via the base excision repair pathway. The enzyme may be overactivated in response to inflammatory cues, thus depleting cellular energy pools and eventually causing cell death. Accordingly, PARP-1 inhibitors, acting by competing with its physiological substrate NAD(+), have been proposed to play a protective role in a wide range of inflammatory and ischemia/reperfusion-associated diseases. Recently, it has also been reported that PARP-1 regulates proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and enzymes (e.g., iNOS). Furthermore, PARP-1 has been shown to act as a coactivator of NF-κB- and other transcription factors implicated in stress/inflammation, as AP-1, Oct-1, SP-1, HIF, and Stat-1. To further substantiate this hypothesis, we tested the biomolecular effects of PARP-1 inhibitors DPQ and PJ-34 on human glioblastoma cells, induced to a proinflammatory state with lipopolysaccharide and Interferon-γ. PARP-1 expression was evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy immunofluorescence (LSM); nitrite production, LDH release and cell viability were also determined. LSM of A-172, SNB-19 and CAS-1 cells demonstrated that DPQ and PJ-34 downregulate PARP-1 expression; they also cause a decrease of LDH release and nitrite production, while increasing cell viability. Similar effects were caused in all three cell lines by N-mono-methyl-arginine, a well known iNOS inhibitor, and by L-carnosine and trehalose, two antioxidant molecules. These results demonstrate that, similar to other well characterized drugs, DPQ and PJ-34 reduce cell inflammation and damage that follow PARP-1 overexpression, while they increase cell survival: this suggests their potential exploitation in clinical Medicine. PMID:23011206

  14. γ-Secretase Modulators and APH1 Isoforms Modulate γ-Secretase Cleavage but Not Position of ε-Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP)

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Christian B.; Cottrell, Barbara A.; Maruyama, Hiroko; Suresh, Suraj; Golde, Todd E.; Koo, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The relative increase in Aβ42 peptides from familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) linked APP and PSEN mutations can be related to changes in both ε-cleavage site utilization and subsequent step-wise cleavage. Cleavage at the ε-site releases the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD), and perturbations in the position of ε-cleavage are closely associated with changes in the profile of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) species that are produced and secreted. The mechanisms by which γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) or FAD mutations affect the various γ-secretase cleavages to alter the generation of Aβ peptides have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies suggested that GSMs do not modulate ε-cleavage of APP, but the data were derived principally from recombinant truncated epitope tagged APP substrate. Here, using full length APP from transfected cells, we investigated whether GSMs modify the ε-cleavage of APP under more native conditions. Our results confirmed the previous findings that ε-cleavage is insensitive to GSMs. In addition, fenofibrate, an inverse GSM (iGSM), did not alter the position or kinetics of ε-cleavage position in vitro. APH1A and APH1B, a subunit of the γ-secretase complex, also modulated Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio without any alterations in ε-cleavage, a result in contrast to what has been observed with PS1 and APP FAD mutations. Consequently, GSMs and APH1 appear to modulate γ-secretase activity and Aβ42 generation by altering processivity but not ε-cleavage site utilization. PMID:26678856

  15. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO₂ catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO₂(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO₂(111) compared with pyramidal Ni₄ particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of thismore » support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²⁺ species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO₂ has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.« less

  16. In situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO2 catalyst: importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Javier; López-Durán, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Crumlin, Ethan J; Matolín, Vladimir; Rodríguez, José A; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M Verónica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, the effect of the support on OH bond cleavage activity is elucidated for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O 1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO2 (111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO2 (111) compared with pyramidal Ni4 particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni(2+) species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO2 has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions. PMID:25651288

  17. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO₂ catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO₂(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO₂(111) compared with pyramidal Ni₄ particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²⁺ species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO₂ has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.

  18. Drug-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase-8-complemented neuroblastoma cells proceeds via activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and caspase-dependent cleavage of XIAP, Bcl-xL and RIP.

    PubMed

    Mühlethaler-Mottet, Annick; Bourloud, Katia Balmas; Auderset, Katya; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Gross, Nicole

    2004-07-15

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood neoplasm which heterogeneous behavior can be explained by differential regulation of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces rapid apoptosis in most tumor cells and thus represents a promising anticancer agent. We have reported silencing of caspase-8 expression in highly malignant NB cells as a possible mechanism of resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To explore the particular contribution of caspase-8 in such resistance, retroviral-mediated stable caspase-8 expression was induced in the IGR-N91 cells. As a result, sensitivity to TRAIL was fully restored in the caspase-8-complemented cells. TRAIL-induced cell death could be further enhanced by cotreatment of IGR-N91-C8 and SH-EP cells with cycloheximide or subtoxic concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs in a caspase-dependent manner. Sensitization to TRAIL involved enhanced death receptor DR5 expression, activation of Bid and the complete caspases cascade. Interestingly, combined treatments also enhanced the cleavage-mediated inactivation of antiapoptotic molecules, XIAP, Bcl-x(L) and RIP. Our results show that restoration of active caspase-8 expression in a caspase-8-deficient NB cell line is necessary and sufficient to fully restore TRAIL sensitivity. Moreover, the synergistic effect of drugs and TRAIL results from activation of the caspase cascade via a mitochondrial pathway-mediated amplification loop and from the inactivation of apoptosis inhibitors. PMID:15094781

  19. Carbon ion beam triggers both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis in HeLa and status of PARP-1 controls intensity of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P; Ghosh, Utpal

    2015-04-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam (CIB) is becoming very promising tool for various cancer treatments and is more efficient than conventional low LET gamma or X-rays to kill malignant or radio-resistant cells, although detailed mechanism of cell death is still unknown. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key player in DNA repair and its inhibitors are well-known as radio-sensitizer for low LET radiation. The objective of our study was to find mechanism(s) of induction of apoptosis by CIB and role of PARP-1 in CIB-induced apoptosis. We observed overall higher apoptosis in PARP-1 knocked down HeLa cells (HsiI) compared with negative control H-vector cells after irradiation with CIB (0-4 Gy). CIB activated both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via caspase-9 and caspase-8 activation respectively, followed by caspase-3 activation, apoptotic body, nucleosomal ladder formation and sub-G1 accumulation. Apoptosis inducing factor translocation into nucleus in H-vector but not in HsiI cells after CIB irradiation contributed caspase-independent apoptosis. Higher p53 expression was observed in HsiI cells compared with H-vector after exposure with CIB. Notably, we observed about 37 % fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and mild activation of caspase-8 without any detectable apoptotic body formation in un-irradiated HsiI cells. We conclude that reduction of PARP-1 expression activates apoptotic signals via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in un-irradiated cells. CIB irradiation further intensified both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis synergistically along with up-regulation of p53 in HsiI cells resulting overall higher apoptosis in HsiI than H-vector. PMID:25670618

  20. Studies on pharmacological activation of human serum immunoglobulin G by chemical modification and active subfragments. IV. Induction of anti-inflammatory activity by chemical cleavage of interchain disulfide bonds in human immunoglobulin G and pharmacological activity of alkylated subfragments.

    PubMed

    Mimura, T; Tsujikawa, K; Nakajima, H; Okabe, M; Kohama, Y; Iwai, M; Yokoyama, K

    1986-01-01

    Commercially available human serum immunoglobulin G (IgG, native IgG) was separated into two fractions (Fr.I and II) using a diethylaminoethyl cellulose column. Heavy and light chains containing fractions were obtained from these two fractions after carboxamide-methylation. Thus, these fractions were subjected to an anti-inflammatory screening procedure and were shown to have a potent inhibitory activity against rat carrageenin induced paw edema, while no effect was observed in native IgG, Fr.I or II. The reduction and alkylation of the interchain disulfide bonds were essential to induce the anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of alkylated heavy and light chains of Fr.I (Fr.I-H and I-L) was also noted in subacute inflammation caused by the felt pellet and croton oil granuloma methods. Moreover, strong membrane stabilizing activities of Fr.I-H and I-L were demonstrated in vitro using rat red blood cell membrane and liver lysosomal membrane. PMID:3712209

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel PARP-1 Inhibitors Based on a 1H-Thieno[3,4-d] Imidazole-4-Carboxamide Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingxiao; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Ning; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhou, Xinbo; Zheng, Zhibing

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitors containing a novel scaffold, the 1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-carboxamide moiety, was designed and synthesized. These efforts provided some compounds with relatively good PARP-1 inhibitory activity, and among them, 16l was the most potent one. Cellular evaluations indicated that the anti-proliferative activities of 16g, 16i, 16j and 16l against BRCA-deficient cell lines were similar to that of olaparib, while the cytotoxicities of 16j and 16l toward human normal cells were lower. In addition, ADMET prediction results indicated that these compounds might possess more favorable toxicity and pharmacokinetic properties. This study provides a basis for our further investigation. PMID:27304949

  2. ARTD1/PARP1 negatively regulates glycolysis by inhibiting hexokinase 1 independent of NAD+ depletion

    PubMed Central

    Fouquerel, Elise; Goellner, Eva M.; Yu, Zhongxun; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; de Moura, Michelle Barbi; Feinstein, Tim; Wheeler, David; Redpath, Philip; Li, Jianfeng; Romero, Guillermo; Migaud, Marie; Van Houten, Bennett; Poirier, Guy G.; Sobol, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary ARTD1 (PARP1) is a key enzyme involved in DNA repair by synthesizing poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in response to strand breaks and plays an important role in cell death following excessive DNA damage. ARTD1-induced cell death is associated with NAD+ depletion and ATP loss, however the molecular mechanism of ARTD1-mediated energy collapse remains elusive. Using real-time metabolic measurements, we directly compared the effects of ARTD1 activation and direct NAD+ depletion. We found that ARTD1-mediated PAR synthesis, but not direct NAD+ depletion, resulted in a block to glycolysis and ATP loss. We then established a proteomics based PAR-interactome after DNA damage and identified hexokinase 1 (HK1) as a PAR binding protein. HK1 activity is suppressed following nuclear ARTD1 activation and binding by PAR. These findings help explain how prolonged activation of ARTD1 triggers energy collapse and cell death, revealing new insight on the importance of nucleus to mitochondria communication via ARTD1 activation. PMID:25220464

  3. Geometric and Electronic Structure of [{Cu(MeAN)}2(μ-η2:η2(O22−))]2+ with an Unusually Long O–O Bond: O–O Bond Weakening vs Activation for Reductive Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ga Young; Qayyum, Munzarin F.; Woertink, Julia; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A.; Solomon, Edward I.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Certain side-on peroxo dicopper(II) species with particularly low υO–O (710–730 cm−1) have been found in equilibrium with their bis-μ-oxo dicopper(III) isomer. An issue is whether such side-on peroxo bridges are further activated for O–O cleavage. In a previous study (Liang, H.-C., et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 4170–4171), we showed that oxygenation of the three-coordinate complex [CuI(MeAN)]+ (MeAN=N-methyl-N,N-bis[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]amine) leads to a low-temperature stable [{CuII(MeAN)}2(μ-η2:η2-O22−)]2+ peroxo species with low υO–O (721 cm−1), as characterized by UV-Vis absorption and resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopies. Here, this complex has been crystallized as its SbF6− salt and an X-ray structure indicates the presence of an unusually long O–O bond (1.540(5) Å) consistent with the low υO–O. EXAFS and rR spectroscopic and reactivity studies indicate the exclusive formation of [{CuII(MeAN)}2(μ-η2:η2-O22−)]2+ without any bis-μ-oxo-dicopper(III) isomer present. This is the first structure of a side-on peroxo dicopper(II) species with a significantly long and weak O–O bond. DFT calculations show that the weak O–O bond results from strong σ donation from the MeAN ligand to Cu that is compensated by a decrease in the extent of peroxo to Cu charge transfer. Importantly, the weak O–O bond does not reflect an increase in backbonding into the σ* orbital of the peroxide. Thus, although the O–O bond is unusually weak, this structure is not further activated for reductive cleavage to form a reactive bis-μ-oxo-dicopper(III) species. These results highlight the necessity of understanding electronic structure changes associated with spectral changes for correlations to reactivity. PMID:22571744

  4. Metalloprotease cleavage of the N terminus of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR37L1 reduces its constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Coleman, James L J; Ngo, Tony; Schmidt, Johannes; Mrad, Nadine; Liew, Chu Kong; Jones, Nicole M; Graham, Robert M; Smith, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the pharmacology or physiology of GPR37L1, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor that is abundant in the cerebellum. Mice deficient in this receptor exhibit precocious cerebellar development and hypertension. We showed that GPR37L1 coupled to the G protein Gαswhen heterologously expressed in cultured cells in the absence of any added ligand, whereas a mutant receptor that lacked the amino terminus was inactive. Conversely, inhibition of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) enhanced receptor activity, indicating that the presence of the amino terminus is necessary for GPR37L1 signaling. Metalloprotease-dependent processing of GPR37L1 was evident in rodent cerebellum, where we detected predominantly the cleaved, inactive form. However, comparison of the accumulation of cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) in response to phosphodiesterase inhibition in cerebellar slice preparations from wild-type and GPR37L1-null mice showed that some constitutive signaling remained in the wild-type mice. In reporter assays of Gαsor Gαisignaling, the synthetic, prosaposin-derived peptide prosaptide (TX14A) did not increase GPR37L1 activity. Our data indicate that GPR37L1 may be a constitutively active receptor, or perhaps its ligand is present under the conditions that we used for analysis, and that the activity of this receptor is instead controlled by signals that regulate metalloprotease activity in the tissue. PMID:27072655

  5. Transcriptional Control by PARP-1: Chromatin Modulation, Enhancer-binding, Coregulation, and Insulation

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2008-01-01

    Summary The regulation of gene expression requires a wide array of protein factors that can modulate chromatin structure, act at enhancers, function as transcriptional coregulators, or regulate insulator function. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an abundant and ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the NAD+-dependent addition of ADP-ribose polymers on a variety of nuclear proteins, has been implicated in all of these functions. Recent biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and cell-based studies have highlighted the role of PARP-1 in each of these processes and provided new insights about the molecular mechanisms governing PARP-1-dependent regulation of gene expression. In addition, these studies have demonstrated how PARP-1 functions as an integral part of cellular signaling pathways that culminate in gene regulatory outcomes. PMID:18450439

  6. Specificity of hammerhead ribozyme cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, K J; Herschlag, D; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1996-01-01

    To be effective in gene inactivation, the hammerhead ribozyme must cleave a complementary RNA target without deleterious effects from cleaving non-target RNAs that contain mismatches and shorter stretches of complementarity. The specificity of hammerhead cleavage was evaluated using HH16, a well-characterized ribozyme designed to cleave a target of 17 residues. Under standard reaction conditions, HH16 is unable to discriminate between its full-length substrate and 3'-truncated substrates, even when six fewer base pairs are formed between HH16 and the substrate. This striking lack of specificity arises because all the substrates bind to the ribozyme with sufficient affinity so that cleavage occurs before their affinity differences are manifested. In contrast, HH16 does exhibit high specificity towards certain 3'-truncated versions of altered substrates that either also contain a single base mismatch or are shortened at the 5' end. In addition, the specificity of HH16 is improved in the presence of p7 nucleocapsid protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, which accelerates the association and dissociation of RNA helices. These results support the view that the hammerhead has an intrinsic ability to discriminate against incorrect bases, but emphasizes that the high specificity is only observed in a certain range of helix lengths. Images PMID:8670879

  7. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Phlorofucofuroeckol A via Upregulation of Activating Transcription Factor 3 against Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Tae-Hyung; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Su-Jin; Park, Nyun-Ho; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-01-01

    Phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFF-A), one of the phlorotannins found in brown algae, has been reported to exert anti-cancer property. However, the molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer effect of PFF-A has not been known. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to be associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which PFF-A stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A decreased cell viability through apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A increased ATF3 expression through regulating transcriptional activity. The responsible cis-element for ATF3 transcriptional activation by PFF-A was cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), located between positions −147 and −85 of the ATF3 promoter. Inhibition of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, and IκB kinase (IKK)-α blocked PFF-A-mediated ATF3 expression. ATF3 knockdown by ATF3 siRNA attenuated the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by PFF-A, while ATF3 overexpression increased PFF-A-mediated cleaved PARP. These results suggest that PFF-A may exert anti-cancer property through inducing apoptosis via the ATF3-mediated pathway in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27043582

  8. Comparative Analyses of Two Thermophilic Enzymes Exhibiting both β-1,4 Mannosidic and β-1,4 Glucosidic Cleavage Activities from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Hespen, Charles W.; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Schroeder, Charles M.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis of polysaccharides containing mannan requires endo-1,4-β-mannanase and 1,4-β-mannosidase activities. In the current report, the biochemical properties of two endo-β-1,4-mannanases (Man5A and Man5B) from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus were studied. Man5A is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide (SP), a catalytic domain, two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), and three surface layer homology (SLH) repeats, whereas Man5B lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats. To gain insights into how the two glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) enzymes may aid the bacterium in energy acquisition and also the potential application of the two enzymes in the biofuel industry, two derivatives of Man5A (Man5A-TM1 [TM1 stands for truncational mutant 1], which lacks the SP and SLH repeats, and Man5A-TM2, which lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats) and the wild-type Man5B were biochemically analyzed. The Man5A derivatives displayed endo-1,4-β-mannanase and endo-1,4-β-glucanase activities and hydrolyzed oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 or higher. Man5B exhibited endo-1,4-β-mannanase activity and little endo-1,4-β-glucanase activity; however, this enzyme also exhibited 1,4-β-mannosidase and cellodextrinase activities. Man5A-TM1, compared to either Man5A-TM2 or Man5B, had higher catalytic activity with soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, indicating that the CBMs enhance catalysis of Man5A. Furthermore, Man5A-TM1 acted synergistically with Man5B in the hydrolysis of β-mannan and carboxymethyl cellulose. The versatility of the two enzymes, therefore, makes them a resource for depolymerization of mannan-containing polysaccharides in the biofuel industry. Furthermore, on the basis of the biochemical and genomic data, a molecular mechanism for utilization of mannan-containing nutrients by C. polysaccharolyticus is proposed. PMID:20562312

  9. Multiple receptor conformation docking, dock pose clustering and 3D QSAR studies on human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sabiha; Jatavath, Mohan Babu; Bathini, Raju; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2014-10-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) functions as a DNA damage sensor and signaling molecule. It plays a vital role in the repair of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs; inhibitors of this enzyme have the potential to improve cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) models were developed using comparative molecular field analysis, comparative molecular similarity indices analysis and docking studies. A set of 88 molecules were docked into the active site of six X-ray crystal structures of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), by a procedure called multiple receptor conformation docking (MRCD), in order to improve the 3D QSAR models through the analysis of binding conformations. The docked poses were clustered to obtain the best receptor binding conformation. These dock poses from clustering were used for 3D QSAR analysis. Based on MRCD and QSAR information, some key features have been identified that explain the observed variance in the activity. Two receptor-based QSAR models were generated; these models showed good internal and external statistical reliability that is evident from the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The identified key features enabled us to design new PARP-1 inhibitors. PMID:25046176

  10. Cigarette smoke-induced autophagy is regulated by SIRT1-PARP-1-dependent mechanism: implication in pathogenesis of COPD.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-woong; Chung, Sangwoon; Sundar, Isaac K; Yao, Hongwei; Arunachalam, Gnanapragasam; McBurney, Michael W; Rahman, Irfan

    2010-08-15

    Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that eliminates long-lived proteins and damaged organelles through lysosomal degradation pathway. Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated oxidative stress induces cytotoxic responses in lung cells. However, the role of autophagy and its mechanism in CS-mediated cytotoxic responses is not known. We hypothesized that NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in regulating autophagy in response to CS. CS exposure resulted in induction of autophagy in lung epithelial cells, fibroblasts and macrophages. Pretreatment of cells with SIRT1 activator resveratrol attenuated CS-induced autophagy whereas SIRT1 inhibitor, sirtinol, augmented CS-induced autophagy. Elevated levels of autophagy were induced by CS in the lungs of SIRT1 deficient mice. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1) attenuated CS-induced autophagy via SIRT1 activation. These data suggest that the SIRT1-PARP-1 axis plays a critical role in the regulation of CS-induced autophagy and have important implications in understanding the mechanisms of CS-induced cell death and senescence. PMID:20493163

  11. Deficiency in Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Accelerates Aging and Spontaneous Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Yurova, Maria N.; Ovsyannikov, Anton I.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Popovich, Irina G.; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation play an important role in DNA repair, genomic stability, cell death, inflammation, telomere maintenance, and suppressing tumorigenesis, suggesting that the homeostasis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and PARP-1 may also play an important role in aging. Here we show that PARP-1−/− mice exhibit a reduction of life span and a significant increase of population aging rate. Analysis of noninvasive parameters, including body weight gain, body temperature, estrous function, behavior, and a number of biochemical indices suggests the acceleration of biological aging in PARP-1−/− mice. The incidence of spontaneous tumors in both PARP-1−/− and PARP-1+/+ groups is similar; however, malignant tumors including uterine tumors, lung adenocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, develop at a significantly higher frequency in PARP-1−/− mice than PARP-1+/+ mice (72% and 49%, resp.; P < .05). In addition, spontaneous tumors appear earlier in PARP-1−/− mice compared to the wild type group. Histopathological studies revealed a wide spectrum of tumors in uterus, ovaries, liver, lungs, mammary gland, soft tissues, and lymphoid organs in both groups of the mice. These results demonstrate that inactivation of DNA repair gene PARP-1 in mice leads to acceleration of aging, shortened life span, and increased spontaneous carcinogenesis. PMID:19415146

  12. An investigation into the role of ATP in the mammalian pre-mRNA 3' cleavage reaction.

    PubMed

    Khleborodova, Asya; Pan, Xiaozhou; Nagre, Nagaraja N; Ryan, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    RNA Polymerase II transcribes beyond what later becomes the 3' end of a mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The formation of most mRNA 3' ends results from pre-mRNA cleavage followed by polyadenylation. In vitro studies have shown that low concentrations of ATP stimulate the 3' cleavage reaction while high concentrations inhibit it, but the origin of these ATP effects is unknown. ATP might enable a cleavage factor kinase or activate a cleavage factor directly. To distinguish between these possibilities, we tested several ATP structural analogs in a pre-mRNA 3' cleavage reaction reconstituted from DEAE-fractionated cleavage factors. We found that adenosine 5'-(β,γ-methylene)triphosphate (AMP-PCP) is an effective in vitro 3' cleavage inhibitor with an IC50 of ∼300 μM, but that most other ATP analogs, including adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate, which cannot serve as a protein kinase substrate, promoted 3' cleavage but less efficiently than ATP. In combination with previous literature data, our results do not support ATP stimulation of 3' cleavage through cleavage factor phosphorylation in vitro. Instead, the more likely mechanism is that ATP stimulates cleavage factor activity through direct cleavage factor binding. The mammalian 3' cleavage factors known to bind ATP include the cleavage factor II (CF IIm) Clp1 subunit, the CF Im25 subunit and poly(A) polymerase alpha (PAP). The yeast homolog of the CF IIm complex also binds ATP through yClp1. To investigate the mammalian complex, we used a cell-line expressing FLAG-tagged Clp1 to co-immunoprecipitate Pcf11 as a function of ATP concentration. FLAG-Clp1 co-precipitated Pcf11 with or without ATP and the complex was not affected by AMP-PCP. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), an ATP analog that binds the Nudix domain of the CF Im25 subunit with higher affinity than ATP, neither stimulated 3' cleavage in place of ATP nor antagonized ATP-stimulated 3' cleavage. The ATP-binding site of PAP was disrupted by site

  13. Structural insights into the role of iron–histidine bond cleavage in nitric oxide-induced activation of H-NOX gas sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herzik, Mark A.; Jonnalagadda, Rohan; Kuriyan, John; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX) binding domains are a recently discovered family of heme-based gas sensor proteins that are conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) binding to the heme cofactor of H-NOX proteins has been implicated as a regulatory mechanism for processes ranging from vasodilation in mammals to communal behavior in bacteria. A key molecular event during NO-dependent activation of H-NOX proteins is rupture of the heme–histidine bond and formation of a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex. Although extensive biochemical studies have provided insight into the NO activation mechanism, precise molecular-level details have remained elusive. In the present study, high-resolution crystal structures of the H-NOX protein from Shewanella oneidensis in the unligated, intermediate six-coordinate and activated five-coordinate, NO-bound states are reported. From these structures, it is evident that several structural features in the heme pocket of the unligated protein function to maintain the heme distorted from planarity. NO-induced scission of the iron–histidine bond triggers structural rearrangements in the heme pocket that permit the heme to relax toward planarity, yielding the signaling-competent NO-bound conformation. Here, we also provide characterization of a nonheme metal coordination site occupied by zinc in an H-NOX protein. PMID:25253889

  14. Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xia; Chaudhuri, Arnab Ray; Callen, Elsa; Pang, Yan; Biswas, Kajal; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Martin, Betty K.; Burkett, Sandra; Cleveland, Linda; Stauffer, Stacey; Sullivan, Teresa; Dewan, Aashish; Marks, Hanna; Tubbs, Anthony T.; Wong, Nancy; Buehler, Eugen; Akagi, Keiko; Martin, Scott E.; Keller, Jonathan R.; Nussenzweig, André; Sharan, Shyam K.

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated cells, which are homologous recombination (HR) deficient, are hypersensitive to PARPi through the mechanism of synthetic lethality. Here we examine the effect of PARPi on HR-proficient cells. Olaparib pretreatment, PARP1 knockdown or Parp1 heterozygosity of Brca2cko/ko mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), carrying a null (ko) and a conditional (cko) allele of Brca2, results in viable Brca2ko/ko cells. PARP1 deficiency does not restore HR in Brca2ko/ko cells, but protects stalled replication forks from MRE11-mediated degradation through its impaired recruitment. The functional consequence of Parp1 heterozygosity on BRCA2 loss is demonstrated by a significant increase in tumorigenesis in Brca2cko/cko mice. Thus, while olaparib efficiently kills BRCA2-deficient cells, we demonstrate that it can also contribute to the synthetic viability if PARP is inhibited before BRCA2 loss. PMID:27498558

  15. PARP3 affects the relative contribution of homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guirouilh Barbat, Josée; Bonnet, Marie-Elise; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Ronde, Philippe; Gauthier, Laurent R.; Magroun, Najat; Rajendran, Anbazhagan; Lopez, Bernard S.; Scully, Ralph; Boussin, François D.; Schreiber, Valérie; Dantzer, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The repair of toxic double-strand breaks (DSB) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. The major mechanisms that cope with DSB are: homologous recombination (HR) and classical or alternative nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ versus A-EJ). Because these pathways compete for the repair of DSB, the choice of the appropriate repair pathway is pivotal. Among the mechanisms that influence this choice, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) end resection plays a critical role by driving cells to HR, while accurate C-NHEJ is suppressed. Furthermore, end resection promotes error-prone A-EJ. Increasing evidence define Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 3 (PARP3, also known as ARTD3) as an important player in cellular response to DSB. In this work, we reveal a specific feature of PARP3 that together with Ku80 limits DNA end resection and thereby helps in making the choice between HR and NHEJ pathways. PARP3 interacts with and PARylates Ku70/Ku80. The depletion of PARP3 impairs the recruitment of YFP-Ku80 to laser-induced DNA damage sites and induces an imbalance between BRCA1 and 53BP1. Both events result in compromised accurate C-NHEJ and a concomitant increase in DNA end resection. Nevertheless, HR is significantly reduced upon PARP3 silencing while the enhanced end resection causes mutagenic deletions during A-EJ. As a result, the absence of PARP3 confers hypersensitivity to anti-tumoral drugs generating DSB. PMID:24598253

  16. Accelerated Aging during Chronic Oxidative Stress: A Role for PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Boesten, Daniëlle M. P. H. J.; de Vos-Houben, Joyce M. J.; Timmermans, Leen; den Hartog, Gertjan J. M.; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory disease and it has also been linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect these ends from degradation and fusion. Telomeres shorten with each cell division eventually leading to cellular senescence. Research has shown that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and subtelomeric methylation play a role in telomere stability. We hypothesized that PARP-1 plays a role in accelerated aging in chronic inflammatory diseases due to its role as coactivator of NF-κb and AP-1. Therefore we evaluated the effect of chronic PARP-1 inhibition (by fisetin and minocycline) in human fibroblasts (HF) cultured under normal conditions and under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Results showed that PARP-1 inhibition under normal culturing conditions accelerated the rate of telomere shortening. However, under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, PARP-1 inhibition did not show accelerated telomere shortening. We also observed a strong correlation between telomere length and subtelomeric methylation status of HF cells. We conclude that chronic PARP-1 inhibition appears to be beneficial in conditions of chronic oxidative stress but may be detrimental under relatively normal conditions. PMID:24319532

  17. Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xia; Chaudhuri, Arnab Ray; Callen, Elsa; Pang, Yan; Biswas, Kajal; Klarmann, Kimberly D; Martin, Betty K; Burkett, Sandra; Cleveland, Linda; Stauffer, Stacey; Sullivan, Teresa; Dewan, Aashish; Marks, Hanna; Tubbs, Anthony T; Wong, Nancy; Buehler, Eugen; Akagi, Keiko; Martin, Scott E; Keller, Jonathan R; Nussenzweig, André; Sharan, Shyam K

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated cells, which are homologous recombination (HR) deficient, are hypersensitive to PARPi through the mechanism of synthetic lethality. Here we examine the effect of PARPi on HR-proficient cells. Olaparib pretreatment, PARP1 knockdown or Parp1 heterozygosity of Brca2(cko/ko) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), carrying a null (ko) and a conditional (cko) allele of Brca2, results in viable Brca2(ko/ko) cells. PARP1 deficiency does not restore HR in Brca2(ko/ko) cells, but protects stalled replication forks from MRE11-mediated degradation through its impaired recruitment. The functional consequence of Parp1 heterozygosity on BRCA2 loss is demonstrated by a significant increase in tumorigenesis in Brca2(cko/cko) mice. Thus, while olaparib efficiently kills BRCA2-deficient cells, we demonstrate that it can also contribute to the synthetic viability if PARP is inhibited before BRCA2 loss. PMID:27498558

  18. A Gene Expression Study of the Activities of Aromatic Ring-Cleavage Dioxygenases in Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK to Changes in Salinity and pH during Pyrene Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Abimbola Comfort; Badejo, Adegoke Olugboyega; Shin, Kyung Hoon; Chai, Young Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic pollutants found in the environment which can be removed through the use of physical and biological agents. The rate of PAH biodegradation is affected by environmental conditions of pH, salinity and temperature. Adaptation of the pyrene degrading bacteria, Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK, to fluctuating environmental conditions during pyrene biodegrading activity was studied using the quantitative real time – Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) technique. Four aromatic ring-cleavage dioxygenase genes: phdF, phdI, pcaG and pcaH; critical to pyrene biodegradation, were studied in pH states of 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and NaCl concentrations 0 M, 0.17 M, 0.5 M, 0.6 M, 1 M. First, we conducted a residual pyrene study using gas chromatography and flame ionization technologies. Central to a gene expression study is the use of a valid endogenous reference gene, making its determination our next approach, using the geNorm/NormFinder algorithms. Armed with a valid control gene, rpoB, we applied it to a gene expression study, using the comparative critical threshold (2ΔΔCT) quantification method. The pyrene degrading activity of the strain was strongly functional in all the NaCl concentration states, with the least activity found at 1M (∼70% degraded after 48 hours of cultivation). The transcripts quantification of three genes backed this observation with high expression levels. The gene expression levels also revealed pH 6.5 as optimal for pyrene degradation and weak degradation activity at pH of 5.5, corroborating the residual pyrene analysis. The expression of these genes as proteins has already been studied in our laboratory using proteomics techniques and this validates our current study. PMID:23469141

  19. A gene expression study of the activities of aromatic ring-cleavage dioxygenases in Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK to changes in salinity and pH during pyrene degradation.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Abimbola Comfort; Badejo, Adegoke Olugboyega; Shin, Kyung Hoon; Chai, Young Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic pollutants found in the environment which can be removed through the use of physical and biological agents. The rate of PAH biodegradation is affected by environmental conditions of pH, salinity and temperature. Adaptation of the pyrene degrading bacteria, Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK, to fluctuating environmental conditions during pyrene biodegrading activity was studied using the quantitative real time - Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) technique. Four aromatic ring-cleavage dioxygenase genes: phdF, phdI, pcaG and pcaH; critical to pyrene biodegradation, were studied in pH states of 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and NaCl concentrations 0 M, 0.17 M, 0.5 M, 0.6 M, 1 M. First, we conducted a residual pyrene study using gas chromatography and flame ionization technologies. Central to a gene expression study is the use of a valid endogenous reference gene, making its determination our next approach, using the geNorm/NormFinder algorithms. Armed with a valid control gene, rpoB, we applied it to a gene expression study, using the comparative critical threshold (2(ΔΔCT)) quantification method. The pyrene degrading activity of the strain was strongly functional in all the NaCl concentration states, with the least activity found at 1M (∼70% degraded after 48 hours of cultivation). The transcripts quantification of three genes backed this observation with high expression levels. The gene expression levels also revealed pH 6.5 as optimal for pyrene degradation and weak degradation activity at pH of 5.5, corroborating the residual pyrene analysis. The expression of these genes as proteins has already been studied in our laboratory using proteomics techniques and this validates our current study. PMID:23469141

  20. Engineering a ribozyme cleavage-induced split fluorescent aptamer complementation assay

    PubMed Central

    Ausländer, Simon; Fuchs, David; Hürlemann, Samuel; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hammerhead ribozymes are self-cleaving RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression in living cells. Their cleavage performance is strongly influenced by intra-molecular loop–loop interactions, a feature not readily accessible through modern prediction algorithms. Ribozyme engineering and efficient implementation of ribozyme-based genetic switches requires detailed knowledge of individual self-cleavage performances. By rational design, we devised fluorescent aptamer-ribozyme RNA architectures that allow for the real-time measurement of ribozyme self-cleavage activity in vitro. The engineered nucleic acid molecules implement a split Spinach aptamer sequence that is made accessible for strand displacement upon ribozyme self-cleavage, thereby complementing the fluorescent Spinach aptamer. This fully RNA-based ribozyme performance assay correlates ribozyme cleavage activity with Spinach fluorescence to provide a rapid and straightforward technology for the validation of loop–loop interactions in hammerhead ribozymes. PMID:26939886

  1. Engineering a ribozyme cleavage-induced split fluorescent aptamer complementation assay.

    PubMed

    Ausländer, Simon; Fuchs, David; Hürlemann, Samuel; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Hammerhead ribozymes are self-cleaving RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression in living cells. Their cleavage performance is strongly influenced by intra-molecular loop-loop interactions, a feature not readily accessible through modern prediction algorithms. Ribozyme engineering and efficient implementation of ribozyme-based genetic switches requires detailed knowledge of individual self-cleavage performances. By rational design, we devised fluorescent aptamer-ribozyme RNA architectures that allow for the real-time measurement of ribozyme self-cleavage activity in vitro The engineered nucleic acid molecules implement a split Spinach aptamer sequence that is made accessible for strand displacement upon ribozyme self-cleavage, thereby complementing the fluorescent Spinach aptamer. This fully RNA-based ribozyme performance assay correlates ribozyme cleavage activity with Spinach fluorescence to provide a rapid and straightforward technology for the validation of loop-loop interactions in hammerhead ribozymes. PMID:26939886

  2. Silylations of Arenes with Hydrosilanes: From Transition-Metal-Catalyzed C¢X Bond Cleavage to Environmentally Benign Transition-Metal-Free C¢H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Xu, Li-Wen

    2015-07-01

    The construction of carbon-silicon bonds is highlighted as an exciting achievement in the field of organosilicon chemistry and green chemistry. Recent developments in this area will enable the sustainable chemical conversion of silicon resources into synthetically useful compounds. Especially, the catalytic silylation through C¢H bond activation without directing groups and hydrogen acceptors is one of the most challenging topics in organic chemistry and green chemistry. These remarkable findings on catalytic silylation can pave the way to a more environm