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Sample records for activation protein zeta

  1. Nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibits the activity of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Xiaoai; Yang, Juntao; Wu, Guangzhou; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yanzhi; Jin, Chaozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoming; He, Fuchu

    2009-09-18

    STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a key transcription factor of the JAK-STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of STAT3 is under tight regulation, and yet the different signaling pathways and the mechanisms that regulate its activity remain to be elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} that interacts in a novel way with STAT3. This physical interaction was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction regions were mapped to the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 and the C-terminal of I{kappa}B-{zeta}. Overexpression of I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibited the transcriptional activity of STAT3. It also suppressed cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in SRC-simulated cells, which is partially mediated by down-regulation of expression of a known STAT3 target gene, MCL1. Our results suggest that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is a negative regulator of STAT3, and demonstrate a novel mechanism in which a component of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway inhibits the activation of STAT3.

  2. PLCzeta(zeta): a sperm protein that triggers Ca2+ oscillations and egg activation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Swann, K; Saunders, C M; Rogers, N T; Lai, F A

    2006-04-01

    At fertilization in mammals, the sperm activates development by causing a prolonged series of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations that are generated by increased production of inositol trisphosphate (InsP(3)). It appears that the sperm initiates InsP(3) generation via the introduction of a sperm factor into the egg after gamete membrane fusion. We recently identified a sperm-specific form of phospholipase C (PLC), referred to as PLCzeta(zeta). We review the evidence that PLCzeta represents the sperm factor that activates development of the egg and discuss the characteristics of PLCzeta that distinguish it from the somatic forms of PLC.

  3. Diacylglycerol generated by exogenous phospholipase C activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway independent of Ras- and phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C: dependence on protein kinase C-zeta.

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, M; Muriana, F J; van Der Hoeven, P C; de Widt, J; Schaap, D; Moolenaar, W H; van Blitterswijk, W J

    1997-01-01

    The role of diacylglycerol (DG) formation from phosphatidylcholine in mitogenic signal transduction is poorly understood. We have generated this lipid at the plasma membrane by treating Rat-1 fibroblasts with bacterial phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This treatment leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, unlike platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), PC-PLC fails to activate Ras and to induce DNA synthesis, and activates MAPK only transiently (<45 min). Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) -alpha, -delta and -epsilon isotypes has little or no effect on MAPK activation by either PC-PLC or growth factors. However, Ro 31-8220, a highly selective inhibitor of all PKC isotypes, including atypical PKC-zeta but not Raf-1, blocks MAPK activation by PDGF and PC-PLC, but not that by EGF, suggesting that atypical PKC mediates the PDGF and PC-PLC signal. In line with this, PKC-zeta is activated by PC-PLC and PDGF, but not by EGF, as shown by a kinase assay in vitro, using biotinylated epsilon-peptide as a substrate. Furthermore, dominant-negative PKC-zeta inhibits, while (wild-type) PKC-zeta overexpression enhances MAPK activation by PDGF and PC-PLC. The results suggest that DG generated by PC-PLC can activate the MAPK pathway independent of Ras and phorbol-ester-sensitive PKC but, instead, via PKC-zeta. PMID:9169602

  4. Insulin receptor substrate-2 phosphorylation is necessary for protein kinase C zeta activation by insulin in L6hIR cells.

    PubMed

    Oriente, F; Formisano, P; Miele, C; Fiory, F; Maitan, M A; Vigliotta, G; Trencia, A; Santopietro, S; Caruso, M; Van Obberghen, E; Beguinot, F

    2001-10-05

    We have investigated glycogen synthase (GS) activation in L6hIR cells expressing a peptide corresponding to the kinase regulatory loop binding domain of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) (KRLB). In several clones of these cells (B2, F4), insulin-dependent binding of the KRLB to insulin receptors was accompanied by a block of IRS-2, but not IRS-1, phosphorylation, and insulin receptor binding. GS activation by insulin was also inhibited by >70% in these cells (p < 0.001). The impairment of GS activation was paralleled by a similarly sized inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3 alpha) and GSK3 beta inactivation by insulin with no change in protein phosphatase 1 activity. PDK1 (a phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate-dependent kinase) and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) activation by insulin showed no difference in B2, F4, and in control L6hIR cells. At variance, insulin did not activate PKC zeta in B2 and F4 cells. In L6hIR, inhibition of PKC zeta activity by either a PKC zeta antisense or a dominant negative mutant also reduced by 75% insulin inactivation of GSK3 alpha and -beta (p < 0.001) and insulin stimulation of GS (p < 0.002), similar to Akt/PKB inhibition. In L6hIR, insulin induced protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) co-precipitation with GSK3 alpha and beta. PKC zeta also phosphorylated GSK3 alpha and -beta. Alone, these events did not significantly affect GSK3 alpha and -beta activities. Inhibition of PKC zeta activity, however, reduced Akt/PKB phosphorylation of the key serine sites on GSK3 alpha and -beta by >80% (p < 0.001) and prevented full GSK3 inactivation by insulin. Thus, IRS-2, not IRS-1, signals insulin activation of GS in the L6hIR skeletal muscle cells. In these cells, insulin inhibition of GSK3 alpha and -beta requires dual phosphorylation by both Akt/PKB and PKC zeta.

  5. Inhibition of protein kinase C zeta subspecies blocks the activation of an NF-kappa B-like activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, I; Sanz, L; Arenzana-Seisdedos, F; Diaz-Meco, M T; Virelizier, J L; Moscat, J

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) plays a critical role in the regulation of a large variety of cellular genes. However, the mechanism whereby this nuclear factor is activated remains to be determined. In this report, we present evidence that in oocytes from Xenopus laevis, (i) ras p21- and phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis activates NF-kappa B and (ii) protein kinase C zeta subspecies is involved in the activation of NF-kappa B in response to insulin/ras p21/PC-PLC. Thus, the microinjection of either ras p21 or PC-PLC, or the exposure of oocytes to insulin, promotes a significant translocation to the nucleus of an NF-kappa B-like activity. This effect is not observed when oocytes are incubated with phorbol myristate acetate or progesterone, both of which utilize a ras p21-independent pathway for oocyte activation. These data strongly suggest a critical role of the insulin/ras p21/PC-PLC/protein kinase C zeta pathway in the control of NF-kappa B activation. Images PMID:8423794

  6. Homooligomerization of the cytoplasmic domain of the T cell receptor zeta chain and of other proteins containing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Alexander; Aivazian, Dikran; Stern, Lawrence

    2004-02-24

    Antigen receptors on T cells, B cells, mast cells, and basophils all have cytoplasmic domains containing one or more copies of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), tyrosine residues of which are phosphorylated upon receptor engagement in an early and obligatory event in the signaling cascade. How clustering of receptor extracellular domains leads to phosphorylation of cytoplasmic domain ITAMs is not known, and little structural or biochemical information is available for the ITAM-containing cytoplasmic domains. Here we investigate the conformation and oligomeric state of several immune receptor cytoplasmic domains, using purified recombinant proteins and a variety of biophysical and biochemical techniques. We show that all of the cytoplasmic domains of ITAM-containing signaling subunits studied are oligomeric in solution, namely, T cell antigen receptor zeta, CD3epsilon, CD3delta, and CD3gamma, B cell antigen receptor Igalpha and Igbeta, and Fc receptor FcepsilonRIgamma. For zeta(cyt), the oligomerization behavior is best described by a two-step monomer-dimer-tetramer fast dynamic equilibrium with dissociation constants in the order of approximately 10 microM (monomer-dimer) and approximately 1 mM (dimer-tetramer). In contrast to the other ITAM-containing proteins, Igalpha(cyt) forms stable dimers and tetramers even below 10 microM. Circular dichroic analysis reveals the lack of stable ordered structure of the cytoplasmic domains studied, and oligomerization does not change the random-coil-like conformation observed. The random-coil nature of zeta(cyt) was also confirmed by heteronuclear NMR. Phosphorylation of zeta(cyt) and FcepsilonRIgamma(cyt) does not significantly alter their oligomerization behavior. The implications of these results for transmembrane signaling and cellular activation by immune receptors are discussed.

  7. Protein phosphatase 2A is a critical regulator of protein kinase C zeta signaling targeted by SV40 small t to promote cell growth and NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, E; Sontag, J M; Garcia, A

    1997-01-01

    We have reported that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by expression of SV40 small t stimulates the mitogenic MAP kinase cascade. Here, we show that SV40 small t can substitute for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or serum and stimulate atypical protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) activity, resulting in MEK activation, cell proliferation and NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcriptional activation in CV-1 and NIH 3T3 cells. These effects were abrogated by co-expression of kinase-deficient PKC zeta and inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85alpha-p110 by wortmannin, LY294002 and a dominant-negative mutant of p85alpha. In contrast, expression of kinase-inactive ERK2 inhibited small t-dependent cell growth but was unable to abolish small t-induced NF-kappaB transactivation. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence for a critical regulatory role of PP2A in bifunctional PKC zeta signaling pathways controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Constitutive activation of PKC zeta and NF-kappaB following inhibition of PP2A supports new mechanisms by which SV40 small t promotes cell growth and transformation. By establishing PP2A as a key player in the response of cells to growth factors and stress signals like TNF-alpha, our findings could explain why PP2A is a primary target utilized during SV40 infection to alter cellular behavior. PMID:9312025

  8. Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Disrupts Electrostatic Interactions That Maintain Atypical Protein Kinase C in Its Active Conformation on the Scaffold p62.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Chun Lisa; Xie, Lei; Dore, Kim; Xie, Li; Del Rio, Jason C; King, Charles C; Martinez-Ariza, Guillermo; Hulme, Christopher; Malinow, Roberto; Bourne, Philip E; Newton, Alexandra C

    2015-09-04

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) enzymes signal on protein scaffolds, yet how they are maintained in an active conformation on scaffolds is unclear. A myristoylated peptide based on the autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate fragment of the atypical PKCζ, zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP), has been extensively used to inhibit aPKC activity; however, we have previously shown that ZIP does not inhibit the catalytic activity of aPKC isozymes in cells (Wu-Zhang, A. X., Schramm, C. L., Nabavi, S., Malinow, R., and Newton, A. C. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 12879-12885). Here we sought to identify a bona fide target of ZIP and, in so doing, unveiled a novel mechanism by which aPKCs are maintained in an active conformation on a protein scaffold. Specifically, we used protein-protein interaction network analysis, structural modeling, and protein-protein docking to predict that ZIP binds an acidic surface on the Phox and Bem1 (PB1) domain of p62, an interaction validated by peptide array analysis. Using a genetically encoded reporter for PKC activity fused to the p62 scaffold, we show that ZIP inhibits the activity of wild-type aPKC, but not a construct lacking the pseudosubstrate. These data support a model in which the pseudosubstrate of aPKCs is tethered to the acidic surface on p62, locking aPKC in an open, signaling-competent conformation. ZIP competes for binding to the acidic surface, resulting in displacement of the pseudosubstrate of aPKC and re-engagement in the substrate-binding cavity. This study not only identifies a cellular target for ZIP, but also unveils a novel mechanism by which scaffolded aPKC is maintained in an active conformation.

  9. Requirement of protein kinase C zeta for stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, R; Kollmorgen, G; White, M F; Rhoads, R E

    1997-01-01

    The ability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis and cellular growth is mediated through the insulin receptor (IR), which phosphorylates Tyr residues in the insulin receptor substrate-signaling proteins (IRS-1 and IRS-2), Gab-1, and Shc. These phosphorylated substrates directly bind and activate enzymes such as phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for p21Ras (GRB-2/SOS), which are in turn required for insulin-stimulated protein synthesis, cell cycle progression, and prevention of apoptosis. We have now shown that one or more members of the atypical protein kinase C group, as exemplified by the zeta isoform (PKC zeta), are downstream of IRS-1 and P13K and mediate the effect of insulin on general protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of constitutively activated PKC zeta eliminates the requirement of IRS-1 for general protein synthesis but not for insulin-stimulated activation of 70-kDa S6 kinase (p70S6K), synthesis of growth-regulated proteins (e.g., c-Myc), or mitogenesis. The fact that PKC zeta stimulates general protein synthesis but not activation of p70S6K indicates that PKC zeta activation does not involve the proto-oncogene Akt, which is also activated by PI3K. Yet insulin is still required for the stimulation of general protein synthesis in the presence of constitutively active PKC zeta and in the absence of IRS-1, suggesting a requirement for the convergence of the IRS-1/PI3K/PKC zeta pathway with one or more additional pathways emanating from the IR, e.g., Shc/SOS/p21Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase. Thus, PI3K appears to represent a bifurcation in the insulin signaling pathway, one branch leading through PKC zeta to general protein synthesis and one, through Akt and the target of rapamycin (mTOR), to growth-regulated protein synthesis and cell cycle progression. PMID:9271396

  10. Nuclear translocation of phospholipase C-zeta, an egg-activating factor, during early embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, Yoshie; Ito, Masahiko; Shirakawa, Hideki; Shikano, Tomohide; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi . E-mail: shunm@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2005-05-13

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC{zeta}), a strong candidate of the egg-activating sperm factor, causes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} oscillations and egg activation, and is subsequently accumulated into the pronucleus (PN), when expressed in mouse eggs by injection of RNA encoding PLC{zeta}. Changes in the localization of expressed PLC{zeta} were investigated by tagging with a fluorescent protein. PLC{zeta} began to translocate into the PN formed at 5-6 h after RNA injection and increased there. Observation in the same embryo revealed that PLC{zeta} in the PN dispersed to the cytoplasm upon nuclear envelope breakdown and translocated again into the nucleus after cleavage. The dynamics was found in the second mitosis as well. When RNA was injected into fertilization-originated 1-cell embryos or blastomere(s) of 2-8-cell embryos, the nuclear localization of expressed PLC{zeta} was recognized in every embryo up to blastocyst. Thus, PLC{zeta} exhibited alternative cytoplasm/nucleus localization during development. This supports the view that the sperm factor could control cell cycle-dependent generation of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in early embryogenesis.

  11. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the zeta isoform of the 14-3-3 protein: homologous sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of frog and human zeta isoforms.

    PubMed

    Miura, I; Nakajima, T; Ohtani, H; Kashiwagi, A; Nakamura, M

    1997-10-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well-conserved eukaryotic proteins that possess diverse biochemical activities such as regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation and activation of protein kinase C. At least 7 subtypes (alpha to theta) of 14-3-3 protein are known, but the zeta subtype of this protein has been cloned only in mammals. We cloned the zeta subtype of 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3 zeta) from the frog, Rana rugosa. The sequence encoded 245 amino acids that share 92% identity with rat and bovine 14-3-3 zeta s, and 92% with human phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 14-3-3 zeta). Northern blot analysis revealed a single band of about 1.8 kb in tadpoles at stage 25. The 14-3-3 zeta mRNA level was high in the brain, lung, spleen and kidney, and low in the heart and testis, as opposed to the mRNA level, which was only faintly detected in the liver, pancreas, ovary and muscle. Furthermore, high similarity in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was observed between frog and human 14-3-3 zeta cDNA. The results suggest that 14-3-3 zeta is highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, and that the homologous sequence in the 3'-UTR of 14-3-3 zeta cDNA may be conserved in frogs and humans.

  12. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian; Llarrull1, Leticia I.; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Shi, Qicun; Peng, Jeffrey; Baker, Brian M.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-10-29

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed the lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  13. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} regulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of PKC{zeta}

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Glynis Fricke, Alex; Fender, Anne; McClelland, Lindy; Jacobs, Stacey

    2007-11-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid signaling intermediates released by keratinocytes in response to ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) in the skin. The main prostaglandin released following UVR is PGE{sub 2}, a ligand for 4 related G-protein-coupled receptors (EP{sub 1}, EP{sub 2}, EP{sub 3} and EP{sub 4}). Our previous work established that PGE{sub 2} stimulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of the EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptors. The purpose of the present report is to define the signaling intermediates involved in EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-dependent dendrite formation in human melanocytes. We recently showed that activation of the atypical PKC{zeta} isoform stimulates melanocyte dendricity in response to treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine. We therefore examined the potential contribution of PKC{zeta} activation on EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-dependent dendrite formation in melanocytes. Stimulation of the EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptors by selective agonists activated PKC{zeta}, and inhibition of PKC{zeta} activation abrogated EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-receptor-mediated melanocyte dendricity. Because of the importance of Rho-GTP binding proteins in the regulation of melanocyte dendricity, we also examined the effect of EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptor activation on Rac and Rho activity. Neither Rac nor Rho was activated upon treatment with EP{sub 1,3}-receptor agonists. We show that melanocytes express only the EP{sub 3A1} isoform, but not the EP{sub 3B} receptor isoform, previously associated with Rho activation, consistent with a lack of Rho stimulation by EP{sub 3} agonists. Our data suggest that PKC{zeta} activation plays a predominant role in regulation of PGE{sub 2}-dependent melanocyte dendricity.

  14. Two YxxL segments of a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in the CD3zeta molecule differentially activate calcium mobilization and mitogen-activated protein kinase family pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, N; Matsuda, S; Reinherz, E L; Koyasu, S

    2000-06-01

    Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM), consisting of two YxxL segments, transmit signals leading to IL-2 gene activation in T cells. We investigated here the functional difference in signal transduction between these two YxxL segments in the CD3zeta membrane-proximal ITAM. N-terminal YxxL mutants failed to induce ZAP-70 phosphorylation, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation even in the presence of CD28 co-stimulation, whereas a mutant of the leucine residue at the C-terminal YxxL segment retained the ability to induce these events although this mutation abrogated the ability to induce IL-2 gene activation. In marked contrast to ERK activation, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was observed in all mutants when co-stimulated with CD28. The mutant of the leucine residue at the C-terminal YxxL segment had a defect in the transcriptional activation at the NF-AT cis-element, which was restored to wild-type level by addition of a Ca2+ ionophore, suggesting that the intensity and/or duration of [Ca2+]i elevation defines the threshold of T cell activation in this mutant. Our data collectively indicate that the activation pathways of ERK, JNK and Ca2+ mobilization are differentially regulated through YxxL segments of an ITAM.

  15. Interaction of nucleosome assembly proteins abolishes nuclear localization of DGK{zeta} by attenuating its association with importins

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masashi; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Ichimura, Tohru; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobuya; Iseki, Ken; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Shinkawa, Takashi; Isobe, Toshiaki; Goto, Kaoru

    2011-12-10

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is involved in the regulation of lipid-mediated signal transduction through the metabolism of a second messenger diacylglycerol. Of the DGK family, DGK{zeta}, which contains a nuclear localization signal, localizes mainly to the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm under pathological conditions. However, the detailed mechanism of translocation and its functional significance remain unclear. To elucidate these issues, we used a proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with DGK{zeta}. Results show that nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) 1-like 1 (NAP1L1) and NAP1-like 4 (NAP1L4) are identified as novel DGK{zeta} binding partners. NAP1Ls constitutively shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in transfected HEK293 cells. The molecular interaction of DGK{zeta} and NAP1Ls prohibits nuclear import of DGK{zeta} because binding of NAP1Ls to DGK{zeta} blocks import carrier proteins, Qip1 and NPI1, to interact with DGK{zeta}, leading to cytoplasmic tethering of DGK{zeta}. In addition, overexpression of NAP1Ls exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NAP1Ls are involved in a novel molecular basis for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of DGK{zeta} and provide a clue to examine functional significance of its translocation under pathological conditions.

  16. Organellar proteomics of human platelet dense granules reveals that 14-3-3zeta is a granule protein related to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Laura; Valverde, Federico; Jimenez-Nuñez, Maria D; Ocaña, Esther; Sáez-Benito, Ana; Rodríguez-Martorell, Javier; Bohórquez, Juan-Carlos; Serrano, Aurelio; Ruiz, Felix A

    2007-11-01

    Dense granules, a type of platelet secretory organelle, are known to accumulate high concentrations of small molecules such as calcium, adenine nucleotides, serotonin, pyrophosphate, and polyphosphate. Protein composition of these granules has been obscure, however. In this paper, we use proteomics techniques to describe, for the first time, the soluble protein composition of platelet dense granules. We have isolated highly enriched human platelet dense granule fractions that have been analyzed using two proteomics methods. Using this approach, we have identified 40 proteins, and most of them, such as actin-associated proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and regulatory proteins, have not previously been related to the organelle. We have focused our efforts on studying 14-3-3zeta, a member of a conserved family of proteins that interact with hundreds of different proteins. We have demonstrated that 14-3-3zeta is localized mostly on dense granules and that it is secreted after platelet activation. As some proteins secreted from activated platelets could promote the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, we have studied the expression of 14-3-3zeta in sections of human abdominal aorta of patients with aneurysm, identifying it at the atherosclerotic plaques. Together, our results reveal new details of the composition of the platelet dense granule and suggest an extracellular function for 14-3-3zeta associated with atherosclerosis.

  17. Pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta as regulators of angiogenesis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Castana, Penelope; Tsalios, Thomas; Polyzos, Alexandros; Beis, Dimitris

    2016-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor that through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) has a significant regulatory effect on angiogenesis and cancer. PTN and RPTPβ/ζ are over-expressed in several types of human cancers and regulate important cancer cell functions in vitro and cancer growth in vivo. This review begins with a brief introduction of PTN and the regulation of its expression. PTN receptors are described with special emphasis on RPTPβ/ζ, which also interacts with and/or affects the function of other important targets for cancer therapy, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, ανβ3 and cell surface nucleolin. PTN biological activities related to angiogenesis and cancer are extensively discussed. Finally, up to date approaches of targeting PTN or RPTPβ/ζ for cancer treatment are presented. Insights into the regulatory role of PTN/RPTPβ/ζ on angiogenesis will be extremely beneficial for future development of alternative anti-angiogenic approaches in cancer therapy.

  18. Interactions of surfactants with a water treatment protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in solution studied by zeta-potential and light scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Rennie, Adrian R

    2012-04-01

    Protein extracted from Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds has been advocated as a cheap and environmental friendly alternative to ionic flocculants for water purification. However, the nature and mechanism of its interaction with particles in water, as well as with dissolved surface-active molecules, are not well understood. In this article, we report studies of the protein and its interaction with four surfactants using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential and turbidity measurements. Zeta-potential measurements identified points of charge reversal and the turbidity and DLS measurements were used to characterize the microstructure and size of protein-surfactant complexes. From the points of charge reversal, it was estimated that 7 anions are required to neutralize the positive charges of each protein molecule at pH 7. For protein mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl di-acid sodium salt, the peak in turbidity corresponds to concentrations with a large change in zeta-potential. No turbidity was observed for protein mixtures with either the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate. Changes of pH in the range 4-10 have little effect on the zeta-potential, turbidity, and the hydrodynamic radius reflecting the high isoelectric point of the protein. Addition of small amounts of salt has little effect on the size of protein in solution. These results are discussed in the context of the use of the MO protein in water treatment.

  19. Protein kinase C-zeta and protein kinase B regulate distinct steps of insulin endocytosis and intracellular sorting.

    PubMed

    Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Miele, Claudia; Romano, Chiara; Trencia, Alessandra; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Esposito, Iolanda; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2004-03-19

    We have investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin internalization and intracellular sorting. Insulin internalization was decreased by 50% upon incubation of the cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. PI3K inhibition also reduced insulin degradation and intact insulin release by 50 and 75%, respectively. Insulin internalization was reduced by antisense inhibition of protein kinase C-zeta (PKCzeta) expression and by overexpression of a dominant negative PKCzeta mutant (DN-PKCzeta). Conversely, overexpression of PKCzeta increased insulin internalization as a function of the PKCzeta levels achieved in the cells. Expression of wild-type protein kinase B (PKB)-alpha or of a constitutively active form (myr-PKB) did not significantly alter insulin internalization and degradation but produced a 100% increase of intact insulin release. Inhibition of PKB by a dominant negative mutant (DN-PKB) or by the pharmacological inhibitor ML-9 reduced intact insulin release by 75% with no effect on internalization and degradation. In addition, overexpression of Rab5 completely rescued the effect of PKCzeta inhibition on insulin internalization but not that of PKB inhibition on intact insulin recycling. Indeed, PKCzeta bound to and activated Rab5. Thus, PI3K controls different steps within the insulin endocytic itinerary. PKCzeta appears to mediate the PI3K effect on insulin internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner, whereas PKB directs intracellular sorting toward intact insulin release.

  20. A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, N X; Saito, H

    1992-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPases, EC 3.1.3.48) play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recently, it was found that the PTPase gene family exhibits a large variety of different functional domains associated with the PTPase catalytic domains. In this paper, we report the complete cDNA sequence of a human transmembrane PTPase, PTP zeta, isolated from fetal brain cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of human PTP zeta is composed of a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids, a very large extracellular domain of 1616 amino acids, a transmembrane peptide of 26 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic domain of 653 amino acids. The extracellular portion of human PTP zeta contains two striking structural features: the N-terminal 280-amino acid sequence that is homologous to carbonic anhydrases (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1), and a sequence of 1048 amino acids without a cysteine residue. While it is unlikely that the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTP zeta has any carbonic anhydrase activity, its three-dimensional structure may be quite similar to that of carbonic anhydrases, a structure that appears ideal for binding a small soluble ligand. The cytoplasmic portion of human PTP zeta contains two repeated PTPase-like domains, which, when expressed in Escherichia coli, had PTPase activity in vitro. Mutational analyses indicate that only the membrane-proximal PTPase domain is catalytically active. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicate that human PTP zeta is highly expressed in a glioblastoma cell line. Images PMID:1323835

  1. Zeta potential, contact angles, and AFM imaging of protein conformation adsorbed on hybrid nanocomposite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ana C; Piedade, Ana P

    2013-08-28

    The sputtering deposition of gold (Au) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was used to prepare a nanocomposite hybrid thin film suitable for protein adsorption while maintaining the native conformation of the biological material. The monolithic PTFE and the nanocomposite PTFE/Au thin films, with Au content up to 1 at %, were co-deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering using argon as a discharge gas and deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates, the most commonly used steel in biomaterials. The deposited thin films, before and after bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, were thoroughly characterized with special emphasis on the surface properties/characteristics by atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, in order to assess the relationship between structure and conformational changes. The influence of a pre-adsorbed peptide (RGD) was also evaluated. The nanotopographic and chemical changes induced by the presence of gold in the nanocomposite thin films enable RGD bonding, which is critical for the maintenance of the BSA native conformation after adsorption.

  2. A role for protein kinase A and protein kinase M zeta in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-initiated persistent synaptic enhancement in rat hippocampus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Li, S; Anwyl, R; Rowan, M J

    2008-01-24

    Antagonists at presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors increase endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) release and enhance cognition but little is known regarding their actions on plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. Here the mechanisms of the persistent enhancement of hippocampal excitatory transmission induced by the M2/M4 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist methoctramine were investigated in vivo. The persistent facilitatory effect of i.c.v. methoctramine in the CA1 region of urethane-anesthetized rats was mimicked by gallamine, an M2 receptor antagonist, supporting a role for this receptor subtype. Neither the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists D-(-)-2-amino phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5) and memantine, nor the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1a antagonist (S)-(+)-alpha-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (LY367385) significantly affected the methoctramine-induced persistent synaptic enhancement, indicating a lack of requirement for these glutamate receptors. The selective kinase inhibitors Rp-adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS) and the myrostylated pseudosubstrate peptide, Myr-Ser-Ile-Tyr-Arg-Arg-Gly-Ala-Arg-Arg-Trp-Arg-Lys-Leu-OH (ZIP), were used to investigate the roles of protein kinase A (PKA) and the atypical protein kinase C, protein kinase Mzeta (PKM zeta), respectively. Remarkably, pretreatment with either agent prevented the induction of the persistent synaptic enhancement by methoctramine and post-methoctramine treatment with Rp-cAMPS transiently reversed the enhancement. These findings are strong evidence that antagonism of M2 muscarinic ACh receptors in vivo induces an NMDA receptor-independent persistent synaptic enhancement that requires activation of both PKA and PKM zeta.

  3. Protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin films: role of electrostatic interactions inferred from zeta-potential measurements versus chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Bernsmann, Falk; Frisch, Benoît; Ringwald, Christian; Ball, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    We recently showed the possibility to build dopamine-melanin films of controlled thickness by successive immersions of a substrate in alkaline solutions of dopamine [F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald, J. Hemmerlé, J. Raya, B. Bechinger, J.-C. Voegel, P. Schaaf, V. Ball, J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (2009) 8234-8242]. In this work the structure and properties of such films are further explored. The zeta-potential of dopamine-melanin films is measured as a function of the total immersion time to build the film. It appears that the film bears a constant zeta-potential of (-39+/-3) mV after 12 immersion steps. These data are used to calculate the surface density of charged groups of the dopamine-melanin films at pH 8.5 that are mostly catechol or quinone imine chemical groups. Furthermore the zeta-potential is used to explain the adsorption of three model proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin), which is monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. We come to the conclusion that protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin is not only determined by possible covalent binding between amino groups of the proteins and catechol groups of dopamine-melanin but that electrostatic interactions contribute to protein binding. Part of the adsorbed proteins can be desorbed by sodium dodecylsulfate solutions at the critical micellar concentration. The fraction of weakly bound proteins decreases with their isoelectric point. Additionally the number of available sites for covalent binding of amino groups on melanin grains is quantified.

  4. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Gary F.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  5. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Gary F; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-12-15

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  6. Identification of cofilin and LIM-domain-containing protein kinase 1 as novel interaction partners of 14-3-3 zeta.

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Jörg; Betz, Heinrich; Roth, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 family have been implicated in various physiological processes, and are thought to function as adaptors in various signal transduction pathways. In addition, 14-3-3 proteins may contribute to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with as yet unidentified actin-binding proteins. Here we show that the 14-3-3 zeta isoform interacts with both the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin and its regulatory kinase, LIM (Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3)-domain-containing protein kinase 1 (LIMK1). In both yeast two-hybrid assays and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, these proteins bound efficiently to 14-3-3 zeta. Deletion analysis revealed consensus 14-3-3 binding sites on both cofilin and LIMK1. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of 14-3-3 zeta inhibited the binding of cofilin to actin in co-sedimentation experiments. Upon co-transfection into COS-7 cells, 14-3-3 zeta-specific immunoreactivity was redistributed into characteristic LIMK1-induced actin aggregations. Our data are consistent with 14-3-3-protein-induced changes to the actin cytoskeleton resulting from interactions with cofilin and/or LIMK1. PMID:12323073

  7. Identification of GIT1/Cat-1 as a substrate molecule of protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta /beta by the yeast substrate-trapping system.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, H; Fujikawa, A; Maeda, N; Noda, M

    2001-06-05

    We used a genetic method, the yeast substrate-trapping system, to identify substrates for protein tyrosine phosphatases zeta (PTPzeta/RPTPbeta). This method is based on the yeast two-hybrid system, with two essential modifications: conditional expression of protein tyrosine kinase v-src (active src) to tyrosine-phosphorylate the prey proteins and screening by using a substrate-trap mutant of PTPzeta (PTPzeta-D1902A) as bait. By using this system, several substrate candidates for PTPzeta were isolated. Among them, GIT1/Cat-1 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1/Cool-associated, tyrosine-phosphorylated 1) was examined further. GIT1/Cat-1 bound to PTPzeta-D1902A dependent on the substrate tyrosine phosphorylation. Tyrosine-phosphorylated GIT1/Cat-1 was dephosphorylated by PTPzeta in vitro. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that PTPzeta-D1902A and GIT1/Cat-1 form a stable complex also in mammalian cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that PTPzeta and GIT1/Cat-1 were colocalized in the processes of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and neocortex in rat brain. Subcellular colocalization was further verified in the growth cones of mossy fibers from pontine explants and in the ruffling membranes and processes of B103 neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, pleiotrophin, a ligand for PTPzeta, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of GIT1/Cat-1 in B103 cells. All these results indicate that GIT1/Cat-1 is a substrate molecule of PTPzeta.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  9. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO).

    PubMed

    Alborghetti, Marcos Rodrigo; Furlan, Ariane da Silva; da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  10. Structural Analysis of Intermolecular Interactions in the Kinesin Adaptor Complex Fasciculation and Elongation Protein Zeta 1/ Short Coiled-Coil Protein (FEZ1/SCOCO)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L.; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. PMID:24116125

  11. Aprotinin stimulates angiogenesis and human endothelial cell migration through the growth factor pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta.

    PubMed

    Koutsioumpa, Marina; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Mikelis, Constantinos; Koolwijk, Pieter; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2009-01-14

    Pleiotrophin is an 18 kDa secreted polypeptide growth factor with direct pro-angiogenic and tumorigenic properties. Pleiotrophin is a substrate for proteolytic enzymes, such as plasmin, leading to proteolytic fragments with distinct activities on endothelial cell activation in vitro or angiogenesis in vivo. Aprotinin is a naturally occurring broad spectrum protease inhibitor, used widely in cardiac surgery due to its ability to inhibit plasmin and reduce perioperative bleeding. Since we have seen that aprotinin inhibits proteolysis of pleiotrophin by plasmin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of pleiotrophin in the effects of aprotinin on angiogenesis and human endothelial cell migration. Our data demonstrate that aprotinin, in a concentration-dependent manner, is angiogenic in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay in vivo and induces human endothelial cell migration in vitro. Aprotinin inhibits pleiotrophin proteolysis and induces expression and secretion of pleiotrophin through an AP-1-dependent transcriptional activation of the pleiotrophin gene, and pleiotrophin seems to mediate the stimulatory effects of aprotinin on cell migration through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta. The stimulatory effect of aprotinin on pleiotrophin expression and cell migration may explain, at least partly, the problems observed with the clinical use of aprotinin.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of 3' untranslated region of zeta-chain associated protein kinase 70 kDa in southern Taiwanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yao; Liu, Ming-Fei; Wang, Chrong-Reen

    2016-03-01

    T cell activation participates in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the signaling molecule zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP-70) plays a crucial role in this process. Different mutations in the coding sequence of ZAP-70 are involved in a variety of immunological phenotypes, and recent evidence indicates that genetic variations within the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of microRNA binding sites may affect the hybridization with target mRNAs, leading to phenotype changes with disease status. In this study, we evaluated the possible effect of ZAP-70 polymorphism as a genetic risk factor in RA by examining the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 100 patients and 100 ethnicity- and sex-matched healthy individuals from southern Taiwan. In both groups, the genotype distribution of rs2278699 in the 3' UTR was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In RA, there were higher frequencies of the G allele (15.5 versus 8.0 %, odds ratio 2.1, P = 0.020) and significant differences in the trend of various genotypes (P = 0.024). The results suggest that genetic polymorphism in the 3' UTR of ZAP-70 is associated with RA susceptibility in southern Taiwanese.

  13. pH Effects on solubility, zeta potential, and correlation between antibacterial activity and molecular weight of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Hsien; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Wu, Guan-James; Tsai, Guo Jane

    2015-12-10

    Six chitosans with molecular weights (MWs) of 300, 156, 72.1, 29.2, 7.1, and 3.3 kDa were prepared by cellulase degradation of chitosan (300 kDa) and ultrafiltration techniques. We examined the correlation between activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and chitosan MW, and provided the underlying explanation. In acidic pH conditions, the chitosan activity increased with increasing MW, irrespective of the temperature and bacteria tested. However, at neutral pH, chitosan activity increased as the MW decreased, and little activity was observed for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, chitosans exhibited good water solubility and zeta potential (ZP) decreased with the MW, whereas the solubility and ZP of the chitosans decreased with increasing MW at pH 7.0. Particularly, low solubility and negative ZP values were determined for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa, which may explain the loss of their antibacterial activity at pH 7.0.

  14. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie

    2014-10-14

    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  15. How do the full-generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers activate blood platelets? Platelet membrane zeta potential and other membrane-associated phenomena.

    PubMed

    Watala, Cezary; Karolczak, Kamil; Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Maczynska, Katarzyna; Pieniazek, Anna; Labieniec-Watala, Magdalena

    2016-03-16

    We explored the hypothesis that zeta potential altered by polycations affects blood platelet activation and reactivity, the phenomena associated with membrane lipid fluidity and platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics. PAMAM dendrimers generation- and dose-dependently enhanced zeta potential of platelets (from -10.7 mV to -4.3 mV). Increased expressions of activation markers, P-selectin and the active complex αIIbβ3, as well as significantly enhanced fibrinogen binding occurred upon the in vitro incubation of blood platelets in the presence of PAMAMs G3 and G4 (resp. 62.1% and 69.4% vs. 1.4% and 2.7% in control for P-selectin, P<0.0001). PAMAM dendrimers increased fluidity of platelet membrane lipid bilayer, while they did not affect platelet mitochondria respiration. Increased platelet activation and their responses to agonists in vitro were statistically associated with the revealed alterations in zeta potential. Our results support the hypothesis that polycation-mediated "neutralized" zeta potential may underlie the activating effects of PAMAMs on blood platelets.

  16. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  17. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  18. Characterization of thymus-derived lymphocytes expressing Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta-zeta, Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon eta-eta or Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta-zeta/zeta- eta antigen receptor isoforms: analysis by gene transfection

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the function of the CD3 eta subunit of the T cell receptor (TCR), we have used cDNAs encoding CD3 zeta, CD3 eta, or both to reconstitute a variant of a cytochrome c-specific, I-Ek-restricted murine T cell hybridoma, termed MA5.8, which lacks CD3 zeta and CD3 eta proteins. We provide direct evidence that assembly and surface expression of TCRs can be mediated by either of these subunits separately or together. However, the level of TCR expression on zeta transfectants is up to one order of magnitude greater than that on eta transfectants, implying that CD3 eta is weakly associated with the pentameric Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon complex and/or inefficient at salvaging the incomplete TCR from lysosomal degradation. As a component of the TCR, the CD3 eta subunit preferentially forms a heterodimer with CD3 zeta, but is also able to form a CD3 eta-eta homodimer. Crosslinking of Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta- zeta, Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon eta-eta, or Ti alpha-beta CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta-zeta/zeta-eta TCR isotypes with anti-CD3 epsilon monoclonal antibody or a cytochrome c peptide epitope on I-Ek antigen-presenting cells mediates signal transduction resulting in reversible cell-cycle arrest of transfected clones. Given the potential for diversity of signals generated by these functional TCR isotypes and the expression of the CD3 eta gene product in the thymus, CD3 eta is likely to play a role in selection and/or activation of thymocytes during development. PMID:2145389

  19. Mapping Protein–Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin–Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε2ζ2) with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Brzozowska, Iwona; Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay. PMID:27438853

  20. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ), dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA. PMID:25566006

  1. Effects of mechanical loading on the expression of pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in a rat spinal deformity model.

    PubMed

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Khaldi, Lubna; Lamprou, Margarita; Lelovas, Pavlos P; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Dontas, Ismene A; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical loading of the spine is a major causative factor of degenerative changes and causes molecular and structural changes in the intervertebral disc (IVD) and the vertebrae end plate (EP). Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a growth factor with a putative role in bone remodeling through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ). The present study investigates the effects of strain on PTN and RPTPβ/ζ protein expression in vivo. Tails of eight weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to mechanical loading using a mini Ilizarov external apparatus. Rat tails untreated (control) or after 0 degrees of compression and 10°, 30° and 50° of angulation (groups 0, I, II and III respectively) were studied. PTN and RPTPβ/ζ expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In the control group, PTN was mostly expressed by the EP hypertrophic chondrocytes. In groups 0 to II, PTN expression was increased in the chondrocytes of hypertrophic and proliferating zones, as well as in osteocytes and osteoblast-like cells of the ossification zone. In group III, only limited PTN expression was observed in osteocytes. RPTPβ/ζ expression was increased mainly in group 0, but also in group I, in all types of cells. Low intensity RPTPβ/ζ immunostaining was observed in groups II and III. Collectively, PTN and RPTPβ/ζ are expressed in spinal deformities caused by mechanical loading, and their expression depends on the type and severity of the applied strain.

  2. Identification and clarification of the role of key active site residues in bacterial glutathione S-transferase zeta/maleylpyruvate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ti; Li, De-Feng; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Application of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the active site residues of glutathione-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase. {yields} Two conserved residues, Arg8 and Arg176, in zeta class glutathione S-transferases are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization. {yields} Arg109, found exclusively in NagL, participates in k{sub cat} regulation. {yields} The T11A mutant exhibited a significantly decreased K{sub m} value for glutathione with little impact on maleylpyruvate kinetics. {yields} The Thr11 residue appears to have significance in the evolution of glutathione S-transferase classes. -- Abstract: The maleylpyruvate isomerase NagL from Ralstonia sp. strain U2, which has been structurally characterized previously, catalyzes the isomerization of maleylpyruvate to fumarylpyruvate. It belongs to the class zeta glutathione S-transferases (GSTZs), part of the cytosolic GST family (cGSTs). In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to probe the functions of 13 putative active site residues. Steady-state kinetic information for mutants in the reduced glutathione (GSH) binding site, suggested that (a) Gln64 and Asp102 interact directly with the glutamyl moiety of glutathione, (b) Gln49 and Gln64 are involved in a potential electron-sharing network that influences the ionization of the GSH thiol. The information also suggests that (c) His38, Asn108 and Arg109 interact with the GSH glycine moiety, (d) His104 has a role in the ionization of the GSH sulfur and the stabilization of the maleyl terminal carboxyl group in the reaction intermediate and (e) Arg110 influences the electron distribution in the active site and therefore the ionization of the GSH thiolate. Kinetic data for mutants altered in the substrate-binding site imply that (a) Arg8 and Arg176 are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization, and (b) Arg109 (exclusive to NagL) participates in k{sub cat} regulation. Surprisingly, the T11A mutant had a

  3. The preparation, surface structure, zeta potential, surface charge density and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures of different shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-09-01

    Titania based nanocatalysts such as sodium titanates of different morphology having superior surface properties are getting wide importance in photocatalysis research. Despite having sodium (Na) contents and its high temperature synthesis (that generally deteriorate the photoreactivity), these Na-titanates often exhibit better photoactivity than P25-TiO2 catalyst. Hence, this work demonstrated the influence of crystal structure, BET surface area, surface charge, zeta potential (ζ) and metal loading on the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared sodium titanate nanotube (TNT) and titania nanorod (TNR). Straw like hollow orthorhombic-TNT (Na2Ti2O5·H2O) particles (W = 9-12 nm and L = 82-115 nm) and rice like pure anatase-TNR particles (W = 8-13 nm and L = 81-134 nm) are obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of P25-TiO2 with NaOH, which in fact, altered the net surface charge of TNT and TNR particles. The observed ζ = -2.82 (P25-TiO2), -13.5 (TNT) and -22.5 mV (TNR) are significantly altered by the Ag and Cu deposition. It has been found here that TNT displayed best photocatalytic activity for the imidacloprid insecticide (C9H10ClN5O2) degradation to CO2 formation under UV irradiation because of its largest surface area 176 m2 g-1 among the catalysts studied.

  4. CD3zeta down-modulation may explain Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocyte anergy in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Tempestilli, Massimo; Turchi, Federica; Agrati, Chiara; Casetti, Rita; Cimini, Eleonora; Gioia, Cristiana; Martini, Federico

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explain the observed anergy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. CD3zeta expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects were analyzed. We demonstrated that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-infected patients expressed a lower level of CD3zeta than did Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from healthy donors. A direct correlation was found between CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production capability by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. However, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate is able to restore CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production. Our findings may contribute to clarification of the molecular mechanisms of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell anergy found in HIV-positive patients.

  5. Soluble forms of NCAM and F3 neuronal cell adhesion molecules promote Schwann cell migration: identification of protein tyrosine phosphatases zeta/beta as the putative F3 receptors on Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Thomaidou, D; Coquillat, D; Meintanis, S; Noda, M; Rougon, G; Matsas, R

    2001-08-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and F3 are both axonal adhesion molecules which display homophilic (NCAM) or heterophilic (NCAM, F3) binding activities and participate in bidirectional exchange of information between neurones and glial cells. Engineered Fc chimeric molecules are fusion proteins that contain the extracellular part of NCAM or F3 and the Fc region of human IgG1. Here, we investigated the effect of NCAM-Fc and F3-Fc chimeras on Schwann cell (SC) migration. Binding sites were identified at the surface of cultured SCs by chimera coated fluorospheres. The functional effect of NCAM-Fc and F3-Fc binding was studied in two different SC migration models. In the first, migration is monitored at specific time intervals inside a 1-mm gap produced in a monolayer culture of SCs. In the second, SCs from a dorsal root ganglion explant migrate on a sciatic nerve cryosection. In both systems addition of the chimeras significantly increased the extent of SC migration and this effect could be prevented by the corresponding anti-NCAM or anti-F3 blocking antibodies. Furthermore, antiproteoglycan-type protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta/beta (RPTPzeta/beta) antibodies identified the presence of RPTPzeta/beta on SCs and prevented the enhancing effect of soluble F3 on SC motility by 95%. The F3-Fc coated Sepharose beads precipitated RPTPzeta/beta from SC lysates. Altogether these data point to RPTPzeta/beta is the putative F3 receptor on SCs. These results identify F3 and NCAM receptors on SC as potential mediators of signalling occurring between axons and glial cells during peripheral nerve development and regeneration.

  6. Short-term Mg deficiency upregulates protein kinase C isoforms in cardiovascular tissues and cells; relation to NF-kB, cytokines, ceramide salvage sphingolipid pathway and PKC-zeta: hypothesis and review.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Shah, Gatha J; Zhang, Aimin; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Tao; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T

    2014-01-01

    Numerous recent,epidemiological studies reveal that Western populations are growing more and more deficient in daily Mg intake which have been linked to etiology of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that a major missing link to this dilemma may reside within the sphingolipid-ceramide pathways. For the past 25 years , our labs have been focusing on these pathways in Mg-deficient mammals. The objective of this paper is two-fold: 1) to test various hypotheses and 2) to review the current status of the field and how protein kinase C isoforms may be pivotal to solving some of the CV attributes of Mg deficiency. Below, we test the hypotheses that: 1) short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (MgD) would result in the upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in left ventricular (LV) and aortic smooth muscle (ASM) and serum; 2) MgD would result in a release of select cytokines and an upregulation of NF-kB in LV and ASM, and in primary cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (PCASMC); 3) MgD would result in an activation of the sphingolipid salvage pathway in LV and ASM, and in PCASMC; 4) MgD would result in a synthesis of sphingosine, but not sphinganine, in PCASMC which could be inhibited by fumonisin B1 (FB) an inhibitor of ceramide synthase (CS), but not scyphostatin an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase); 5) incubation of PCASMC (in low Mg(2+)) with the PKC-mimic PMA would result in release and synthesis of NF-kB, cytokines, and ceramide but not sphingosine. The new data indicate that short-term MgD (10% normal dietary intake) result in an upregulation of all three classes of PKC isoforms in LV, aortic muscle and in serum coupled to the upregulation of ceramide, NF-kB activation, and cytokines. High degrees of linear correlation were found to exist between upregulation of PKC isoforms, p65 and cytokine release, suggesting cross-talk between these molecules and molecular pathways. Our experiments with PCASMCs demonstrated

  7. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells.

  8. Protein Kinase M[Zeta] Is Essential for the Induction and Maintenance of Dopamine-Induced Long-Term Potentiation in Apical CA1 Dendrites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Frey, Julietta U.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic D1/D5-receptor-mediated processes are important for certain forms of memory as well as for a cellular model of memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. D1/D5-receptor function is required for the induction of the protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of CA1-LTP (L-LTP) through activation…

  9. Zeta potential in ceramic industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecuit, M.

    1984-01-01

    Deflocculation, electrical conductivity and zeta potential (ZP) are studied for the addition of 0 to 10000 ppm Na2SiO3 deflocculator to slips obtained from three argillaceous materials (kaolin d'Arvor, ball clay Hyplas 64, and/or Granger Clay No. 10). The quantity of Na2SO3 required to deflocculate a slip is independent of the density but differes for each clay. The ZP is directly related to the density of the slip. The higher the ZP the more stable a slip is; the value of the ZP of a mixture does not follow a simple law but the electrical resistance of a mixture does follow a simple additive law. The ZP appears to have linear relation with the specific surface of the argillaceous material.

  10. Joint discrete universality of Hurwitz zeta functions

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinčikas, A

    2014-11-30

    We obtain a joint discrete universality theorem for Hurwitz zeta functions. Here the parameters of zeta functions and the step of shifts of these functions approximating a given family of analytic functions are connected by some condition of linear independence. Nesterenko's theorem gives an example satisfying this condition. The universality theorem is applied to estimate the number of zeros of a linear combination of Hurwitz zeta functions. Bibliography: 20 titles.

  11. The Influence of Surfactants on the Zeta Potential of Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Marsalek, R.

    2009-07-01

    The surface of three different kinds of coal was modified by three surfactants (cationic, anionic, and non-ionic). Changes on coal surface were examined by the zeta potential technique. The influence of the dispersion of pH, concentration of surfactants, and contact time were investigated. The most significant change in zeta potential resulting from adding surfactants was observed in activated coal (hydrophobic surface, largest BET surface area). Adding the cationic surfactant led to an increase of the zeta potential, contrary to measuring done in water. The anionic surfactant decreased the value of the zeta potential; however, this change was not too remarkable. The results proved that even a very low concentration of the cationic surfactant (0.01 mmol/L) causes a remarkable change of the zeta potential. On the other hand, a similar effect was observed until the concentration of the anionic surfactant reached about 10 mmol/L. The mechanism of binding surfactants is not simple, but preferential hydrophobic interactions were discovered.

  12. Zeta potential changing phosphorylated nanocomplexes for pDNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Bonengel, Sonja; Prüfert, Felix; Jelkmann, Max; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-05-17

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a zeta potential changing system as gene delivery system. The phosphate ester bearing ligand 6-phosphogluconic acid (6-PGA) was attached to linear and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) via a carbodiimide-mediated reaction whereby 287 μmol and 413 μmol 6-PGA could be coupled per gram polymer. Nanocomplexes of these modified polymers with pDNA showed a zeta potential of +12 mV for nanocomplexes with the linear PEI-6PGA and +16 mV in case of the branched derivative. By the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), zeta potentials of the complexes were reduced to +2.86 and +3.25, respectively. Phosphate release studies on Caco 2 cells and HEK-293 cells demonstrated the ability to cleave the phosphate ester. Compared to HEK-293 cells, enzymatic degradation of the phosphate ester in Caco 2 cells was 2.3-fold higher from nanocomplexes comprising linear PEI and 4.3-fold higher from those with branched PEI. Furthermore, incubation with alkaline phosphatase led to an increase in the zeta potential of nanocomplexes based on linear PEI-6PGA to +6.96mV and +8.26 mV in nanocomplexes comprising branched PEI-6PGA. Studying transfection efficiency in Caco 2 cells and HEK-293 cells, a higher expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) could be detected in HEK-293 cells. In presence of a phosphate inhibitor, transfection efficiencies were decreased in both cells lines, due to a lacking shift of the zeta potential of the tested pDNA complexes. According to these results, zeta potential changing systems seem to be a promising strategy for future gene delivery systems, as this concept allows the in situ generation of positive charges in close proximity to the cellular surface.

  13. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon.

  14. Rocket spectroscopy of zeta Orionis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of a spectrum of zeta Ori extending from 922 to 1453 A with approximately 0.8 A resolution recorded at rocket altitudes. All lines used in existing models of stellar atmospheres appear in the recorded spectrum with the exception of those masked by telluric N2 or strong P Cygni-type profiles and by an O V line at 1371.29 A. Fifteen multiplets of subordinate lines have been reliably identified, indicating an approximate range of excitation from 0 to 50 eV. Transitions in C III (1176 A), N III (991 A), N V (1239, 1243 A), O VI (1032, 1038 A), Si IV (1394, 1403 A), S IV (1063, 1074 A), and S VI (933, 944 A) have been observed as P Cygni-type profiles presumably arising in a circumstellar envelope. The degree of ionization, transitions present, and mean radial velocities are all consistent with viewing the envelope as a hot (about 100,000 K), rarefied plasma in which collisional ionization is important. Interstellar lines in C I (1277, 1280 A), C II (1036, 1334 A), N I (1134-1135 A), N I (1200-1201 A), N II (1084-1086 A), O I (1302, 1305 A), Si II (1190, 1193 A), Si II (1260 A), and Si II (1304 A) have been definitely identified. Other transitions in Ar II, S I, C I, and Fe II are tentatively identified. The equivalent width of the L alpha line is found to be 10.4 plus or minus 1.6 A, corresponding to a columnar density of 2.0 plus or minus 0.7 x 10 to the 20th per cu cm.

  15. zeta-COP, a subunit of coatomer, is required for COP-coated vesicle assembly

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    cDNA encoding the 20-kD subunit of coatomer, zeta-COP, predicts a protein of 177-amino acid residues, similar in sequence to AP17 and AP19, subunits of the clathrin adaptor complexes. Polyclonal antibody directed to zeta-COP blocks the binding of coatomer to Golgi membranes and prevents the assembly of COP-coated vesicles on Golgi cisternae. Unlike other coatomer subunits (beta-, beta'-, gamma-, and epsilon- COP), zeta-COP exists in both coatomer bound and free pools. PMID:8276893

  16. Zeta potential of selected bacteria in drinking water when dead, starved, or exposed to minimal and rich culture media.

    PubMed

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Balasubramanian, Ashwin K; Beskok, Ali; Pillai, Suresh D

    2008-01-01

    The zeta potentials of E. coli, GFP (green fluorescence protein)-labeled E. coli, Salmonella Newport, and Pseudomonas sp. in different states (nutrient-starved and dead) and grown in rich and minimal media were measured. Capillary electrophoresis experiments were conducted to measure the zeta potential of the different cells suspended in a drinking water sample. Salmonella Newport strain showed a lower zeta potential compared to E. coli, GFP-labeled E. coli, and Pseudomonas sp. Starved E. coli cells had a lower zeta potential compared to E. coli cells grown under rich media conditions. Salmonella Newport cells grown in minimal media also had a lower zeta potential compared to rich, starved, and dead cells. The different bacterial cell types exhibited differences in size as well. These results suggest that when bacterial cells are present in drinking water they can exhibit significant heterogeneity in the size and zeta potential, depending on their physiological state.

  17. Universality of composite functions of periodic zeta functions

    SciTech Connect

    Laurincikas, Antanas P

    2012-11-30

    In the paper, we prove the universality, in the sense of Voronin, for some classes of composite functions F({zeta}(s;a)), where the function {zeta}(s;a) is defined by a Dirichlet series with periodic multiplicative coefficients. We also study the universality of functions of the form F({zeta}(s;a{sub 1}),...,{zeta}(s;a{sub r})). For example, it follows from general theorems that every linear combination of derivatives of the function {zeta}(s;a) and every linear combination of the functions {zeta}(s;a{sub 1}),...,{zeta}(s;a{sub r}) are universal. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  18. The interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio toward Zeta Ophiuchi and Zeta Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Hawkins, Isabel; Wright, Edward L.

    1993-01-01

    High S/N, high-resolution observations of the interstellar Li absorption lines toward the stars Zeta Ophiuchi and Zeta Persei are reported. Li I line profiles indicate the presence of both the Li-7 and Li-6 doublets in these two sightlines. Best-fit values for the interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio are 6.8 (+1.4/-1.7) towards Zeta Ophiuchi and 5.5 (+ 1.3/-1.1) toward Zeta Persei. Measurement of 6.8 (+1.4/-1.7) for the interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio towards Zeta Ophiuchi does not support the lower limit of 25 determined by Ferlet and Dennefeld (1984). The current value of the interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio is the result of various lithium production and destruction processes involving stars, cosmic rays, and the big bang.

  19. Concurrent Supermassive Black Hole and Galazy Growth: Linking Environment and Nuclear Activity in Zeta Equals 2.23 H Alpha Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Lucy, A. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P. N.; Geach, J. E.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Sobral, D.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from an approximately equal 100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 structure at z = 2.23 (hereafter 2QZ Clus). 2QZ Clus was originally identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected QSOs at z = 2.23 within a 15 × 15 arcmin square region. Narrow-band imaging in the near-IR (within the K band) revealed that the structure contains an additional overdensity of 22 z = 2.23 H alpha-emitting galaxies (HAEs), resulting in 23 unique z = 2.23 HAEs/QSOs (22 within the Chandra field of view). Our Chandra observations reveal that three HAEs in addition to the four QSOs harbor powerfully accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with 2-10 keV luminosities of approximately equal (8-60) × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp-1) and X-ray spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a large comparison sample of 210 z = 2.23 HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), we find suggestive evidence that the AGN fraction increases with local HAE galaxy density. The 2QZ Clus HAEs reside in a moderately overdense environment (a factor of approximately equal 2 times over the field), and after excluding optically-selected QSOs, we find that the AGN fraction is a factor of approximately equal 3.5(+3.8/ -2.2) times higher than C-COSMOS HAEs in similar environments. Using stacking analyses of the Chandra data and Herschel SPIRE observations at 250micrometers, we respectively estimate mean SMBH accretion rates ( M(BH)) and star formation rates (SFRs) for the 2QZ Clus and C-COSMOS samples. We find that the mean 2QZ Clus HAE stacked X-ray luminosity is QSO-like (L(2-10 keV) approximately equal [6-10] × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1)), and the implied M(BH)/SFR approximately equal (1.6-3.2) × 10(exp -3) is broadly consistent with the local M(BH)/Stellar Mass relation and z approximately equal 2 X-ray selected AGN. In contrast, the C-COSMOS HAEs are on average an order of magnitude less X-ray luminous and have M(BH)/SFR approximately

  20. Zeta functions in brane world cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flachi, Antonino; Knapman, Alan; Naylor, Wade; Sasaki, Misao

    2004-12-01

    We present a calculation of the zeta function and of the functional determinant for a Laplace-type differential operator, corresponding to a scalar field in a higher-dimensional deSitter brane background, which consists of a higher-dimensional anti deSitter bulk spacetime bounded by a deSitter section, representing a brane. Contrary to the existing examples, which all make use of conformal transformations, we evaluate the zeta function working directly with the higher-dimensional wave operator. We also consider a generic mass term and coupling to curvature, generalizing previous results. The massless, conformally coupled case is obtained as a limit of the general result and compared with known calculations. In the limit of large anti deSitter radius, the zeta determinant for the ball is recovered in perfect agreement with known expressions, providing an interesting check of our result and an alternative way of obtaining the ball determinant.

  1. Functional analysis of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mediated signal transduction: the two YxxL segments within a single CD3zeta-ITAM are functionally distinct.

    PubMed

    Sunder-Plassmann, R; Lialios, F; Madsen, M; Koyasu, S; Reinherz, E L

    1997-08-01

    Functional analysis of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) derived from the membrane-proximal ITAM of CD3zeta demonstrates that mutations at either the tyrosine or leucine residues in the N-terminal YxxL segment of the ITAM abolish all signal transduction functions of this ITAM. In contrast, mutations at the tyrosine or leucine residues in the C-terminal YxxL segment abrogate signals for interleukin (IL)-2 production but do not prevent tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM, lck association with the ITAM, activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 or calcium mobilization. Cross-linking of chimeric receptors containing a C-terminal YxxL leucine mutation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP70 but without stable binding to the phosphorylated ITAM. These results indicate that the two YxxL segments in an ITAM are functionally distinct and that both are essential for ZAP70 binding and IL-2 production. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP70 per se is not sufficient to trigger the downstream events leading to IL-2 production. Substitution of an alanine for the bulky side chain at the Y+1 position of the N-terminal YxxL segment reduces the receptor cross-linking requirement necessary to achieve cellular activation and the absolute dependence on lck in this process. Our results reveal that both the number of ITAM as well as the specific amino acid residues within a single ITAM determine the extent of chimeric receptor cross-linking required to trigger tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling events.

  2. {zeta}-potentials of silica in water-alcohol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmulski, M.; Matijevic, E.

    1992-04-01

    Two effects of 1-alcohols (up to 30% w/w) on electrokinetic properties of silica in the presence of different concentrations of KCl (1 x 10{sup -3}-1 x 1-{sup -1} mol dm{sup -3}) are described. The isoelectric point shifts toward more basic pH, while the negative {zeta}-potentials decrease with higher concentrations of the alcohol and the electrolyte. The change in the pH{sub iep} is explained in terms of the complexation of protonated surface hydroxyl groups by alcohol molecules. The lower negative {zeta}-potentials are due to an increase in cation activity in mixed solvents and, thus, an enhanced counterion adsorption in the Stern layer. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Egg Activation at Fertilization by a Soluble Sperm Protein.

    PubMed

    Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most fundamental unresolved issue of fertilization is to define how the sperm activates the egg to begin embryo development. Egg activation at fertilization in all species thus far examined is caused by some form of transient increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration. What has not been clear, however, is precisely how the sperm triggers the large changes in Ca(2+) observed within the egg cytoplasm. Here, we review the studies indicating that the fertilizing sperm stimulates a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase in the egg specifically by delivering a soluble factor that diffuses into the cytosolic space of the egg upon gamete membrane fusion. Evidence is primarily considered in species of eggs where the sperm has been shown to elicit a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase by initiating Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We suggest that our best understanding of these signaling events is in mammals, where the sperm triggers a prolonged series of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The strongest empirical studies to date suggest that mammalian sperm-triggered Ca(2+) oscillations are caused by the introduction of a sperm-specific protein, called phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that generates inositol trisphosphate within the egg. We will discuss the role and mechanism of action of PLCζ in detail at a molecular and cellular level. We will also consider some of the evidence that a soluble sperm protein might be involved in egg activation in nonmammalian species.

  4. The structure of the human zeta-globin gene and a closely linked, nearly identical pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, N J; Gil, A; Maniatis, T

    1982-12-01

    DNA sequencing studies indicate that only one of two closely linked human embryonic alpha-like globin genes, zeta (zeta), encodes a functional polypeptide. The other is a pseudogene (psi zeta) that differs by only 3 bp in the protein coding sequence, one of which converts the codon for amino acid 6 into a chain termination codon. Both zeta-globin genes differ from all other alpha-like genes thus far reported in that they contain large introns consisting, in part, of simple repeat sequences. Intron 1 of each gene contains a variation of the repeat sequence ACAGTGGGGAGGGG, while intron 2 contains the repeat sequence CGGGG. Comparison of the human zeta- and alpha-globin gene sequences reveals that the embryonic and adult alpha-like genes began to diverge from each other relatively early in vertebrate evolution (400 million years ago). In contrast, the beta-like embryonic globin gene, epsilon (epsilon), is the product of a much more recent evolutionary event (200 million years ago). Thus, even though the temporal and quantitative expression of zeta- and epsilon-globin genes must be coordinately controlled during development, their evolutionary histories are clearly distinct.

  5. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  6. Group entropies, correlation laws, and zeta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2011-08-01

    The notion of group entropy is proposed. It enables the unification and generaliztion of many different definitions of entropy known in the literature, such as those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis. Other entropic functionals are introduced, related to nontrivial correlation laws characterizing universality classes of systems out of equilibrium when the dynamics is weakly chaotic. The associated thermostatistics are discussed. The mathematical structure underlying our construction is that of formal group theory, which provides the general structure of the correlations among particles and dictates the associated entropic functionals. As an example of application, the role of group entropies in information theory is illustrated and generalizations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence are proposed. A new connection between statistical mechanics and zeta functions is established. In particular, Tsallis entropy is related to the classical Riemann zeta function.

  7. Zeta Pegasi: An SPB Variable Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Broadband photometric observations of the bright star Zeta Pegasi are presented that display brightness variability of 488.2 +/- 6.6 micromag (ppm) range with a period of 22.952 +/- 0.804 hr (f approx. equals 1.04566 c/d). The variation is monosinusoidal, so the star is recommended for membership in the class of small-amplitude Slowly Pulsating B-Stars (SPB) variables oscillating in a non-radial g-mode.

  8. Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases. PMID:19489726

  9. Determination of 9-cis beta-carotene and zeta-carotene in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Krinsky, Norman I; Russell, Robert M; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-09-01

    Concentrations of 9-cis beta-carotene (9-cis betaC) and zeta-carotene (zetaC) in biological samples may provide crucial information on the biological activities of these carotenoids. However, in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) these carotenoids are often co-eluted. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a method for 9-cis betaC and zetaC quantitation. Both 9-cis betaC and zetaC have peak absorbance at 400 and 450 nm, respectively, whereas only 9-cis betaC has peak absorbance at 475 nm. We developed a HPLC method to quantitate 9-cis betaC and zetaC by using peak absorbance ratios. The 9-cis betaC/zetaC peak area was monitored at 475, 450 and 400 nm. The 9-cis betaC was quantified by using absorbance value at 475 nm; zetaC was then calculated from the 9-cis betaC/zetaC peak at 400 nm by subtracting 9-cis betaC contribution at 400 nm using the 400-nm/475-nm peak absorbance ratio of 9-cis betaC (0.39). This method was applied to determine 9-cis betaC and zetaC concentrations in serum and breast milk samples (n=12) from American lactating women and serum and breast adipose tissue samples (n=16) from Korean women with either benign or malignant breast tumors. 9-cis betaC concentrations in serum and breast milk of American women, and serum and adipose tissue of Korean women were 7.1+/-0.8 and 1.1+/-0.2 nM, and 15.6+/-1.1 nM and 0.2+/-0.1 nmol/g, respectively. zetaC concentrations in the above samples were 54.2+/-7.2 and 8.3+/-1.8 nM, and 49.0+/-3.9 nM and 0.3+/-0.1 nmol/g, respectively.

  10. Cutting Edge: Ikaros null thymocytes mature into the CD4 lineage with reduced TCR signal: A study using CD3{zeta} immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Urban, Julie A; Brugmann, William; Winandy, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Positive selection is a critical T cell developmental checkpoint that is driven by TCR signals. Enhanced positive selection toward the CD4 lineage occurs in the absence of Ikaros. One explanation for this phenotype is that Ikaros establishes the TCR signaling threshold that must be overcome for positive selection to occur. In the current study, this possibility is explored through the use of CD3zeta ITAM transgenic mice that express a CD3 zeta-chain with zero, one, or three ITAMs and an MHC class II (DO11.10)- or MHC class I (H-Y)-restricted TCR transgene. Using this system, we demonstrate that in the absence of Ikaros, thymocytes are able to mature into the CD4 lineage with reduced TCR signaling potential compared with that required to drive the maturation of wild-type thymocytes. We also demonstrate that maturation into the CD8 lineage is enhanced under conditions of reduced TCR signaling potential in the absence of Ikaros.

  11. Studying bubble-particle interactions by zeta potential distribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chendi; Wang, Louxiang; Harbottle, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-07-01

    Over a decade ago, Xu and Masliyah pioneered an approach to characterize the interactions between particles in dynamic environments of multicomponent systems by measuring zeta potential distributions of individual components and their mixtures. Using a Zetaphoremeter, the measured zeta potential distributions of individual components and their mixtures were used to determine the conditions of preferential attachment in multicomponent particle suspensions. The technique has been applied to study the attachment of nano-sized silica and alumina particles to sub-micron size bubbles in solutions with and without the addition of surface active agents (SDS, DAH and DF250). The degree of attachment between gas bubbles and particles is shown to be a function of the interaction energy governed by the dispersion, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. Under certain chemical conditions, the attachment of nano-particles to sub-micron size bubbles is shown to be enhanced by in-situ gas nucleation induced by hydrodynamic cavitation for the weakly interacting systems, where mixing of the two individual components results in negligible attachment. Preferential interaction in complex tertiary particle systems demonstrated strong attachment between micron-sized alumina and gas bubbles, with little attachment between micron-sized alumina and silica, possibly due to instability of the aggregates in the shear flow environment.

  12. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  13. Protein-water dynamics in antifreeze protein III activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Meister, Konrad; Bischak, Connor G.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina

    2016-03-01

    We combine Terahertz absorption spectroscopy (THz) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism for the antifreeze activity of one class of antifreeze protein, antifreeze protein type III (AFP-III) with a focus on the collective water hydrogen bond dynamics near the protein. After summarizing our previous work on AFPs, we present a new investigation of the effects of cosolutes on protein antifreeze activity by adding sodium citrate to the protein solution of AFP-III. Our results reveal that for AFP-III, unlike some other AFPs, the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate does not affect the hydrogen bond dynamics at the protein surface significantly, as indicated by concentration dependent THz measurements. The present data, in combination with our previous THz measurements and molecular simulations, confirm that while long-range solvent perturbation is a necessary condition for the antifreeze activity of AFP-III, the local binding affinity determines the size of the hysteresis.

  14. Biologically active proteins from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, B R

    2001-10-01

    The term "biologically active proteins" is almost redundant. All proteins produced by living creatures are, by their very nature, biologically active to some extent in their homologous species. In this review, a subset of these proteins will be discussed that are biologically active in heterologous systems. The isolation and characterization of novel proteins from natural product extracts including those derived from microorganisms, plants, insects, terrestrial vertebrates, and marine organisms will be reviewed and grouped into several distinct classes based on their biological activity and their structure.

  15. Rational Design of Protein C Activators

    PubMed Central

    Barranco-Medina, Sergio; Murphy, Mary; Pelc, Leslie; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico; Pozzi, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In addition to its procoagulant and proinflammatory functions mediated by cleavage of fibrinogen and PAR1, the trypsin-like protease thrombin activates the anticoagulant protein C in a reaction that requires the cofactor thrombomodulin and the endothelial protein C receptor. Once in the circulation, activated protein C functions as an anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative factor. Hence, availability of a protein C activator would afford a therapeutic for patients suffering from thrombotic disorders and a diagnostic tool for monitoring the level of protein C in plasma. Here, we present a fusion protein where thrombin and the EGF456 domain of thrombomodulin are connected through a peptide linker. The fusion protein recapitulates the functional and structural properties of the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex, prolongs the clotting time by generating pharmacological quantities of activated protein C and effectively diagnoses protein C deficiency in human plasma. Notably, these functions do not require exogenous thrombomodulin, unlike other anticoagulant thrombin derivatives engineered to date. These features make the fusion protein an innovative step toward the development of protein C activators of clinical and diagnostic relevance. PMID:28294177

  16. Zeta Inhibitory Peptide as a Novel Therapy to Control Chronic Visceral Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Lixia; Dai, Hengfen; Huang, Yang; Chen, Qianqian; Lin, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of multiple chronic visceral pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is not well known, and as a result current therapies are ineffective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) on visceral pain sensitivity in rats with IBS to better understand the pathogenesis and investigate the effect of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) as a therapy for chronic visceral pain. Methods Visceral hypersensitivity rats were produced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). Visceral pain sensitivity was assessed by electromyographic (EMG) responses of abdominal muscles to colorectal distention (CRD). Spinal PKMζ and phosphorylated PKMζ (p-PKMζ) were detected by western blot. Varying doses of ZIP were intrathecally administered to investigate the role of spinal PKMζ in chronic visceral hypersensitivity. The open field test was used to determine if ZIP therapy causes spontaneous motor activity side effects. Results Graded CRD pressure significantly increased EMG responses in NMS rats compared to control rats (p < 0.05). p-PKMζ expression increased in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spinal cord in the IBS-like rats with notable concomitant chronic visceral pain compared to control rats (p < 0.05). EMG data revealed that intrathecal ZIP injection (1, 5, and 10 μg) dose-dependently attenuated visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS-like rats. Conclusions Phosphorylated PKMζ may be involved in the spinal central sensitization of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in IBS, and administration of ZIP could effectively treat chronic visceral pain with good outcomes in rat models. PMID:27776136

  17. Zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) erases long-term memories in a cockroach.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhouheng; Lubinski, Alexander J; Page, Terry L

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to identify the molecules that are involved in the maintenance of long-term memories in mammals have focused attention on atypical isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). Inhibition of these kinases by either the general PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, or the more specific inhibitor, zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP), can abolish both long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and as well as spatial, fear, appetitive, and sensorimotor memories. These inhibitors can also abolish long-term facilitation and long-term sensitization in the mollusk Aplysia californica. We have extended these results to an insect, the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. We show that systemic injections of either chelerythrine or ZIP erase long-term olfactory memories in the cockroach, but have no effect on memory acquisition during conditioning. We also show that inhibition of either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein synthesis can block memory acquisition but neither has an effect on the memory once it is formed. The results suggest that sustaining memories in insects requires the persistent activity of one or more isoforms of PKC and point to a strong evolutionary conservation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the persistence of long-term memories in the central nervous system.

  18. Ionization Properties of Phospholipids Determined by Zeta Potential Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sathappa, Murugappan; Alder, Nathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are vital for diverse cellular functions such as maintaining cell and organelle structure, selective permeability, active transport, and signaling. The surface charge of the membrane bilayer plays a critical role in these myriad processes. For most biomembranes, the surface charge of anionic phospholipids contributes to the negative surface charge density within the interfacial region of the bilayer. To quantify surface charge, it is essential to understand the proton dissociation behavior of the titratable headgroups within such lipids. We describe a protocol that uses model membranes for electrokinetic zeta potential measurements coupled with data analysis using Gouy-Chapman-Stern formalism to determine the pKa value of the component lipids. A detailed example is provided for homogeneous bilayers composed of the monoanionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol. This approach can be adapted for the measurement of bilayers with a heterogeneous lipid combination, as well as for lipids with multiple titratable sites in the headgroup (e.g., cardiolipin). PMID:27928550

  19. Cbl proteins in platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Tsygankov, Alexander; Sanjay, Archana; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a fundamental role in hemostasis. Their functional responses have to be tightly controlled as any disturbance may lead to bleeding disorders or thrombosis. It is thus important to clearly identify and understand the signaling mechanisms involved in platelet function. An important role of c-Cbl and Cbl-b ubiquitin ligases in platelet functional responses and in hematological malignancies has been recently described. Cbl proteins perform negative and positive regulation of several signaling pathways in platelets. In this review, we explore the role of Cbl proteins in platelet functional responses.

  20. Identification of intracellular receptor proteins for activated protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Khaner, H; Lopez, J

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the cytosol to the particulate fraction on activation. This activation-induced translocation of PKC is thought to reflect PKC binding to the membrane lipids. However, immunological and biochemical data suggest that PKC may bind to proteins in the cytoskeletal elements in the particulate fraction and in the nuclei. Here we describe evidence for the presence of intracellular receptor proteins that bind activated PKC. Several proteins from the detergent-insoluble material of the particulate fraction bound PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine and calcium; binding was further increased with the addition of diacylglycerol. Binding of PKC to two of these proteins was concentration-dependent, saturable, and specific, suggesting that these binding proteins are receptors for activated C-kinase, termed here "RACKs." PKC binds to RACKs via a site on PKC distinct from the substrate binding site. We suggest that binding to RACKs may play a role in activation-induced translocation of PKC. Images PMID:1850844

  1. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  2. Remotely activated protein-producing nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Avi; Goldberg, Michael S; Kastrup, Christian; Wang, Yingxia; Jiang, Shan; Joseph, Brian J; Levins, Christopher G; Kannan, Sneha T; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2012-06-13

    The development of responsive nanomaterials, nanoscale systems that actively respond to stimuli, is one general goal of nanotechnology. Here we develop nanoparticles that can be controllably triggered to synthesize proteins. The nanoparticles consist of lipid vesicles filled with the cellular machinery responsible for transcription and translation, including amino acids, ribosomes, and DNA caged with a photolabile protecting group. These particles served as nanofactories capable of producing proteins including green fluorescent protein (GFP) and enzymatically active luciferase. In vitro and in vivo, protein synthesis was spatially and temporally controllable, and could be initiated by irradiating micrometer-scale regions on the time scale of milliseconds. The ability to control protein synthesis inside nanomaterials may enable new strategies to facilitate the study of orthogonal proteins in a confined environment and for remotely activated drug delivery.

  3. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory.

  4. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  5. Molecular origins of the zeta potential

    DOE PAGES

    Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2016-09-19

    The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO2) surface. These simulations provided streaming mobilities, which were converted to ZP via the commonly used Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. A range of rutile surface charge densities (0.1 tomore » –0.4 C/m2), corresponding to pH values between about 2.8 and 9.4, in RbCl, NaCl, and SrCl2 aqueous solutions, were modeled and compared to experimental ZPs for TiO2 particle suspensions. Simulated ZPs qualitatively agree with experiment and show that “anomalous” ZP values and inequalities between the point of zero charge derived from electrokinetic versus pH titration measurements both arise from differing co- and counterion sorption affinities. We show that at the molecular level the ZP arises from the delicate interplay of spatially varying dynamics, structure, and electrostatics in a narrow interfacial region within about 15 Å of the surface, even in dilute salt solutions. This contrasts fundamentally with continuum descriptions of such interfaces, which predict the ZP response region to be inversely related to ionic strength. In reality the properties of this interfacial region are dominated by relatively immobile and structured water. Furthermore, viscosity values are substantially greater than in the bulk, and electrostatic potential profiles are oscillatory in nature.« less

  6. The Multiple Zeta Value data mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümlein, J.; Broadhurst, D. J.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    2010-03-01

    We provide a data mine of proven results for Multiple Zeta Values (MZVs) of the form ζ(s,s,…,s)=∑n>n>⋯>n>0∞{1/(n1s⋯nks)} with weight w=∑i=1ks and depth k and for Euler sums of the form ∑n>n>⋯>n>0∞{(ɛ1n⋯ɛ1n)/(n1s⋯nks)} with signs ɛ=±1. Notably, we achieve explicit proven reductions of all MZVs with weights w⩽22, and all Euler sums with weights w⩽12, to bases whose dimensions, bigraded by weight and depth, have sizes in precise agreement with the Broadhurst-Kreimer and Broadhurst conjectures. Moreover, we lend further support to these conjectures by studying even greater weights ( w⩽30), using modular arithmetic. To obtain these results we derive a new type of relation for Euler sums, the Generalized Doubling Relations. We elucidate the "pushdown" mechanism, whereby the ornate enumeration of primitive MZVs, by weight and depth, is reconciled with the far simpler enumeration of primitive Euler sums. There is some evidence that this pushdown mechanism finds its origin in doubling relations. We hope that our data mine, obtained by exploiting the unique power of the computer algebra language FORM, will enable the study of many more such consequences of the double-shuffle algebra of MZVs, and their Euler cousins, which are already the subject of keen interest, to practitioners of Quantum Field Theory, and to mathematicians alike.

  7. Molecular origins of the zeta potential

    SciTech Connect

    Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2016-09-19

    The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO2) surface. These simulations provided streaming mobilities, which were converted to ZP via the commonly used Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. A range of rutile surface charge densities (0.1 to –0.4 C/m2), corresponding to pH values between about 2.8 and 9.4, in RbCl, NaCl, and SrCl2 aqueous solutions, were modeled and compared to experimental ZPs for TiO2 particle suspensions. Simulated ZPs qualitatively agree with experiment and show that “anomalous” ZP values and inequalities between the point of zero charge derived from electrokinetic versus pH titration measurements both arise from differing co- and counterion sorption affinities. We show that at the molecular level the ZP arises from the delicate interplay of spatially varying dynamics, structure, and electrostatics in a narrow interfacial region within about 15 Å of the surface, even in dilute salt solutions. This contrasts fundamentally with continuum descriptions of such interfaces, which predict the ZP response region to be inversely related to ionic strength. In reality the properties of this interfacial region are dominated by relatively immobile and structured water. Furthermore, viscosity values are substantially greater than in the bulk, and electrostatic potential profiles are oscillatory in nature.

  8. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  9. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  10. Zeta Potential in Intact Natural Carbonates at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahrouqi, D.; Vinogradov, J.; Jackson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of zeta potential have been used to monitor subsurface flows in many natural brine systems. Numerous studies report zeta potentials in carbonates using crushed samples at low ionic strength and laboratory temperatures. However, natural brines have much higher salinity; moreover, temperatures are considerably higher in many subsurface settings. The variation of zeta potentials with temperature has not been examined in natural carbonates. We report zeta potential values interpreted from streaming potential measurements in two intact carbonate rock samples, saturated with artificial brines at elevated temperatures. We measure streaming potential using an experimental set-up that incorporates in-situ measurements of saturated rock conductivity, brine temperature, brine pH, brine electrical conductivity, pressure difference and voltage at temperatures up to 120oC. The streaming potential measurements are complemented with brine effluent studies. We find that the interpreted zeta potential is negative and decreases in magnitude with increasing temperature at low ionic strength (0.01M) and independent of temperature at high ionic strength (0.5M); consistent with published zeta potential in intact natural sandstones. The concentration of Ca2+ (main potential determining ion) also decreases with temperature at low ionic strength, but remains constant at high ionic strength. The temperature dependence of the zeta potential is consistent between two different natural carbonate samples and can be explained by the temperature dependence of pCa2+. We suggest that zeta potential of carbonate is independent of temperature or pH when pCa2+ remains constant. A linear variation of pH vs. pCa2+ is exhibited, at ambient and elevated temperatures, when pCa2+ is allowed to change with pH. This linear variation explains the numerous published data that shows apparent relationship between zeta potential of carbonates and pH.

  11. Pure red cell aplasia induced by epoetin zeta

    PubMed Central

    Panichi, Vincenzo; Ricchiuti, Guido; Scatena, Alessia; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Locatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) may develop in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). We report on a 72-year-old patient who developed hypo-proliferative anaemia unresponsive to ESA following the administration of epoetin zeta subcutaneously for 7 months. On the basis of severe isolated hypoplasia of the erythroid line in the bone marrow and high-titre neutralizing anti-erythropoietin antibodies (Ab), a diagnosis of Ab-mediated PRCA was made. Epoetin zeta was discontinued and the patient was given steroids. This was associated with anaemia recovery. To our knowledge this is the first PRCA case related to epoetin zeta. PMID:27478604

  12. Zeta functions of the Dirac operator on quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. M.; Weyand, T.; Kirsten, K.

    2016-10-01

    We construct spectral zeta functions for the Dirac operator on metric graphs. We start with the case of a rose graph, a graph with a single vertex where every edge is a loop. The technique is then developed to cover any finite graph with general energy independent matching conditions at the vertices. The regularized spectral determinant of the Dirac operator is also obtained as the derivative of the zeta function at a special value. In each case the zeta function is formulated using a contour integral method, which extends results obtained for Laplace and Schrödinger operators on graphs.

  13. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fahami, Abbas; Beall, Gary W; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-02-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl-F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 20±5 to 70±5nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl-F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material.

  14. Zeta potential in intact natural sandstones at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Jan; Jackson, Matthew D.

    2015-08-01

    We report measurements of the zeta potential of natural sandstones saturated with NaCl electrolytes of varying ionic strengths at temperatures up to 150°C. The zeta potential is always negative but decreases in magnitude with increasing temperature at low ionic strength (0.01 M) and is independent of temperature at high ionic strength (0.5 M). The pH also decreases with increasing temperature at low ionic strength but remains constant at high ionic strength. The temperature dependence of the zeta potential can be explained by the temperature dependence of the pH. Our findings are consistent with published models of the zeta potential, so long as the temperature dependence of the pH at low ionic strength is accounted for and can explain the hitherto contradictory results reported in previous studies.

  15. Temperature dependence of the zeta potential in intact natural carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan; Jackson, Matthew D.

    2016-11-01

    The zeta potential is a measure of the electrical charge on mineral surfaces and is an important control on subsurface geophysical monitoring, adsorption of polar species in aquifers, and rock wettability. We report the first measurements of zeta potential in intact, water-saturated, natural carbonate samples at temperatures up to 120°C. The zeta potential is negative and decreases in magnitude with increasing temperature at low ionic strength (0.01 M NaCl, comparable to potable water) but is independent of temperature at high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl, comparable to seawater). The equilibrium calcium concentration resulting from carbonate dissolution also increases with increasing temperature at low ionic strength but is independent of temperature at high ionic strength. The temperature dependence of the zeta potential is correlated with the temperature dependence of the equilibrium calcium concentration and shows a Nernstian linear relationship. Our findings are applicable to many subsurface carbonate rocks at elevated temperature.

  16. Zeta potential of artificial and natural calcite in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Al Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan; Jackson, Matthew D

    2017-02-01

    Despite the broad range of interest and applications, controls on calcite surface charge in aqueous solution, especially at conditions relevant to natural systems, remain poorly understood. The primary data source to understand calcite surface charge comprises measurements of zeta potential. Here we collate and review previous measurements of zeta potential on natural and artificial calcite and carbonate as a resource for future studies, compare and contrast the results of these studies to determine key controls on zeta potential and where uncertainties remain, and report new measurements of zeta potential relevant to natural subsurface systems. The results show that the potential determining ions (PDIs) for the carbonate mineral surface are the lattice ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and CO3(2-). The zeta potential is controlled by the concentration-dependent adsorption of these ions within the Stern layer, primarily at the Outer Helmholtz Plane (OHP). Given this, the Iso-Electric Point (IEP) at which the zeta potential is zero should be expressed as pCa (or pMg). It should not be reported as pH, similar to most metal oxides. The pH does not directly control the zeta potential. Varying the pH whilst holding pCa constant yields constant zeta potential. The pH affects the zeta potential only by moderating the equilibrium pCa for a given CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). Experimental studies that appear to yield a systematic relationship between pH and zeta potential are most likely observing the relationship between pCa and zeta potential, with pCa responding to the change in pH. New data presented here show a consistent linear relationship between equilibrium pH and equilibrium pCa or pMg irrespective of sample used or solution ionic strength. The surface charge of calcite is weakly dependent on pH, through protonation and deprotonation reactions that occur within a hydrolysis layer immediately adjacent to the mineral surface. The Point of Zero Charge (PZC) at which the surface

  17. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-04

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases.

  18. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases. PMID:22020126

  19. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  20. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Akt and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) phosphorylation in different tissues of C57BL6, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) male mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Tajima, Kazuki; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) suppresses the activity and mRNA expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1 and IRS2 reportedly differ between the liver and muscle tissue and the effect of DHEA on insulin signaling has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined DHEA's effect on the liver and muscle tissue of IRS1(-/-) and IRS2(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD containing 0.2% DHEA for 4 weeks. In a separate experiment, 8-week-old male C57BL6 mice were fed an HFD or an HFD containing 0.2% androstenedione for 4 weeks. In an insulin tolerance test, DHEA administration decreased the initial plasma glucose levels in the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice but did not decrease the ratios to the basal blood glucose level. Although DHEA administration increased Akt phosphorylation in the liver of the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice, androstenedione administration did not increase Akt phosphorylation in the liver of C57BL6 mice. DHEA administration did not increase Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), or IRS2(-/-) mice. However, androstenedione administration increased Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6 mice. These findings suggest that the effect of DHEA on insulin action in the liver is self-mediated by DHEA or DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) in the presence of IRS1, IRS2, or both.

  1. Transgenic Overexpression of 14-3-3 Zeta Protects Hippocampus against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Status Epilepticus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Gary P.; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.; McKiernan, Ross C.; Engel, Tobias; Tzivion, Guri; Henshall, David C.

    2013-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ) isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress. PMID:23359526

  2. Hydrophobicity, surface tension, and zeta potential measurements of glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M A; Monteiro, F J; Santos, J D; Serro, A P; Saramago, B

    1999-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity, surface tension, and surface charge of P2O5-glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites. Quantitative phase analysis was performed by the Rietveld method using GSAS software applied to X-ray diffractograms. Surface charge was assessed by zeta potential measurements. Protein adsorption studies were performed using vitronectin. Contact angles and surface tensions variation with time were determined by the sessile and pendent drop techniques, respectively, using ADSA-P software. The highest (-18.1 mV) and lowest (-28.7 mV) values of zeta potential were found for hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), respectively, with composite materials presenting values in between. All studied bioceramic materials showed similar solid surface tension. For HA and beta-TCP, solid surface tensions of 46.7 and 45.3 mJ/m2, respectively, were obtained, while composites presented intermediate surface tension values. The dispersive component of surface tension was the predominant one for all materials studied. Adhesion work values between the vitronectin solution and HA and beta-TCP were found to be 79.8 and 88.0 mJ/m2, respectively, while the 4.0 wt % glass composites showed slightly lower values than the 2.5 wt % ones. The presence of beta-TCP influenced surface charge, hydrophobicity, and protein adsorption of the glass-reinforced HA composites, and therefore indirectly affected cell-biomaterial interactions.

  3. Riemann {zeta} function from wave-packet dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, J. P.; Moya-Cessa, H.; Strunz, W. T.; Walser, R.

    2010-09-15

    We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann {zeta} function {zeta}(s,a). Indeed, the autocorrelation function at a time t is determined by {zeta}({sigma}+i{tau},a), where {sigma} is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and {tau} is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in {zeta}(s,a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann {zeta} wave-packet dynamics using cold atoms in appropriately tailored light fields.

  4. Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK receptor complex expressed by human natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P; Caligiuri, M; O'Brien, C; Manley, T; Ritz, J; Schlossman, S F

    1990-01-01

    We recently reported that CD3- natural killer (NK) cells express the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor complex (zeta NK) in association with higher molecular weight structures whose expression differs between individual NK cell clones. Because NK cell cytolytic activity is known to be triggered by perturbation of the type III Fc gamma receptor (CD16), we sought to determine whether this activating molecule is included in the zeta NK molecular complex. Biochemical evidence for a physical association between CD16 and zeta NK was obtained by comparing immunoprecipitates formed using monoclonal antibodies reactive with each of these molecules by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and peptide mapping. In both clonal and polyclonal populations of CD3- NK cells, CD16 and zeta NK specifically associated with one another. Functional evidence for a specific association between CD16 and zeta NK in intact cells was obtained by demonstrating a coordinate down-modulation of both of these molecules induced by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or monoclonal antibodies reactive with CD16. Our results suggest that Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK complex and that this complex is likely to play an important role in NK cell activation. Images PMID:2138330

  5. Ec sub. gamma. receptor type III (CD16) is included in the. zeta. NK receptor complex expressed by human natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.; Caligiuri, M.; O'Brien, C.; Manley, T.; Ritz, J.; Schlossman, S.F. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors recently reported that CD3{sup {minus}} natural killer (NK) cells express the {zeta} chain of the T-cell receptor complex ({zeta} NK) in association with higher molecular weight structures whose expression differs between individual NK cell clones. Because NK cell cytolytic activity is known to be triggered by perturbation of the type III Fc{sub {gamma}} receptor (CD16), they sought to determine whether this activating molecule is included in the {zeta}NK molecular complex. Biochemical evidence for a physical association between CD16 and {zeta}NK was obtained by comparing immunoprecipitates formed using monoclonal antibodies reactive with each of these molecules by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and peptide mapping. In both clonal and polyclonal populations of CD3{sup {minus}}NK cells, CD16 and {zeta}NK specifically associated with one another. Functional evidence for a specific association between CD16 and {zeta}NK in intact cells was obtained by demonstrating a coordinate down-modulation of both of these molecules induced by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or monoclonal antibodies reactive with CD16. The results suggest that Fc{sub {gamma}} receptor type III (CD16) is included in the {zeta}NK complex and that this complex is likely to play an important role in NK cell activation.

  6. T cell receptor complexes containing Fc epsilon RI gamma homodimers in lieu of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta components: a novel isoform expressed on large granular lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    CD3 zeta and CD3 eta form disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers important in targeting partially assembled Ti alpha-beta/CD3 gamma delta epsilon T cell receptor (TCR) complexes to the cell surface and transducing stimulatory signals after antigen recognition. Here we identify a new TCR isoform expressed on splenic CD2+, CD3/Ti alpha- beta+, CD4-, CD8-, CD16+, NK1.1+ mouse large granular lymphocytes (LGL), which are devoid of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta proteins. The TCRs of this subset contain homodimers of the gamma subunit of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI gamma) in lieu of CD3 zeta and/or CD3 eta proteins. The LGL display natural killer-like activity and are cytotoxic for B cell hybridomas producing anti-CD3 epsilon and anti-CD16 monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating the signaling capacity of both TCR and CD16 in this cell type. These findings provide evidence for an additional level of complexity of TCR signal transduction isoforms in naturally occurring T cell subsets. PMID:1530959

  7. Effects of nano-sized silicon dioxide on the structures and activities of three functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Shi-Long; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-08-15

    Nanomaterials are finding increasing use in industrial production and daily life. However, human exposure to them may cause health risks. Nano-SiO(2) was selected as a representative nanomaterial and its potential effects were investigated in terms of its interactions with cytochrome c (cyt c), deoxyribonuclease (DNase II) and hemoglobin (Hb). The interactions accorded with Langmuir isothermal adsorption; the saturation binding numbers for cyt c, DNase II and Hb were 42+/-5, 24+/-2 and 1.1+/-0.1 micromol/g nano-SiO(2) particle at pH 7.4, respectively, and the corresponding stability constants were 6.15 x 105, 1.79 x 106 and 2.6 x 107 M(-1). On the basis of the binding constants and of zeta-potential fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) measurements and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), it was found that the three functional proteins can bridge nano-SiO(2) particles via charge attraction and hydrogen bonding and aggregate them into coralloid forms. The interactions also changed the secondary structures of the proteins and inhibited their static and dynamic activities. It may reasonably be deduced that exposure to nano-size silicon dioxide particles e.g. as drug carriers may have an unfavorable effect on human health by inactivating functional proteins.

  8. Apatite nucleation on silica surface: a zeta potential approach.

    PubMed

    Coreño, J; Martínez, A; Bolarín, A; Sánchez, F

    2001-10-01

    Zeta potential measurements on pure silica, prepared by the sol-gel method from tetraethoxysilane under acidic conditions, are reported in different suspensions. Water suspensions and suspensions containing calcium or phosphate ions with and without NaCl were tested. zeta potential measurements were carried out as a function of the pH and ion concentration. Also, calcium and phosphate adsorption on silica was determined experimentally. The results of zeta potential and adsorption measurements suggest that both calcium and phosphate ions can be adsorbed on the silica surface; however, calcium adsorption is stronger than phosphate adsorption. When calcium and sodium ions are present in the suspension, calcium adsorption decreases. It seems that certain sites on the silica surface are specific for calcium adsorption.

  9. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  10. Elliptic multiple zeta values and one-loop superstring amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedel, Johannes; Mafra, Carlos R.; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    We investigate iterated integrals on an elliptic curve, which are a natural genus-one generalization of multiple polylogarithms. These iterated integrals coincide with the multiple elliptic polylogarithms introduced by Brown and Levin when constrained to the real line. At unit argument they reduce to an elliptic analogue of multiple zeta values, whose network of relations we start to explore. A simple and natural application of this framework are one-loop scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory. In particular, elliptic multiple zeta values are a suitable language to express their low energy limit. Similar to the techniques available at tree-level, our formalism allows to completely automatize the calculation.

  11. Activated protein C: biased for translation

    PubMed Central

    Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Mosnier, Laurent O.

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic blood protease, activated protein C (APC), can function as (1) an antithrombotic on the basis of inactivation of clotting factors Va and VIIIa; (2) a cytoprotective on the basis of endothelial barrier stabilization and anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions; and (3) a regenerative on the basis of stimulation of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Pharmacologic therapies using recombinant human and murine APCs indicate that APC provides effective acute or chronic therapies for a strikingly diverse range of preclinical injury models. APC reduces the damage caused by the following: ischemia/reperfusion in brain, heart, and kidney; pulmonary, kidney, and gastrointestinal inflammation; sepsis; Ebola virus; diabetes; and total lethal body radiation. For these beneficial effects, APC alters cell signaling networks and gene expression profiles by activating protease-activated receptors 1 and 3. APC’s activation of these G protein–coupled receptors differs completely from thrombin’s activation mechanism due to biased signaling via either G proteins or β-arrestin-2. To reduce APC-associated bleeding risk, APC variants were engineered to lack >90% anticoagulant activity but retain normal cell signaling. Such a neuroprotective variant, 3K3A-APC (Lys191-193Ala), has advanced to clinical trials for ischemic stroke. A rich data set of preclinical knowledge provides a solid foundation for potential translation of APC variants to future novel therapies. PMID:25824691

  12. Silver ion impregnated composite biomaterial optimally prepared using zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, N; Socrates, R; Shanthini, G M; Rajaram, A; Kalkura, S Narayana

    2015-02-01

    Biodegradable, antimicrobial composite of various silver ion concentrations was synthesized using zeta potential and isoelectric point measurements, for a controlled release of silver ions, and in addition to assess the effect of protein adsorption with the increase of the silver ion concentration. The interaction between hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silver incorporated hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with gelatin was increased by optimally adjusting the zeta potential and isoelectric point of the ceramic (HAp and AgHAp), and bio-polymer individually. The electrostatic interactions between the ceramic and biopolymer were confirmed, through shifts in N-H stretching, decrease in the swelling ratio, and increase in the degradation temperature observed by the derivative thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTG). These results substantiate that, the zeta potential is a novel tool to increase the ceramic-biopolymer interaction. Increasing electrostatic interaction between the biopolymer and ceramic, decreases the release of silver ions in the simulated body fluid, due to the controlled degradation of the biopolymer. The isoelectric point decreases with the increase of the silver ion concentration, which evidenced the change in the net surface charge. With the increase of the silver ion concentration, the protein adsorption decreases due to an increase in hydrophilic character of the composite. This study examines the minimum concentration of silver ion essential for maximum protein adsorption, antimicrobial and hemocompatibility. This study provides a novel route to control the release of silver ions by enhancing the ceramic-polymer interaction and estimate the silver ion concentration suitable for protein adsorption. The prepared composite is nontoxic, degradable, and antimicrobial, with the controlled release of silver ions in the simulated body fluid.

  13. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  14. Lipid Dependent Mechanisms of Protein Pump Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-23

    properties which result form the colligative interactions of many lipid molecules. Important materials properties include . . . i I I II II I i I 1 the...d identify by olock number) *This project is aime at investigating if a lipid elastic property , known as the spontaneous radius of curvature Ro’, is...a regulated membrane property and if its value modulates membrane protein activity. Specific aims reported on here include: 1) Correlation of ion pump

  15. Development of phosphorylated nanoparticles as zeta potential inverting systems.

    PubMed

    Perera, Glen; Zipser, Maximilian; Bonengel, Sonja; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to generate nanoparticles with a slightly negative zeta potential which switches to positive values under the influence of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in order to address two major physiological barriers (mucus and membrane barrier). Carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan were modified with phosphotyrosine by means of a water-soluble carbodiimide and polyelectrolyte complexes were formed by mixing two polymer solutions in an appropriate ratio. Due to this modification, phosphate ions could potentially be released which would lead to a change in zeta potential. Their sizes were found to be between 200 and 300 nm while their zeta potentials ranged from -8 mV to -5 mV prior to incubation with the enzyme. It could be shown that phosphate ions are released from the modified polymers and nanoparticles by isolated phosphatase and in a Caco-2 cell model. Incubation with phosphatase led to a change in zeta potential of the nanoparticles up to +8 mV. As neither polymers nor particles display toxic properties within the resazurin assay, these nanoparticles appear to be useful tools in future drug delivery systems as they have appropriate properties regarding particle size and surface charge in order to overcome the mucus and the membrane barrier.

  16. Comparison of Metalloproteinase Protein and Activity Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Giricz, Orsi; Lauer, Janelle L.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been shown to take part in processes crucial in disease progression. The present study used the ExcelArray Human MMP/TIMP Array to quantify MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) production in the lysates and media of 14 cancer and one normal cell line. The overall patterns were very similar in terms of which MMPs and TIMPs were secreted in the media versus associated with the cells in the individual samples. However, more MMP was found in the media, both in amount and in variety. TIMP-1 was produced in all cell lines. MMP activity assays with three different FRET substrates were then utilized to determine if protein production correlated with function for the WM-266-4 and BJ cell lines. Metalloproteinase activity was observed for both cell lines with a general MMP substrate (Knight SSP), consistent with protein production data. However, although both cell lines promoted the hydrolysis of a more selective MMP substrate (NFF-3), metalloproteinase activity was only confirmed in the BJ cell line. The use of inhibitors to confirm metalloproteinase activities pointed to the strengths and weaknesses of in situ FRET substrate assays. PMID:20920458

  17. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  18. Spectral zeta function of a sub-Laplacian on product sub-Riemannian manifolds and zeta-regularized determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Wolfram; Furutani, Kenro

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the spectral zeta function for sub-Laplace operators on product manifolds M×N. Starting from suitable conditions on the zeta functions on each factor, the existence of a meromorphic extension to the complex plane and real analyticity in a zero neighbourhood is proved. In the special case of N=S1 and using the Poisson summation formula, we obtain expressions for the zeta-regularized determinant. Moreover, we can calculate limit cases of such determinants by inserting a parameter into our formulas. This is a generalization of results in Furutani and de Gosson (2003) [1] and in particular it applies to an intrinsic sub-Laplacian on U(2)≅S3×S1 induced by a sum of squares of canonical vector fields on S3; cf. Bauer and Furutani (2008) [2]. Finally, the spectral zeta function of a sub-Laplace operator on Heisenberg manifolds is calculated by using an explicit expression of the heat kernel for the corresponding sub-Laplace operator on the Heisenberg group; cf. Beals et al. (2000) [18] and Hulanicki (1976) [19].

  19. Activation and activities of the p53 tumour suppressor protein

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, É; Vousden, K H

    2001-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein inhibits malignant progression by mediating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or repair following cellular stress. One of the major regulators of p53 function is the MDM2 protein, and multiple forms of cellular stress activate p53 by inhibiting the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53. Mutations in p53, or disruption of the pathways that allow activation of p53, seem to be a general feature of all cancers. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the pathways that regulate p53 and the pathways that are induced by p53, as well as their implications for cancer therapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747320

  20. Interaction of Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT (PIAS) Proteins with the TATA-binding Protein, TBP*

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Justin R.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Transcription activators often recruit promoter-targeted assembly of a pre-initiation complex; many repressors antagonize recruitment. These activities can involve direct interactions with proteins in the pre-initiation complex. We used an optimized yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse pregnancy-associated libraries for proteins that interact with TATA-binding protein (TBP). Screens revealed an interaction between TBP and a single member of the zinc finger family of transcription factors, ZFP523. Two members of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family, PIAS1 and PIAS3, also interacted with TBP in screens. Endogenous PIAS1 and TBP co-immunoprecipitated from nuclear extracts, suggesting the interaction occurred in vivo. In vitro-translated PIAS1 and TBP coimmunopreciptated, which indicated that other nuclear proteins were not required for the interaction. Deletion analysis mapped the PIAS-interacting domain of TBP to the conserved TBPCORE and the TBP-interacting domain on PIAS1 to a 39-amino acid C-terminal region. Mammals issue seven known PIAS proteins from four pias genes, pias1, pias3, piasx, and piasy, each with different cell type-specific expression patterns; the TBP-interacting domain reported here is the only part of the PIAS C-terminal region shared by all seven PIAS proteins. Direct analyses indicated that PIASx and PIASy also interacted with TBP. Our results suggest that all PIAS proteins might mediate situation-specific regulatory signaling at the TBP interface and that previously unknown levels of complexity could exist in the gene regulatory interplay between TBP, PIAS proteins, ZFP523, and other transcription factors. PMID:16522640

  1. DHEA improves glucose uptake via activations of protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, T; Kajita, K; Miura, A; Ishizawa, M; Kanoh, Y; Itaya, S; Kimura, M; Muto, N; Mune, T; Morita, H; Yasuda, K

    1999-01-01

    We have examined the effect of adrenal androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), on glucose uptake, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) activity in rat adipocytes. DHEA (1 microM) provoked a twofold increase in 2-[3H]deoxyglucose (DG) uptake for 30 min. Pretreatment with DHEA increased insulin-induced 2-[3H]DG uptake without alterations of insulin specific binding and autophosphorylation of insulin receptor. DHEA also stimulated PI 3-kinase activity. [3H]DHEA bound to purified PKC containing PKC-alpha, -beta, and -gamma. DHEA provoked the translocation of PKC-beta and -zeta from the cytosol to the membrane in rat adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA stimulates both PI 3-kinase and PKCs and subsequently stimulates glucose uptake. Moreover, to clarify the in vivo effect of DHEA on Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Otsuka Long-Evans fatty (OLETF) rats, animal models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were treated with 0.4% DHEA for 2 wk. Insulin- and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-induced 2-[3H]DG uptakes of adipocytes were significantly increased, but there was no significant increase in the soleus muscles in DHEA-treated GK/Wistar or OLETF/Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats when compared with untreated GK/Wistar or OLETF/LETO rats. These results indicate that in vivo DHEA treatment can result in increased insulin-induced glucose uptake in two different NIDDM rat models.

  2. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  3. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  4. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  5. Activated Protein C action in inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Pranita P.; Lee, Hyun-wook; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Summary Activated protein C (APC) is a natural anticoagulant that plays an important role in coagulation homeostasis by inactivating the procoagulation factor Va and VIIIa. In addition to its anticoagulation functions, APC also has cytoprotective effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and endothelial barrier protection. Recently, a recombinant form of human APC (rhAPC or drotrecogin alfa activated; known commercially as “Xigris”) was approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for treatment of severe sepsis associated with a high risk of mortality. Sepsis, also known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) resulting from infection, is a serious medical condition in critical care patients. In sepsis, hyperactive and dysregulated inflammatory responses lead to secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, activation and migration of leucocytes, activation of coagulation, inhibition of fibrinolysis, and increased apoptosis. Although initial hypotheses focused on antithrombotic and profibrinolytic functions of APC in sepsis, other agents with more potent anticoagulation functions were not effective in treating severe sepsis. Furthermore, APC therapy is also associated with the risk of severe bleeding in treated patients. Therefore, the cytoprotective effects, rather than the anticoagulant effect of APC are postulated to be responsible for the therapeutic benefit of APC in the treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:19995397

  6. Interstellar lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of zeta Oph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Interstellar lines arising in carbon, oxygen, silicon, and sulfur observed in the ultraviolet spectrum of zeta Oph by rocket spectrographic techniques were analyzed. Within a factor of 10, the abundances of c(+), neutral 0, and Si(+) outside the H II region surrounding zeta Oph, relative to the hydrogen abundance, are equal to solar values. The lines in neutral C and S(+) imply that the interstellar matter is distributed among several clouds as indicated by high resolution visible spectra. It is suggested that the excited C(+) ions are inside the Stromgren sphere where proton densities equal to or greater than 0.0022 cm can collisionally excite the ions at sufficient rates. Stellar absorption lines of C IV (1548.2, 1550.8A) and N V (1238.8, 1242.8A) were observed shifted to lower wavelengths, indicating stellar mass loss.

  7. Zeta waves: a special type of slow delta waves.

    PubMed

    Magnus, O; Van der Holst, M

    1987-08-01

    A special type of delta waves with a duration of 1-3 sec which, because of their saw-tooth or zed shape in the EEG, we have named 'zeta waves' has been described. They occur particularly in cases with rather severe brain lesions, usually with an acute or subacute onset and a space occupying character. In a period of 2 years during which 2500 EEGs have been reported we have seen zeta waves in 20 patients in whom 76 EEGs have been recorded. The characteristics of these waves and the types of lesions with which they occurred are described. The importance of an adequate recording technique for proper presentation of this EEG pattern is emphasized.

  8. Moments of zeta and correlations of divisor-sums: I.

    PubMed

    Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P

    2015-04-28

    We examine the calculation of the second and fourth moments and shifted moments of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line using long Dirichlet polynomials and divisor correlations. Previously, this approach has proved unsuccessful in computing moments beyond the eighth, even heuristically. A careful analysis of the second and fourth moments illustrates the nature of the problem and enables us to identify the terms that are missed in the standard application of these methods.

  9. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  10. Molecular cloning of the CD3 eta subunit identifies a CD3 zeta-related product in thymus-derived cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y J; Clayton, L K; Howard, F D; Koyasu, S; Sieh, M; Steinbrich, R; Tarr, G E; Reinherz, E L

    1990-01-01

    The CD3 eta subunit of the T-cell antigen receptor forms a heterodimeric structure with the CD3 zeta subunit in thymus-derived lymphoid cells and is apparently involved in signal transduction through the receptor. Here we report the primary structure of murine CD3 eta as deduced from protein microsequencing and cDNA cloning. The mature protein is divided into three domains: a 9-amino acid extracellular segment, a 21-amino acid transmembrane segment including a negatively charged residue characteristic of CD3 subunits, and a 155-amino acid cytoplasmic tail. The NH2-terminal sequences of CD3 eta and CD3 zeta are identical through amino acid 122 of each mature protein but then diverge in the remainder of their respective COOH-terminal regions, consistent with alternatively spliced products of a common gene. The cytoplasmic domain of CD3 eta is 42 amino acids larger than that of CD3 zeta but lacks one of six potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites as well as a putative nucleotide binding site previously identified in CD3 zeta. These structural features presumably account for the difference between CD3 eta and CD3 zeta function and are consistent with the notion that CD3 eta may be an important component of a T-cell receptor isoform(s) during thymic development. Images PMID:2139725

  11. On the Laurent series for the Epstein zeta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    The Epstein zeta function ζ d [ M ; s ] ≡ ∑ n ∈ Z d ‧ ( n M n T ) - s 2 , where {M} is a real symmetric and invertible d × d matrix and {n} is a d-dimensional row vector ({n}1,{n}2,\\ldots ,{n}d) with integer coordinates {n}i, is considered. (The prime on the sum indicates that the term {n}={0} should be excluded.) It is known that {\\zeta }d[{M};s] has a Laurent series expansion about the singular point s = d which can be written in the form ζ d [ M ; s ] = ∑ ν = - 1 ∞ A ν [ M ; d ] ( s - d ) ν . In this paper we shall show that the coefficient {A}ν [{M};d] can be accurately calculated using rapidly convergent series which involve the Meijer G-function. Exact formulae are also derived for {A}ν [{M};2] when M = U N ≡ 1 0 0 N , with N=1,2,\\ldots . The results for {A}0[{{U}}N;2] are then used to establish several mathematical identities involving summations of generalized Stieltjes constants. Next the Laurent series for {\\zeta }d[{{I}}d;s], where {{I}}d is the d × d unit matrix, is briefly discussed for the cases d=3,4,6 and 8. Finally, a new application of the results in lattice statistics is described.

  12. Effect of Plasma on the Zeta Potential of Cotton Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, A.; Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Dalalsharifi, S.; Wiener, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the effect of a low-temperature plasma on the zeta potential of cotton fabric was studied. The silver particle absorption on cotton fabric when modified by a low-temperature plasma was also investigated. The modification consisted of plasma pre-functionalization followed by a one-step wet treatment with silver nitrate solution. The process was performed in a low-temperature plasma medium, using a magnetron sputtering device. Oxygen and nitrogen were used as working gases in the system, and the results were compared. After preparing the samples, the zeta potentials of the untreated and plasma-treated cotton under a constant pH value solution were estimated and compared. Also, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to examine the functional groups of the corresponding samples. The amounts of silver absorption on plasma treated and untreated cotton were examined using the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) method. The results show that the amount of zeta potential for the nitrogen plasma treated sample is less and the absorption of silver particles by cotton can be increased strongly with nitrogen plasma treatment.

  13. Xenobiotic induction of quinone oxidoreductase activity in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tumminia, S J; Rao, P V; Zigler, J S; Russell, P

    1993-12-08

    Xenobiotic regulatory elements have been identified for enzymes which ameliorate oxidative damage in cells. Zeta (zeta)-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme/crystallin shown to be a novel NADPH-dependent quinone reductase, is found in a number of tissues and cell types. This study shows that zeta-crystallin is present in mouse lens epithelium, as well as in the alpha TN4 mouse lens epithelial cell line. To determine whether zeta-crystallin is an inducible quinone reductase, cell cultures were exposed to the xenobiotics, 1,2-naphthoquinone and beta-naphthoflavone. Assays of cellular homogenates showed that quinone reductase activity was stimulated greater than 70% and 90%, respectively, over the control cells. This observed activity was sensitive to dicumarol, a potent inhibitor of quinone reductase activity. 1,2-Naphthoquinone- and beta-naphthoflavone-exposed cells were found to exhibit 1.47- and 1.68-fold increases, respectively, in zeta-crystallin protein concentration. A comparable increase in zeta-crystallin mRNA was indicative of an induction in zeta-crystallin expression in response to naphthalene challenge. Lens epithelial cells were also checked for DT-diaphorase, a well-known cellular protective enzyme which can catalyze the two-electron reduction of quinones. Slot blot analyses indicated that alpha TN4 cells exposed to 1,2-naphthoquinone and beta-naphthoflavone exhibited 2.71- and 6.81-fold increases in DT-diaphorase concentration when compared to the control cells. The data suggest that while DT-diaphorase is most likely responsible for the majority of the observed increase in quinone reductase activity, the zeta-crystallin gene also undergoes activation which is apparently mediated by a xenobiotic-responsive element.

  14. Novel role for mitochondria: protein kinase Ctheta-dependent oxidative signaling organelles in activation-induced T-cell death.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Marcin; Kiessling, Michael; Süss, Dorothee; Krammer, Peter H; Gülow, Karsten

    2007-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in regulation of activation-induced T-cell death (AICD) by induction of CD95L expression. However, the molecular source and the signaling steps necessary for ROS production are largely unknown. Here, we show that the proximal T-cell receptor-signaling machinery, including ZAP70 (zeta chain-associated protein kinase 70), LAT (linker of activated T cells), SLP76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa), PLCgamma1 (phospholipase Cgamma1), and PKCtheta (protein kinase Ctheta), are crucial for ROS production. PKCtheta is translocated to the mitochondria. By using cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA, we identified the mitochondria as the source of activation-induced ROS. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport complex I assembly by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the chaperone NDUFAF1 resulted in a block of ROS production. Complex I-derived ROS are converted into a hydrogen peroxide signal by the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. This signal is essential for CD95L expression, as inhibition of complex I assembly by NDUFAF1-specific siRNA prevents AICD. Similar results were obtained when metformin, an antidiabetic drug and mild complex I inhibitor, was used. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that PKCtheta-dependent ROS generation by mitochondrial complex I is essential for AICD.

  15. Protein kinase C activity in boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Teijeiro, J M; Marini, P E; Bragado, M J; Garcia-Marin, L J

    2017-03-01

    Male germ cells undergo different processes within the female reproductive tract to successfully fertilize the oocyte. These processes are triggered by different extracellular stimuli leading to activation of protein phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key regulatory enzyme in signal transduction mechanisms involved in many cellular processes. Studies in boar sperm demonstrated a role for PKC in the intracellular signaling involved in motility and cellular volume regulation. Experiments using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) showed increases in the Serine/Threonine phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PKC in boar sperm. In order to gain knowledge about those cellular processes regulated by PKC, we evaluate the effects of PMA on boar sperm motility, lipid organization of plasma membrane, integrity of acrosome membrane and sperm agglutination. Also, we investigate the crosstalk between PKA and PKC intracellular pathways in spermatozoa from this species. The results presented here reveal a participation of PKC in sperm motility regulation and membrane fluidity changes, which is probably associated to acrosome reaction and to agglutination. Also, we show the existence of a hierarchy in the kinases pathway. Previous works on boar sperm suggest a pathway in which PKA is positioned upstream to PKC and this new results support such model.

  16. The interstellar line spectra of zeta Ophiuchi and zeta Persei and their relation to the short wavelength microwave background radiation. Ph.D. Thesis - N. Y. Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortolot, V. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-one high dispersion Coude spectrograms of zeta Ophiuchi and seven of zeta Persei were numerically synthesized to produce high resolution, low noise spectra in the interval 3650 A to 4350 that yield data on atomic and molecular absorption in well-defined regions of the interstellar medium. The detection threshold is improved by as much as a factor 5 over single plates. Several interstellar lines were discovered in the zeta Oph - 15km/sec cloud and the zeta Per + 13 km/sec cloud.

  17. Protein kinase C activation inhibits eosinophil degranulation through stimulation of intracellular cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2004-11-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of eosinophil degranulation by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in complement C5a (C5a)-stimulated degranulation of highly purified human eosinophils using the specific PKC activator - phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). C5a-induced release of eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein was potently inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PMA (IC(50): 3 and 5 nM, respectively). The inhibition by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by the specific, but isoform nonselective, PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (1 microM). In the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (5 microM), PMA stimulated a pronounced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP, with a potency 400 times that of histamine (EC(50): 55 nM vs 22.5 microM). The inactive PMA analogue, 4alpha-PMA, had no such effect. The cAMP production by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by Ro 31-8220 (1 microM) and the selective inhibitor of the novel PKCdelta, rottlerin (1-3 microM), but not the selective inhibitor of the classical PKC isoforms, Gö 6976 (0.01-0.1 microM). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of six PKC isoforms (alpha, betaI, betaII, delta, iota and zeta) in isolated eosinophils. Chelation of internal or external calcium had no effect on PMA-induced cAMP response, but abolished that induced by histamine. There was a good correlation between increase in intracellular cAMP and inhibition of degranulation. These results show, for the first time, that in human eosinophils, PMA, via activation of PKCdelta isoform, can stimulate cAMP production, and that this may be the basis for its potent anti-degranulatory effect.

  18. Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest Novel Activities of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pUL103

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel A.; Glassbrook, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that causes severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients. During infection, the host cell endosecretory system is remodeled to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). We and others previously identified the conserved, multifunctional HCMV virion tegument protein pUL103 as important for cVAC biogenesis and efficient secondary envelopment. To help define its mechanisms of action and predict additional functions, we used two complementary methods, coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and proximity biotinylation (BioID), to identify viral and cellular proteins that interact with pUL103. By using the two methods in parallel and applying stringent selection criteria, we identified potentially high-value interactions of pUL103 with 13 HCMV and 18 cellular proteins. Detection of the previously identified pUL103-pUL71 interaction, as well as verification of several interactions by reverse co-IP, supports the specificity of our screening process. As might be expected for a tegument protein, interactions were identified that suggest distinct roles for pUL103 across the arc of lytic infection, including interactions with proteins involved in cellular antiviral responses, nuclear activities, and biogenesis and transport of cytoplasmic vesicles. Further analysis of some of these interactions expands our understanding of the multifunctional repertoire of pUL103: we detected HCMV pUL103 in nuclei of infected cells and identified an ALIX-binding domain within the pUL103 sequence. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is able to reconfigure the host cell machinery to establish a virion production factory, the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). cVAC biogenesis and operation represent targets for development of novel HCMV antivirals. We previously showed that the HCMV tegument protein pUL103 is required for cVAC biogenesis. Using pUL103 as bait, we investigated viral and

  19. Activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) slows renal cystogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takiar, Vinita; Nishio, Saori; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; King, J Darwin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Li; Karihaloo, Anil; Hallows, Kenneth R; Somlo, Stefan; Caplan, Michael J

    2011-02-08

    Renal cyst development and expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) involves both fluid secretion and abnormal proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells. The chloride channel of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) participates in secretion of cyst fluid, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may drive proliferation of cyst epithelial cells. CFTR and mTOR are both negatively regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Metformin, a drug in wide clinical use, is a pharmacological activator of AMPK. We find that metformin stimulates AMPK, resulting in inhibition of both CFTR and the mTOR pathways. Metformin induces significant arrest of cystic growth in both in vitro and ex vivo models of renal cystogenesis. In addition, metformin administration produces a significant decrease in the cystic index in two mouse models of ADPKD. Our results suggest a possible role for AMPK activation in slowing renal cystogenesis as well as the potential for therapeutic application of metformin in the context of ADPKD.

  20. Human carotid atherosclerotic plaque protein(s) change HDL protein(s) composition and impair HDL anti-oxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elad; Aviram, Michael; Khatib, Soliman; Volkova, Nina; Vaya, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) anti-atherogenic functions are closely associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor, and are dictated by its composition, which is often affected by environmental factors. The present study investigates the effects of the human carotid plaque constituents on HDL composition and biological functions. To this end, human carotid plaques were homogenized and incubated with HDL. Results showed that after incubation, most of the apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) protein was released from the HDL, and HDL diameter increased by an average of approximately 2 nm. In parallel, HDL antioxidant activity was impaired. In response to homogenate treatment HDL could not prevent the accelerated oxidation of LDL caused by the homogenate. Boiling of the homogenate prior to its incubation with HDL abolished its effects on HDL composition changes. Moreover, tryptophan fluorescence quenching assay revealed an interaction between plaque component(s) and HDL, an interaction that was reduced by 50% upon using pre-boiled homogenate. These results led to hypothesize that plaque protein(s) interacted with HDL-associated Apo A1 and altered the HDL composition. Immuno-precipitation of Apo A1 that was released from the HDL after its incubation with the homogenate revealed a co-precipitation of three isomers of actin. However, beta-actin alone did not significantly affect the HDL composition, and yet the active protein within the plaque was elusive. In conclusion then, protein(s) in the homogenate interact with HDL protein(s), leading to release of Apo A1 from the HDL particle, a process that was associated with an increase in HDL diameter and with impaired HDL anti-oxidant activity.

  1. Local zeta factors and geometries under Spec Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, Yu I.

    2016-08-01

    The first part of this note shows that the odd-period polynomial of each Hecke cusp eigenform for the full modular group produces via the Rodriguez-Villegas transform ([1]) a polynomial satisfying the functional equation of zeta type and having non-trivial zeros only in the middle line of its critical strip. The second part discusses the Chebyshev lambda-structure of the polynomial ring as Borger's descent data to \\mathbf{F}_1 and suggests its role in a possible relation of the Γ\\mathbf{R}-factor to 'real geometry over \\mathbf{F}_1' (cf. [2]).

  2. Renormalization In Quantum Gauge Theory Using Zeta-Function Method

    SciTech Connect

    Chiritoiu, Viorel; Zet, Gheorghe

    2009-05-22

    It is possible to consider space-time symmetries (for example Poincare or de Sitter) as purely inner symmetries. A formulation of the de Sitter symmetry as purely inner symmetry defined on a fixed Minkowski space-time is presented. We define the generators of the de Sitter group and write the equations of structure using a constant deformation parameter {lambda}. Local gauge transformations and corresponding covariant derivative depending on gauge fields are obtained. The method of generalized zeta-function is used to realize the renormalization. An effective integral of action is obtained and a comparison with other results is given.

  3. Symbol calculus and zeta-function regularized determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O. Teoman

    2007-11-15

    In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for nonpositive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action, one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose, we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin-0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

  4. Intersystem transitions of interstellar carbon monoxide toward zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Sheffer, Yaron; Lambert, David L.; Morton, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption from seven intersystem (triplet-singlet) transitions of interstellar (12)CO were detected in ultraviolet spectra of zeta Oph. The observed equivalent widths are approximately consistent with the transitions' predicted f-values and the (12) CO column density derived from the weakest of the observed A-X bands. These unsaturated intersystem transitions provide the opportunity to measure the (12)CO column density for heavily reddened (dense) sight lines. Laboratory measurements of oscillator strengths more precise than available ones will be needed to derive accurate column densities.

  5. Transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, James W.; Green, Michael R.

    1989-03-01

    The adenovirus Ela protein stimulates transcription of a wide variety of viral and cellular genes. It is shown here that Ela has the two functions characteristic of a typical cellular activator: one direct Ela to the promoter, perhaps by interacting with a DMA-bound protein, and the other, an activating region, enables the bound activator to stimulate transcription.

  6. DNA helicase activity in purified human RECQL4 protein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Ishimi, Yukio

    2009-09-01

    Human RECQL4 protein was expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus protein expression system and it was purified to near homogeneity. The protein sedimented at a position between catalase (230 kDa) and ferritin (440 kDa) in glycerol gradient centrifugation, suggesting that it forms homo-multimers. Activity to displace annealed 17-mer oligonucleotide in the presence of ATP was co-sedimented with hRECQL4 protein. In ion-exchange chromatography, both DNA helicase activity and single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity were co-eluted with hRECQL4 protein. The requirements of ATP and Mg for the helicase activity were different from those for the ATPase activity. The data suggest that the helicase migrates on single-stranded DNA in a 3'-5' direction. These results suggest that the hRECQL4 protein exhibits DNA helicase activity.

  7. Trithorax group proteins: switching genes on and keeping them active.

    PubMed

    Schuettengruber, Bernd; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Iovino, Nicola; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2011-11-23

    Cellular memory is provided by two counteracting groups of chromatin proteins termed Trithorax group (TrxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. TrxG proteins activate transcription and are perhaps best known because of the involvement of the TrxG protein MLL in leukaemia. However, in terms of molecular analysis, they have lived in the shadow of their more famous counterparts, the PcG proteins. Recent advances have improved our understanding of TrxG protein function and demonstrated that the heterogeneous group of TrxG proteins is of critical importance in the epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle, senescence, DNA damage and stem cell biology.

  8. The distributional zeta-function in disordered field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaiter, B. F.; Svaiter, N. F.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a new mathematical rigorous technique for computing the average free energy of a disordered system with quenched randomness, using the replicas. The basic tool of this technique is a distributional zeta-function, a complex function whose derivative at the origin yields the average free energy of the system as the sum of two contributions: the first one is a series in which all the integer moments of the partition function of the model contribute; the second one, which cannot be written as a series of the integer moments, can be made as small as desired. This result supports the use of integer moments of the partition function, computed via replicas, for expressing the average free energy of the system. One advantage of the proposed formalism is that it does not require the understanding of the properties of the permutation group when the number of replicas goes to zero. Moreover, the symmetry is broken using the saddle-point equations of the model. As an application for the distributional zeta-function technique, we obtain the average free energy of the disordered λφ4 model defined in a d-dimensional Euclidean space.

  9. [Increased fibrinolytic activity during cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by activated protein C system].

    PubMed

    Gando, S; Tedo, I; Masio, H; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H

    1994-06-01

    To examine the hypothesis that activated protein C system during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery may increase fibrinolytic activity during cardiopulmonary bypass, protein C activity, protein C antigen and thrombomodulin of sixteen patients undergoing elective cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were investigated after induction of anesthesia, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, and at the end of operation. Protein C activity decreased and thrombomodulin increased significantly after the cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no significant correlations of thrombomodulin with protein C activity and protein C antigen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that protein C system is activated and circulating thrombomodulin appears in the systemic circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and this enhanced activation of protein C system is possibly related to the reported increase of fibrinolytic activity during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    PubMed

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  11. Global Analysis of Protein Activities Using Proteome Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Heng; Bilgin, Metin; Bangham, Rhonda; Hall, David; Casamayor, Antonio; Bertone, Paul; Lan, Ning; Jansen, Ronald; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Houfek, Thomas; Mitchell, Tom; Miller, Perry; Dean, Ralph A.; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael

    2001-09-01

    To facilitate studies of the yeast proteome, we cloned 5800 open reading frames and overexpressed and purified their corresponding proteins. The proteins were printed onto slides at high spatial density to form a yeast proteome microarray and screened for their ability to interact with proteins and phospholipids. We identified many new calmodulin- and phospholipid-interacting proteins; a common potential binding motif was identified for many of the calmodulin-binding proteins. Thus, microarrays of an entire eukaryotic proteome can be prepared and screened for diverse biochemical activities. The microarrays can also be used to screen protein-drug interactions and to detect posttranslational modifications.

  12. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, protein kinase C translocation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity by bradykinin in rat ventricular myocytes: dissociation from the hypertrophic response.

    PubMed Central

    Clerk, A; Gillespie-Brown, J; Fuller, S J; Sugden, P H

    1996-01-01

    In ventricular myocytes cultured from neonatal rat hearts, bradykinin (BK), kallidin or BK(1-8) [(Des-Arg9)BK] stimulated PtdinsP2 hydrolysis by 3-4-fold. EC50 values were 6 nM (BK), 2 nM (kallidin), and 14 microM [BK(1-8)]. BK or kallidin stimulated the rapid (less than 30 s) translocation of more than 80% of the novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms nPKC-delta and nPKC-epsilon from the soluble to the particulate fraction. EC50 values for nPKC-delta translocation by BK or kallidin were 10 and 2 nM respectively. EC50 values for nPKC-epsilon translocation by BK or kallidin were 2 and 0.6 nM respectively. EC50 values for the translocation of nPKC-delta and nPKC-epsilon by BK(1-8) were more than 5 microM. The classical PKC, cPKC-alpha, and the atypical PKC, nPKC-zeta, did not translocate. BK caused activation and phosphorylation of p42-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (maximal at 3-5 min, 30-35% of p42-MAPK phosphorylated). p44-MAPK was similarly activated. EC50 values for p42/p44-MAPK activation by BK were less than 1 nM whereas values for BK(1-8) were more than 10 microM. The order of potency [BK approximately equal to kallidin >> BK (1-8)] for the stimulation of PtdInsP2 hydrolysis, nPKC-delta and nPKC-epsilon translocation, and p42/p44-MAPK activities suggests involvement of the B2 BK receptor subtype. In addition, stimulation of all three processes by BK was inhibited by the B2BK receptor-selective antagonist HOE140 but not by the B1-selective antagonist Leu8BK(1-8). Exposure of cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for 24 h inhibited subsequent activation of p42/p44-MAPK by BK suggesting participation of nPKC (and possibly cPKC) isoforms in the activation process. Thus, like hypertrophic agents such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) and phenylephrine (PE), BK activates PtdInsP2 hydrolysis, translocates nPKC-delta, and nPKC-epsilon, and activates p42/p44-MAPK. However, in comparison with ET-1 and PE, BK was only weakly hypertrophic as assessed by cell morphology

  13. The identification and oxidative stress response of a zeta class glutathione S-transferase (GSTZ1) gene from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiru; Meng, Fei; Jia, Haihong; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-06-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, no information is available for GSTs in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana). In this study, we isolated and characterized a zeta class GST gene (AccGSTZ1) from the Chinese honey bee. This gene is present in a single copy and harbors five exons. The deduced amino acid sequence of AccGSTZ1 shared high sequence identity with homologous proteins and contained the highly conserved features of this gene family. The temporal and spatial expression profiles of AccGSTZ1 showed that AccGSTZ1 was highly expressed in fourth instar larvae during development, and the mRNA level of AccGSTZ1 was higher in the epidermis than that in other tissues. The expression pattern under oxidative stress revealed that AccGSTZ1 transcription was significantly upregulated by external factors, such as temperature challenges and H(2)O(2) treatment. The characterization of the purified protein revealed that AccGSTZ1 had low glutathione-conjugating activity, but the recombinant AccGSTZ1 protein displayed high antioxidant activity under oxidative stress. These data suggest that AccGSTZ1 is an oxidative stress-inducible antioxidant enzyme that plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and may be of critical importance for the survival of the honey bees.

  14. Determination of Zeta Potential via Nanoparticle Translocation Velocities through a Tunable Nanopore: Using DNA-modified Particles as an Example.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Emma L C J; Vogel, Robert; Platt, Mark

    2016-10-26

    Nanopore technologies, known collectively as Resistive Pulse Sensors (RPS), are being used to detect, quantify and characterize proteins, molecules and nanoparticles. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) is a relatively recent adaptation to RPS that incorporates a tunable pore that can be altered in real time. Here, we use TRPS to monitor the translocation times of DNA-modified nanoparticles as they traverse the tunable pore membrane as a function of DNA concentration and structure (i.e., single-stranded to double-stranded DNA). TRPS is based on two Ag/AgCl electrodes, separated by an elastomeric pore membrane that establishes a stable ionic current upon an applied electric field. Unlike various optical-based particle characterization technologies, TRPS can characterize individual particles amongst a sample population, allowing for multimodal samples to be analyzed with ease. Here, we demonstrate zeta potential measurements via particle translocation velocities of known standards and apply these to sample analyte translocation times, thus resulting in measuring the zeta potential of those analytes. As well as acquiring mean zeta potential values, the samples are all measured using a particle-by-particle perspective exhibiting more information on a given sample through sample population distributions, for example. Of such, this method demonstrates potential within sensing applications for both medical and environmental fields.

  15. Stimulation of 14-3-3 protein and its isoform on histamine secretion from permeabilized rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Ueeda, Takayuki

    2002-12-01

    The effect of the 14-3-3 protein, an adaptor protein of intracellular signal pathways, on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells was investigated. The exogenous 14-3-3 protein from bovine brain increased the Ca(2+)-dependent histamine release from permeabilized mast cells, but only slightly affected the non-permeabilized cells. Partial amino acid sequences showed that the bovine brain 14-3-3 protein contained 14-3-3beta, gamma and zeta isoforms, and that these recombinant isoforms were prepared. Among them, 14-3-3zeta was an active species while the 14-3-3beta and gamma were inactive for histamine release from the permeabilized mast cells. Approximately 15% of the histamine release was stimulated by 14-3-3zeta at 2.5 microM, and half-maximal stimulation occurred at 1 microM. Treatment of the mast cells with wortmannin or staurosporine completely inhibited the stimulatory effect on histamine release caused by Ca(2+) or Ca(2+)/14-3-3zeta, and genistein partially inhibited both stimulatory effects. PD 98059, however, had little effect on the histamine release. These results suggest the possibility that 14-3-3zeta is associated with signal transduction for degranulation of the mast cells.

  16. A new biphasic osteoinductive calcium composite material with a negative Zeta potential for bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Ralf; Kolk, Andreas; Gerressen, Marcus; Driemel, Oliver; Maciejewski, Oliver; Hermanns-Sachweh, Benita; Riediger, Dieter; Stein, Jamal M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC) with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential) which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:19523239

  17. Zeta potentials of polydimethylsiloxane surfaces modified by polybrene of different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Jun; Li, Dongqing

    2016-02-01

    Zeta potential is an important parameter for characterizing the electrokinetic properties of a solid-liquid interface. In this paper, zeta potentials of polydimethylsiloxane surfaces modified by polybrene (PB) solutions of different concentrations in Phosphate buffer solution and pure water were reported. The zeta potentials were measured by an induction current method. The measurements were validated both by a calibration curve based on the data reported in the published papers and by comparing the zeta potential determined by using the Smoluchowski equation and the measured velocity of the electrokinetic motion of particles in a microchannel.

  18. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research.

  19. AKAP-Lbc nucleates a protein kinase D activation scaffold.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Graeme K; Smith, F Donelson; McConnachie, George; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D

    2004-09-24

    The transmission of cellular signals often proceeds through multiprotein complexes where enzymes are positioned in proximity to their upstream activators and downstream substrates. In this report we demonstrate that the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP-Lbc assembles an activation complex for the lipid-dependent enzyme protein kinase D (PKD). Using a combination of biochemical, enzymatic, and immunofluorescence techniques, we show that the anchoring protein contributes to PKD activation in two ways: it recruits an upstream kinase PKCeta and coordinates PKA phosphorylation events that release activated protein kinase D. Thus, AKAP-Lbc synchronizes PKA and PKC activities in a manner that leads to the activation of a third kinase. This configuration illustrates the utility of kinase anchoring as a mechanism to constrain the action of broad-spectrum enzymes.

  20. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  1. The specific activation of TRPC4 by Gi protein subtype.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jae-Pyo; Lee, Kyu Pil; Park, Eun Jung; Sung, Tae Sik; Kim, Byung Joo; Jeon, Ju-Hong; So, Insuk

    2008-12-12

    The classical type of transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) is a molecular candidate for Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels in mammalian cells. Especially, TRPC4 has the similar properties to Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) activated by muscarinic stimulation in visceral smooth muscles. In visceral smooth muscles, NSCCs activated by muscarinic stimulation were blocked by anti-Galphai/o antibodies. However, there is still no report which Galpha proteins are involved in the activation process of TRPC4. Among Galpha proteins, only Galphai protein can activate TRPC4 channel. The activation effect of Galphai was specific for TRPC4 because Galphai has no activation effect on TRPC5, TRPC6 and TRPV6. Coexpression with muscarinic receptor M2 induced TRPC4 current activation by muscarinic stimulation with carbachol, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin. These results suggest that Galphai is involved specifically in the activation of TRPC4.

  2. How do wettability, zeta potential and hydroxylation degree affect the biological response of biomaterials?

    PubMed

    Spriano, S; Sarath Chandra, V; Cochis, A; Uberti, F; Rimondini, L; Bertone, E; Vitale, A; Scolaro, C; Ferrari, M; Cirisano, F; Gautier di Confiengo, G; Ferraris, S

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that composition, electric charge, wettability and roughness of implant surfaces have great influence on their interaction with the biological fluids and tissues, but systematic studies of different materials in the same experimental conditions are still lacking in the scientific literature. The aim of this research is to investigate the correlations between some surface characteristics (wettability, zeta potential and hydroxylation degree) and the biological response (protein adsorption, blood wettability, cell and bacterial adhesion) to some model biomaterials. The resulting knowledge can be applied for the development of future innovative surfaces for implantable biomaterials. Roughness was not considered as a variable because it is a widely explored feature: smooth surfaces prepared by a controlled protocol were compared in order to have no roughness effects. Three oxides (ZrO2, Al2O3, SiO2), three metals (316LSS steel, Ti, Nb) and two polymers (corona treated polystyrene for cell culture and untreated polystyrene for bacteria culture), widely used for biomedical applications, were considered. The surfaces were characterized by contact profilometry, SEM-EDS, XPS, FTIR, zeta potential and wettability with different fluids. Protein adsorption, blood wettability, bacterial and cell adhesion were evaluated in order to investigate the correlations between the surface physiochemical properties and biological responses. From a methodological standpoint, XPS and electrokinetic measurements emerged as the more suitable techniques respectively for the evaluation of hydroxylation degree and surface charge/isoelectric point. Moreover, determination of wettability by blood appeared a specific and crucial test, the results of which are not easily predictable by using other type of tests. Hydroxylation degree resulted correlated to the wettability by water, but not directly to surface charge. Wetting tests with different media showed the possibility to

  3. Protein Crystal Growth Activities on STS-42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) middeck payload is currently manifested to fly on STS-42 in January 1992. This payload is a joint effort between NASA s Office of Commercial Programs (OCP) and Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The PCG experiments are managed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) based at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). This is the eighth flight of a payload in the PCG program that is jointly sponsored by the OCP and the OSSA. The flight hardware for STS-42 includes six Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA) trays stored in two Refrigerator/Incubator Modules (R/TM s). The VDA trays will simultaneously conduct 120 experiments involving 15 different protein compounds, four of which are sponsored by the OCP, the UAB CCDS, and four co-investigators.

  4. Breadboard activities for advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The proposed work entails the design, assembly, testing, and delivery of a turn-key system for the semi-automated determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature. The system will utilize optical scintillation as a means of detecting and monitoring nucleation and crystallite growth during temperature lowering (or raising, with retrograde solubility systems). The deliverables of this contract are: (1) turn-key scintillation system for the semi-automatic determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature, (2) instructions and software package for the operation of the scintillation system, and (3) one semi-annual and one final report including the test results obtained for ovostatin with the above scintillation system.

  5. New constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Silva, Maria Z R; Bruno-Moreno, Frederico; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2015-11-01

    Proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. So far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. Osmotin from Carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the Calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. To get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. Two potential osmotin-like proteins in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Plumeria rubra latex were detected by immunological cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies produced against the C. procera latex osmotin (CpOsm) by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot assays. Osmotin-like proteins were not detected in the latex of Thevetia peruviana, Himatanthus drasticus and healthy Carica papaya fruits. Later, the two new osmotin-like proteins were purified through immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-CpOsm immobilized antibodies. Worth noting the chromatographic efficiency allowed for the purification of the osmotin-like protein belonging to H. drasticus latex, which was not detectable by immunoassays. The identification of the purified proteins was confirmed after MS/MS analyses of their tryptic digests. It is concluded that the constitutive osmotin-like proteins reported here share structural similarities to CpOsm. However, unlike CpOsm, they did not exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These results suggest that osmotins of different latex sources may be involved in distinct physiological or defensive events.

  6. On the role of phosphatidylethanolamine in the inhibition of activated protein C activity by antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, M D; Triplett, D T; Comp, P C; Esmon, N L; Esmon, C T

    1995-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is an important membrane component for supporting activated protein C anticoagulant activity but has little influence on prothrombin activation. This difference constitutes a potential mechanism for selective inhibition of the protein C anticoagulant pathway by lupus anticoagulants and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of PE augments lupus anticoagulant activity. In the plasma of some patients with lupus anticoagulants, activated protein C anticoagulant activity is more potently inhibited than prothrombin activation. As a result, in the presence of activated protein C and PE, these patient plasmas clot faster than normal plasma. Patients with minimal lupus anticoagulant activity are identified whose plasma potently inhibits activated protein C anticoagulant activity. This process is also PE dependent. In three patient plasmas, these phenomena are shown to be due to immunoglobulins. The PE requirement in the expression of activated protein C anticoagulant activity and the PE dependence of some antiphospholipid antibodies provide a mechanistic basis for the selective inhibition of the protein C pathway. Inhibition of activated protein C function may be a common mechanism contributing to increased thrombotic risk in certain patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:7814631

  7. Expression of proteins and protein kinase activity during germination of aerial spores of Streptomyces granaticolor.

    PubMed

    Mikulík, Karel; Bobek, Jan; Bezousková, Silvia; Benada, Oldrich; Kofronová, Olga

    2002-11-29

    Dormant aerial spores of Streptomyces granaticolor contain pre-existing pool of mRNA and active ribosomes for rapid translation of proteins required for earlier steps of germination. Activated spores were labeled for 30 min with [35S]methionine/cysteine in the presence or absence of rifamycin (400 microg/ml) and resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis. About 320 proteins were synthesized during the first 30 min of cultivation at the beginning of swelling, before the first DNA replication. Results from nine different experiments performed in the presence of rifamycin revealed 15 protein spots. Transition from dormant spores to swollen spores is not affected by the presence of rifamycin but further development of spores is stopped. To support existence of pre-existing pool of mRNA in spores, cell-free extract of spores (S30 fraction) was used for in vitro protein synthesis. These results indicate that RNA of spores possesses mRNA functionally competent and provides templates for protein synthesis. Cell-free extracts isolated from spores, activated spores, and during spore germination were further examined for in vitro protein phosphorylation. The analyses show that preparation from dormant spores catalyzes phosphorylation of only seven proteins. In the absence of phosphatase inhibitors, several proteins were partially dephosphorylated. The activation of spores leads to a reduction in phosphorylation activity. Results from in vitro phosphorylation reaction indicate that during germination phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of proteins is a complex function of developmental changes.

  8. Adaptor protein Nck1 interacts with p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein and regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Ger, Marija; Zitkus, Zigmantas; Valius, Mindaugas

    2011-10-01

    Adaptor protein Nck1 binds a number of intracellular proteins and influences various signaling pathways. Here we show that Nck1 directly binds and activates the GTPase-activating protein of Ras (RasGAP), which is responsible for the down-regulation of Ras. The first and the third SH3 domains of Nck1 and the NH(2)-terminal proline-rich sequence of RasGAP contribute most to the complex formation causing direct molecular interaction between the two proteins. Cell adhesion to the substrate is obligatory for the Nck1 and RasGAP association, as cell detachment makes RasGAP incapable of associating with Nck1. This leads to the complex dissipation, decrease of RasGAP activity and the increase of H-Ras-GTP level in the detached cells. Our findings reveal unexpected feature of adaptor protein Nck1 as the regulator of RasGAP activity.

  9. In situ protein folding and activation in bacterial inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Montalban, Nuria; Natalello, Antonino; García-Fruitós, Elena; Villaverde, Antonio; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2008-07-01

    Recent observations indicate that bacterial inclusion bodies formed in absence of the main chaperone DnaK result largely enriched in functional, properly folded recombinant proteins. Unfortunately, the molecular basis of this intriguing fact, with obvious biotechnological interest, remains unsolved. We have explored here two non-excluding physiological mechanisms that could account for this observation, namely selective removal of inactive polypeptides from inclusion bodies or in situ functional activation of the embedded proteins. By combining structural and functional analysis, we have not observed any preferential selection of inactive and misfolded protein species by the dissagregating machinery during inclusion body disintegration. Instead, our data strongly support that folding intermediates aggregated as inclusion bodies could complete their natural folding process once deposited in protein clusters, which conduces to significant functional activation. In addition, in situ folding and protein activation in inclusion bodies is negatively regulated by the chaperone DnaK.

  10. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  11. Controlled Activation of Protein Rotational Dynamics Using Smart Hydrogel Tethering

    SciTech Connect

    Beech, Brenda M.; Xiong, Yijia; Boschek, Curt B.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Squier, Thomas C.

    2014-09-05

    Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications to take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with [13C] and [15N], permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Upon initial formation of hydrogels protein dynamics are suppressed, with concomitant increases in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in the activation of protein dynamics and restoration of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain motions necessary for substrate binding.

  12. An elementary and real approach to values of the Riemann zeta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasaryan, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    An elementary approach for computing the values at negative integers of the Riemann zeta function is presented. The approach is based on a new method for ordering the integers. We show that the values of the Riemann zeta function can be computed, without using the theory of analytic continuation and any knowledge of functions of complex variable.

  13. 40 CFR 180.418 - Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.418 Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances for... (±))(cis-trans 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2 dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate and its inactive R-isomers in...

  14. 40 CFR 180.418 - Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances for residues. 180.418 Section 180.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.418 Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances...

  15. 40 CFR 180.418 - Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances for residues. 180.418 Section 180.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.418 Cypermethrin and an isomer zeta-cypermethrin; tolerances...

  16. Optimization of zeta potential profile for low-dispersion flows in microchannel turns.

    PubMed

    Park, H M; Hong, S M; Lee, J S

    2007-03-21

    A method is developed to determine the optimal profile of zeta potential around U turns such that the turn-induced spreading of a solute band is minimized. After proposing a velocity profile that eliminates the racetrack effect, a conjugate gradient method is adopted to find the zeta potential profile to induce the required velocity. The optimal profiles of zeta potential seem to be insensitive to the relevant parameters of electroosmotic flows. It is shown that a reduction of variance two orders of magnitude below that of a comparable turn with uniform zeta potential is easily attained by adopting the optimal profile of zeta potential, which can be realized using a UV excimer laser or external voltage control.

  17. Cloning of three novel neuronal Cdk5 activator binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, Y P; Qi, Z; Wang, J H

    2000-01-25

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and neuro-cytoskeleton dynamics. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and a 25 kDa activator protein (p25nck5a) derived from a 35 kDa neuronal-specific protein (p35nck5a). As an extension of our previous study (Qi, Z., Tang, D., Zhu, X., Fujita, D.J., Wang, J.H., 1998. Association of neurofilament proteins with neuronal Cdk5 activator. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2329-2335), which showed that neurofilament is one of the p35nck5a-associated proteins, we now report the isolation of three other novel p35nck5a-associated proteins using the yeast two-hybrid screen. The full-length forms of these three novel proteins, designated C42, C48 and C53, have a molecular mass of 66, 24, and 57 kDa, respectively. Northern analysis indicates that these novel proteins are widely expressed in human tissues, including the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. The bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion forms of these three proteins were able to co-precipitate p35nck5a complexed with Cdk5 from insect cell lysate. Among these three proteins, only C48 and C53 can be phosphorylated by Nclk, suggesting that they may be the substrates of Nclk. Sequence homology searches have suggested that the C48 protein is marginally related to restin protein, whereas the C42 protein has homologues of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana.

  18. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks.

  19. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    PubMed Central

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  20. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip

    2005-06-30

    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  1. Metaproteomics: Evaluation of protein extraction from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Susan Hove; Stensballe, Allan; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Herbst, Florian-Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Metaproteomic studies of full-scale activated sludge systems require reproducible protein extraction methods. A systematic evaluation of three different extractions protocols, each in combination with three different methods of cell lysis, and a commercial kit were evaluated. Criteria used for comparison of each method included the extracted protein concentration and the number of identified proteins and peptides as well as their phylogenetic, cell localization and functional distribution and quantitative reproducibility. Furthermore, the advantage of using specific metagenomes and a 2-step database approach was illustrated. The results recommend a protocol for protein extraction from activated sludge based on the protein extraction reagent B-Per and bead beating. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000862 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000862).

  2. Depletion of WRN protein causes RACK1 to activate several protein kinase C isoforms.

    PubMed

    Massip, L; Garand, C; Labbé, A; Perreault, E; Turaga, R V N; Bohr, V A; Lebel, M

    2010-03-11

    Werner's syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies. The protein defective in patients with WS (WRN) is a helicase/exonuclease involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription and telomere maintenance. In this study, we show that a knock down of the WRN protein in normal human fibroblasts induces phosphorylation and activation of several protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. Using a tandem affinity purification strategy, we found that WRN physically and functionally interacts with receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1), a highly conserved anchoring protein involved in various biological processes, such as cell growth and proliferation. RACK1 binds strongly to the RQC domain of WRN and weakly to its acidic repeat region. Purified RACK1 has no impact on the helicase activity of WRN, but selectively inhibits WRN exonuclease activity in vitro. Interestingly, knocking down RACK1 increased the cellular frequency of DNA breaks. Depletion of the WRN protein in return caused a fraction of nuclear RACK1 to translocate out of the nucleus to bind and activate PKCdelta and PKCbetaII in the membrane fraction of cells. In contrast, different DNA-damaging treatments known to activate PKCs did not induce RACK1/PKCs association in cells. Overall, our results indicate that a depletion of the WRN protein in normal fibroblasts causes the activation of several PKCs through translocation and association of RACK1 with such kinases.

  3. Depletion of WRN protein causes RACK1 to activate several protein kinase C isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Massip, L; Garand, C; Labbé, A; Perreault, È; Turaga, RVN; Bohr, VA; Lebel, M

    2015-01-01

    Werner’s syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies. The protein defective in patients with WS (WRN) is a helicase/exonuclease involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription and telomere maintenance. In this study, we show that a knock down of the WRN protein in normal human fibroblasts induces phosphorylation and activation of several protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. Using a tandem affinity purification strategy, we found that WRN physically and functionally interacts with receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1), a highly conserved anchoring protein involved in various biological processes, such as cell growth and proliferation. RACK1 binds strongly to the RQC domain of WRN and weakly to its acidic repeat region. Purified RACK1 has no impact on the helicase activity of WRN, but selectively inhibits WRN exonuclease activity in vitro. Interestingly, knocking down RACK1 increased the cellular frequency of DNA breaks. Depletion of the WRN protein in return caused a fraction of nuclear RACK1 to translocate out of the nucleus to bind and activate PKCδ and PKCβII in the membrane fraction of cells. In contrast, different DNA-damaging treatments known to activate PKCs did not induce RACK1/PKCs association in cells. Overall, our results indicate that a depletion of the WRN protein in normal fibroblasts causes the activation of several PKCs through translocation and association of RACK1 with such kinases. PMID:19966859

  4. SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein interacts with cellular pyruvate kinase protein and inhibits its activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Yen; Li, Hui-Chun; Chen, Chiung-Yao; Yang, Chee-Hing; Lee, Shen-Kao; Wang, Chia-Wen; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Juang, Yue-Li; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2012-04-01

    The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV remains largely unknown. To study the function of the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein, we have conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment to identify cellular proteins that may interact with the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein. Pyruvate kinase (liver) was found to interact with SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in this experiment. The binding domains of these two proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. The physical interaction between the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid and cellular pyruvate kinase (liver) proteins was further confirmed by GST pull-down assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopy. Cellular pyruvate kinase activity in hepatoma cells was repressed by SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in either transiently transfected or stably transfected cells. PK deficiency in red blood cells is known to result in human hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. It is reasonable to assume that an inhibition of PKL activity due to interaction with SARS-CoV N protein is likely to cause the death of the hepatocytes, which results in the elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and liver dysfunction noted in most SARS patients. Thus, our results suggest that SARS-CoV could reduce pyruvate kinase activity via its nucleocapsid protein, and this may in turn cause disease.

  5. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Span, Elise A.; Kalous, Kelsey S.; Kutty, Raman G.; Jensen, Davin R.; Pokkuluri, Phani Raj; Sem, Daniel S.; Rathore, Rajendra; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function. We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.

  6. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function.more » We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.« less

  7. Specific modulation of protein activity by using a bioorthogonal reaction.

    PubMed

    Warner, John B; Muthusamy, Anand K; Petersson, E James

    2014-11-24

    Unnatural amino acids with bioorthogonal reactive groups have the potential to provide a rapid and specific mechanism for covalently inhibiting a protein of interest. Here, we use mutagenesis to insert an unnatural amino acid containing an azide group (Z) into the target protein at positions such that a "click" reaction with an alkyne modulator (X) will alter the function of the protein. This bioorthogonally reactive pair can engender specificity of X for the Z-containing protein, even if the target is otherwise identical to another protein, allowing for rapid target validation in living cells. We demonstrate our method using inhibition of the Escherichia coli enzyme aminoacyl transferase by both active-site occlusion and allosteric mechanisms. We have termed this a "clickable magic bullet" strategy, and it should be generally applicable to studying the effects of protein inhibition, within the limits of unnatural amino acid mutagenesis.

  8. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L.; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease. PMID:26835446

  9. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  10. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Scheel, Dierk

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554) in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins) as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression—including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding, and degradation) steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:26579181

  11. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A.; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Sadler, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity. PMID:28281686

  12. HMG Proteins and DNA Flexibility in Transcription Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Eric D.; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Maher, L. James

    2001-01-01

    The relative stiffness of naked DNA is evident from measured values of longitudinal persistence length (∼150 bp) and torsional persistence length (∼180 bp). These parameters predict that certain arrangements of eukaryotic transcription activator proteins in gene promoters should be much more effective than others in fostering protein-protein interactions with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus. Thus, if such interactions require some kind of DNA looping, DNA loop energies should depend sensitively on helical phasing of protein binding sites, loop size, and intrinsic DNA curvature within the loop. Using families of artificial transcription templates where these parameters were varied, we were surprised to find that the degree of transcription activation by arrays of Gal4-VP1 transcription activators in HeLa cell nuclear extract was sensitive only to the linear distance separating a basal promoter from an array of bound activators on DNA templates. We now examine the hypothesis that this unexpected result is due to factors in the extract that act to enhance apparent DNA flexibility. We demonstrate that HeLa cell nuclear extract is rich in a heat-resistant activity that dramatically enhances apparent DNA longitudinal and torsional flexibility. Recombinant mammalian high-mobility group 2 (HMG-2) protein can substitute for this activity. We propose that the abundance of HMG proteins in eukaryotic nuclei provides an environment in which DNA is made sufficiently flexible to remove many constraints on protein binding site arrangements that would otherwise limit efficient transcription activation to certain promoter geometries. PMID:11533247

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alexandra Martins dos Santos; de Araújo, Sandra Alves; Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Costa Junior, Livio Martins

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract), SE (shell extract) and CE (cotyledon extract). Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL-1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL-1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50) was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL-1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts.

  14. Steady-state compartmentalization of lipid membranes by active proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sabra, M C; Mouritsen, O G

    1998-01-01

    Using a simple microscopic model of lipid-protein interactions, based on the hydrophobic matching principle, we study some generic aspects of lipid-membrane compartmentalization controlled by a dispersion of active integral membrane proteins. The activity of the proteins is simulated by conformational excitations governed by an external drive, and the deexcitation is controlled by interaction of the protein with its lipid surroundings. In response to the flux of energy into the proteins from the environment and the subsequent dissipation of energy into the lipid bilayer, the lipid-protein assembly reorganizes into a steady-state structure with a typical length scale determined by the strength of the external drive. In the specific case of a mixed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the gel-fluid coexistence region, it is shown explicitly by computer simulation that the activity of an integral membrane protein can lead to a compartmentalization of the lipid-bilayer membrane. The compartmentalization is related to the dynamical process of phase separation and lipid domain formation. PMID:9533687

  15. Modeling the SHG activities of diverse protein crystals

    PubMed Central

    Haupert, Levi M.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    A symmetry-additive ab initio model for second-harmonic generation (SHG) activity of protein crystals was applied to assess the likely protein-crystal coverage of SHG microscopy. Calculations were performed for 250 proteins in nine point-group symmetries: a total of 2250 crystals. The model suggests that the crystal symmetry and the limit of detection of the instrument are expected to be the strongest predictors of coverage of the factors considered, which also included secondary-structural content and protein size. Much of the diversity in SHG activity is expected to arise primarily from the variability in the intrinsic protein response as well as the orientation within the crystal lattice. Two or more orders-of-­magnitude variation in intensity are expected even within protein crystals of the same symmetry. SHG measurements of tetragonal lysozyme crystals confirmed detection, from which a protein coverage of ∼84% was estimated based on the proportion of proteins calculated to produce SHG responses greater than that of tetragonal lysozyme. Good agreement was observed between the measured and calculated ratios of the SHG intensity from lysozyme in tetragonal and monoclinic lattices. PMID:23090400

  16. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  17. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  18. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  19. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2016-04-15

    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model.

  20. Utilizing avidity to improve antifreeze protein activity: a type III antifreeze protein trimer exhibits increased thermal hysteresis activity.

    PubMed

    Can, Özge; Holland, Nolan B

    2013-12-03

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice growth inhibitors that allow the survival of several species living at temperatures colder than the freezing point of their bodily fluids. AFP activity is commonly defined in terms of thermal hysteresis, which is the difference observed for the solution freezing and melting temperatures. Increasing the thermal hysteresis activity of these proteins, particularly at low concentrations, is of great interest because of their wide range of potential applications. In this study, we have designed and expressed one-, two-, and three-domain antifreeze proteins to improve thermal hysteresis activity through increased binding avidity. The three-domain type III AFP yielded significantly greater activity than the one- and two-domain proteins, reaching a thermal hysteresis of >1.6 °C at a concentration of <1 mM. To elucidate the basis of this increase, the data were fit to a multidomain protein adsorption model based on the classical Langmuir isotherm. Fits of the data to the modified isotherms yield values for the equilibrium binding constants for the adsorption of AFP to ice and indicate that protein surface coverage is proportional to thermal hysteresis activity.

  1. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  2. Counteracting Protein Kinase Activity in the Heart: The Multiple Roles of Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Silvio; Meyer-Roxlau, Stefanie; Wagner, Michael; Dobrev, Dobromir; El-Armouche, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Decades of cardiovascular research have shown that variable and flexible levels of protein phosphorylation are necessary to maintain cardiac function. A delicate balance between phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states of proteins is guaranteed by a complex interplay of protein kinases (PKs) and phosphatases. Serine/threonine phosphatases, in particular members of the protein phosphatase (PP) family govern dephosphorylation of the majority of these cardiac proteins. Recent findings have however shown that PPs do not only dephosphorylate previously phosphorylated proteins as a passive control mechanism but are capable to actively control PK activity via different direct and indirect signaling pathways. These control mechanisms can take place on (epi-)genetic, (post-)transcriptional, and (post-)translational levels. In addition PPs themselves are targets of a plethora of proteinaceous interaction partner regulating their endogenous activity, thus adding another level of complexity and feedback control toward this system. Finally, novel approaches are underway to achieve spatiotemporal pharmacologic control of PPs which in turn can be used to fine-tune misleaded PK activity in heart disease. Taken together, this review comprehensively summarizes the major aspects of PP-mediated PK regulation and discusses the subsequent consequences of deregulated PP activity for cardiovascular diseases in depth. PMID:26617522

  3. Protein kinase C activators inhibit capillary endothelial cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Doctrow, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binds specifically to bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells (K/sub d/ = 8nM) and inhibits the proliferation (K/sub 50/ = 6 +/- 4 nM). Under similar conditions, PDBu does not inhibit the growth of bovine aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells. PDBu markedly attenuates the response of BCE cells to purified human hepatoma-derived growth factor which, in the absence of PDBu, stimulates BCE cell growth by about 3-fold. Several observations suggest that the inhibition of BCE cell growth by PDBu is mediated by protein kinase C: (1) different phorbol compounds inhibit BCE cell growth according to the relative potencies as protein kinase C activators (12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate > PDBu >> phorbol 12,13-diacetate >>>..beta..-phorbol; ..cap alpha..-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate). (2) Specific binding of PDBu to BCE cells is displaced by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/), a protein kinase C activator and an analog of the putative second messenger activating this kinase in vivo. The weak protein kinase C activator, sn-1,2-dibutyrylglycerol, does not affect PDBu binding. (3) A cytosolic extract from BCE cells contains a Ca/sup 2 +//phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase that is activated by diC/sub 8/ and PDBu, but not by ..beta..-phorbol. These results support a role for protein kinase C in suppressing capillary endothelial cell growth and may therefore have implications in the intracellular regulation of angiogenesis.

  4. Enzymatic Activity of the Scaffold Protein Rapsyn for Synapse Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Cao, Yu; Wu, Haitao; Ye, Xinchun; Zhu, Zhihui; Xing, Guanglin; Shen, Chengyong; Barik, Arnab; Zhang, Bin; Xie, Xiaoling; Zhi, Wenbo; Gan, Lin; Su, Huabo; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2016-12-07

    Neurotransmission is ensured by a high concentration of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynaptic membrane. This is mediated by scaffold proteins that bridge the receptors with cytoskeleton. One such protein is rapsyn (receptor-associated protein at synapse), which is essential for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and NMJ (neuromuscular junction) formation. We show that the RING domain of rapsyn contains E3 ligase activity. Mutation of the RING domain that abolishes the enzyme activity inhibits rapsyn- as well as agrin-induced AChR clustering in heterologous and muscle cells. Further biological and genetic studies support a working model where rapsyn, a classic scaffold protein, serves as an E3 ligase to induce AChR clustering and NMJ formation, possibly by regulation of AChR neddylation. This study identifies a previously unappreciated enzymatic function of rapsyn and a role of neddylation in synapse formation, and reveals a potential target of therapeutic intervention for relevant neurological disorders.

  5. The role of adapter proteins in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Koretzky, G A; Boerth, N J

    1999-12-01

    Engagement of antigen receptors on lymphocytes leads to a myriad of complex signal transduction cascades. Recently, work from several laboratories has led to the identification and characterization of novel adapter molecules, proteins with no intrinsic enzymatic activity but which integrate signal transduction pathways by mediating protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, it appears that many of these adapter proteins play as critical a role as the effector enzymes themselves in both lymphocyte development and activation. This review describes some of the biochemical and molecular features of several of these newly identified hematopoietic cell-specific adapter molecules highlighting their importance in regulating (both positively and negatively) signal transduction mediated by the T cell antigen receptor.

  6. The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, S C; Woods, A; Jones, N A; Davison, M D; Carling, D

    2000-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio within the cell. AMPK is regulated allosterically by AMP and by reversible phosphorylation. Threonine-172 within the catalytic subunit (alpha) of AMPK (Thr(172)) was identified as the major site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) in vitro. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to study the role of phosphorylation of Thr(172) on AMPK activity. Mutation of Thr(172) to an aspartic acid residue (T172D) in either alpha1 or alpha2 resulted in a kinase complex with approx. 50% the activity of the corresponding wild-type complex. The activity of wild-type AMPK decreased by greater than 90% following treatment with protein phosphatases, whereas the activity of the T172D mutant complex fell by only 10-15%. Mutation of Thr(172) to an alanine residue (T172A) almost completely abolished kinase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Thr(172) accounts for most of the activation by AMPKK, but that other sites are involved. In support of this we have shown that AMPKK phosphorylates at least two other sites on the alpha subunit and one site on the beta subunit. Furthermore, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of Thr(172) may be involved in the sensitivity of the AMPK complex to AMP. PMID:10642499

  7. Protein profiling of mouse livers with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ruiyin; Lim, Hanjo; Brumfield, Laura; Liu, Hong; Herring, Chris; Ulintz, Peter; Reddy, Janardan K; Davison, Matthew

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is important in the induction of cell-specific pleiotropic responses, including the development of liver tumors, when it is chronically activated by structurally diverse synthetic ligands such as Wy-14,643 or by unmetabolized endogenous ligands resulting from the disruption of the gene encoding acyl coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (AOX). Alterations in gene expression patterns in livers with PPARalpha activation were delineated by using a proteomic approach to analyze liver proteins of Wy-14,643-treated and AOX(-/-) mice. We identified 46 differentially expressed proteins in mouse livers with PPARalpha activation. Up-regulated proteins, including acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase, are involved in fatty acid metabolism, whereas down-regulated proteins, including ketohexokinase, formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase, fructose-bisphosphatase aldolase B, sarcosine dehydrogenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among stress response and xenobiotic metabolism proteins, selenium-binding protein 2 and catalase showed a dramatic approximately 18-fold decrease in expression and a modest approximately 6-fold increase in expression, respectively. In addition, glycine N-methyltransferase, pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, and protein phosphatase 1D were down-regulated with PPARalpha activation. These observations establish proteomic profiles reflecting a common and predictable pattern of differential protein expression in livers with PPARalpha activation. We conclude that livers with PPARalpha activation are transcriptionally geared towards fatty acid combustion.

  8. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  9. [Antimodification activity of the ArdA and Ocr proteins].

    PubMed

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G V; Kotova, V Iu; Rastorguev, S M

    2011-02-01

    The ArdA and Ocr antirestriction proteins, whose genes are in transmissible plasmids (ardA) and bacteriophage genomes (0.3 (ocr)), specifically inhibit type I restriction-modification enzymes. The Ocr protein (T7 bacteriophage) was shown to inhibit both restriction (endonuclease) and modification (methylase) activities of the EcoKI enzyme in a broad range of intracellular concentrations (starting from 10-20 molecules per cell). In contrast to Ocr, the ArdA protein (ColIb-P9 transmissible plasmid) inhibited both of the EcoKI activities only at high intracellular concentrations (30000-40000 molecules per cell). When the ArdA concentration was several fold lower, only endonuclease activity of EcoKI was inhibited. It was assumed that a poorer ArdA ability to inhibit EcoKI modification activity is related to the substantial difference in life cycle between transmissible plasmids (symbiosis with the bacterial cell) and bacteriophages (infection and lysis of bacteria). The Ocr and ArdA mutants that inhibited exclusively endonuclease activity of EcoKI were obtained. Antirestriction proteins incapable of homodimerization were assumed to inhibit only endonuclease activity of type I restriction-modification enzymes.

  10. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  11. [Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase activity].

    PubMed

    Haga, T; Haga, K; Kameyama, K; Nakata, H

    1994-09-01

    Recent progress on the activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases is reviewed. beta-Adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is activated by G protein beta gamma -subunits, which interact with the carboxyl terminal portion of beta ARK. Muscarinic receptor m2-subtypes are phosphorylated by beta ARK1 in the central part of the third intracellular loop (I3). Phosphorylation of I3-GST fusion protein by beta ARK1 is synergistically stimulated by the beta gamma -subunits and mastoparan or a peptide corresponding to portions adjacent to the transmembrane segments of m2-receptors or by beta gamma -subunits and the agonist-bound I3-deleted m2 variant. These results indicate that agonist-bound receptors serve as both substrates and activators of beta ARK.

  12. Mechanism of inhibition of protein kinase C by 14-3-3 isoforms. 14-3-3 isoforms do not have phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, K; Jones, D; Patel, Y; Martin, H; Madrazo, J; Martin, S; Howell, S; Elmore, M; Finnen, M J; Aitken, A

    1994-01-01

    The ability of individual members of the 14-3-3 protein family to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) has been studied by using a synthetic peptide based on the specific 80 kDa substrate for PKC (MARCKS protein) in two different assay systems. Recombinant 14-3-3 and isoforms renatured by a novel method after separation by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. were studied. The detailed effects of diacylglycerol and the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on the inhibition were also investigated. This suggests that one of the sites of interaction of 14-3-3 may be the cysteine-rich (C1) domain in PKC. Since a region in secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) shares similarity with this domain, the ability of 14-3-3 to interact with mammalian PLA2 was studied. Cytosolic PLA2 has some similarity to the C2 region of PKC, and the effect of 14-3-3 on this class of PLA2 was also analysed. In contrast with a previous report, no PLA2 activity was found in brain 14-3-3, nor in any of the recombinant proteins tested. These include zeta 14-3-3 isoform, on which the original observation was made. Images Figure 2 PMID:8192676

  13. [Histidine triad protein superfamily--biological function and enzymatic activity].

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Fryc, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The HIT superfamily consists of proteins that share the histidine triad motif, His-X-His-X-His-X-X (where X is a hydrophobic amino acid), which constitutes enzymatic catalytic center. These enzymes act as nucleotidylyl hydrolase or transferase, and the mutation of the second histidine in the triad abolishes their activity. HIT proteins were found ubiquitous in all organisms and they were classified into 5 branches, which are represented by human proteins: HINT1, FHIT, Aprataxin, GALT and DCPS. Because HINT1 orthologs, which belong to the evolutionally oldest family branch, were found from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, it is clear that HIT motif was conserved during the evolution what means that the enzymatic activity is necessary for functions of these proteins. However, in few cases, e.g. HINT1 and FHIT, the connection between the biological function and the enzymatic activity is still obscure. In this review, the relations between biology and activity for 7 HIT proteins, which were found in human, are highlighted.

  14. Signal peptides are allosteric activators of the protein translocase

    PubMed Central

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Gelis, Ioannis; Kalodimos, Charalampos G.; Economou, Anastassios

    2010-01-01

    Extra-cytoplasmic polypeptides are usually synthesized as “preproteins” carrying aminoterminal, cleavable signal peptides1 and secreted across membranes by translocases. The main bacterial translocase comprises the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the peripheral ATPase motor SecA2,3. Most proteins destined for the periplasm and beyond are exported post-translationally by SecA2,3. Preprotein targeting to SecA is thought to involve signal peptides4 and chaperones like SecB5,6. Here we reveal that signal peptides have a novel role beyond targeting: they are essential allosteric activators of the translocase. Upon docking on their binding groove on SecA, signal peptides act in trans to drive three successive states: first, “triggering” that drives the translocase to a lower activation energy state; then “trapping” that engages non-native preprotein mature domains docked with high affinity on the secretion apparatus and, finally, “secretion” during which trapped mature domains undergo multiple turnovers of translocation in segments7. A significant contribution by mature domains renders signal peptides less critical in bacterial secretory protein targeting than currently assumed. Rather, it is their function as allosteric activators of the translocase that renders signal peptides essential for protein secretion. A role for signal peptides and targeting sequences as allosteric activators may be universal in protein translocases. PMID:19924216

  15. Quasi-SMILES and nano-QFPR: The predictive model for zeta potentials of metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropov, Andrey A.; Achary, P. Ganga Raju; Toropova, Alla P.

    2016-09-01

    Building up of the predictive quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) for nanomaterials usually are impossible owing to the complexity of the molecular architecture of the nanomaterials. Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is a tool to represent the molecular architecture of "traditional" molecules for "traditional" QSPR/QSAR. The quasi-SMILES is a tool to represent features (conditions and circumstances), which accompany the behavior of nanomaterials. Having, the training set and validation set, so-called quantitative feature-property relationships (QFPRs), based on the quasi-SMILES, one can build up model for zeta potentials of metal oxide nanoparticles for situations characterized by different features.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase--an archetypal protein kinase cascade?

    PubMed

    Hardie, D G; MacKintosh, R W

    1992-10-01

    Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase is the central component of a protein kinase cascade which inactivates three key enzymes involved in the synthesis or release of free fatty acids and cholesterol inside the cell. The kinase cascade is activated by elevation of AMP, and perhaps also by fatty acid and cholesterol metabolites. The system may fulfil a protective function, preventing damage caused by depletion of ATP or excessive intracellular release of free lipids, a type of stress response. Recent evidence suggests that it may have been in existence for at least a billion years, since a very similar protein kinase cascade is present in higher plants. This system therefore represents an early eukaryotic protein kinase cascade, which is unique in that it is regulated by intracellular metabolites rather than extracellular signals or cell cycle events.

  17. Tunnel determinants from spectral zeta functions. Instanton effects in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, A. Alonso; Guilarte, J. Mateos

    2014-07-23

    In this paper we develop an spectral zeta function regularization procedure on the determinants of instanton fluctuation operators that describe the semi-classical order of tunnel effects between degenerate vacua.

  18. Germ cell mitogenic activity is associated with nerve growth factor-like protein(s).

    PubMed

    Onoda, M; Pflug, B; Djakiew, D

    1991-12-01

    The mitogenicity of germ cell proteins released from round spermatids (RS) and pachytene spermatocytes (PS) was investigated. Germ cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation from 90-day-old rat testes and incubated in a supplement enriched culture media that lacked exogenous proteins. The conditioned culture media of RS and PS were dialysed/concentrated and lyophilized to prepare RS protein (RSP) and PS protein (PSP). Mitogenic activity of RSP and PSP was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation into Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. RSP and PSP stimulated 3H-thymidine incorporation by fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. At a higher concentration of RSP (300 micrograms/ml), fibroblast proliferation was stimulated from 6- to 20-fold of control cultures, whereas PSP (300 micrograms/ml) stimulated fibroblast proliferation 2.5-fold of control cultures. Since RSP exhibited substantially greater mitogenic activity than PSP we further investigated the RSP mitogenic substance(s) by immunoneutralization with antibodies against several growth factors. The mitogenic activity of RSP was significantly reduced by treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) antibody, while neither the treatment of RSP with acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) antibody, nor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) antibody significantly modified the mitogenic activity of RSP. Interestingly, murine NGF-beta, recombinant human NGF-beta, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not exhibit mitogenic activity on 3T3 fibroblasts. Nevertheless, the presence of a NGF-like protein in RS and PS was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence staining with a murine NGF antibody. Subsequently, a Western blot analysis with the NGF antibody identified two immunoreactive bands of 41 +/- 2 kDa and 51 +/- 1 kDa in both RSP and PSP under reduced conditions. These germ cell NGF-like proteins were apparently different from similarly prepared murine and human NGFs (13 kDa) in their molecular weight. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth

  19. Characterization of PF4-Heparin Complexes by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Zeta Potential.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Sabrina; Fareed, Jawed; Madaschi, Laura; Risi, Giulia; Torri, Giangiacomo; Naggi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with antibodies to complexes between heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), a basic protein usually found in platelet alpha granules. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies preferentially recognize macromolecular complexes formed between positively charged PF4 and polyanionic heparins over a narrow range of molar ratios. The aim of this work was to study the complexes that human PF4 forms with heparins from various species, such as porcine, bovine, and ovine; heparins from various organs, such as mucosa and lung; and different low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) at several stoichiometric ratios to evaluate their sizes and charges by photo correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The resulting data of the PF4 complexes with unfractionated heparins (UFHs), LMWHs and their fractions, and oligosaccharide components suggest that the size of aggregates is not only a simple function of average molecular weight but also of the molecular weight distribution of the sample. Moreover, it was found that lower concentrations of the tested ovine-derived mucosal heparin are required to form the large PF4/heparin complexes as compared to mucosal porcine and bovine heparin.

  20. Protein Phosphorylation in Amyloplasts Regulates Starch Branching Enzyme Activity and Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tetlow, Ian J.; Wait, Robin; Lu, Zhenxiao; Akkasaeng, Rut; Bowsher, Caroline G.; Esposito, Sergio; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Morell, Matthew K.; Emes, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with γ-32P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in chloroplasts (SBEI and SBEIIa) were shown to be phosphorylated after sequencing of the immunoprecipitated 32P-labeled phosphoproteins using quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated SBE forms indicated that the proteins are all phosphorylated on Ser residues. Analysis of starch granule–associated phosphoproteins after incubation of intact amyloplasts with γ-32P-ATP indicated that the granule-associated forms of SBEII and two granule-associated forms of starch synthase (SS) are phosphorylated, including SSIIa. Measurement of SBE activity in amyloplasts and chloroplasts showed that phosphorylation activated SBEIIa (and SBEIIb in amyloplasts), whereas dephosphorylation using alkaline phosphatase reduced the catalytic activity of both enzymes. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation had no effect on the measurable activity of SBEI in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and the activities of both granule-bound forms of SBEII in amyloplasts were unaffected by dephosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments using peptide-specific anti-SBE antibodies showed that SBEIIb and starch phosphorylase each coimmunoprecipitated with SBEI in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that these enzymes may form protein complexes within the amyloplast in vivo. Conversely, dephosphorylation of immunoprecipitated protein complex led to its disassembly. This article reports direct evidence that enzymes of starch metabolism (amylopectin synthesis) are regulated by protein phosphorylation and indicate a wider role for protein phosphorylation and protein–protein

  1. Interaction between transcriptional activator protein LAC9 and negative regulatory protein GAL80.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, J M; Langdon, S D; Johnston, S A

    1989-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcriptional activation mediated by the GAL4 regulatory protein is repressed in the absence of galactose by the binding of the GAL80 protein, an interaction that requires the carboxy-terminal 28 amino acids of GAL4. The homolog of GAL4 from Kluyveromyces lactis, LAC9, activates transcription in S. cerevisiae and is highly similar to GAL4 in its carboxyl terminus but is not repressed by wild-type levels of GAL80 protein. Here we show that GAL80 does repress LAC9-activated transcription in S. cerevisiae if overproduced. We sought to determine the molecular basis for the difference in the responses of the LAC9 and GAL4 proteins to GAL80. Our results indicate that this difference is due primarily to the fact that under wild-type conditions, the level of LAC9 protein in S. cerevisiae is much higher than that of GAL4, which suggests that LAC9 escapes GAL80-mediated repression by titration of GAL80 protein in vivo. The difference in response to GAL80 is not due to amino acid sequence differences between the LAC9 and GAL4 carboxyl termini. We discuss the implications of these results for the mechanism of galactose metabolism regulation in S. cerevisiae and K. lactis. Images PMID:2550790

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of zeta Reticuly (Adibekyan+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The file table1.dat lists stellar parameters, S/N, and observation dates of zeta1 Ret and zeta2 Ret derived from individual and combined spectra The file ew.dat lists the equivalent widths (EW) of all the spectral lines. The file s_lines.dat lists the lines that were used in this study. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star and spectra. (4 data files).

  3. Physical properties of nanofluid suspension of ferromagnetic graphite with high Zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, N. S.; Rodrigues, A. D.; Cardoso, C. A.; Pardo, H.; Faccio, R.; Mombru, A. W.; Galzerani, J. C.; de Lima, O. F.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) studied through the measurements of its magnetization hysteresis curves, Raman spectrum and the so-called Zeta potential. The obtained results suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature along with a good stability of the dispersed solution (with Zeta potential around 41.3 mV) and a good reactivity between magnetic graphite and CTAB type cationic surfactant.

  4. Actions of Rho family small G proteins and p21-activated protein kinases on mitogen-activated protein kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Xu, S; Hutchison, M R; Marcus, S; Cobb, M H

    1996-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by distinct extracellular stimuli. The currently known members include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), and p38 MAP kinases. We find that overexpression of the Ste20-related enzymes p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK2 in 293 cells is sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK and to a lesser extent p38 MAP kinase but not ERK2. Rat MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 can stimulate the activity of each of these MAP kinases. Although neither activated Rac nor the PAKs stimulate ERK2 activity, overexpression of either dominant negative Rac2 or the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1 inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK2, suggesting a permissive role for Rac in the control of the ERK pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rac2, Cdc42hs, and RhoA synergize with an activated form of Raf to increase ERK2 activity. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection between Rho family small G proteins and the ERK pathway. PMID:8668187

  5. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  6. Multiple switches in G protein-coupled receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Shivani; Smith, Steven O

    2009-09-01

    The activation mechanism of G protein-coupled receptors has presented a puzzle that finally may be close to solution. These receptors have a relatively simple architecture consisting of seven transmembrane helices that contain just a handful of highly conserved amino acids, yet they respond to light and a range of chemically diverse ligands. Recent NMR structural studies on the active metarhodopsin II intermediate of the visual receptor rhodopsin, along with the recent crystal structure of the apoprotein opsin, have revealed multiple structural elements or 'switches' that must be simultaneously triggered to achieve full activation. The confluence of several required structural changes is an example of "coincidence counting", which is often used by nature to regulate biological processes. In ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors, the presence of multiple switches may provide an explanation for the differences between full, partial and inverse agonists.

  7. Functional modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by cereblon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Min; Jo, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyunyoung; Lee, Jongwon; Park, Chul-Seung

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in cereblon (CRBN), a substrate binding component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, cause a form of mental retardation in humans. However, the cellular proteins that interact with CRBN remain largely unknown. Here, we report that CRBN directly interacts with the α1 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK α1) and inhibits the activation of AMPK activation. The ectopic expression of CRBN reduces phosphorylation of AMPK α1 and, thus, inhibits the enzyme in a nutrient-independent manner. Moreover, AMPK α1 can be potently activated by suppressing endogenous CRBN using CRBN-specific small hairpin RNAs. Thus, CRBN may act as a negative modulator of the AMPK signaling pathway in vivo.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is a major regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis that coordinates metabolic pathways in order to balance nutrient supply with energy demand. It is now recognized that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents. Indeed, AMPK activation mimics the beneficial effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets. In addition it is now demonstrated that AMPK is one of the probable (albeit indirect) targets of major antidiabetic drugs including, the biguanides (metformin) and thiazolidinediones, as well as of insulin sensitizing adipokines (e.g., adiponectin). Taken together, such findings highlight the logic underlying the concept of targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21484577

  9. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.

  10. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  11. [Modulators of the regulatory protein activity acting at microdoses].

    PubMed

    Iamskova, V P; Krasnov, M S; Skripnikova, V S; Moliavka, A A; Il'ina, A P; Margasiuk, D V; Borisenko, A V; Berezin, B B; Iamskov, I A

    2009-01-01

    New, previously not studied bioregulators active in the ultra low doses corresponding of 10(-8) - 10(-17) mg/ml have been isolated from vitreoretinal tissue of eye. It has been shown that these bioregulators comprise some regulatory peptides-modulators represented by proteins with molecular weights 15-70 KDa one of which is bovine serum albumin. Correlation between the nanosize of bioregulators and their ability to show activity in ultra low doses is established.

  12. STAT5-Interacting Proteins: A Synopsis of Proteins that Regulate STAT5 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Able, Ashley A.; Burrell, Jasmine A.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are key components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Of the seven STATs, STAT5A and STAT5B are of particular interest for their critical roles in cellular differentiation, adipogenesis, oncogenesis, and immune function. The interactions of STAT5A and STAT5B with cytokine/hormone receptors, nuclear receptors, transcriptional regulators, proto-oncogenes, kinases, and phosphatases all contribute to modulating STAT5 activity. Among these STAT5 interacting proteins, some serve as coactivators or corepressors to regulate STAT5 transcriptional activity and some proteins can interact with STAT5 to enhance or repress STAT5 signaling. In addition, a few STAT5 interacting proteins have been identified as positive regulators of STAT5 that alter serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 while other proteins have been identified as negative regulators of STAT5 via dephosphorylation. This review article will discuss how STAT5 activity is modulated by proteins that physically interact with STAT5. PMID:28287479

  13. The correlation between zeta potential and mucoadhesion strength on pig vesical mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bogataj, Marija; Vovk, Tomaz; Kerec, Mojca; Dimnik, Ales; Grabnar, Iztok; Mrhar, Ales

    2003-05-01

    The detachment forces of various polymers are frequently measured to determine their mucoadhesion strength. As the process of mucoadhesion is a consequence of interactions between the mucus layer on mucosa and mucoadhesive polymers, it is greatly dependent on mucus and polymer structure including their charge. It is also known that the glycosaminoglycan layer, which covers the urinary bladder mucosa surface, is highly negatively charged. Therefore, by measuring the zeta potential of polymer dispersions and mucosal homogenates an insight into electrostatic interactions during mucoadhesion can be obtained. In our experiments we chose three polymers, two anionic (polycarbophil, PC; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, CMCNa) and one cationic (chitosan hydrochloride, CH), for which we expected different zeta potential values and different mucoadhesion strengths. The correlation between the zeta potential and the detachment force was determined. In addition to that, the zeta potential of the scraped surface layer of pig urinary bladders was measured to confirm its negative value. The mucoadhesion strength decreased in the following order: CH>CMCNa=PC. The zeta potentials for all three polymers and for porcine vesical mucosal homogenates were measured in Tyrode solution and two NaCl solutions with different ionic strengths. The lower values of the detachment force correlated well with the more negative zeta potential of the polymer, which might be a consequence of the greater repulsion between negative charges of polymers and glycosaminoglycans.

  14. Optical Tweezers as a New Biomedical Tool to Measure Zeta Potential of Stored Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos A. L.; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Filho, Milton M.; Lucena, Sheyla C.; Costa, Ana Maria D. N.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Santos, Beate S.; Fontes, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusion purposes suffer progressive deterioration. Sialylated glycoproteins of the RBC membrane are responsible for a negatively charged surface which creates a repulsive electrical zeta potential. These charges help prevent the interaction between RBCs and other cells, and especially among each RBCs. Reports in the literature have stated that RBCs sialylated glycoproteins can be sensitive to enzymes released by leukocyte degranulation. Thus, the aim of this study was, by using an optical tweezers as a biomedical tool, to measure the zeta potential in standard RBCs units and in leukocyte reduced RBC units (collected in CPD-SAGM) during storage. Optical tweezers is a sensitive tool that uses light for measuring cell biophysical properties which are important for clinical and research purposes. This is the first study to analyze RBCs membrane charges during storage. In addition, we herein also measured the elasticity of RBCs also collected in CPD-SAGM. In conclusion, the zeta potential decreased 42% and cells were 134% less deformable at the end of storage. The zeta potential from leukodepleted units had a similar profile when compared to units stored without leukoreduction, indicating that leukocyte lyses were not responsible for the zeta potential decay. Flow cytometry measurements of reactive oxygen species suggested that this decay is due to membrane oxidative damages. These results show that measurements of zeta potentials provide new insights about RBCs storage lesion for transfusion purposes. PMID:22363729

  15. Protein kinase A regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    He, Siyuan; Choi, You Hee; Choi, Joong-Kook; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Chun, ChangJu; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2014-10-01

    Osterix belongs to the SP gene family and is a core transcription factor responsible for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase, is essential for controlling bone formation and BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. However, the relationship between Osterix and PKA is still unclear. In this report, we investigated the precise role of the PKA pathway in regulating Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. We found that PKA increased the protein level of Osterix; PKA phosphorylated Osterix, increased protein stability, and enhanced the transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that Osterix is a novel target of PKA, and PKA modulates osteoblast differentiation partially through the regulation of Osterix.

  16. Installing hydrolytic activity into a completely de novo protein framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Antony J.; Thomson, Andrew R.; Dawson, William M.; Brady, R. Leo; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-09-01

    The design of enzyme-like catalysts tests our understanding of sequence-to-structure/function relationships in proteins. Here we install hydrolytic activity predictably into a completely de novo and thermostable α-helical barrel, which comprises seven helices arranged around an accessible channel. We show that the lumen of the barrel accepts 21 mutations to functional polar residues. The resulting variant, which has cysteine-histidine-glutamic acid triads on each helix, hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl acetate with catalytic efficiencies that match the most-efficient redesigned hydrolases based on natural protein scaffolds. This is the first report of a functional catalytic triad engineered into a de novo protein framework. The flexibility of our system also allows the facile incorporation of unnatural side chains to improve activity and probe the catalytic mechanism. Such a predictable and robust construction of truly de novo biocatalysts holds promise for applications in chemical and biochemical synthesis.

  17. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G

    2008-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been called "the metabolic master switch" because of its central role in regulating fuel homeostasis. AMPK, a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, is activated by upstream kinases and by 5'-AMP in response to various nutritional and stress signals. Downstream effects include regulation of metabolism, protein synthesis, cell growth, and mediation of the actions of a number of hormones, including leptin. However, AMPK research represents a young and growing field; hence, there are many unanswered questions regarding the control and action of AMPK. This review presents evidence for the existence of AMPK signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, a genetically tractable model organism that has yet to be fully exploited to elucidate AMPK signaling mechanisms.

  18. A designed supramolecular protein assembly with in vivo enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Woon Ju; Tezcan, F Akif

    2014-12-19

    The generation of new enzymatic activities has mainly relied on repurposing the interiors of preexisting protein folds because of the challenge in designing functional, three-dimensional protein structures from first principles. Here we report an artificial metallo-β-lactamase, constructed via the self-assembly of a structurally and functionally unrelated, monomeric redox protein into a tetrameric assembly that possesses catalytic zinc sites in its interfaces. The designed metallo-β-lactamase is functional in the Escherichia coli periplasm and enables the bacteria to survive treatment with ampicillin. In vivo screening of libraries has yielded a variant that displays a catalytic proficiency [(k(cat)/K(m))/k(uncat)] for ampicillin hydrolysis of 2.3 × 10(6) and features the emergence of a highly mobile loop near the active site, a key component of natural β-lactamases to enable substrate interactions.

  19. New functional assays to selectively quantify the activated protein C- and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, N A; Rosing, J; Thomassen, M C L G D; Castoldi, E; Simioni, P; Hackeng, T M

    2017-02-17

    Essentials Protein S is a cofactor of activated protein C (APC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). There are no assays to quantify separate APC and TFPI cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. We developed assays to measure the APC- and TFPI-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. The assays were sensitive to protein S deficiency, and not affected by the Factor V Leiden mutation.

  20. Protein S as an in vivo cofactor to activated protein C in prevention of microarterial thrombosis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Arnljots, B; Dahlbäck, B

    1995-01-01

    The antithrombotic effects of bovine activated protein C (APC) and protein S were investigated in a rabbit model of microarterial thrombosis. Because of the species specificity of the APC-protein S interaction, bovine APC expresses potent anticoagulant activity in rabbit plasma only when bovine protein S is also present. This provided a way to assess the contribution of bovine protein S to the antithrombotic effect of bovine APC. Rabbits were infused with boluses of activated protein C (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg), protein S (0.5 mg/kg), or activated protein C (0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) plus protein S (0.5 mg/kg). APC alone produced a dose-dependent antithrombotic effect, but only the group receiving the highest dose differed significantly from controls. While a low dose of activated protein C (0.1 mg/kg) alone had no antithrombotic effect, together with protein S (0.5 mg/kg) it produced a potent response. The presented results demonstrate the in vivo significance of protein S as a cofactor to activated protein C. The data show that a potent antithrombotic effect, without hemorrhagic side effects or significant systemic anticoagulation, may be achieved by low doses of activated protein C when combined with protein S. Images PMID:7738165

  1. Monitoring Brain Activity with Protein Voltage and Calcium Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storace, Douglas A.; Braubach, Oliver R.; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo. PMID:25970202

  2. Visible-Light-Triggered Activation of a Protein Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danielle; Li, Jason W; Branda, Neil R

    2017-02-20

    A photoresponsive small molecule undergoes a ring-opening reaction when exposed to visible light and becomes an active inhibitor of the enzyme protein kinase C. This "turning on" of enzyme inhibition with light puts control into the hands of the user, creating the opportunity to regulate when and where enzyme catalysis takes place.

  3. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengnan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Yimin; Zhu, Hanyue; He, Zouyan; Liu, Jianhui; Hao, Wangjun; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2017-03-08

    Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10-13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary

  4. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  5. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  6. Pivotal Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Inflammatory Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Deng, Jing; Wang, Gang; Ye, Richard D.; Christman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase (MK2) is exclusively regulated by p38 MAPK in vivo. Upon activation of p38 MAPK, MK2 binds with p38 MAPK, leading to phosphorylation of TTP, Hsp27, Akt and Cdc25 that are involved in regulation of various essential cellular functions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of MK2 in regulation of TNF-α production, NADPH oxidase activation, neutrophil migration, and DNA-damage-induced cell cycle arrest which are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Collectively current and emerging new information indicate that developing MK2 inhibitors and blocking MK2-mediated signal pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:26119506

  7. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    SciTech Connect

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-03-05

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO/sub 2/ max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O/sub 2//kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from /sup 15/N in urea after oral /sup 15/N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 ..mu..mol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 ..mu..mol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass.

  8. A Novel Method for Assessing the Chaperone Activity of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hristozova, Nevena; Tompa, Peter; Kovacs, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Protein chaperones are molecular machines which function both during homeostasis and stress conditions in all living organisms. Depending on their specific function, molecular chaperones are involved in a plethora of cellular processes by playing key roles in nascent protein chain folding, transport and quality control. Among stress protein families–molecules expressed during adverse conditions, infection, and diseases–chaperones are highly abundant. Their molecular functions range from stabilizing stress-susceptible molecules and membranes to assisting the refolding of stress-damaged proteins, thereby acting as protective barriers against cellular damage. Here we propose a novel technique to test and measure the capability for protective activity of known and putative chaperones in a semi-high throughput manner on a plate reader. The current state of the art does not allow the in vitro measurements of chaperone activity in a highly parallel manner with high accuracy or high reproducibility, thus we believe that the method we report will be of significant benefit in this direction. The use of this method may lead to a considerable increase in the number of experimentally verified proteins with such functions, and may also allow the dissection of their molecular mechanism for a better understanding of their function. PMID:27564234

  9. Design of a Split Intein with Exceptional Protein Splicing Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein trans-splicing (PTS) by split inteins has found widespread use in chemical biology and biotechnology. Herein, we describe the use of a consensus design approach to engineer a split intein with enhanced stability and activity that make it more robust than any known PTS system. Using batch mutagenesis, we first conduct a detailed analysis of the difference in splicing rates between the Npu (fast) and Ssp (slow) split inteins of the DnaE family and find that most impactful residues lie on the second shell of the protein, directly adjacent to the active site. These residues are then used to generate an alignment of 73 naturally occurring DnaE inteins that are predicted to be fast. The consensus sequence from this alignment (Cfa) demonstrates both rapid protein splicing and unprecedented thermal and chaotropic stability. Moreover, when fused to various proteins including antibody heavy chains, the N-terminal fragment of Cfa exhibits increased expression levels relative to other N-intein fusions. The durability and efficiency of Cfa should improve current intein based technologies and may provide a platform for the development of new protein chemistry techniques. PMID:26854538

  10. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  11. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID.

    PubMed

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês C R; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  12. Protein Corona of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Improves Cell Proliferation via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Yang, Qi; Yang, Minggang; Zhan, Xiaohui; Lan, Fang; He, Jing; Gu, Zhongwei; Wu, Yao

    2017-03-21

    The beneficial effect of magnetic scaffolds on the improvement of cell proliferation has been well documented. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms about the magnetic scaffolds stimulating cell proliferation remain largely unknown. Once the scaffold enters into the biological fluids, a protein corona forms and directly influences the biological function of scaffold. This study aimed at investigating the formation of protein coronas on hydroxyapatite (HA) and magnetic hydroxyapatite (MHA) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo, and consequently its effect on regulating cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles (MNP)-infiltrated HA scaffolds altered the composition of protein coronas and ultimately contributed to increased concentration of proteins related to calcium ions, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and MAPK/ERK cascades as compared with pristine HA scaffolds. Noticeably, the enriched functional proteins on MHA samples could efficiently activate of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, resulting in promoting MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, as evidenced by the higher expression levels of the key proteins in the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, including mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases1/2 (MEK1/2) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Artificial down-regulation of MEK expression can significantly down-regulate the MAPK/ERK signaling and consequently suppress the cell proliferation on MHA samples. These findings not only provide a critical insight into the molecular mechanism underlying cellular proliferation on magnetic scaffolds, but also have important implications in the design of magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 lacks immune modulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pooe, Ofentse Jacob; Köllisch, Gabriele; Heine, Holger; Shonhai, Addmore

    2017-02-14

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family are conserved molecules that constitute a major part of the cell's protein folding machinery. The role of Hsp70s of parasitic origin in host cell immune modulation has remained contentious. This is largely due to the fact that several studies implicating Hsp70 in immune modulation rely on the use of recombinant protein derived from bacteria which is often fraught contamination. Thus, in the current study, we expressed recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) using in three bacterial expression hosts: E. coli XL1 Blue, E. coli ClearColi BL21 and Brevibacillus choshinensis, respectively. We further investigated the immunostimulatory capability of the protein by assessing cytokine production by murine immune cells cultured in the presence of the protein. Recombinant PfHsp70 obtained from E. coli XL1 Blue expression host induced IL6 and IL8 cytokines. On the other hand, PfHsp70 produced in E. coli ClearColi and B. choshinensis expression systems was associated with no detectable traces of LPS and exhibited no immunomodulatory activity. Our findings suggest that PfHsp70 does not possess immunomodulatory function. Furthermore, our study suggests that E. coli ClearColi and B. choshinensis are versatile for the production of recombinant protein for use in immunomodulatory studies.

  14. Mechanism for Active Membrane Fusion Triggering by Morbillivirus Attachment Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ader, Nadine; Brindley, Melinda; Avila, Mislay; Örvell, Claes; Horvat, Branka; Hiltensperger, Georg; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The paramyxovirus entry machinery consists of two glycoproteins that tightly cooperate to achieve membrane fusion for cell entry: the tetrameric attachment protein (HN, H, or G, depending on the paramyxovirus genus) and the trimeric fusion protein (F). Here, we explore whether receptor-induced conformational changes within morbillivirus H proteins promote membrane fusion by a mechanism requiring the active destabilization of prefusion F or by the dissociation of prefusion F from intracellularly preformed glycoprotein complexes. To properly probe F conformations, we identified anti-F monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize conformation-dependent epitopes. Through heat treatment as a surrogate for H-mediated F triggering, we demonstrate with these MAbs that the morbillivirus F trimer contains a sufficiently high inherent activation energy barrier to maintain the metastable prefusion state even in the absence of H. This notion was further validated by exploring the conformational states of destabilized F mutants and stabilized soluble F variants combined with the use of a membrane fusion inhibitor (3g). Taken together, our findings reveal that the morbillivirus H protein must lower the activation energy barrier of metastable prefusion F for fusion triggering. PMID:23077316

  15. Pharmacological activities in thermal proteins: relationships in molecular evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Hefti, F.; Hartikka, J.; Junard, E.; Przybylski, A. T.; Vaughan, G.

    1987-01-01

    The model of protobiological events that has been presented in these pages has increasing relevance to pharmacological research. The thermal proteins that function as key substances in the proteinoid theory have recently been found to prolong the survival of rat forebrain neurons in culture and to stimulate the growth of neurites. A search for such activity in thermal proteins added to cultures of modern neurons was suggested by the fact that some of the microspheres assembled from proteinoids rich in hydrophobic amino acids themselves generate fibrous outgrowths.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of activated protein C in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H. Jr.; Kirstein, C.G.; Orthner, C.L. )

    1991-05-15

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen of the serine protease, activated protein C (APC), an important regulatory enzyme in hemostasis. In view of the potential of human APC as an anticoagulant and profibrinolytic agent, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of APC were studied in guinea pigs. The plasma elimination of a trace dose of {sup 125}I-APC was biphasic following an initial rapid elimination of approximately 15% of the injected dose within 1 to 2 minutes. This rapid removal of {sup 125}I-APC from the circulation was found to be a result of an association with the liver regardless of the route of injection. Essentially identical results were obtained with active site-blocked forms of APC generated with either diisopropylfluorophosphate or D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone, which indicates that the active site was not essential for the liver association. Accumulation of all three forms of APC in the liver peaked at 30 minutes and then declined as increasing amounts of degraded radiolabeled material appeared in the gastrointestinal tract and urine. Removal of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) domain of diisopropylphosphoryl-APC resulted in a 50% reduction in the association with liver and an accumulation in the kidneys. Protein C and protein S were cleared from the circulation at rates approximately one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of APC. Both in vitro and in vivo, APC was found to form complexes with protease inhibitors present in guinea pig plasma. Complex formation resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the enzymatic activity of APC than elimination of the protein moiety. These findings indicate two distinct mechanisms for the elimination of APC. One mechanism involves reaction with plasma protease inhibitors and subsequent elimination by specific hepatic receptors. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Novel condensation products having high activity to insolubilize proteins and protein-insolubilized products

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnobajew, V.; Boeniger, R.

    1980-01-01

    According to the invention a substantially more active product with respect to the fixing or insolubilization pf proteins, including enzymes, is obtained when 1,3 phenylenediamine is condensed with glutardialdehyde. One application of the process is the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose in milk products by lactase.

  18. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; White, Christine L; Kessler, Patricia M; Sadler, Anthony J; Williams, Bryan R G; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-12-01

    The murine double-stranded RNA-binding protein termed protein kinase R (PKR)-associated protein X (RAX) and the human homolog, protein activator of PKR (PACT), were originally characterized as activators of PKR. Mice deficient in RAX show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. As these defects are not observed in PKR-deficient mice, the phenotype has been attributed to PKR-independent activities of RAX. Here we further investigated the involvement of PKR in the physiological function of RAX, by generating rax(-/-) mice deficient in PKR, or carrying a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR (K271R) or an unphosphorylatable mutant of the PKR substrate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α subunit (eIF2α) (S51A). Ablating PKR expression rescued the developmental and reproductive deficiencies in rax(-/-) mice. Generating rax(-/-) mice with a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR resulted in similar rescue, confirming that the rax(-/-) defects are PKR dependent; specifically that the kinase activity of PKR was required for these defects. Moreover, generating rax(-/-) mice that were heterozygous for an unphosphorylatable mutant eIF2α provides partial rescue of the rax(-/-) defect, consistent with mutation of one copy of the Eif2s1 gene. These observations were further investigated in vitro by reducing RAX expression in anterior pituitary cells, resulting in increased PKR activity and induction of the PKR-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). These results demonstrate that PKR kinase activity is required for onset of the rax(-/-) phenotype, implying an unexpected function for RAX as a negative regulator of PKR in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and identify a critical role for the regulation of PKR activity for normal development.

  19. Determining the Zeta Potential of Porous Membranes Using Electrolyte Conductivity inside Pores.

    PubMed

    Fievet, P.; Szymczyk, A.; Labbez, C.; Aoubiza, B.; Simon, C.; Foissy, A.; Pagetti, J.

    2001-03-15

    The zeta potential is an important and reliable indicator of the surface charge of membranes, and knowledge of it is essential for the design and operation of membrane processes. The zeta potential cannot be measured directly, but must be deduced from experiments by means of a model. The possibility of determining the zeta potential of porous membranes from measurements of the electrolyte conductivity inside pores (lambda(pore)) is investigated in the case of a ceramic microfiltration membrane. To this end, experimental measurements of the electrical resistance in pores are performed with the membrane filled with KCl solutions of various pHs and concentrations. lambda(pore) is deduced from these experiments. The farther the pH is from the isoelectric point and/or the lower the salt concentration is, the higher the ratio of the electrolyte conductivity inside pores to the bulk conductivity is, due to a more important contribution of the surface conduction. Zeta potentials are calculated from lambda(pore) values by means of a space charge model and compared to those calculated from streaming potential measurements. It is found that the isoelectric points are very close and that zeta potential values for both methods are in quite good agreement. The differences observed in zeta potentials could be due to the fact that the space charge model does not consider the surface conductivity in the inner part of the double layer. Measurements of the electrolyte conductivity within the membrane pores are proved to be a well-adapted procedure for the determination of the zeta potential in situations where the contribution of the surface conduction is significant, i.e., for small and charged pores. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Solubilized placental membrane protein inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, H.V. Jr.; Slater, E.E.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (TK) activity may be important in modulating insulin action. Utilizing an assay which measures IR phosphorylation of angiotensin II (AII), the authors investigated whether fractions of TX-100 solubilized human placental membranes inhibited IR dependent AII phosphorylation. Autophosphorylated IR was incubated with membrane fractions before the addition of AII, and kinase inhibition measured by the loss of TSP incorporated in AII. An inhibitory activity was detected which was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The inhibitor was purified 200-fold by sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite. This inhibitory activity was found to correlate with an 80 KD protein which was electroeluted from preparative slab gels and rabbit antiserum raised. Incubation of membrane fractions with antiserum before the IRTK assay immunoprecipitated the inhibitor. Protein immunoblots of crude or purified fractions revealed only the 80 KD protein. Since IR autophosphorylation is crucial to IRTK activity, the authors investigated the state of IR autophosphorylation after treatment with inhibitor; no change was detected by phosphoamino acid analysis.

  1. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  2. Analysis of antifreeze protein activity using colorimetric gold nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Choi, Ho-seok; Park, Ji-In; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-01

    High activity and long stability of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as ice-binding proteins (IBPs), are necessary for exerting their physiological functions in biotechnology and cryomedicine. Here we report a simple analysis of antifreeze protein activity and stability based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via freezing and thawing cycles. While the mercaptosuccinic acid-capped AuNP (MSA-AuNP) was easily self-assembled after a freezing/thawing cycle, due to the mechanical attack of ice crystal on the MSA-AuNP surface, the presence of AFP impeded the self-assembly of MSA-AuNP via the interaction of AFP with ice crystals via freezing and thawing cycles, which led to a strong color in the MSA-AuNP solution. As a result, the aggregation parameter (E520/E650) of MSA-AuNP showed the rapid detection of both activity and stability of AFPs. We suggest that our newly developed method is very suitable for measuring antifreeze activity and stability in a simple and rapid manner with reliable quantification.

  3. Synthetic phosphorylation of p38α recapitulates protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Chooi, K Phin; Galan, Sébastien R G; Raj, Ritu; McCullagh, James; Mohammed, Shabaz; Jones, Lyn H; Davis, Benjamin G

    2014-02-05

    Through a "tag-and-modify" protein chemical modification strategy, we site-selectively phosphorylated the activation loop of protein kinase p38α. Phosphorylation at natural (180) and unnatural (172) sites created two pure phospho-forms. p38α bearing only a single phosphocysteine (pCys) as a mimic of pThr at 180 was sufficient to switch the kinase to an active state, capable of processing natural protein substrate ATF2; 172 site phosphorylation did not. In this way, we chemically recapitulated triggering of a relevant segment of the MAPK-signaling pathway in vitro. This allowed detailed kinetic analysis of global and stoichiometric phosphorylation events catalyzed by p38α and revealed that site 180 is a sufficient activator alone and engenders dominant mono-phosphorylation activity. Moreover, a survey of kinase inhibition using inhibitors with different (Type I/II) modes (including therapeutically relevant) revealed unambiguously that Type II inhibitors inhibit phosphorylated p38α and allowed discovery of a predictive kinetic analysis based on cooperativity to distinguish Type I vs II.

  4. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Angiotensin II–Induced Inflammation and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Talin; Li, Melissa Wei; Lemarié, Catherine A.; Simeone, Stefania M.C.; Pagano, Patrick J.; Gaestel, Matthias; Paradis, Pierre; Wassmann, Sven; Schiffrin, Ernesto L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in angiotensin II–induced hypertension, and mitogen-activated protein kinases participate in these processes. We questioned whether mitogen-activated protein kinase–activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a downstream target of p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase, is involved in angiotensin II–induced vascular responses. In vivo experiments were performed in wild-type and Mk2 knockout mice infused intravenously with angiotensin II. Angiotensin II induced a 30 mm Hg increase in mean blood pressure in wild-type that was delayed in Mk2 knockout mice. Angiotensin II increased superoxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in blood vessels of wild-type but not in Mk2 knockout mice. Mk2 knockdown by small interfering RNA in mouse mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells caused a 42% reduction in MK2 protein and blunted the angiotensin II–induced 40% increase of MK2 expression. Mk2 knockdown blunted angiotensin II–induced doubling of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, 2.4-fold increase of nuclear p65, and 1.4-fold increase in Ets-1. Mk2 knockdown abrogated the angiotensin II–induced 4.7-fold and 1.3-fold increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein. Angiotensin II enhanced reactive oxygen species levels (by 29%) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity (by 48%), both abolished by Mk2 knockdown. Reduction of MK2 blocked angiotensin II–induced p47phox translocation to the membrane, associated with a 53% enhanced catalase expression. Angiotensin II–induced increase of MK2 was prevented by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor Nox2ds-tat. Mk2 small interfering RNA prevented the angiotensin II–induced 30% increase of proliferation. In conclusion, MK2 plays a critical role in angiotensin II signaling, leading to hypertension, oxidative stress via activation of p47phox and inhibition of antioxidants, and

  5. Amiloride, protein synthesis, and activation of quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Lubin, M; Cahn, F; Coutermarsh, B A

    1982-11-01

    Amiloride is known to inhibit both influx of sodium ions and activation of quiescent cells by growth factors. The coincidence of these effects has been cited to support the proposal that influx of sodium ions acts as a mitogenic signal. Although it was noted that amiloride inhibited protein synthesis, this was attributed to an action on transport of amino acids, particularly those coupled to sodium fluxes. We find, however, that amiloride directly inhibits polypeptide synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate. In Swiss 3T3 cells, concentrations of amiloride and of cycloheximide that are nearly matched in their degree of inhibition of protein synthesis, produce about the same degree of inhibition of transit of cells from G0 to S. Inhibition of protein synthesis is sufficient to explain the effect of amiloride on mitogenesis; the drug, therefore, is not suitable for testing the hypothesis that sodium influx is a mitogenic signal.

  6. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids. PMID:26175473

  7. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytoprotective Activity of Agathi Leaf Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zarena, A. S.; Gopal, Shubha; Vineeth, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study a protein termed agathi leaf protein (ALP) from Sesbania grandiflora Linn. (agathi) leaves was isolated after successive precipitation with 65% ammonium sulphate followed by purification on Sephadex G 75. The column chromatography of the crude protein resulted in four peaks of which Peak I (P I) showed maximum inhibition activity against hydroxyl radical. SDS-PAGE analysis of P I indicated that the molecular weight of the protein is ≈29 kDa. The purity of the protein was 98.4% as determined by RP-HPLC and showed a single peak with a retention time of 19.9 min. ALP was able to reduce oxidative damage by scavenging lipid peroxidation against erythrocyte ghost (85.50 ± 6.25%), linolenic acid (87.67 ± 3.14%) at 4.33 μM, ABTS anion (88 ± 3.22%), and DNA damage (83 ± 4.20%) at 3.44 μM in a dose-dependent manner. The purified protein offered significant protection to lymphocyte (72% at 30 min) induced damage by t-BOOH. In addition, ALP showed strong antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20 ± 3.64 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (19 ± 1.53 mm) at 200 μg/mL. The safety assessment showed that ALP does not induce cytotoxicity towards human lymphocyte at the tested concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. PMID:24616824

  8. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations.

  9. Activation of G Proteins by Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Relies on GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Rob J.; Thomas, Geraint M. H.

    2016-01-01

    G proteins are an important family of signalling molecules controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity in what is commonly called an ‘activation/inactivation cycle’. The molecular mechanism by which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyse the activation of monomeric G proteins is well-established, however the complete reversibility of this mechanism is often overlooked. Here, we use a theoretical approach to prove that GEFs are unable to positively control G protein systems at steady-state in the absence of GTPase activity. Instead, positive regulation of G proteins must be seen as a product of the competition between guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity—emphasising a central role for GTPase activity beyond merely signal termination. We conclude that a more accurate description of the regulation of G proteins via these processes is as a ‘balance/imbalance’ mechanism. This result has implications for the understanding of intracellular signalling processes, and for experimental strategies that rely on modulating G protein systems. PMID:26986850

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  11. SUMO E3 ligase activity of TRIM proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y; Yang, X

    2011-03-03

    SUMOylation governs numerous cellular processes and is essential to most eukaryotic life. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of this process, an extremely limited number of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligases (E3s) have been identified. Here we show that at least some members of the functionally diverse tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily are SUMO E3s. These TRIM proteins bind both the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and substrates and strongly enhance transfer of SUMOs from Ubc9 to these substrates. Among the substrates of TRIM SUMO E3s are the tumor suppressor p53 and its principal antagonist Mdm2. The E3 activity depends on the TRIM motif, suggesting it to be the first widespread SUMO E3 motif. Given the large number of TRIM proteins, our results may greatly expand the identified SUMO E3s. Furthermore, TRIM E3 activity may be an important contributor to SUMOylation specificity and the versatile functions of TRIM proteins.

  12. Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial protein Sab by stress-activated protein kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Court, Naomi W; Kuo, Ivana; Quigley, Oonagh; Bogoyevitch, Marie A

    2004-06-18

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) transduce extracellular signals into responses such as growth, differentiation, and death through their phosphorylation of specific substrate proteins. Early studies showed the consensus sequence (Pro/X)-X-(Ser/Thr)-Pro to be phosphorylated by MAPKs. Docking domains such as the "kinase interaction motif" (KIM) also appear to be crucial for efficient substrate phosphorylation. Here, we show that stress-activated protein kinase-3 (SAPK3), a p38 MAPK subfamily member, localizes to the mitochondria. Activated SAPK3 phosphorylates the mitochondrial protein Sab, an in vitro substrate of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Sab phosphorylation by SAPK3 was dependent on the most N-terminal KIM (KIM1) of Sab and occurred primarily on Ser321. This appeared to be dependent on the position of Ser321 within Sab and the sequence immediately surrounding it. Our results suggest that SAPK3 and JNK may share a common target at the mitochondria and provide new insights into the substrate recognition by SAPK3.

  13. Retroviral nucleocapsid proteins possess potent nucleic acid strand renaturation activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dib-Hajj, F.; Khan, R.; Giedroc, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) is the major genomic RNA binding protein that plays integral roles in the structure and replication of all animal retroviruses. In this report, select biochemical properties of recombinant Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and HIV-1 NCs are compared. Evidence is presented that two types of saturated Zn2 NC-polynucleotide complexes can be formed under conditions of low [NaCl] that differ in apparent site-size (n = 8 vs. n = 14). The formation of one or the other complex appears dependent on the molar ratio of NC to RNA nucleotide with the putative low site-size mode apparently predominating under conditions of protein excess. Both MPMV and HIV-1 NCs kinetically facilitate the renaturation of two complementary DNA strands, suggesting that this is a general property of retroviral NCs. NC proteins increase the second-order rate constant for renaturation of a 149-bp DNA fragment by more than four orders of magnitude over that obtained in the absence of protein at 37 degrees C. The protein-assisted rate is 100-200-fold faster than that obtained at 68 degrees C, 1 M NaCl, solution conditions considered to be optimal for strand renaturation. Provided that sufficient NC is present to coat all strands, the presence of 400-1,000-fold excess nonhomologous DNA does not greatly affect the reaction rate. The HIV-1 NC-mediated renaturation reaction functions stoichiometrically, requiring a saturated strand of DNA nucleotide:NC ratio of about 7-8, rather than 14. Under conditions of less protein, the rate acceleration is not realized. The finding of significant nucleic acid strand renaturation activity may have important implications for various events of reverse transcription particularly in initiation and cDNA strand transfer. PMID:8443601

  14. Regulation of Orange Carotenoid Protein Activity in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Thurotte, Adrien; Lopez-Igual, Rocio; Wilson, Adjélé; Comolet, Léa; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Xiao, Fugui; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism. Absorption of strong blue-green light by the OCP induces carotenoid and protein conformational changes converting the orange (inactive) OCP into a red (active) OCP. Only the red orange carotenoid protein (OCP(r)) is able to bind to phycobilisomes, the cyanobacterial antenna, and to quench excess energy. In this work, we have constructed and characterized several OCP mutants and focused on the role of the OCP N-terminal arm in photoactivation and excitation energy dissipation. The N-terminal arm largely stabilizes the closed orange OCP structure by interacting with its C-terminal domain. This avoids photoactivation at low irradiance. In addition, it slows the OCP detachment from phycobilisomes by hindering fluorescence recovery protein interaction with bound OCP(r). This maintains thermal dissipation of excess energy for a longer time. Pro-22, at the beginning of the N-terminal arm, has a key role in the correct positioning of the arm in OCP(r), enabling strong OCP binding to phycobilisomes, but is not essential for photoactivation. Our results also show that the opening of the OCP during photoactivation is caused by the movement of the C-terminal domain with respect to the N-terminal domain and the N-terminal arm.

  15. Protein ultrastructure and the nanoscience of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Boesen, Thomas

    2011-09-16

    The complement system constitutes an important barrier to infection of the human body. Over more than four decades structural properties of the proteins of the complement system have been investigated with X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, small-angle scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Here, we review the accumulated evidence that the nm-scaled dimensions and conformational changes of these proteins support functions of the complement system with regard to tissue distribution, molecular crowding effects, avidity binding, and conformational regulation of complement activation. In the targeting of complement activation to the surfaces of nanoparticulate material, such as engineered nanoparticles or fragments of the microbial cell wall, these processes play intimately together. This way the complement system is an excellent example where nanoscience may serve to unravel the molecular biology of the immune response.

  16. Selective fluorescence probes for dipeptidyl peptidase activity-fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Lai, Koon Siew; Ho, Nan-Hui; Cheng, Jonathan D; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    Development of suitable tools to assess enzyme activity directly from their complex cellular environment has a dramatic impact on understanding the functional roles of proteins as well as on the discovery of new drugs. In this study, a novel fluorescence-based chemosensor strategy for the direct readout of dipeptidase activities within intact living cells is described. Selective activity-based probes were designed to sense two important type II transmembrane serine proteases, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). These serine proteases have been implicated in diverse cellular activities, including blood coagulation, digestion, immune responses, wound healing, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Here, we validated that Ac-GPGP-2SBPO and GPGP-2SBPO probes are excellent reporters of both proteolytic activities. Furthermore, the novel probes can differentiate between FAP and DPP-IV proteolytic activities in cellular assay. Potentially, this assay platform is immediately useful for novel drug discovery.

  17. Selective Fluorescence Probes for Dipeptidyl Peptidase Activity - Fibroblast Activation Protein and Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Koon Siew; Ho, Nan-Hui; Cheng, Jonathan D.; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Development of suitable tools to assess enzyme activity directly from their complex cellular environment has a dramatic impact on understanding the functional roles of proteins as well as on the discovery of new drugs. In this study, a novel fluorescence-based chemosensor strategy for the direct readout of dipeptidase activities within intact living cells is described. Selective activity-based probes were designed to sense two important type II transmembrane serine proteases, Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). These serine proteases have been implicated in diverse cellular activities, including blood coagulation, digestion, immune responses, wound healing, tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis. We here validated that Ac-GPGP-2SBPO and GPGP-2SBPO probes are excellent reporters of both proteolytic activities. Furthermore, the novel probes can differentiate between FAP and DPP-IV proteolytic activities in cellular assay. Potentially, this assay platform is immediately useful for novel drug discovery. PMID:17489551

  18. Quantifying agonist activity at G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Suga, Hinako; Griffin, Michael T

    2011-12-26

    When an agonist activates a population of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), it elicits a signaling pathway that culminates in the response of the cell or tissue. This process can be analyzed at the level of a single receptor, a population of receptors, or a downstream response. Here we describe how to analyze the downstream response to obtain an estimate of the agonist affinity constant for the active state of single receptors. Receptors behave as quantal switches that alternate between active and inactive states (Figure 1). The active state interacts with specific G proteins or other signaling partners. In the absence of ligands, the inactive state predominates. The binding of agonist increases the probability that the receptor will switch into the active state because its affinity constant for the active state (K(b)) is much greater than that for the inactive state (K(a)). The summation of the random outputs of all of the receptors in the population yields a constant level of receptor activation in time. The reciprocal of the concentration of agonist eliciting half-maximal receptor activation is equivalent to the observed affinity constant (K(obs)), and the fraction of agonist-receptor complexes in the active state is defined as efficacy (ε) (Figure 2). Methods for analyzing the downstream responses of GPCRs have been developed that enable the estimation of the K(obs) and relative efficacy of an agonist. In this report, we show how to modify this analysis to estimate the agonist K(b) value relative to that of another agonist. For assays that exhibit constitutive activity, we show how to estimate K(b) in absolute units of M(-1). Our method of analyzing agonist concentration-response curves consists of global nonlinear regression using the operational model. We describe a procedure using the software application, Prism (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). The analysis yields an estimate of the product of K(obs) and a parameter proportional to efficacy (

  19. Implementation of the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model into the ZETA code and its diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Scott L.

    1993-06-01

    The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model was implemented into Zeta, a time-accurate, zonal, integro-differential code for incompressible laminar and turbulent flows. The implementation procedure is patterned after the model subroutine in ARC2D. The results of ZETA with the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model were compared with experimental data, with ZETA using Baldwin-Lomax model, and with ARC2D using the Baldwin-Barth model. The Baldwin-Barth model subroutine was tested by inputting an ARC2D velocity solution of an NACA-0012 airfoil at R(sub e) = 3.9 x 10(exp 6) and alpha = 5 deg. The resultant turbulent viscosity and Reynolds stresses compared favorably with the original data. For the same grid having grid points inside the laminar sublayer, which is necessary due to the one-equation nature of the model, ZETA however predicts early separation. It was found that the current ZETA has problem with such a fine grid. Further work is in progress to solve this problem.

  20. Determination of (C-12)/(C-13) in the interstellar medium toward Zeta Ophiuchi and Xi Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Isabel; Craig, Nahide; Meyer, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The Lick Observatory Reticon (LOR) data presented in Hawkins et al. (1985) are reanalyzed in order to determine the cause of the significant discrepancy in (C-12)/(C-13) isotope ratios determined on the basis of observations of this isotope in the interstellar medium toward Zeta Ophiuchi and Xi Persei. A new set of Lick Observatory observations toward Zeta Oph are obtained using a CCD detector. The KPNO coude feed echelle spectrograph and a CCD detector are used to carry out high-resolution, high SNR ratio observations toward Zeta Oph and Xi Per. The LOR results for Zeta Oph are uncertain, ranging to 40 to 60, owing to the error in continuum placement. The KPNO results toward Zeta Oph are (C-12)H/(C-13)H(+)(0, 0) = 63 +/- 8, (C-12)H(+)/(C-13)H(+)(1, 0) = 67 +/- 19, and (C-12)N/(C-13)N = 100 + 88/- 33. Toward Xi Per, the KPNO measurements yield (C-12)H(+)/(C-13)H(+) = 49 +/- 15 from the 4232-A band, and a lower limit of 45 from the 3957-A observations.

  1. REV1 restrains DNA polymerase zeta to ensure frame fidelity during translesion synthesis of UV photoproducts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Szüts, Dávid; Marcus, Adam P; Himoto, Masayuki; Iwai, Shigenori; Sale, Julian E

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet light induces a number of forms of damage in DNA, of which (6-4) photoproducts present the most formidable challenge to DNA replication. No single DNA polymerase has been shown to bypass these lesions efficiently in vitro suggesting that the coordinate use of a number of different enzymes is required in vivo. To further understand the mechanisms and control of lesion bypass in vivo, we have devised a plasmid-based system to study the replication of site-specific T-T(6-4) photoproducts in chicken DT40 cells. We show that DNA polymerase zeta is absolutely required for translesion synthesis (TLS) of this lesion, while loss of DNA polymerase eta has no detectable effect. We also show that either the polymerase-binding domain of REV1 or ubiquitinated PCNA is required for the recruitment of Polzeta as the catalytic TLS polymerase. Finally, we demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for REV1 in ensuring bypass synthesis remains in frame with the template. Our data therefore suggest that REV1 not only helps to coordinate the delivery of DNA polymerase zeta to a stalled primer terminus but also restrains its activity to ensure that nucleotides are incorporated in register with the template strand.

  2. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  3. Wounding systemically activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase in forage and turf grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage and turf grasses are continually cut and grazed by livestock, however very little is known concerning the perception or molecular responses to wounding. Mechanical wounding rapidly activated a 46 kDa and a 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in six different grass species. In the m...

  4. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Is Activated as a Consequence of Lipolysis in the Adipocyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in adipocytes during exercise and other states in which lipolysis is stimulated. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its physiological relevance are unclear. To examine these questions, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with agents...

  5. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  6. [Virucidal activity of disinfectants. Influence of the serum protein upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-01

    Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal activity on three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the aldehyde and halogen groups had a virucidal activity on human herpes virus, bovine rhabdo virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human adeno virus, porcine parvo virus, and polio virus. Disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups, and biganide group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase via protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Koji; Cao, Xia; Yamauchi, Masako; Kozaki, Yasuko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kambe, Fukushi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated possible involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). When osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured in serum-deprived media, Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK alpha-subunit was markedly increased. Treatment of the cells with PGE2 significantly reduced the phosphorylation. Ser-79 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct target for AMPK, was also reduced by PGE2. On the other hand, PGE2 reciprocally increased Ser-485 phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit that could be associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. These effects of PGE2 were mimicked by PGE2 receptor EP2 and EP4 agonists and forskolin, but not by EP1 and EP3 agonists, and the effects were suppressed by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Additionally, the PGE2 effects were duplicated in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Together, the present study demonstrates that PGE2 negatively regulates AMPK activity via activation of protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  8. Activity-dependent Protein Dynamics Define Interconnected Cores of Co-regulated Postsynaptic Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Thalhammer, Agnes; Burlingame, Alma L.; Schoepfer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Synapses are highly dynamic structures that mediate cell–cell communication in the central nervous system. Their molecular composition is altered in an activity-dependent fashion, which modulates the efficacy of subsequent synaptic transmission events. Whereas activity-dependent trafficking of individual key synaptic proteins into and out of the synapse has been characterized previously, global activity-dependent changes in the synaptic proteome have not been studied. To test the feasibility of carrying out an unbiased large-scale approach, we investigated alterations in the molecular composition of synaptic spines following mass stimulation of the central nervous system induced by pilocarpine. We observed widespread changes in relative synaptic abundances encompassing essentially all proteins, supporting the view that the molecular composition of the postsynaptic density is tightly regulated. In most cases, we observed that members of gene families displayed coordinate regulation even when they were not known to physically interact. Analysis of correlated synaptic localization revealed a tightly co-regulated cluster of proteins, consisting of mainly glutamate receptors and their adaptors. This cluster constitutes a functional core of the postsynaptic machinery, and changes in its size affect synaptic strength and synaptic size. Our data show that the unbiased investigation of activity-dependent signaling of the postsynaptic density proteome can offer valuable new information on synaptic plasticity. PMID:23035237

  9. Pokeweed antiviral protein increases HIV-1 particle infectivity by activating the cellular mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Sheila; Kutky, Meherzad; Hudak, Katalin A

    2012-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a plant-derived N-glycosidase that exhibits antiviral activity against several viruses. The enzyme removes purine bases from the messenger RNAs of the retroviruses Human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1. This depurination reduces viral protein synthesis by stalling elongating ribosomes at nucleotides with a missing base. Here, we transiently expressed PAP in cells with a proviral clone of HIV-1 to examine the effect of the protein on virus production and quality. PAP reduced virus production by approximately 450-fold, as measured by p24 ELISA of media containing virions, which correlated with a substantial decline in virus protein synthesis in cells. However, particles released from PAP-expressing cells were approximately 7-fold more infectious, as determined by single-cycle infection of 1G5 cells and productive infection of MT2 cells. This increase in infectivity was not likely due to changes in the processing of HIV-1 polyproteins, RNA packaging efficiency or maturation of virus. Rather, expression of PAP activated the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway to a limited extent, resulting in increased phosphorylation of viral p17 matrix protein. The increase in infectivity of HIV-1 particles produced from PAP-expressing cells was compensated by the reduction in virus number; that is, virus production decreased upon de novo infection of cells over time. However, our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the influence of heterologous protein expression upon host cells when assessing their potential for antiviral applications.

  10. Membrane Recruitment of the Non-receptor Protein GIV/Girdin (Gα-interacting, Vesicle-associated Protein/Girdin) Is Sufficient for Activating Heterotrimeric G Protein Signaling.

    PubMed

    Parag-Sharma, Kshitij; Leyme, Anthony; DiGiacomo, Vincent; Marivin, Arthur; Broselid, Stefan; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel

    2016-12-30

    GIV (aka Girdin) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates heterotrimeric G protein signaling downstream of RTKs and integrins, thereby serving as a platform for signaling cascade cross-talk. GIV is recruited to the cytoplasmic tail of receptors upon stimulation, but the mechanism of activation of its G protein regulatory function is not well understood. Here we used assays in humanized yeast models and G protein activity biosensors in mammalian cells to investigate the role of GIV subcellular compartmentalization in regulating its ability to promote G protein signaling. We found that in unstimulated cells GIV does not co-fractionate with its substrate G protein Gαi3 on cell membranes and that constitutive membrane anchoring of GIV in yeast cells or rapid membrane translocation in mammalian cells via chemically induced dimerization leads to robust G protein activation. We show that membrane recruitment of the GIV "Gα binding and activating" motif alone is sufficient for G protein activation and that it does not require phosphomodification. Furthermore, we engineered a synthetic protein to show that recruitment of the GIV "Gα binding and activating" motif to membranes via association with active RTKs, instead of via chemically induced dimerization, is also sufficient for G protein activation. These results reveal that recruitment of GIV to membranes in close proximity to its substrate G protein is a major mechanism responsible for the activation of its G protein regulatory function.

  11. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein: Activity, Inhibition and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Domashevskiy, Artem V.; Goss, Dixie J.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses employ an array of elaborate strategies to overcome plant defense mechanisms and must adapt to the requirements of the host translational systems. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) and is an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is thought to play an important role in the plant’s defense mechanism against foreign pathogens. This review focuses on the structure, function, and the relationship of PAP to other RIPs, discusses molecular aspects of PAP antiviral activity, the novel inhibition of this plant toxin by a virus counteraction—a peptide linked to the viral genome (VPg), and possible applications of RIP-conjugated immunotoxins in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25635465

  12. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  13. Protein kinase C phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase α1 Ser487

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Helen R.; Mancini, Sarah J.; Strembitska, Anastasiya; Jamal, Kunzah; Reihill, James A.; Palmer, Timothy M.; Gould, Gwyn W.; Salt, Ian P.

    2016-01-01

    The key metabolic regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is reported to be down-regulated in metabolic disorders, but the mechanisms are poorly characterised. Recent studies have identified phosphorylation of the AMPKα1/α2 catalytic subunit isoforms at Ser487/491, respectively, as an inhibitory regulation mechanism. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates AMPK and protein kinase B (Akt) in cultured human endothelial cells. As Akt has been demonstrated to be an AMPKα1 Ser487 kinase, the effect of VEGF on inhibitory AMPK phosphorylation in cultured primary human endothelial cells was examined. Stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF rapidly increased AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation in an Akt-independent manner, without altering AMPKα2 Ser491 phosphorylation. In contrast, VEGF-stimulated AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation was sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and PKC activation using phorbol esters or overexpression of PKC-stimulated AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation. Purified PKC and Akt both phosphorylated AMPKα1 Ser487 in vitro with similar efficiency. PKC activation was associated with reduced AMPK activity, as inhibition of PKC increased AMPK activity and phorbol esters inhibited AMPK, an effect lost in cells expressing mutant AMPKα1 Ser487Ala. Consistent with a pathophysiological role for this modification, AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in human muscle. These data indicate a novel regulatory role of PKC to inhibit AMPKα1 in human cells. As PKC activation is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, PKC may underlie the reduced AMPK activity reported in response to overnutrition in insulin-resistant metabolic and vascular tissues. PMID:27784766

  14. Positive feedback of protein kinase C proteolytic activation during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leverrier, Sabrina; Vallentin, Alice; Joubert, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In contrast with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKCepsilon, which are better known for promoting cell survival, PKCdelta is known for its pro-apoptotic function, which is exerted mainly through a caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation pathway. In the present study, we used the rat GH3B6 pituitary adenoma cell line to show that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are activated and relocalized together with PKCdelta when apoptosis is induced by a genotoxic stress. Proteolytic activation is a crucial step used by the three isoforms since: (1) the catalytic domains of the PKCalpha, PKCepsilon or PKCdelta isoforms (CDalpha, CDepsilon and CDdelta respectively) accumulated, and this accumulation was dependent on the activity of both calpain and caspase; and (2) transient expression of CDalpha, CDepsilon or CDdelta sufficed to induce apoptosis. However, following this initial step of proteolytic activation, the pathways diverge; cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation are induced by CDepsilon and CDdelta, but not by CDalpha. Another interesting finding of the present study is the proteolysis of PKCdelta induced by CDepsilon expression that revealed the existence of a cross-talk between PKC isoforms during apoptosis. Hence the PKC family may participate in the apoptotic process of pituitary adenoma cells at two levels: downstream of caspase and calpain, and via retro-activation of caspase-3, resulting in the amplification of its own proteolytic activation. PMID:12238950

  15. Proapoptotic Activities of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) and PDIA3 Protein, a Role of the Bcl-2 Protein Bak*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Lu, Huayi; Li, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family proteins are classified as enzymatic chaperones for reconstructing misfolded proteins. Previous studies have shown that several PDI members possess potential proapoptotic functions. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of PDI-mediated apoptosis are not completely known. In this study, we investigated how two members of PDI family, PDI and PDIA3, modulate apoptotic signaling. Inhibiting PDI and PDIA3 activities pharmacologically alleviates apoptosis induced by various apoptotic stimuli. Although a decrease of PDIA3 expression alleviates apoptotic responses, overexpression of PDIA3 exacerbates apoptotic signaling. Importantly, Bak, but not Bax, is essential for PDIA3-induced proapoptotic signaling. Furthermore, both purified PDI and PDIA3 proteins induce Bak-dependent, but not Bax-dependent, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro, probably through triggering Bak oligomerization on mitochondria. Our results suggest that both of PDI and PDIA3 possess Bak-dependent proapoptotic function through inducing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which provides a new mechanism linking ER chaperone proteins and apoptotic signaling. PMID:25697356

  16. FcRgamma chain does not replace CD3zeta chain in CD3zeta-deficient T lymphocytes of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Santalla, Mercedes; Krishnan, Sandeep; Valeri, Anna P; Aguilera-Montilla, Noemi; Fisher, Carolyn U; Perez-Blas, Mercedes; Gutierrez-Calvo, Alberto; Lasa, Inmaculada; Granell-Vicent, Javier; Tsokos, George C; Martin-Villa, José M

    2007-03-01

    Defective CD3zeta chain expression has been reported in T lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or osteoarthritis, and with cancer. In lupus, the absent CD3zeta chain is replaced by the FcRgamma chain, rendering the T cells hyper responsive. However, there are no data on T lymphocytes from patients with cancer. In this study, the presence of the FcRgamma chain and its associated kinase, Syk, was analysed in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and healthy subjects. Western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out with total cell or lipid raft extracts from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells or T lymphocytes, and Herpesvirus saimiri-derived T-cell lines (of blood or tissue origin). Our results revealed that the absent CD3zeta chain in cancer T lymphocytes was not replaced by FcRgamma either in fresh T cells or T-cell lines, in contrast to lupus T cells. This altered expression of signalling molecules in T lymphocytes of cancer patients, would explain their low proliferative capacity. Our T-cell lines represent tools to unveil the signalling abnormalities of cancer T lymphocytes.

  17. Pax-6 is essential for lens-specific expression of zeta-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Cvekl, A; Wistow, G

    1995-01-01

    Pax-6 is essential for normal eye development and has been implicated as a "master gene" for lens formation in embryogenesis. Guinea pig zeta-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme crystallin, achieves high expression specifically in lens through use of an alternative promoter. Here we show that Pax-6 binds a site in this promoter, which is essential for lens-specific expression. Lens and lens-derived cells exhibit a tissue-specific pattern of alternative splicing of Pax-6 transcripts and Pax-6 is expressed in adult lenses and cells that support zeta-crystallin expression. These results suggest that zeta-crystallin is a natural target gene for Pax-6 and that this Pax family member has a direct role in the continuing expression of tissue-specific genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753863

  18. Zeta potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells after exposure to alumina nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Fomenko, Alla N.; Korovin, Matvey S.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, researches have paid much attention to the physical, chemical, biophysical and biochemical properties of a cell surface. It is known that most of the cells' surfaces are charged. This charge depends on the biochemical structure of the cell membranes. Therefore, measurement of a cell surface charge is a significant criterion that gives information about the cell surface. Evaluation of the cells zeta-potential is important to understand the interaction mechanisms of various drugs, antibiotics, as well as the interaction of nanoparticles with the cell surface. In this study, we use the dynamic light scattering method to detect the zeta-potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells. It has been observed that zeta-potential shifted to negative values after exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles and inducing apoptosis.

  19. Platelet activation by extracellular matrix proteins in haemostasis and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Steve P

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of excessive blood loss to avoid fatal haemorrhage is a pivotal process for all organisms possessing a circulatory system. Increased circulating blood volume and pressure, as required in larger animals, make this process all the more important and challenging. It is essential to have a powerful and rapid system to detect damage and generate an effective seal, and which is also exquisitely regulated to prevent unwanted, excessive or systemic activation so as to avoid blockage of vessels. Thus, a highly specialised and efficient haemostatic system has evolved that consists of cellular (platelets) and protein (coagulation factors) components. Importantly, this is able to support haemostasis in both the low shear environment of the venous system and the high shear environment of the arterial system. Endothelial cells, lining the entire circulation system, play a crucial role in the delicate balance between activation and inhibition of the haemostatic system. An intact and healthy endothelium supports blood flow by preventing attachment of cells and proteins which is required for initiation of coagulation and platelet activation. Endothelial cells produce and release the two powerful soluble inhibitors of platelet activation, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and express high levels of CD39 which rapidly metabolises the major platelet feedback agonist, ADP. This antithrombotic environment however can rapidly change following activation or removal of endothelial cells through injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Loss of endothelial cells exposes the subendothelial extracellular matrix which creates strong signals for activation of the haemostatic system including powerful platelet adhesion and activation. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the subendothelial extracellular matrix influence these prothrombotic characteristics with life threatening thrombotic and bleeding complications, as illustrated by formation of

  20. [National evaluation of the diagnosis of activated protein C resistance].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Manzano, Guadalupe; de la Peña-Díaz, Aurora; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Corona-de la Peña, Norma; Cruz-Cruz, Donají; Gaminio, Elizabeth; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Mayagoitia, Teresa; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Poblete, Teresita; Quintana-Martínez, Sandra; Ramírez, Raúl; Razo, Daniel; Ruiz de Chávez-Ochoa, Adriana; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia Adriana; Salazar, Rosario; Vicencio-Santiago, Guadalupe Virginia; Villa, Rosario; Reyes-Núñez, Aurelia Virginia

    2003-01-01

    Thrombophilia or prothrombotic state appears when activation of blood hemostatic mechanisms overcomes the physiological anticoagulant capacity allowing a thrombotic event. Thrombosis is the leading worldwide mortality cause and due to its high associated morbidity and mortality, it should be insisted in the opportune identification of a thrombophilic state. The study of thrombophilia identifies individuals at high risk for thrombosis. This meeting was conceived first to analyze the current status of the diagnosis of thrombophilia in Mexico and second to create the base for a national consensus for thrombophilia screening and for the establishment of a national center for laboratory reference and quality control for thrombophilia. Since searching of activated protein C resistance (APCR) and FV Leiden seem to have priority either in the clinical setting and in public health services, it was decided to start with these two abnormalities as a model to analyze the current status of thrombophilia diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. At this time, several thrombophilic abnormalities have been described however, APCR remains the most important cause of thrombophilia, accounting for as much as 20% to 60% of all venous thrombosis. APCR is a consequence of the resistance of activated FV to be inactivated by activated protein C. Procoagulant activity of activated FV increases the risk of thrombosis. Hereditary APCR is almost always due to a point mutation at the nucleotide 1691 of the FV gen inducing an Arg506Glu substitution in FV molecule. This mutation is better known as FV Leiden. Heterocygous carriers of FV Leiden have a thrombotic risk 5 to 10 times higher than general population while the risk for the homocygote state is increased 50 to 100-fold. When activated PC is added to plasma from patients with FV Leiden, this last resists the anticoagulant effect of activated PC. Therefore, thrombin production is not inhibited. This phenomenon is called APCR. The functional

  1. Superoxide dismutase activity of Cu-bound prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2009-03-01

    Misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, has been linked to a group of neurodegenerative diseases, including the mad cow disease in cattle and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of PrP is still unknown, but it was found that the PrP can efficiently bind Cu(II) ions. Early experiments suggested that Cu-PrP complex possesses significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but later experiments failed to confirm it and at present this issue remains unresolved. Using a recently developed hybrid DFT/DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT for the solute and its first solvation shells with orbital-free DFT for the remainder of the solvent, we have investigated SOD activity of PrP. The PrP is capable of incorporating Cu(II) ions in several binding modes and our calculations find that each mode has a different SOD activity. The highest activity found is comparable to those of well-known SOD proteins, suggesting that the conflicting experimental results may be due to different bindings of Cu(II) in those experiments.

  2. Covalent agonists for studying G protein-coupled receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Dietmar; Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Hiller, Christine; Zhang, Cheng; Hübner, Harald; Kobilka, Brian K.; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provide important insights into the architecture and function of these important drug targets. However, the crystallization of GPCRs in active states is particularly challenging, requiring the formation of stable and conformationally homogeneous ligand-receptor complexes. Native hormones, neurotransmitters, and synthetic agonists that bind with low affinity are ineffective at stabilizing an active state for crystallogenesis. To promote structural studies on the pharmacologically highly relevant class of aminergic GPCRs, we here present the development of covalently binding molecular tools activating Gs-, Gi-, and Gq-coupled receptors. The covalent agonists are derived from the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine, and they were accessed using a general and versatile synthetic strategy. We demonstrate that the tool compounds presented herein display an efficient covalent binding mode and that the respective covalent ligand-receptor complexes activate G proteins comparable to the natural neurotransmitters. A crystal structure of the β2-adrenoreceptor in complex with a covalent noradrenaline analog and a conformationally selective antibody (nanobody) verified that these agonists can be used to facilitate crystallogenesis. PMID:25006259

  3. Centromeric binding and activity of Protein Phosphatase 4

    PubMed Central

    Lipinszki, Zoltan; Lefevre, Stephane; Savoian, Matthew S.; Singleton, Martin R.; Glover, David M.; Przewloka, Marcin R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell division cycle requires tight coupling between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. However, understanding the cell cycle roles of multimeric protein phosphatases has been limited by the lack of knowledge of how their diverse regulatory subunits target highly conserved catalytic subunits to their sites of action. Phosphoprotein phosphatase 4 (PP4) has been recently shown to participate in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We now find that the EVH1 domain of the regulatory subunit 3 of Drosophila PP4, Falafel (Flfl), directly interacts with the centromeric protein C (CENP-C). Unlike other EVH1 domains that interact with proline-rich ligands, the crystal structure of the Flfl amino-terminal EVH1 domain bound to a CENP-C peptide reveals a new target-recognition mode for the phosphatase subunit. We also show that binding of Flfl to CENP-C is required to bring PP4 activity to centromeres to maintain CENP-C and attached core kinetochore proteins at chromosomes during mitosis. PMID:25562660

  4. Nanocarriers from GRAS Zein Proteins to Encapsulate Hydrophobic Actives.

    PubMed

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Lu, Hoang D; Hurley, Amanda; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nanoencapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP. The four-stream FNP configuration allows the encapsulation of very hydrophobic compounds in a way that is not possible with previous precipitation processes. We present the encapsulation of several model active compounds with as high as 45 wt % drug loading with respect to zein concentration into ∼100 nm nanocarriers. Three examples are presented: (1) the pro-drug antioxidant, vitamin E-acetate, (2) an anticholera quorum-sensing modulator CAI-1 ((S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one; CAI-1 that reduces Vibrio cholerae virulence by modulating cellular communication), and (3) hydrophobic fluorescent dyes with a range of hydrophobicities. The specific interaction between zein and the milk protein, sodium caseinate, provides stabilization of the NCs in PBS, LB medium, and in pH 2 solutions. The stability and size changes in the three media provide information on the mechanism of assembly of the zein/active/casein NC.

  5. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  6. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by ultraviolet A radiation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, Rozen; Dubertret, Louis; Coulomb, Bernard

    2003-08-01

    UVA radiation penetrates deeply into the skin reaching both the epidermis and the dermis. We thus investigated the effects of naturally occurring doses of UVA radiation on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities in human dermal fibroblasts. We demonstrated that UVA selectively activates p38 MAPK with no effect on extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1-ERK2) or JNK-SAPK (cJun NH2-terminal kinase-stress-activated protein kinase) activities. We then investigated the signaling pathway used by UVA to activate p38 MAPK. L-Histidine and sodium azide had an inhibitory effect on UVA activation of p38 MAPK, pointing to a role of singlet oxygen in transduction of the UVA effect. Afterward, using prolonged cell treatments with growth factors to desensitize their signaling pathways or suramin to block growth factor receptors, we demonstrated that UVA signaling pathways shared elements with growth factor signaling pathways. In addition, using emetine (a translation inhibitor altering ribosome functioning) we detected the involvement of ribotoxic stress in p38 MAPK activation by UVA. Our observations suggest that p38 activation by UVA in dermal fibroblasts involves singlet oxygen-dependent activation of ligand-receptor signaling pathways or ribotoxic stress mechanism (or both). Despite the activation of these two distinct signaling mechanisms, the selective activation of p38 MAPK suggests a critical role of this kinase in the effects of UVA radiation.

  7. Direct Activation of Bax Protein for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqing; Ding, Ye; Ye, Na; Wild, Christopher; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Bax, a central cell death regulator, is an indispensable gateway to mitochondrial dysfunction and a major pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family proteins that control apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Dysfunction of apoptosis renders the cancer cell resistant to treatment as well as promotes tumorigenesis. Bax activation induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, thereby leading to the release of apoptotic factor cytochrome c and consequently cancer cell death. A number of drugs in clinical use are known to indirectly activate Bax. Intriguingly, recent efforts demonstrate that Bax can serve as a promising direct target for small-molecule drug discovery. Several direct Bax activators have been identified to hold promise for cancer therapy with the advantages of specificity and the potential of overcoming chemo- and radioresistance. Further investigation of this new class of drug candidates will be needed to advance them into the clinic as a novel means to treat cancer. PMID:26395559

  8. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-07-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  9. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. DOWKER's Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so-called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  10. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo

    2006-03-01

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero.

  11. Chronic oxidative stress causes amplification and overexpression of ptprz1 protein tyrosine phosphatase to activate beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-12-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta or receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16 approximately 552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the beta-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated beta-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear beta-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating beta-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1) as a Stallion Fertility Locus in Hanoverian Warmblood Horses

    PubMed Central

    Schrimpf, Rahel; Dierks, Claudia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    A consistently high level of stallion fertility plays an economically important role in modern horse breeding. We performed a genome-wide association study for estimated breeding values of the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus cycle (EBV-PAT) in Hanoverian stallions. A total of 228 Hanoverian stallions were genotyped using the Equine SNP50 Beadchip. The most significant association was found on horse chromosome 6 for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1). In the close neighbourhood to PLCz1 is located CAPZA3 (capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3). The gene PLCz1 encodes a protein essential for spermatogenesis and oocyte activation through sperm induced Ca2+-oscillation during fertilization. We derived equine gene models for PLCz1 and CAPZA3 based on cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The equine PLCz1 had four different transcripts of which two contained a premature termination codon. Sequencing all exons and their flanking sequences using genomic DNA samples from 19 Hanoverian stallions revealed 47 polymorphisms within PLCz1 and one SNP within CAPZA3. Validation of these 48 polymorphisms in 237 Hanoverian stallions identified three intronic SNPs within PLCz1 as significantly associated with EBV-PAT. Bioinformatic analysis suggested regulatory effects for these SNPs via transcription factor binding sites or microRNAs. In conclusion, non-coding polymorphisms within PLCz1 were identified as conferring stallion fertility and PLCz1 as candidate locus for male fertility in Hanoverian warmblood. CAPZA3 could be eliminated as candidate gene for fertility in Hanoverian stallions. PMID:25354211

  13. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  14. PPR-SMR protein SOT1 has RNA endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Lu, Qingtao; Li, Qingwei; Wang, Lei; Ding, Shunhua; Zhang, Aihong; Wen, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lixin; Lu, Congming

    2017-02-21

    Numerous attempts have been made to identify and engineer sequence-specific RNA endonucleases, as these would allow for efficient RNA manipulation. However, no natural RNA endonuclease that recognizes RNA in a sequence-specific manner has been described to date. Here, we report that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION 1 (SOT1), an Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related (SMR) domain, has RNA endonuclease activity. We show that the SMR moiety of SOT1 performs the endonucleolytic maturation of 23S and 4.5S rRNA through the PPR domain, specifically recognizing a 13-nucleotide RNA sequence in the 5' end of the chloroplast 23S-4.5S rRNA precursor. In addition, we successfully engineered the SOT1 protein with altered PPR motifs to recognize and cleave a predicted RNA substrate. Our findings point to SOT1 as an exciting tool for RNA manipulation.

  15. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  16. Steric effects in peptide and protein exchange with activated disulfides.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L; Griffin, Donald R; Wong, Darice Y; Kasko, Andrea M

    2013-08-12

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da to 10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa - 10 kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size, and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role.

  17. Recombinant Human Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Reveal Antichlamydial Activity.

    PubMed

    Bobrovsky, Pavel; Manuvera, Valentin; Polina, Nadezhda; Podgorny, Oleg; Prusakov, Kirill; Govorun, Vadim; Lazarev, Vassili

    2016-07-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are innate immune components that recognize the peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides of bacteria and exhibit antibacterial activity. Recently, the obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis was shown to have peptidoglycan. However, the antichlamydial activity of PGLYRPs has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to test whether PGLYRPs exhibit antibacterial activity against C. trachomatis Thus, we cloned the regions containing the human Pglyrp1, Pglyrp2, Pglyrp3, and Pglyrp4 genes for subsequent expression in human cell lines. We obtained stable HeLa cell lines that secrete recombinant human PGLYRPs into culture medium. We also generated purified recombinant PGLYRP1, -2, and -4 and confirmed their activities against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Furthermore, we examined the activities of recombinant PGLYRPs against C. trachomatis and determined their MICs. We also observed a decrease in the infectious ability of chlamydial elementary bodies in the next generation after a single exposure to PGLYRPs. Finally, we demonstrated that PGLYRPs attach to C. trachomatis elementary bodies and activate the expression of the chlamydial two-component stress response system. Thus, PGLYRPs inhibit the development of chlamydial infection.

  18. Recombinant Human Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Reveal Antichlamydial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Manuvera, Valentin; Polina, Nadezhda; Podgorny, Oleg; Prusakov, Kirill; Govorun, Vadim; Lazarev, Vassili

    2016-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are innate immune components that recognize the peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides of bacteria and exhibit antibacterial activity. Recently, the obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis was shown to have peptidoglycan. However, the antichlamydial activity of PGLYRPs has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to test whether PGLYRPs exhibit antibacterial activity against C. trachomatis. Thus, we cloned the regions containing the human Pglyrp1, Pglyrp2, Pglyrp3, and Pglyrp4 genes for subsequent expression in human cell lines. We obtained stable HeLa cell lines that secrete recombinant human PGLYRPs into culture medium. We also generated purified recombinant PGLYRP1, -2, and -4 and confirmed their activities against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Furthermore, we examined the activities of recombinant PGLYRPs against C. trachomatis and determined their MICs. We also observed a decrease in the infectious ability of chlamydial elementary bodies in the next generation after a single exposure to PGLYRPs. Finally, we demonstrated that PGLYRPs attach to C. trachomatis elementary bodies and activate the expression of the chlamydial two-component stress response system. Thus, PGLYRPs inhibit the development of chlamydial infection. PMID:27160295

  19. Investigations of DPPC effect on Al 2O 3 particles in the presence of (phospho)lipases by the zeta potential and effective diameter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, Agnieszka Ewa

    2011-02-01

    Adsorption of phospholipid (DPPC) from NaCl electrolyte solution (or from chloroform solution) on Al2O3 particles in suspension was investigated by means of the zeta potential and effective diameter measurements as a function of pH using dynamic light scattering. Al2O3 particles were precovered with an amount of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine sufficient to cover the alumina surface by the statistical mono- or bilayer (ML or BL). It was found that DPPC from NaCl solution was adsorbed on Al2O3 surface independently of phospholipid concentration, which resulted in decrease of the initial zeta potential of Al2O3 suspension. When alumina was precovered with DPPC from chloroform (ML or BL) some reorientation of phospholipid molecules could take place. Despite the lowering of the zeta potential value in both cases (from both aqueous and chloroform solution) DPPC stabilized the Al2O3 particle aggregates, which resulted in smaller and smoother changes of the aggregate size during 2-experiment hours due to steric and electrostatic stabilization. In the next series of experiments the effect of enzymes (phospholipase A2 or lipase Candida cylindracea) on the behavior of Al2O3/DPPC particles was studied. The kind of the enzymes, the hydrolysis products, which were palmitic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine (or glycerylphosphorylcholine), and pH changed the suspension zeta potential and influenced the stability of these systems. Lipase was found to be a more active enzyme than phospholipase. The electrokinetic parameters connected with the adsorption process and resulting from the enzyme action seem to be helpful for characterization of the Al2O3/DPPC suspension and the activity of the enzymes, which is discussed in the paper.

  20. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  1. Use of gene fusions and protein-protein interaction in the isolation of a biologically active regulatory protein: the replication initiator protein of plasmid R6K.

    PubMed Central

    Germino, J; Gray, J G; Charbonneau, H; Vanaman, T; Bastia, D

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication of plasmid R6K is triggered by a 35-kilodalton initiator protein. The initiator protein had been elusive because of its lability and the lack of a convenient assay procedure to aid its purification. Using recombinant DNA techniques, we have fused the cistron of the initiator near its COOH-terminal end, in the correct reading frame, to the lacZ cistron of Escherichia coli at the ninth codon from the NH2 terminus. The fused cistron yielded a protein that was not only stable in vivo but also had dual activities: initiation of DNA replication in vivo and in vitro and hydrolysis of beta-galactoside. Using an affinity column that is specific for beta-galactosidase, we have demonstrated the rapid purification of the hybrid protein to near homogeneity. Exploiting the polymeric structure of the initiator, we have also isolated the nonfused form of the initiator protein, associated through subunit interaction with the beta-galactosidase-fused protein, which permits its purification by affinity chromatography. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the heteropolymer has not only shown that the fused and nonfused initiators have the same sequence but also confirmed the protein sequence of the initiator as predicted from its nucleotide sequence. The techniques described here should be generally useful for the isolation of other proteins that are difficult to purify by conventional procedures. Images PMID:6316329

  2. Platelet factor 4 stimulates thrombomodulin protein C-activating cofactor activity. A structure-function analysis.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    1994-10-14

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anionic (pI approximately 4) protein cofactor that promotes thrombin (THR) cleavage of protein C to generate activated protein C (APC), a potent anticoagulant. We find that the cationic platelet alpha-granule protein platelet factor 4 (PF4) stimulates 4-25-fold the cofactor activity of rabbit TM and two differentially glycanated versions of an extracellular domain human TM polypeptide in which the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is either present (GAG+ TM) or absent (GAG- TM) with an ED50 of 3.3-10 micrograms/ml. No such stimulation occurs in response to beta-thromboglobulin or thrombospondin, or when protein C lacking its gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain is the substrate. Heparin and chondroitin sulfates A and E reverse PF4 stimulation. PF4 minimally affects the Kd for THR but decreases 30-fold (from 8.3 to 0.3 microM) the Km for protein C of APC generation by GAG+ TM. PF4 also strikingly transforms the [Ca2+] dependence profile of rabbit and GAG+ TM to resemble that of GAG- TM. A potential explanation for this is that PF4, like Ca2+, induces heparin-reversible alterations in native (but not Gla-domainless) protein C conformation as assessed by autofluorescence emission analysis. We conclude that PF4 stimulates TM APC generation by interacting electrostatically with both the TM GAG and the protein C Gla domain to enhance markedly the affinity of the THR.TM complex for protein C. By this mechanism, PF4 may play a previously unsuspected role in the physiologic regulation of clotting.

  3. The Interaction of the Gammaherpesvirus 68 orf73 Protein with Cellular BET Proteins Affects the Activation of Cell Cycle Promoters▿

    PubMed Central

    Ottinger, Matthias; Pliquet, Daniel; Christalla, Thomas; Frank, Ronald; Stewart, James P.; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable animal model for gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) infection and pathogenesis. The MHV-68 orf73 protein has been shown to be required for the establishment of viral latency in vivo. This study describes a novel transcriptional activation function of the MHV-68 orf73 protein and identifies the cellular bromodomain containing BET proteins Brd2/RING3, Brd3/ORFX, and BRD4 as interaction partners for the MHV-68 orf73 protein. BET protein members are known to interact with acetylated histones, and Brd2 and Brd4 have been implicated in fundamental cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation and transcriptional regulation. Using MHV-68 orf73 peptide array assays, we identified Brd2 and Brd4 interaction sites in the orf73 protein. Mutation of one binding site led to a loss of the interaction with Brd2/4 but not the retinoblastoma protein Rb, to impaired chromatin association, and to a decreased ability to activate the BET-responsive cyclin D1, D2, and E promoters. The results therefore pinpoint the binding site for Brd2/4 in a rhadinoviral orf73 protein and suggest that the recruitment of a member of the BET protein family allows the MHV-68 orf73 protein to activate the promoters of G1/S cyclins. These findings point to parallels between the transcriptional activator functions of rhadinoviral orf73 proteins and papillomavirus E2 proteins. PMID:19244327

  4. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-κB activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKKα and IKKβ kinase activity. How IKKα and IKKβ are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-κB activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB activation pathways. PKK associates with IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKKα and IKKβ via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-κB through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-κB mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ as well as activation of NF-κB in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-κB activation by modulating activation of IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-κB activation in human cancers.

  5. Scaffold protein enigma homolog activates CREB whereas a short splice variant prevents CREB activation in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Jumpei; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Maturana, Andrés D

    2015-12-01

    Enigma Homolog (ENH1 or Pdlim5) is a scaffold protein composed of an N-terminal PDZ domain and three LIM domains at the C-terminal end. The enh gene encodes for several splice variants with opposing functions. ENH1 promotes cardiomyocytes hypertrophy whereas ENH splice variants lacking LIM domains prevent it. ENH1 interacts with various Protein Kinase C (PKC) isozymes and Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1). In addition, the binding of ENH1's LIM domains to PKC is sufficient to activate the kinase without stimulation. The downstream events of the ENH1-PKC/PKD1 complex remain unknown. PKC and PKD1 are known to phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). We tested whether ENH1 could play a role in the activation of CREB. We found that, in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, ENH1 interacts with CREB, is necessary for the phosphorylation of CREB at ser133, and the activation of CREB-dependent transcription. On the contrary, the overexpression of ENH3, a LIM-less splice variant, inhibited the phosphorylation of CREB. ENH3 overexpression or shRNA knockdown of ENH1 prevented the CREB-dependent transcription. Our results thus suggest that ENH1 plays an essential role in CREB's activation and dependent transcription in cardiomyocytes. At the opposite, ENH3 prevents the CREB transcriptional activity. In conclusion, these results provide a first molecular explanation to the opposing functions of ENH splice variants.

  6. Keap1-Independent Regulation of Nrf2 Activity by Protein Acetylation and a BET Bromodomain Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Tian, Min; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Bohmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian BET proteins comprise a family of bromodomain-containing epigenetic regulators with complex functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. We identified the sole member of the BET protein family in Drosophila, Fs(1)h, as an inhibitor of the stress responsive transcription factor CncC, the fly ortholog of Nrf2. Fs(1)h physically interacts with CncC in a manner that requires the function of its bromodomains and the acetylation of CncC. Treatment of cultured Drosophila cells or adult flies with fs(1)h RNAi or with the BET protein inhibitor JQ1 de-represses CncC transcriptional activity and engages protective gene expression programs. The mechanism by which Fs(1)h inhibits CncC function is distinct from the canonical mechanism that stimulates Nrf2 function by abrogating Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation. Consistent with the independent modes of CncC regulation by Keap1 and Fs(1)h, combinations of drugs that can specifically target these pathways cause a strong synergistic and specific activation of protective CncC- dependent gene expression and boosts oxidative stress resistance. This synergism might be exploitable for the design of combinatorial therapies to target diseases associated with oxidative stress or inflammation. PMID:27233051

  7. A recyclable protein resource derived from cauliflower by-products: Potential biological activities of protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Li, Yuting; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jianxu

    2017-04-15

    Cauliflower by-products (CBP) are rich in leaf protein. Every year tons of CBP will lead to environmental pollution. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract leaf protein from CBP and investigate its biological activities. Our results showed that the optimal extraction parameters were: a liquid to solid ratio of 4mL/g, a pH of 11, an ultrasonic extraction lasting 15min, and at an applied power of 175W. Under these optimized conditions, 12.066g of soluble leaf protein (SLP) was obtained from 1000g of CBP and its extraction yield was 53.07%. The obtained SLP was further hydrolysed by Alcalase and the SLP hydrolysate (SLPH) showed a potent angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 138.545μg/mL in vitro. In addition, SLPH promoted the glucose consumption and enhanced the glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results suggested that CBP may be recycled for designing future functional foods.

  8. Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein potentiates bactericidal activity of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, A H; Williams, R E; Nowakowski, G

    1995-01-01

    Human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) from neutrophils and a recombinant amino-terminal fragment, rBPI23, bind to and are cytotoxic for gram-negative bacteria both in vitro and ex vivo in plasma or whole blood. To function in vivo as an extracellular bactericidal agent, rBPI23 must act in the presence of the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), which also binds to but has no reported cytotoxicity for gram-negative bacteria. LBP, which is present at 5 to 10 micrograms/ml in healthy humans and at much higher levels in septic patients, mediates proinflammatory host responses to gram-negative infection. On the basis of these previous observations, we have examined the effect of recombinant LBP (rLBP) on the bactericidal activity of rBPI23 against Escherichia coli J5 in vitro. Physiological concentrations of rLBP (5 to 20 micrograms/ml) had little or no bactericidal activity but reduced by up to approximately 10,000-fold the concentration of BPI required for bactericidal or related activities in assays which measure (i) cell viability as CFUs on solid media or growth in broth culture and (ii) protein synthesis following treatment with BPI. LBP also potentiated BPI-mediated permeabilization of the E. coli outer membrane to actinomycin D by about 100-fold but had no permeabilizing activity of its own. Under optimal conditions for potentiation, fewer than 100 BPI molecules were required to kill a single E. coli J5 bacterium. PMID:7822017

  9. Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Meikrantz, W; Gisselbrecht, S; Tam, S W; Schlegel, R

    1994-01-01

    Apoptosis was induced in S-phase-arrested HeLa cells by staurosporine, caffeine, 6-dimethylaminopurine, and okadaic acid, agents that activate M-phase-promoting factor and induce premature mitosis in similarly treated hamster cell lines. Addition of these agents to asynchronously growing HeLa cells or to cells arrested in early G1 phase with lovastatin had little or no effect. S-phase arrest also promoted tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis, eliminating the normal requirement for simultaneous cycloheximide treatment. For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable overexpression of bcl-2 suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of all agents tested and reduced the amount of Cdc2 and Cdk2 in the nucleus, suggesting a possible mechanism by which bcl-2 inhibits the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis. These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases, is also an important event during apoptosis. Images PMID:8170983

  10. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  11. The yeast regulator of transcription protein Rtr1 lacks an active site and phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kehui; Manley, James L; Tong, Liang

    2012-07-10

    The activity of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is controlled in part by the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Recent reports have suggested that yeast regulator of transcription protein, Rtr1, and its human homologue RPAP2, possess Pol II CTD Ser5 phosphatase activity. Here we report the crystal structure of Kluyveromyces lactis Rtr1, which reveals a new type of zinc finger protein and does not have any close structural homologues. Importantly, the structure does not show evidence of an active site, and extensive experiments to demonstrate its CTD phosphatase activity have been unsuccessful, suggesting that Rtr1 has a non-catalytic role in CTD dephosphorylation.

  12. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P.; Walsh, Kathleen A.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Tessmer, Stuart H.; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-03-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors.

  13. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P; Walsh, Kathleen A; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Steidl, Rebecca J; Tessmer, Stuart H; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-03-24

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors.

  14. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P.; Walsh, Kathleen A.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Tessmer, Stuart H.; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  15. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that male reproductive function is modulated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The MAPK cascade is involved in numerous male reproductive processes, including spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and activation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, before fertilization of the oocyte. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in this rapidly developing field regarding the role of MAPK in male reproduction in animal models and in human spermatozoa in vitro. This research will facilitate the design of future studies in humans, although much work is needed before this information can be used to manage male infertility and environmental toxicant-induced testicular injury in men, such as blood–testis-barrier disruption. PMID:19303360

  17. Lysophospholipid activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tetsuji; Chun, Jerold

    2008-01-01

    One of the major lipid biology discoveries in last decade was the broad range of physiological activities of lysophospholipids that have been attributed to the actions of lysophospholipid receptors. The most well characterized lysophospholipids are lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Documented cellular effects of these lipid mediators include growth-factor-like effects on cells, such as proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. The mechanisms for these actions are attributed to a growing family of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Their pathophysiological actions include immune modulation, neuropathic pain modulation, platelet aggregation, wound healing, vasopressor activity, and angiogenesis. Here we provide a brief introduction to receptor-mediated lysophospholipid signaling and physiology, and then discuss potential therapeutic roles in human diseases.

  18. Small molecule inhibitors targeting activator protein 1 (AP-1).

    PubMed

    Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-08-28

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases.

  19. Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A Ohman; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties.

  20. Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (−37 to −41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

  1. SKK4, a novel activator of stress-activated protein kinase-1 (SAPK1/JNK).

    PubMed

    Lawler, S; Cuenda, A; Goedert, M; Cohen, P

    1997-09-01

    A cDNA was cloned and expressed that encodes human stress-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (SKK4), a novel MAP kinase kinase family member whose mRNA is widely expressed in human tissues. SKK4 activated SAPK1/JNK in vitro, but not SAPK2a/p38, SAPK2b/p38beta, SAPK3/ERK6 or SAPK4. It appears to be the mammalian homologue of HEP, an activator of SAPK1/JNK in Drosophila. In human epithelial KB cells SKK4 and SKK1/MKK4 (another activator of SAPK1/JNK) were both activated by stressful stimuli, but only SKK4 was activated by proinflammatory cytokines. The identification of SKK4 explains why the major SAPK1/JNK activator detected in many mammalian cell extracts is chromatographically separable from SKK1/MKK4.

  2. High-concentration zeta potential measurements using light-scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba, Michael; Corbett, Jason; Watson, Fraser Mcneil; Jones, Andrew

    2010-09-28

    Zeta potential is the key parameter that controls electrostatic interactions in particle dispersions. Laser Doppler electrophoresis is an accepted method for the measurement of particle electrophoretic mobility and hence zeta potential of dispersions of colloidal size materials. Traditionally, samples measured by this technique have to be optically transparent. Therefore, depending upon the size and optical properties of the particles, many samples will be too concentrated and will require dilution. The ability to measure samples at or close to their neat concentration would be desirable as it would minimize any changes in the zeta potential of the sample owing to dilution. However, the ability to measure turbid samples using light-scattering techniques presents a number of challenges. This paper discusses electrophoretic mobility measurements made on turbid samples at high concentration using a novel cell with reduced path length. Results are presented on two different sample types, titanium dioxide and a polyurethane dispersion, as a function of sample concentration. For both of the sample types studied, the electrophoretic mobility results show a gradual decrease as the sample concentration increases and the possible reasons for these observations are discussed. Further, a comparison of the data against theoretical models is presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are made from the zeta potential values obtained at high concentrations.

  3. The white dwarf companion of the B a 2 star zeta Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Ba II star zeta Cap has a white dwarf companion. Its T (sub eff) is determined to be 22000 K, its mass is approximately one solar mass. The importance of this finding for the explanation of abundance peculiarities is discussed.

  4. On small values of the Riemann zeta-function at Gram points

    SciTech Connect

    Korolev, M A

    2014-01-31

    In this paper, we prove the existence of a large set of Gram points t{sub n} such that the values ζ(0.5+it{sub n}) are 'anomalously' close to zero. A lower bound for the negative 'discrete' moment of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line is also given. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  5. Clinical and pharmacogenomic data mining: 3. Zeta theory as a general tactic for clinical bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Robson, Barry

    2005-01-01

    A new approach, a Zeta Theory of observations, data, and data mining, is being forged from a theory of expected information into an even more cohesive and comprehensive form by the challenge of general genomic, pharmacogenomic, and proteomic data. In this paper, the focus is not on studies using the specific tool FANO (CliniMiner) but on extensions to a new broader theoretical approach, aspects of which can easily be implemented into, or otherwise support, excellent existing methods, such as forms of multivariate analysis and IBM's product Intelligent Miner. The theory should perhaps be distinguished from an existing purely number-theoretic area sometimes also known as Zeta Theory, which focuses on the Riemann Zeta Function and the ways in which it governs the distribution of prime numbers. However, Zeta Theory as used here overlaps heavily with it and actually makes use of these same matters. The distinction is that it enters from a Bayesian information theory and data representation perspective. It could thus be considered an application of the 'mathematician's version'. The application is by no means confined to areas of modern biomedicine, and indeed its generality, even merging into quantum mechanics, is a key feature. Other areas with some similar challenges as modern biology, and which have inspired data mining methods such as IBM's Intelligent Miner, include commerce. But for several reasons discussed, modern molecular biology and medicine seem particularly challenging, and this relates to the often irreducible high dimensionality of the data. This thus remains our main target.

  6. Zeta-potential Analyses using Micro Electrical Field Flow Fractionation with Fluorescent Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon-Hwan; Dosev, Dosi; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly growing application of nanoparticles in biotechnology requires fast and accessible tools for their manipulation and for characterization of their colloidal properties. In this work we determine the zeta-potentials for polystyrene nanoparticles using micro electrical field flow fractionation (μ–EFFF) which is an efficient method for sorting of particles by size. The data obtained by μ–EFFF were compared to zeta potentials determined by standard capillary electrophoresis. For proof of concept, we used polystyrene nanoparticles of two different sizes, impregnated with two different fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent emission spectra were used to evaluate the particle separation in both systems. Using the theory of electrophoresis, we estimated the zeta-potentials as a function of size, dielectric permittivity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility. The results obtained by the μ–EFFF technique were confirmed by the conventional capillary electrophoresis measurements. These results demonstrate the applicability of the μ–EFFF method not only for particle size separation but also as a simple and inexpensive tool for measurements of nanoparticles zeta potentials. PMID:18542710

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1096 protein: gene cloning, protein expression, and peptidoglycan deacetylase activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many bacteria modulate and evade the immune defenses of their hosts through peptidoglycan (PG) deacetylation. The PG deacetylases from Streptococcus pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactococcus lactis have been characterized. However, thus far, the PG deacetylase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been identified. Results In this study, we cloned the Rv1096 gene from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and expressed Rv1096 protein in both Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis. The results showed that the purified Rv1096 protein possessed metallo-dependent PG deacetylase activity, which increased in the presence of Co2+. The kinetic parameters of the PG deacetylase towards M. smegmatis PG as a substrate were as follows: Km, 0.910 ± 0.007 mM; Vmax, 0.514 ± 0.038 μMmin-1; and Kcat = 0.099 ± 0.007 (S-1). Additionally, the viability of M. smegmatis in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein was 109-fold higher than that of wild-type M. smegmatis after lysozyme treatment. Additionally, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein, M. smegmatis kept its regular shape, with an undamaged cell wall and smooth surface. These results indicate that Rv1096 caused deacetylation of cell wall PG, leading to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Conclusion We have determined that M. tuberculosis Rv1096 is a PG deacetylase. The PG deacetylase activity of Rv1096 contributed to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Our findings suggest that deacetylation of cell wall PG may be involved in evasion of host immune defenses by M. tuberculosis. PMID:24975018

  8. Protein Kinase A-independent Ras Protein Activation Cooperates with Rap1 Protein to Mediate Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases (ERK) by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Takahashi, Maho; Earley, Keith T; Stork, Philip J S

    2016-10-07

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1, have been proposed to mediate this activation, with either Ras or Rap1 acting in distinct cell types. Using Hek293 cells, we show that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. The roles of Ras and Rap1 were distinguished by their mechanism of activation, dependence on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and the magnitude and kinetics of their effects on ERKs. Ras was required for the early portion of ERK activation by cAMP and was activated independently of PKA. Ras activation required the Ras/Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) PDZ-GEF1. Importantly, this action of PDZ-GEF1 was disrupted by mutation within its putative cyclic nucleotide-binding domain within PDZ-GEF1. Compared with Ras, Rap1 activation of ERKs was of longer duration. Rap1 activation was dependent on PKA and required Src family kinases and the Rap1 exchanger C3G. This is the first report of a mechanism for the cooperative actions of Ras and Rap1 in cAMP activation of ERKs. One physiological role for the sustained activation of ERKs is the transcription and stabilization of a range of transcription factors, including c-FOS. We show that the induction of c-FOS by cAMP required both the early and sustained phases of ERK activation, requiring Ras and Rap1, as well as for each of the Raf isoforms, B-Raf and C-Raf.

  9. Activator protein 1 promotes the transcriptional activation of IRAK-M.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peipei; Bo, Lulong; Liu, Yongjian; Lu, Wenbin; Lin, Shengwei; Bian, Jinjun; Deng, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) is a well-known negative regulator for Toll-like receptor signaling, which can regulate immune homeostasis and tolerance in a number of pathological settings. However, the mechanism for IRAK-M regulation at transcriptional level remains largely unknown. In this study, a 1.4kb upstream sequence starting from the major IRAK-M transcriptional start site was cloned into luciferase reporter vector pGL3-basic to construct the full-length IRAK-M promoter. Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the full-length and the deletion mutants of IRAK-M were transfected into 293T and A549 cells, and their relative luciferase activity was measured. The results demonstrated that activator protein 1(AP-1) cis-element plays a crucial role in IRAK-M constitutive gene transcription. Silencing of c-Fos and/or c-Jun expression suppressed the IRAK-M promoter activity as well as its mRNA and protein expressions. As a specific inhibitor for AP-1 activation, SP600125 also significantly suppressed the basal transcriptional activity of IRAK-M, the binding activity of c-Fos/c-Jun with IRAK-M promoter, and IRAK-M protein expression. Taken together, the result of this study highlights the importance of AP-1 in IRAK-M transcription, which offers more information on the role of IRAK-M in infectious and non-infectious diseases.

  10. Homology modeling and ligand docking of Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) is involved in one of the major signaling pathways in cells, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. MK5 was discovered in 1998 by the groups of Houng Ni and Ligou New, and was found to be highly conserved throughout the vertebrates. Studies, both in vivo and in vitro, have shown that it is implicated in tumor suppression as well as tumor promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, locomotion, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. Methods In order to obtain a molecular model of MK5 that can be used as a working tool for development of chemical probes, three MK5 models were constructed and refined based on three different known crystal structures of the closely related MKs; MK2 [PDB: 2OZA and PDB: 3M2W] and MK3 [PDB: 3FHR]. The main purpose of the present MK5 molecular modeling study was to identify the best suited template for making a MK5 model. The ability of the generated models to effectively discriminate between known inhibitors and decoys was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results According to the ROC curve analyzes, the refined model based on 3FHR was most effective in discrimination between known inhibitors and decoys. Conclusions The 3FHR-based MK5 model may serve as a working tool for development of chemical probes using computer aided drug design. The biological function of MK5 still remains elusive, but its role as a possible drug target may be elucidated in the near future. PMID:24034446

  11. MKP-7, a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Shima, H; Watanabe, M; Kikuchi, K

    2001-10-19

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) negatively regulate MAPK activity. In the present study, we have identified a novel MKP, designated MKP-7, and mapped it to human chromosome 12p12. MKP-7 possesses a long C-terminal stretch containing both a nuclear export signal and a nuclear localization signal, in addition to the rhodanese-like domain and the dual specificity phosphatase catalytic domain, both of which are conserved among MKP family members. When expressed in mammalian cells MKP-7 protein was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, but this localization became exclusively nuclear following leptomycin B treatment or introduction of a mutation in the nuclear export signal. These findings indicate that MKP-7 is the first identified leptomycin B-sensitive shuttle MKP. Forced expression of MKP-7 suppressed activation of MAPKs in COS-7 cells in the order of selectivity, JNK p38 > ERK. Furthermore, a mutant form MKP-7 functioned as a dominant negative particularly against the dephosphorylation of JNK, suggesting that MKP-7 works as a JNK-specific phosphatase in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and histological analysis suggested that MKP-7 determines the localization of MAPKs in the cytoplasm.

  12. Proteins with RNA Chaperone Activity: A World of Diverse Proteins with a Common Task—Impediment of RNA Misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Semrad, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Proteins with RNA chaperone activity are ubiquitous proteins that play important roles in cellular mechanisms. They prevent RNA from misfolding by loosening misfolded structures without ATP consumption. RNA chaperone activity is studied in vitro and in vivo using oligonucleotide- or ribozyme-based assays. Due to their functional as well as structural diversity, a common chaperoning mechanism or universal motif has not yet been identified. A growing database of proteins with RNA chaperone activity has been established based on evaluation of chaperone activity via the described assays. Although the exact mechanism is not yet understood, it is more and more believed that disordered regions within proteins play an important role. This possible mechanism and which proteins were found to possess RNA chaperone activity are discussed here. PMID:21234377

  13. Characterization of mineralogy and surface zeta potential of atmospheric dust fall in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fa-Qin; Chen, Wu; Dai, Qun-Wei; Deng, Yue-Quan; He, Ping; He, Xiao-Chun; Tang, Jun; Liu, Li-Zhu; He, Hua

    2015-06-01

    The mineralogy characterization of dust fall in atmosphere is important in understanding and improving air quality. In this paper, dust fall samples were collected in the suburb of four areas of northwest China during April to May 2012. The size distribution, mineral phase and composition, morphology, and surface charge of dust fall were investigated, respectively, by particle size analyzer, X-ray powder diffraction spectrometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and zeta potential analyzer. The average volume size of dust fall was from 59.17 to 62.88 μm, and the dust fall in Tuoketuo County of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region had the finest particles (59.17 μm), while the number percentage of fine particulate matter (<1.0 μm) in dusts was about 88.36 % of total particles. The main minerals of dust fall samples are composed of quartz, calcilte, muscotive, albite, clinochlore, and gypsum. And four dust fall samples had the same main mineral phase. Minerals of surface soil were identified as an important source of atmospheric dust fall. The morphological of the atmospheric dust fall presented irregular square, sphere, agglomerate elongated particles, and granular aggregates. Zeta potentials of four dust fall samples were negative in tested pH range. Moreover, their zeta potentials decreased with increasing pH of the solution. The surface charge of dust fall was strongly affected by the quantity of carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) in samples. The simulated zeta potential result of multimineral dusts indicated that the magnitude and tendencies of dust's zeta potential were dominated by the main mineral phase in dust fall.

  14. Electroviscous effect on fluid drag in a microchannel with large zeta potential

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Dalei

    2015-01-01

    Summary The electroviscous effect has been widely studied to investigate the effect of surface charge-induced electric double layers (EDL) on the pressure-driven flow in a micro/nano channel. EDL has been reported to reduce the velocity of fluid flow and increase the fluid drag. Nevertheless, the study on the combined effect of EDL with large zeta potential up to several hundred millivolts and surface charge depenedent-slip on the micro/nano flow is still needed. In this paper, the nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation for electrical potential and ion distribution in non-overlapping EDL is first analytically solved. Then, the modified Navier–Stokes equation for the flow considering the effect of surface charge on the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and slip length is analytically solved. This analysis is used to study the effect of non-overlapping EDL with large zeta potential on the pressure-driven flow in a microchannel with no-slip and charge-dependent slip conditions. The results show that the EDL leads to an increase in the fluid drag, but that slip can reduce the fluid drag. When the zeta potential is large enough, the electroviscous effect disappears for flow in the microchannel under a no-slip condition. However, the retardation of EDL on the flow and the enhancement of slip on the flow counteract each other under a slip condition. The underlying mechanisms of the effect of EDL with large zeta potential on fluid drag are the high net ionic concentration near the channel wall and the fast decay of electrical potential in the EDL when the zeta potential is large enough. PMID:26734512

  15. Electroviscous effect on fluid drag in a microchannel with large zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Jing, Dalei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    The electroviscous effect has been widely studied to investigate the effect of surface charge-induced electric double layers (EDL) on the pressure-driven flow in a micro/nano channel. EDL has been reported to reduce the velocity of fluid flow and increase the fluid drag. Nevertheless, the study on the combined effect of EDL with large zeta potential up to several hundred millivolts and surface charge depenedent-slip on the micro/nano flow is still needed. In this paper, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for electrical potential and ion distribution in non-overlapping EDL is first analytically solved. Then, the modified Navier-Stokes equation for the flow considering the effect of surface charge on the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and slip length is analytically solved. This analysis is used to study the effect of non-overlapping EDL with large zeta potential on the pressure-driven flow in a microchannel with no-slip and charge-dependent slip conditions. The results show that the EDL leads to an increase in the fluid drag, but that slip can reduce the fluid drag. When the zeta potential is large enough, the electroviscous effect disappears for flow in the microchannel under a no-slip condition. However, the retardation of EDL on the flow and the enhancement of slip on the flow counteract each other under a slip condition. The underlying mechanisms of the effect of EDL with large zeta potential on fluid drag are the high net ionic concentration near the channel wall and the fast decay of electrical potential in the EDL when the zeta potential is large enough.

  16. Activation of fat cell adenylate cyclase by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, S.; Noguchi, M.; Huang, K.P.; Londos, C.

    1986-05-01

    Purified protein kinase C (C-kinase) from guinea pig pancreas and rat brain stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in purified rat adipocyte membranes. Cyclase stimulation occurred over 100 to 1000 mU/ml of C-kinase activity, required greater than 10 ..mu..M calcium, proceeded without a lag, was not readily reversible, and required no exogenous phospholipid. Moreover, C-kinase inhibitors, such as chlorpromazine and palmitoyl carnitine, inhibited selectively adenylate cyclase which was activated by C-kinase and calcium. Depending on assay conditions, 10 nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) either enhanced or was required for kinase action on cyclase. Also, TPA plus calcium promoted the quantitative association of C-kinase with membranes. Adenylate cyclase activation by C-kinase was seen both in the presence and absence of exogenous GTP, indicating that the kinase effect does not result from an action on the GTP-binding, inhibitory regulatory component (N/sub i/) of the cyclase system. Moreover, the kinase effect was seen in the presence of non-phosphorylating ATP analogs, such as AppNHp and AppCH/sub 2/p, suggesting that the effects of C-kinase described herein may result from association with, rather than phosphorylation of, adenylate cyclase.

  17. Effects of AMP-activated protein kinase in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2010-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK is found in most mammalian tissues including the brain. As a key metabolic and stress sensor/effector, AMPK is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation, vigorous exercise, or heat shock. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that changes in AMPK activation not only signal unmet metabolic needs, but also are involved in sensing and responding to 'cell stress', including ischemia. The downstream effect of AMPK activation is dependent on many factors, including the severity of the stressor as well as the tissue examined. This review discusses recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed in the brain/neuronal cells and vasculature that have contributed to our understanding of AMPK in stroke. Recent data on the potential role of AMPK in angiogenesis and neurogenesis and the interaction of AMPK with 3-hydroxy-3-methy-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) agents are highlighted. The interaction between AMPK and nitric oxide signaling is also discussed.

  18. Effects of AMP-activated protein kinase in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK is found in most mammalian tissues including the brain. As a key metabolic and stress sensor/effector, AMPK is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation, vigorous exercise, or heat shock. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that changes in AMPK activation not only signal unmet metabolic needs, but also are involved in sensing and responding to ‘cell stress', including ischemia. The downstream effect of AMPK activation is dependent on many factors, including the severity of the stressor as well as the tissue examined. This review discusses recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed in the brain/neuronal cells and vasculature that have contributed to our understanding of AMPK in stroke. Recent data on the potential role of AMPK in angiogenesis and neurogenesis and the interaction of AMPK with 3-hydroxy-3-methy-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) agents are highlighted. The interaction between AMPK and nitric oxide signaling is also discussed. PMID:20010958

  19. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (F)Xa and its cofactor FVa) plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC), an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative analysis of in vitro

  20. Timing of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Price, D M; Terriff, D; Chik, C L

    2006-06-27

    Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signaling cascades is a tightly controlled event in rat pinealocytes. Cell culture studies indicate that whereas the NE-->cGMP activation of p42/44MAPK is rapid and transient, the NE-->cAMP activation of p38MAPK is slower and more sustained. The decline in the p42/44MAPK response is in part due to the induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 by NE. In comparison, p38MAPK activation is tightly coupled to the synthesis and degradation of an upstream element in its activation cascade. Whole animal studies confirm activation of p42/44MAPK occurring during the early part of night and precedes p38MAPK activation. Studies with selective MAPK inhibitors reveal a modulating effect of MAPKs on arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferse (AA-NAT) activity, with involvement of p42/44MAPK in the induction of AA-NAT and p38MAPK participating in the amplitude and duration of the AA-NAT response. These effects of p42/44MAPK and p38MAPK on AA-NAT activity match their timing of activation. Taken together, our studies on the timing of MAPK activation and regulation of AA-NAT by MAPKs add to the importance of MAPKs in regulating the circadian biology of the pineal gland.

  1. A Variable Light Domain Fluorogen Activating Protein Homodimerizes To Activate Dimethylindole Red

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Nina; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Bhattacharyya, Shantanu; Rule, Gordon S.; Wilson, Ian A.; Armitage, Bruce A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Berget, Peter B.

    2012-07-11

    Novel fluorescent tools such as green fluorescent protein analogues and fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs) are useful in biological imaging for tracking protein dynamics in real time with a low fluorescence background. FAPs are single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) selected from a yeast surface display library that produce fluorescence upon binding a specific dye or fluorogen that is normally not fluorescent when present in solution. FAPs generally consist of human immunoglobulin variable heavy (V{sub H}) and variable light (V{sub L}) domains covalently attached via a glycine- and serine-rich linker. Previously, we determined that the yeast surface clone, V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8, could bind and activate the fluorogen dimethylindole red (DIR) but that the fluorogen activation properties were localized to the M8V{sub L} domain. We report here that both nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction methods indicate the M8V{sub L} forms noncovalent, antiparallel homodimers that are the fluorogen activating species. The M8V{sub L} homodimers activate DIR by restriction of internal rotation of the bound dye. These structural results, together with directed evolution experiments with both V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8 and M8V{sub L}, led us to rationally design tandem, covalent homodimers of M8V{sub L} domains joined by a flexible linker that have a high affinity for DIR and good quantum yields.

  2. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3, and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses) is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phospho)proteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g., WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the "PEN" pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens). Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org).

  3. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto colloidal Al2O3 particles: a new model based on zeta potential and UV-vis measurements.

    PubMed

    Rezwan, Kurosch; Meier, Lorenz P; Rezwan, Mandana; Vörös, Janos; Textor, Marcus; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2004-11-09

    We investigated the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on colloidal Al2O3 particles in an aqueous environment. Changes in the zeta potential of the Al2O3 particles upon the adsorption of BSA were measured using an electro-acoustic technique. The mass of protein adsorbed was determined by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The change of the isoelectric point of the Al2O3 powder-protein suspension was found to be a function of adsorbed protein mass. It was shown that approximately one monolayer of BSA was needed to fully mask the surface and to compromise the charge of Al2O3. From titration experiments it follows that about 30-36% of the negatively charged groups of the protein form bonds with the protonated and charged Al2O3 surface. On the basis of our observations we introduced a new adsorption model for BSA on Al2O3 particles.

  4. Stimulation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells by Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sangeetha; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Eapen, Asha; George, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can ultimately result in tooth loss. Many natural and synthetic materials have been tried to achieve periodontal regeneration, but the results remain variable and unpredictable. We hypothesized that exogenous treatment with dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) activates specific genes and results in phenotypic and functional changes in human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Methods hPDLSCs were isolated from extracted teeth and cultured in the presence or absence of DMP1. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to analyze the expression of several genes involved in periodontal regeneration. hPDLSCs were also processed for immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and ERK antibodies. Alkaline phosphatase and von Kossa staining were performed to characterize the differentiation of hPDLSCs into osteoblasts. Field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis of the treated and control cell cultures were also performed. Results Treatment with DMP1 resulted in the upregulation of genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2, alkaline phosphatase, and transforming growth factor β1. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and translocation of pERK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed. Overall, DMP1-treated cells showed increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, increased matrix, and mineralized nodule formation when compared with untreated controls. Conclusion DMP1 can orchestrate a coordinated expression of genes and phenotypic changes in hPDLSCs by activation of the ERK signaling pathway, which may provide a valuable strategy for tissue engineering approaches in periodontal regeneration. PMID:22612367

  5. Synaptic activation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation occurs locally in activated dendritic domains.

    PubMed

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6) locally near active synapses. Using antibodies specific for phosphorylation at different sites (ser235/236 versus ser240/244), we show that strong synaptic activation led to dramatic increases in immunostaining throughout postsynaptic neurons with selectively higher staining for p-ser235/236 in the activated dendritic lamina. Following LTP induction, phosphorylation at ser235/236 was detectable by 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and was maintained for hours. Phosphorylation at both sites was completely blocked by local infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, APV. Despite robust induction of p-rpS6 following high frequency stimulation, assessment of protein synthesis by autoradiography revealed no detectable increases. Exploration of a novel environment led to increases in the number of p-rpS6-positive neurons throughout the forebrain in a pattern reminiscent of immediate early gene induction and many individual neurons that were p-rpS6-positive coexpressed Arc protein. Our results constrain hypotheses about the possible role of rpS6 phosphorylation in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis during induction of synaptic plasticity.

  6. Line identifications in the ultraviolet spectra of Tau Herculis, B5 IV, and Zeta Draconis, B6 III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.; Adelman, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tables of the lines found on two tracings each of the ultraviolet spectrum of Tau Her, B5 IV, and Zeta Dra, B6 III, made by the Copernicus satellite and possible identifications are given. The ranges 1025-1451A for Tau Her and 1035 to 1425A for Zeta Dra are covered by the U2 spectrometer at a resolution of 0.2A; the ranges 2028 to 2959A for Tau Her and 2000 to 3000A for Zeta Dra are covered by the V2 spectrometer at a resolution of 0.4A. The observed density of lines in the U2 region is 1.1 lines/A for Tau Her and 1.7 lines/A for Zeta Dra. In the V2 region it is 0.8 lines/A for Tau Her and 0.9 lines/A for Zeta Dra.

  7. Stress-activated protein kinase-mediated down-regulation of the cell integrity pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1p by protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2007-11-01

    Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1p is involved in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis as part of the cell integrity pathway, and it becomes activated under multiple stresses, including hyper- or hypotonic conditions, glucose deprivation, cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress. The only protein phosphatase known to dephosphorylate and inactivate Pmk1p is Pmp1p. We show here that the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway and its main effector, Sty1p MAPK, are essential for proper deactivation of Pmk1p under hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1p transcription factor. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatases Pyp1p and Pyp2p, and serine/threonine phosphatase Ptc1p, that negatively regulate Sty1p activity and whose expression is dependent on Sty1p-Atf1p function, are involved in Pmk1p dephosphorylation under osmostress. Pyp1p and Ptc1p, in addition to Pmp1p, also control the basal level of MAPK Pmk1p activity in growing cells and associate with, and dephosphorylate Pmk1p both in vitro and in vivo. Our results with Ptc1p provide the first biochemical evidence for a PP2C-type phosphatase acting on more than one MAPK in yeast cells. Importantly, the SAPK-dependent down-regulation of Pmk1p through Pyp1p, Pyp2p, and Ptc1p was not complete, and Pyp1p and Ptc1p phosphatases are able to negatively regulate MAPK Pmk1p activity by an alternative regulatory mechanism. Our data also indicate that Pmk1p phosphorylation oscillates as a function of the cell cycle, peaking at cell separation during cytokinesis, and that Pmp1p phosphatase plays a main role in regulating this process.

  8. Stress-activated Protein Kinase-mediated Down-Regulation of the Cell Integrity Pathway Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pmk1p by Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Cansado, José

    2007-01-01

    Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Pmk1p is involved in morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis as part of the cell integrity pathway, and it becomes activated under multiple stresses, including hyper- or hypotonic conditions, glucose deprivation, cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress. The only protein phosphatase known to dephosphorylate and inactivate Pmk1p is Pmp1p. We show here that the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway and its main effector, Sty1p MAPK, are essential for proper deactivation of Pmk1p under hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1p transcription factor. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatases Pyp1p and Pyp2p, and serine/threonine phosphatase Ptc1p, that negatively regulate Sty1p activity and whose expression is dependent on Sty1p-Atf1p function, are involved in Pmk1p dephosphorylation under osmostress. Pyp1p and Ptc1p, in addition to Pmp1p, also control the basal level of MAPK Pmk1p activity in growing cells and associate with, and dephosphorylate Pmk1p both in vitro and in vivo. Our results with Ptc1p provide the first biochemical evidence for a PP2C-type phosphatase acting on more than one MAPK in yeast cells. Importantly, the SAPK-dependent down-regulation of Pmk1p through Pyp1p, Pyp2p, and Ptc1p was not complete, and Pyp1p and Ptc1p phosphatases are able to negatively regulate MAPK Pmk1p activity by an alternative regulatory mechanism. Our data also indicate that Pmk1p phosphorylation oscillates as a function of the cell cycle, peaking at cell separation during cytokinesis, and that Pmp1p phosphatase plays a main role in regulating this process. PMID:17761528

  9. Targeted Mutagenesis and Combinatorial Library Screening Enables Control of Protein Orientation on Surfaces and Increased Activity of Adsorbed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Teran, Carlos A; Carlin, Kevin B; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan; Rao, Balaji M

    2016-08-30

    While nonspecific adsorption is widely used for immobilizing proteins on solid surfaces, the random nature of protein adsorption may reduce the activity of immobilized proteins due to occlusion of the active site. We hypothesized that the orientation a protein assumes on a given surface can be controlled by systematically introducing mutations into a region distant from its active site, thereby retaining activity of the immobilized protein. To test this hypothesis, we generated a combinatorial protein library by randomizing six targeted residues in a binding protein derived from highly stable, nonimmunoglobulin Sso7d scaffold; mutations were targeted in a region that is distant from the binding site. This library was screened to isolate binders that retain binding to its cognate target (chicken immunoglobulin Y, cIgY) as well as exhibit adsorption on unmodified silica at pH 7.4 and high ionic strength conditions. A single mutant, Sso7d-2B5, was selected for further characterization. Sso7d-2B5 retained binding to cIgY with an apparent dissociation constant similar to that of the parent protein; both mutant and parent proteins saturated the surface of silica with similar densities. Strikingly, however, silica beads coated with Sso7d-2B5 could achieve up to 7-fold higher capture of cIgY than beads coated with the parent protein. These results strongly suggest that mutations introduced in Sso7d-2B5 alter its orientation relative to the parent protein, when adsorbed on silica surfaces. Our approach also provides a generalizable strategy for introducing mutations in proteins so as to improve their activity upon immobilization, and has direct relevance to development of protein-based biosensors and biocatalysts.

  10. Acute hypertension activates mitogen-activated protein kinases in arterial wall.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q; Liu, Y; Gorospe, M; Udelsman, R; Holbrook, N J

    1996-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are rapidly activated in cells stimulated with various extracellular signals by dual phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues. They are thought to play a pivotal role in transmitting transmembrane signals required for cell growth and differentiation. Herein we provide evidence that two distinct classes of MAP kinases, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK), are transiently activated in rat arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral arteries) in response to an acute elevation in blood pressure induced by either restraint or administration of hypertensive agents (i.e., phenylephrine and angiotensin II). Kinase activation is followed by an increase in c-fos and c-jun gene expression and enhanced activating protein 1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity. Activation of ERK and JNK could contribute to smooth muscle cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia during arterial remodeling due to frequent and/or persistent elevations in blood pressure. PMID:8567974

  11. Muscarinic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, J L; Levey, A I

    2000-08-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) activate many downstream signaling pathways, some of which can lead to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and activation. MAPKs play roles in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Here, the activation of MAPK was examined in PC12 cells endogenously expressing mAChRs. Western blot analysis using a phosphospecific MAPK antibody revealed a dose-dependent and atropine-sensitive increase in MAPK phosphorylation in cells stimulated with carbachol (CCh). The maximal response occurred after 5 min and was rapidly reduced to baseline. To investigate the receptors responsible for CCh activation of MAPK in PC12 cells, the mAChR subtypes present were determined using RT-PCR and immunoprecipitation. RT-PCR was used to amplify fragments of the appropriate sizes for m1, m4, and m5, and the identities of the bands were confirmed with restriction digests. Immunoprecipitation using subtype-specific antibodies showed that approximately 95% of the expressed receptors were m4, whereas the remaining approximately 5% were m1 and m5. A highly specific m1 toxin completely blocked MAPK phosphorylation in response to CCh stimulation. The mAChR-induced MAPK activation was abolished by protein kinase C down-regulation and partially inhibited by pertussis toxin. Although m1 represents a small proportion of the total mAChR population, pharmacological evidence suggests that m1 is responsible for MAPK activation in PC12 cells.

  12. The RecX protein interacts with the RecA protein and modulates its activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, C.W.; Souza, E.M.; Etto, R.M.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Yates, M.G.; Schumacher, J.; Buck, M.; Steffens, M.B.R.

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair is crucial to the survival of all organisms. The bacterial RecA protein is a central component in the SOS response and in recombinational and SOS DNA repairs. The RecX protein has been characterized as a negative modulator of RecA activity in many bacteria. The recA and recX genes of Herbaspirillum seropedicae constitute a single operon, and evidence suggests that RecX participates in SOS repair. In the present study, we show that the H. seropedicae RecX protein (RecXHs) can interact with the H. seropedicae RecA protein (RecAHs) and that RecAHs possesses ATP binding, ATP hydrolyzing and DNA strand exchange activities. RecXHs inhibited 90% of the RecAHs DNA strand exchange activity even when present in a 50-fold lower molar concentration than RecAHs. RecAHs ATP binding was not affected by the addition of RecX, but the ATPase activity was reduced. When RecXHs was present before the formation of RecA filaments (RecA-ssDNA), inhibition of ATPase activity was substantially reduced and excess ssDNA also partially suppressed this inhibition. The results suggest that the RecXHs protein negatively modulates the RecAHs activities by protein-protein interactions and also by DNA-protein interactions. PMID:23044625

  13. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.

  14. Activation of ERK by sodium tungstate induces protein synthesis and prevents protein degradation in rat L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Salto, Rafael; Vílchez, José D; Cabrera, Elena; Guinovart, Joan J; Girón, María D

    2014-06-27

    The balance between the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in muscle is regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling. Here we addressed the effect of ERK activation by sodium tungstate on protein turnover in rat L6 myotubes. Phosphorylation of ERK by this compound increased protein synthesis by activating MTOR and prevented dexamethasone-induced protein degradation by blocking FoxO3a activity, but it did not alter Akt phosphorylation. Thus, activation of ERK by tungstate improves protein turnover in dexamethasone-treated cells. On the basis of our results, we propose that tungstate be considered an alternative to IGF-I and its analogs in the prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  15. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jessica R.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Markus, Benedikt M.; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7–kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. PMID:26305940

  16. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, Jessica R.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Markus, Benedikt M.; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-08-24

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7–kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes.

  17. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases

    DOE PAGES

    Ingram, Jessica R.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Markus, Benedikt M.; ...

    2015-08-24

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics,more » the effects of 1B7–kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes.« less

  18. Implications of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal; Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Gliomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells or their precursors. According to WHO classification, gliomas are classified into four different malignant grades ranging from grade I to grade IV based on histopathological features and related molecular aberrations. The induction and maintenance of these tumors can be attributed largely to aberrant signaling networks. In this regard, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network has been widely studied and is reported to be severely altered in glial tumors. Mutations in MAPK pathways most frequently affect RAS and B-RAF in the ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways leading to malignant transformation. Also, it is linked to both inherited and sequential accumulations of mutations that control receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activated signal transduction pathways, cell cycle growth arrest pathways, and nonresponsive cell death pathways. Genetic alterations that modulate RTK signaling can also alter several downstream pathways, including RAS-mediated MAP kinases along with JNK pathways, which ultimately regulate cell proliferation and cell death. The present review focuses on recent literature regarding important deregulations in the RTK-activated MAPK pathway during gliomagenesis and progression.

  19. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.

  20. Antitussive and immunomodulating activities of instant coffee arabinogalactan-protein.

    PubMed

    Nosáľová, G; Prisenžňáková, L; Paulovičová, E; Capek, P; Matulová, M; Navarini, L; Liverani, F Suggi

    2011-11-01

    A low molecular mass arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) composed of galactose and arabinose with a low protein content, isolated from the instant coffee powder of Coffea arabica beans, has been tested on antitussive (in vivo) and immunomodulating (ex vivo) activities. The results of antitussive tests revealed a significant dose dependant cough-suppressive effect of coffee AGP. It was observed 30 or 60 min after AGP administration and its efficacy lasted during the entire experiment course. Immunological tests showed that AGP affected some mediators of immunocompetent cells of immune system as TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines. It seems that coffee AGP is a good inductor of both pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, however, less potent in TNF-α induction in comparison with that of β-D-glucan. Evident induction of TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ cytokines, pro-TH1 polarization supports our conclusion about bio-immunological efficacy of AGP with an emphasis on the cellular immunity.

  1. Target identification with quantitative activity based protein profiling (ABPP).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Wong, Yin Kwan; Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Lee, Yew-Mun; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2017-02-01

    As many small bioactive molecules fulfill their functions through interacting with protein targets, the identification of such targets is crucial in understanding their mechanisms of action (MOA) and side effects. With technological advancements in target identification, it has become possible to accurately and comprehensively study the MOA and side effects of small molecules. While small molecules with therapeutic potential were derived solely from nature in the past, the remodeling and synthesis of such molecules have now been made possible. Presently, while some small molecules have seen successful application as drugs, the majority remain undeveloped, requiring further understanding of their MOA and side effects to fully tap into their potential. Given the typical promiscuity of many small molecules and the complexity of the cellular proteome, a high-flux and high-accuracy method is necessary. While affinity chromatography approaches combined with MS have had successes in target identification, limitations associated with nonspecific results remain. To overcome these complications, quantitative chemical proteomics approaches have been developed including metabolic labeling, chemical labeling, and label-free methods. These new approaches are adopted in conjunction with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), allowing for a rapid process and accurate results. This review will briefly introduce the principles involved in ABPP, then summarize current advances in quantitative chemical proteomics approaches as well as illustrate with examples how ABPP coupled with quantitative chemical proteomics has been used to detect the targets of drugs and other bioactive small molecules including natural products.

  2. The activating transcription factor 3 protein suppresses the oncogenic function of mutant p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-03-28

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer.

  3. Development of Novel Alkene Oxindole Derivatives As Orally Efficacious AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a promising drug target for its regulatory function in both glucose and lipid metabolism. Compound PT1 (5) was originally identified from high throughput screening as a small molecule activator of AMPK through the antagonization of the autoinhibition in α subunits. In order to enhance its potency at AMPK and bioavailability, structure–activity relationship studies have been performed and resulted in a novel series of AMPK activators based on an alkene oxindole scaffold. Following their evaluation in pharmacological AMPK activation assays, lead compound 24 was identified to possess improved potency as well as favorable pharmacokinetic profile. In the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, compound 24 was found to improve glucose tolerance and alleviate insulin resistance. The in vitro and in vivo data for these alkene oxindoles warrant further studies for their potential therapeutic medications in metabolic associated diseases. PMID:24900695

  4. V-1 regulates capping protein activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Goeh; Alexander, Christopher J; Wu, Xufeng S; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Chen, Bi-Chang; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A

    2016-10-25

    Capping Protein (CP) plays a central role in the creation of the Arp2/3-generated branched actin networks comprising lamellipodia and pseudopodia by virtue of its ability to cap the actin filament barbed end, which promotes Arp2/3-dependent filament nucleation and optimal branching. The highly conserved protein V-1/Myotrophin binds CP tightly in vitro to render it incapable of binding the barbed end. Here we addressed the physiological significance of this CP antagonist in Dictyostelium, which expresses a V-1 homolog that we show is very similar biochemically to mouse V-1. Consistent with previous studies of CP knockdown, overexpression of V-1 in Dictyostelium reduced the size of pseudopodia and the cortical content of Arp2/3 and induced the formation of filopodia. Importantly, these effects scaled positively with the degree of V-1 overexpression and were not seen with a V-1 mutant that cannot bind CP. V-1 is present in molar excess over CP, suggesting that it suppresses CP activity in the cytoplasm at steady state. Consistently, cells devoid of V-1, like cells overexpressing CP described previously, exhibited a significant decrease in cellular F-actin content. Moreover, V-1-null cells exhibited pronounced defects in macropinocytosis and chemotactic aggregation that were rescued by V-1, but not by the V-1 mutant. Together, these observations demonstrate that V-1 exerts significant influence in vivo on major actin-based processes via its ability to sequester CP. Finally, we present evidence that V-1's ability to sequester CP is regulated by phosphorylation, suggesting that cells may manipulate the level of active CP to tune their "actin phenotype."

  5. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs.

  6. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  7. Network-based inference of protein activity helps functionalize the genetic landscape of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Mariano J.; Shen, Yao; Giorgi, Federico M.; Lachmann, Alexander; Ding, B. Belinda; Ye, B. Hilda; Califano, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the multiple dysregulated oncoproteins that contribute to tumorigenesis in a given patient is crucial for developing personalized treatment plans. However, accurate inference of aberrant protein activity in biological samples is still challenging as genetic alterations are only partially predictive and direct measurements of protein activity are generally not feasible. To address this problem we introduce and experimentally validate a new algorithm, VIPER (Virtual Inference of Protein-activity by Enriched Regulon analysis), for the accurate assessment of protein activity from gene expression data. We use VIPER to evaluate the functional relevance of genetic alterations in regulatory proteins across all TCGA samples. In addition to accurately inferring aberrant protein activity induced by established mutations, we also identify a significant fraction of tumors with aberrant activity of druggable oncoproteins—despite a lack of mutations, and vice-versa. In vitro assays confirmed that VIPER-inferred protein activity outperforms mutational analysis in predicting sensitivity to targeted inhibitors. PMID:27322546

  8. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    PubMed

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2016-11-28

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field.

  9. Ice/Water Interface: Zeta Potential, Point of Zero Charge, and Hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Drzymala; Sadowski; Holysz; Chibowski

    1999-12-15

    The ice/water interface is a common and important part of many biological, environmental, and technological systems. In contrast to its importance, the system has not been extensively studied and is not well understood. Therefore, in this paper the properties of the H(2)O ice/water and D(2)O ice/water interfaces were investigated. Although the zeta potential vs pH data points were significantly scattered, it was determined that the isoelectric point (iep) of D(2)O ice particles in water at 3.5 degrees C containing 10(-3) M NaCl occurs at about pH 3.0. The negative values of the zeta potential, calculated from the electrophoretic mobility, seem to decrease with decreasing content of NaCl, while the iep shifts to a higher pH. The point of zero charge (pzc) of D(2)O ice and H(2)O ice, determined by changes in pH of 10(-4) M NaCl aqueous solution at 0.5 degrees C after the ice particle addition, was found to be very different from the iep and equal to pH 7.0 +/- 0.5. The shift of the iep with NaCl concentration and the difference in the positions of the iep and pzc on the pH scale point to complex specific adsorption of ions at the interface. Interestingly, similar values of iep and pzc were found for very different systems, such as hydrophilic ice and highly hydrophobic hexadecane droplets in water. A comparison of the zeta potential vs pH curves for hydrophilic ice and hydrophobic materials that do not possess dissociative functional groups at the interface (diamond, air bubbles, bacteria, and hexadecane) indicated that all of them have an iep near pH 3.5. These results indicate that the zeta potential and surface charge data alone cannot be used to delineate the electrochemical properties of a given water/moiety interface because similar electrical properties do not necessary mean a similar structure of the interfacial region. A good example is the aliphatic hydrocarbon/water interface in comparison to the ice/water interface. Although the experiments were carried

  10. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Activation by Resveratrol Modulates Amyloid-β Peptide Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giliberto, Luca; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E.; Janle, Elsa M.; Lobo, Jessica; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Aβ levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Aβ metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Aβ accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Aβ levels. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the AMPK target mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) to trigger autophagy and lysosomal degradation of Aβ. Finally, orally administered resveratrol in mice was detected in the brain where it activated AMPK and reduced cerebral Aβ levels and deposition in the cortex. These data suggest that resveratrol and pharmacological activation of AMPK have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer disease. PMID:20080969

  11. Stimulation of Leishmania tropica protein kinase CK2 activities by platelet-activating factor (PAF).

    PubMed

    Dutra, Patricia M L; Vieira, Danielle P; Meyer-Fernandes, Jose R; Silva-Neto, Mario A C; Lopes, Angela H

    2009-09-01

    Leishmania tropica is one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator in diverse biological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that PAF promoted a three-fold increase on ecto-protein kinase and a three-fold increase on the secreted kinase activity of L. tropica live promastigotes. When casein was added to the reaction medium, along with PAF, there was a four-fold increase on the ecto-kinase activity. When live L. tropica promastigotes were pre-incubated for 30 min in the presence of PAF-plus casein, a six-fold increase on the secreted kinase activity was observed. Also, a protein released from L. tropica promastigotes reacted with polyclonal antibodies for the mammalian CK2 alpha catalytic subunit. Furthermore, in vitro mouse macrophage infection by L. tropica was doubled when promastigotes were pre-treated for 2 h with PAF. Similar results were obtained when the interaction was performed in the presence of purified CK2 or casein. TBB and DRB, CK2 inhibitors, reversed PAF enhancement of macrophage infection by L. tropica. WEB 2086, a competitive PAF antagonist, reversed all PAF effects here described. This study shows for the first time that PAF promotes the activation of two isoforms of CK2, secreted and membrane-bound, correlating these activities to infection of mouse macrophages.

  12. Detection of protein-protein interactions in plants using the transrepressive activity of the EAR motif repression domain.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kyoko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2010-02-01

    The activities of many regulatory factors involve interactions with other proteins. We demonstrate here that the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif repression domain (SRDX) can convert a transcriptional complex into a repressor via transrepression that is mediated by protein-protein interactions and show that transrepressive activity of SRDX can be used to detect such protein-protein interactions. When we fused a protein that interacts with a transcription factor with SRDX and co-expressed the product with the transcription factor in plant cells, the expression of genes that are targets of the transcription factor was suppressed by transrepression. We demonstrated the transrepressive activity of SRDX using FOS and JUN as a model system and used two MADS box plant proteins, PISTILLATA and APETALA3, which are known to form heterodimers. Furthermore, the transgenic plants that expressed TTG1, which is a WD40 protein and interacts with bHLH transcription factors, fused to SRDX exhibited a phenotype similar to ttg1 mutants by transrepression and the regions of TTG1 required for interaction to the bHLH protein were detected using our system. We also used this system to analyse a protein factor that might be incorporated into a transcriptional complex and identified an Arabidopsis WD40 protein PWP2 (AtPWP2) interacting with AtTBP1 through comparison of phenotypes induced by 35S:AtPWP2-SRDX with that induced by the chimeric repressor. Our results indicate that the transrepression mediated by SRDX can be used to detect and confirm protein-protein interactions in plants and should be useful in identifying factors that form transcriptional protein complexes.

  13. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity by hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an important signaling event triggered by the activation of various cell surface receptors. Major targets of H(2)O(2) include protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Oxidation of the active site Cys by H(2)O(2) abrogates PTP catalytic activity, thereby potentially furnishing a mechanism to ensure optimal tyrosine phosphorylation in response to a variety of physiological stimuli. Unfortunately, H(2)O(2) is poorly reactive in chemical terms and the second order rate constants for the H(2)O(2)-mediated PTP inactivation are ~10M(-1)s(-1), which is too slow to be compatible with the transient signaling events occurring at the physiological concentrations of H(2)O(2). We find that hydroxyl radical is produced from H(2)O(2) solutions in the absence of metal chelating agent by the Fenton reaction. We show that the hydroxyl radical is capable of inactivating the PTPs and the inactivation is active site directed, through oxidation of the catalytic Cys to sulfenic acid, which can be reduced by low molecular weight thiols. We also show that hydroxyl radical is a kinetically more efficient oxidant than H(2)O(2) for inactivating the PTPs. The second-order rate constants for the hydroxyl radical-mediated PTP inactivation are at least 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those mediated by H(2)O(2) under the same conditions. Thus, hydroxyl radical generated in vivo may serve as a more physiologically relevant oxidizing agent for PTP inactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases.

  14. Jun Dimerization Protein 2 Activates Mc2r Transcriptional Activity: Role of Phosphorylation and SUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chiung-Min; Wang, Raymond X.; Liu, Runhua; Yang, Wei-Hsiung

    2017-01-01

    Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, is involved in numerous biological and cellular processes such as cancer development and regulation, cell-cycle regulation, skeletal muscle and osteoclast differentiation, progesterone receptor signaling, and antibacterial immunity. Though JDP2 is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, its function in gonads and adrenals (such as regulation of steroidogenesis and adrenal development) is largely unknown. Herein, we find that JDP2 mRNA and proteins are expressed in mouse adrenal gland tissues. Moreover, overexpression of JDP2 in Y1 mouse adrenocortical cancer cells increases the level of melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) protein. Notably, Mc2r promoter activity is activated by JDP2 in a dose-dependent manner. Next, by mapping the Mc2r promoter, we show that cAMP response elements (between −1320 and −720-bp) are mainly required for Mc2r activation by JDP2 and demonstrate that −830-bp is the major JDP2 binding site by real-time chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. Mutations of cAMP response elements on Mc2r promoter disrupts JDP2 effect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that removal of phosphorylation of JDP2 results in attenuated transcriptional activity of Mc2r. Finally, we show that JDP2 is a candidate for SUMOylation and SUMOylation affects JDP2-mediated Mc2r transcriptional activity. Taken together, JDP2 acts as a novel transcriptional activator of the mouse Mc2r gene, suggesting that JDP2 may have physiological functions as a novel player in MC2R-mediated steroidogenesis as well as cell signaling in adrenal glands. PMID:28146118

  15. Active Transport of Nanomaterials Using Motor Proteins -Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Henry

    2005-09-01

    During the six months of funding we have focused first on the completion of the research begun at the University of Washington in the previous funding cycle. Specifically, we developed a method to polymerize oriented networks of microtubules on lithographically patterned surfaces (M.S. thesis Robert Doot). The properties of active transport have been studied detail, yielding insights into the dispersion mechanisms (Nitta et al.). The assembly of multifunctional structures with a microtubule core has been investigated (Ramachandran et al.). Isaac Luria (B.S. in physics, U. of Florida 2005) worked on the directed assembly of nanoscale, non-equilibrium structures as a summer intern. He is now a graduate student in my group at the University of Florida. T. Nitta and H. Hess: Dispersion in Active Transport by Kinesin-Powered Molecular Shuttles, Nano Letters, 5, 1337-1342 (2005) S. Ramachandran, K.-H. Ernst, G. D. Bachand, V. Vogel, H. Hess*: Selective Loading of Kinesin-Powered Molecular Shuttles with Protein Cargo and its Application to Biosensing, submitted to Small (2005)

  16. Amyloid precursor protein controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Pierrot, Nathalie; Tyteca, Donatienne; D'auria, Ludovic; Dewachter, Ilse; Gailly, Philippe; Hendrickx, Aurélie; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Haylani, Laetitia El; Muls, Nathalie; N'kuli, Francisca; Laquerrière, Annie; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Campion, Dominique; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Courtoy, Pierre J; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Octave, Jean-Noël

    2013-04-01

    Perturbation of lipid metabolism favours progression of Alzheimer disease, in which processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has important implications. APP cleavage is tightly regulated by cholesterol and APP fragments regulate lipid homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether up or down regulation of full-length APP expression affected neuronal lipid metabolism. Expression of APP decreased HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis and SREBP mRNA levels, while its down regulation had opposite effects. APP and SREBP1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in the Golgi. This interaction prevented Site-2 protease-mediated processing of SREBP1, leading to inhibition of transcription of its target genes. A GXXXG motif in APP sequence was critical for regulation of HMGCR expression. In astrocytes, APP and SREBP1 did not interact nor did APP affect cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuronal expression of APP decreased both HMGCR and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and consequently cholesterol turnover, leading to inhibition of neuronal activity, which was rescued by geranylgeraniol, generated in the mevalonate pathway, in both APP expressing and mevastatin treated neurons. We conclude that APP controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity.

  17. Nitric oxide stress and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase impair β-cell sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b activity and protein stability.

    PubMed

    Tong, X; Kono, T; Evans-Molina, C

    2015-06-18

    The sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) pump maintains a steep Ca(2+) concentration gradient between the cytosol and ER lumen in the pancreatic β-cell, and the integrity of this gradient has a central role in regulated insulin production and secretion, maintenance of ER function and β-cell survival. We have previously demonstrated loss of β-cell SERCA2b expression under diabetic conditions. To define the mechanisms underlying this, INS-1 cells and rat islets were treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) combined with or without cycloheximide or actinomycin D. IL-1β treatment led to increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression, which occurred concurrently with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). IL-1β led to decreased SERCA2b mRNA and protein expression, whereas time-course experiments revealed a reduction in protein half-life with no change in mRNA stability. Moreover, SERCA2b protein but not mRNA levels were rescued by treatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl L-arginine), whereas the NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine) and the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) recapitulated the effects of IL-1β on SERCA2b protein stability. Similarly, IL-1β-induced reductions in SERCA2b expression were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with compound C or by transduction of a dominant-negative form of AMPK, whereas β-cell death was prevented in parallel. Finally, to determine a functional relationship between NO and AMPK signaling and SERCA2b activity, fura-2/AM (fura-2-acetoxymethylester) Ca(2+) imaging experiments were performed in INS-1 cells. Consistent with observed changes in SERCA2b expression, IL-1β, SNAP and AICAR increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and decreased ER Ca(2+) levels, suggesting congruent modulation of SERCA activity under these conditions. In aggregate, these results show that SERCA2b

  18. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Alfonta; Lital , Schultz; Peter G. , Zhang; Zhiwen

    2010-10-12

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  19. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2011-08-30

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  20. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Alfonta, Lital [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2009-02-24

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Activation of activator protein 2 alpha by aspirin alleviates atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Li, Peng; Wang, Fu; Liang, Wen-Jing; Ma, Hui; Chen, Yuan; Ma, Zhi-Min; Li, Quan-Zhong; Peng, Qi-Sheng; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Shuang-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Aims Aspirin has been used for the secondary prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease for several decades. We investigated the roles of transcriptional factor activator protein 2α (AP-2α) in the beneficial effects of aspirin in the growth and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. Methods and Results In mice deficient of apolipoprotein E (Apoe-/-), aspirin (20, 50 mg/kg/day) suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis in aortic roots and increased the plaque stability in carotid atherosclerotic plaques induced by collar-placement. In vivo lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of AP-2α reversed the inhibitory effects of aspirin on atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice. Mechanically, aspirin increased AP-2α phosphorylation and its activity, upregulated IkBα mRNA and protein levels, and reduced oxidative stress in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, deficiency of AP-2α completely abolished aspirin-induced upregulation of IkBα levels and inhibition of oxidative stress in Apoe-/- mice. Clinically, conventional doses of aspirin increased AP-2α phosphorylation and IkBα protein expression in humans subjects. Conclusion Aspirin activates AP-2α to upregulate IkBα gene expression, resulting in attenuations of plaque development and instability in atherosclerosis. PMID:27391154

  3. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase revealed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Goswami, Devrishi; Rajamohan, Francis; Harris, Melissa S.; Calabrese, Matthew; Hoth, Lise R.; Magyar, Rachelle; Pascal, Bruce D.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Busby, Scott A.; Kurumbail, Ravi; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary AMP-Activated protein kinase (AMPK) monitors cellular energy, regulates genes involved in ATP synthesis and consumption, and is allosterically activated by nucleotides and synthetic ligands. Analysis of the intact enzyme by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry reveals conformational perturbations of AMPK in response to binding of nucleotides, cyclodextrin and a synthetic small molecule activator, A769662. Results from this analysis clearly show that binding of AMP leads to conformational changes primarily in the γ subunit of AMPK and subtle changes in the α and β subunits. In contrast, A769662 causes profound conformational changes in the glycogen binding module of the β subunit and in the kinase domain of the α subunit suggesting that the molecular binding site of latter resides between the α and β subunits. The distinct short and long-range perturbations induced upon binding of AMP and A769662 suggest fundamentally different molecular mechanisms for activation of AMPK by these two ligands. PMID:24076403

  4. Inhibitory activity for the interferon-induced protein kinase is associated with the reovirus serotype 1 sigma 3 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Imani, F; Jacobs, B L

    1988-01-01

    In this report we demonstrate that reovirus serotype 1-infected cells contain an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase. We provide evidence that suggests that the virus-encoded sigma 3 protein is likely responsible for this kinase inhibitory activity. We could not detect activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase in extracts prepared from either interferon-treated or untreated reovirus serotype 1-infected mouse L cells under conditions that led to activation of the kinase in extracts prepared from either interferon-treated or untreated, uninfected cells. Extracts from reovirus-infected cells blocked activation of kinase in extracts from interferon-treated cells when the two were mixed prior to assay. The kinase inhibitory activity in extracts of reovirus-infected cells could be overcome by adding approximately 100-fold excess of dsRNA over the amount required to activate kinase in extracts of uninfected cells. Kinase inhibitory activity in extracts of interferon-treated, virus-infected cells could be overcome with somewhat less dsRNA (approximately 10-fold excess). Most of the inhibitory activity in the extracts could be removed by adsorption with immobilized anti-reovirus sigma 3 serum or immobilized dsRNA, suggesting that the dsRNA-binding sigma 3 protein is necessary for kinase inhibitory activity. Purified sigma 3 protein, when added to reaction mixtures containing partially purified kinase, inhibited enzyme activation. Control of activation of this kinase, which can modify eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 2, may be relevant to the sensitivity of reovirus replication to treatment of cells with interferon and to the shutoff of host protein synthesis in reovirus-infected cells. Images PMID:2460857

  5. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated selective changes in the aggregation states, zeta potentials, and intrinsic stability of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nyren-Erickson, Erin K; Haldar, Manas K; Totzauer, Jessica R; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S; Friesner, Daniel L; Srivastava, D K; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-11-20

    Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effects of different GAG species and minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates that are formed are yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in the liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous oversulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of the interactions between heparin and its oversulfated glycosaminoglycan contaminants with liposomes. Herein, we demonstrate that Mg(2+) acts to shield the incoming glycosaminoglycans from the negatively charged phosphate groups of the phospholipids and that changes in the aggregate diameter and zeta potential are a function of the glycosaminoglycan species and concentration as well as the liposome bilayer composition. These observations are supported by TEM studies. We have shown that the organizational states of the liposome bilayers are influenced by the presence of GAG and excess Mg(2+), resulting in a stabilizing effect that increases the T(m) value of DSPC liposomes; the magnitude of this effect is also dependent on the GAG species and concentration present. There is an inverse relationship between the percent change in aggregate diameter and the percent change in aggregate zeta potential as a function of GAG concentration in solution. Finally, we demonstrate that the diameter and zeta potential changes in POPC liposome aggregates in the presence of different oversulfated heparin contaminants at low concentrations allow for an accurate detection of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate at concentrations of as low as 1 mol %.

  6. Nature's "silver bullet" for anticoagulation: mechanism of Zymogen Protein C to Activated Protein C.

    PubMed

    Bruley, Duane F; Streiff, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    We have defined the Zymogen Protein C (ZPC) to Activated Protein C (APC) process as the "silver bullet" of blood anticoagulation. This definition suggests that the anticoagulation activity occurs when and where it is needed, resulting in local anticoagulation without enhanced bleeding. It is important for man to be able to manufacture an inexpensive ZPC product or to find a substitute drug to duplicate one of God's natural anticoagulant/antithrombotic processes, in vivo, in human blood. After intense research and at great expense scientists have not been able to produce a safe anticoagulant. All products that are now being used can cause bleeding even if dosing is carefully monitored. In fact many professionals in the health care and the pharmaceutical industries define an anticoagulant as a drug that "does" cause bleeding. This results in a large financial burden that has been placed on the health care industry because of necessary emergency treatments for dangerous occurrences. In addition, many patients are dying annually due to internal and external bleeds created or enhanced by presently administered anticoagulants. Since there are no safe drugs available it is necessary to use the existing products when a medical condition calls for an anticoagulant. This paper will discuss the ZPC process and why its mechanistic design is one of nature's unique defenses against unwanted blood clotting. The prevention and lysis of clots allows normal blood flow and therefore results in the required tissue oxygenation for cell function and survival. If clinical research is carried out with great care it could uncover other uses of ZPC that will allow safer medical procedures, in addition to its use with standard PC deficiency cases. An important example might be for some brain surgeries where the use of existing anticoagulants is unsafe because of potential bleeds. Clinical research could reveal an efficacious ZPC level (for instance, 125, 150, or 200% of normal) that would

  7. PIAS proteins are involved in the SUMO-1 modification, intracellular translocation and transcriptional repressive activity of RET finger protein

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Tetsuo; Shimono, Yohei; Kawai, Kumi; Murakami, Hideki; Urano, Takeshi; Niwa, Yasumasa; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide . E-mail: mtakaha@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2005-08-01

    Ret finger protein (RFP) is a nuclear protein that is highly expressed in testis and in various tumor cell lines. RFP functions as a transcriptional repressor and associates with Enhancer of Polycomb 1 (EPC1), a member of the Polycomb group proteins, and Mi-2{beta}, a main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. We show that RFP binds with PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins, PIAS1, PIAS3, PIASx{alpha} and PIASy at their carboxyl-terminal region and is covalently modified by SUMO-1 (sumoylation). PIAS proteins enhance the sumoylation of RFP in a dose-dependent manner and induce the translocation of RFP into nuclear bodies reminiscent of the PML bodies. In addition, co-expression of PIAS proteins or SUMO-1 strengthened the transcriptional repressive activity of RFP. Finally, our immunohistochemical results show that RFP, SUMO-1 and PIASy localize in a characteristic nuclear structure juxtaposed with the inner nuclear membrane (XY body) of primary spermatocytes in mouse testis. These results demonstrate that the intracellular location and the transcriptional activity of RFP are modified by PIAS proteins which possess SUMO E3 ligase activities and suggest that they may play a co-operative role in spermatogenesis.

  8. The effect of brine pH, concentration and temperature on zeta potential measured in natural sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Vinogradov, J.

    2015-12-01

    The zeta potential is a measure of the electrical potential of the mineral surfaces in water-saturated rocks. In many subsurface settings the rocks are at elevated temperature, yet the temperature dependence of the zeta potential remains poorly understood. There are few previous experimental studies and these report inconsistent and contradictory behaviour; some studies have found that the zeta potential increases in magnitude with increasing temperature while others have found that it decreases in magnitude. Moreover, few studies have investigated salt concentrations relevant to natural systems; most used de-ionised water or NaCl/KCl electrolytes at low ionic strength (10-3M). Natural groundwater is typically more saline than this. We report measurements of the zeta potential of natural sandstones saturated with NaCl brines of varying ionic strength at temperatures up to 150°C. We find that the zeta potential is always negative, but decreases in magnitude with increasing temperature at in 0.01M NaCl brine (comparable to potable water) and is independent of temperature in 0.5M brine (comparable to seawater). In unbuffered experiments, the pH also decreases with increasing temperature at low ionic strength, but remains constant at higher ionic strength. The temperature dependence of the zeta potential can be explained by the temperature dependence of the pH. Our findings are consistent with published models of the zeta potential, so long as the temperature dependence of the pH at low ionic strength is accounted for. Moreover, they explain the hitherto contradictory results reported in previous studies that used low ionic strength electrolytes. In unbuffered experiments, the pH decreases with increasing temperature and the zeta potential decreases in magnitude. In experiments with fixed pH, the zeta potential increases in magnitude with increasing temperature. The results have broad application to deep sandstone reservoirs and hydrothermal fields.

  9. A weak diffuse interstellar band in the far-ultraviolet spectrum of zeta Ophiuchi?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) observations at 3.5 km/s resolution reveal several new weak unidentified interstellar absorption lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of zeta Ophiuchi. The unidentified line at 1369.13 A has the appearance and characteristics of a weak diffuse interstellar band (DIB). The line has a smooth profile similar to many optical diffuse interstellar bands (i.e., a shallow asymmetric profile), it is clearly broader than identified interstellar lines near it in wavelength, and its full width at half maximum in ergs is comparable to the widths of the weak optical DIBs. The asymmetric profile cannot be attributed to blended absorption from diffuse clouds at different velocities; at this resolution the two principal cloud complexes on the sight line at heliocentric velocities of -27 and -15 km/s are clearly separated. We compare this unidentified absorption feature to identified interstellar atomic and molecular absorption lines and optical DIBs observed on the zeta Oph and xi Per sight lines, and we conclude that it is reasonable to suggest that this absorption feature might be a DIB. This is not a unique interpretation however; the unidentified line could alternatively be due to gas in the zeta Oph H II region or a blend of unknown neutral atomic or molecular absorption lines.

  10. Coagulation-flocculation mechanisms in wastewater treatment plants through zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    López-Maldonado, E A; Oropeza-Guzman, M T; Jurado-Baizaval, J L; Ochoa-Terán, A

    2014-08-30

    Based on the polyelectrolyte-contaminant physical and chemical interactions at the molecular level, this article analyzed and discussed the coagulation-flocculation and chemical precipitation processes in order to improve their efficiency. Bench experiments indicate that water pH, polyelectrolyte (PE) dosing strategy and cationic polyelectrolyte addition are key parameters for the stability of metal-PE complexes. The coagulation-flocculation mechanism is proposed based on zeta potential (ζ) measurement as the criteria to define the electrostatic interaction between pollutants and coagulant-flocculant agents. Polyelectrolyte and wastewater dispersions are exposed to an electrophoretic effect to determine ζ. Finally, zeta potential values are compared at pH 9, suggesting the optimum coagulant dose at 162mg/L polydadmac and 67mg/L of flocculant, since a complete removal of TSS and turbidity is achieved. Based on the concentration of heavy metals (0.931mg/L Sn, 0.7mg/L Fe and 0.63mg/L Pb), treated water met the Mexican maximum permissible limits. In addition, the treated water has 45mg O2/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45mg C/L total organic carbon (TOC). The coagulation-flocculation mechanism is proposed taking into account both: zeta potential (ζ)-pH measurement and chemical affinity, as the criteria to define the electrostatic and chemical interaction between pollutants and polyelectrolytes.

  11. Electrokinetic mixing at high zeta potentials: ionic size effects on cross stream diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Yazdi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Arman; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-03-15

    The electrokinetic phenomena at high zeta potentials may show several unique features which are not normally observed. One of these features is the ionic size (steric) effect associated with the solutions of high ionic concentration. In the present work, attention is given to the influences of finite ionic size on the cross stream diffusion process in an electrokinetically actuated Y-shaped micromixer. The method consists of a finite difference based numerical approach for non-uniform grid which is applied to the dimensionless form of the governing equations, including the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results reveal that, neglecting the ionic size at high zeta potentials gives rise to the overestimation of the mixing length, because the steric effects retard liquid flow, thereby enhancing the mixing efficiency. The importance of steric effects is found to be more intense for channels of smaller width to height ratio. It is also observed that, in sharp contrast to the conditions that the ions are treated as point charges, increasing the zeta potential improves the cross stream diffusion when incorporating the ionic size. Moreover, increasing the EDL thickness decreases the mixing length, whereas the opposite is true for the channel aspect ratio.

  12. Spectral zeta function and non-perturbative effects in ABJM Fermi-gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The exact partition function in ABJM theory on three-sphere can be regarded as a canonical partition function of a non-interacting Fermi-gas with an unconventional Hamiltonian. All the information on the partition function is encoded in the discrete spectrum of this Hamiltonian. We explain how (quantum mechanical) non-perturbative corrections in the Fermi-gas system appear from a spectral consideration. Basic tools in our analysis are a Mellin-Barnes type integral representation and a spectral zeta function. From a consistency with known results, we conjecture that the spectral zeta function in the ABJM Fermi-gas has an infinite number of "non-perturbative" poles, which are invisible in the semi-classical expansion of the Planck constant. We observe that these poles indeed appear after summing up perturbative corrections. As a consequence, the perturbative resummation of the spectral zeta function causes non-perturbative corrections to the grand canonical partition function. We also present another example associated with a spectral problem in topological string theory. A conjectured non-perturbative free energy on the resolved conifold is successfully reproduced in this framework.

  13. DISCOVERY OF THE HOST CLUSTER FOR THE FUNDAMENTAL CEPHEID CALIBRATOR ZETA GEMINORUM

    SciTech Connect

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Lane, D.; Gieren, W.; Balam, D.

    2012-03-20

    New and existing CORAVEL, UBVJHK{sub s} , HST, HIP/Tycho, ARO, KPNO, and DAO observations imply that the fundamental Cepheid calibrator {zeta} Gem is a cluster member. The following parameters were inferred for {zeta} Gem from cluster membership and are tied to new spectral classifications (DAO) established for 26 nearby stars (e.g., HD53588/B7.5IV, HD54692/B9.5IV): E{sub B-V} = 0.02 {+-} 0.02, log {tau} = 7.85 {+-} 0.15, and d = 355 {+-} 15 pc. The mean distance to {zeta} Gem from cluster membership and six recent estimates (e.g., IRSB) is d=363{+-}9({sigma}{sub x}-bar ){+-}26 ({sigma}) pc. The results presented here support the color-excess and HST parallax derived for the Cepheid by Benedict et al. Forthcoming precise proper motions (DASCH) and Chandra/XMM-Newton observations of the broader field may be employed to identify cluster members, bolster the cluster's existence, and provide stronger constraints on the Cepheid's fundamental parameters.

  14. A perturbative approach to the spectral zeta functions of strings, drums, and quantum billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo

    2012-12-15

    We show that the spectral zeta functions of inhomogeneous strings and drums can be calculated using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. The inhomogeneities that can be treated with this method are small but otherwise arbitrary and include the previously studied case of a piecewise constant density. In two dimensions the method can be used to derive the spectral zeta function of a domain obtained from the small deformation of a square. We also obtain exact sum rules that are valid for arbitrary densities and that correspond to the values taken by the spectral zeta function at integer positive values; we have tested numerically these sum rules in specific examples. We show that the Dirichlet or Neumann Casimir energies of an inhomogeneous string, evaluated to first order in perturbation theory, contain in some cases an irremovable divergence, but that the combination of the two is always free of divergences. Finally, our calculation of the Casimir energies of a string with piecewise constant density and of two perfectly conducting concentric cylinders, of similar radius, reproduce the results previously published.

  15. Three proposed B-associations in the vicinity of zeta puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, E. K. L.

    1971-01-01

    There appear to be three loose B associations in the general vicinity of zeta Puppis, all at distances of approximately 300 to 400 parsecs from the sun. Their diameters, perpendicular to the line of sight, are 20 to 50 parsecs, and their separations are of similar size. All three are situated in bright areas of the Gum nebula. The proposed associations A and C lie in the two brightest parts of the nebula. The three associations are not all of the same age. Association C is about 50 million years old, whereas A and B are decidedly younger. The ages of A and B cannot be determined from the present data, as their color-magnitude diagrams show no clear turnoff from the main sequence. Association A may be young enough to qualify as the birthplace of zeta Puppis. There is no other identifiable association in which zeta Puppis can have originated, unless its age is substantially greater than the 3 million years assumed.

  16. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  17. Promoter-specific trans activation and repression by human cytomegalovirus immediate-early proteins involves common and unique protein domains.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, R M; Fortney, J; Barlow, S W; Magrane, B P; Nelson, J A; Ghazal, P

    1990-01-01

    trans activation of promoters by viral regulatory proteins provides a useful tool to study coordinate control of gene expression. Immediate-early (IE) regions 1 and 2 of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) code for a series of proteins that originate from differentially spliced mRNAs. These IE proteins are proposed to regulate the temporal expression of the viral genome. To examine the structure and function of the IE proteins, we used linker insertion mutagenesis of the IE gene region as well as cDNA expression vector cloning of the abundant IE mRNAs. We showed that IE1 and IE2 proteins of CMV exhibit promoter-specific differences in their modes of action by either trans activating early and IE promoters or repressing the major IE promoter (MIEP). Transient cotransfection experiments with permissive human cells revealed a synergistic interaction between the 72- and the 86-kilodalton (kDa) IE proteins in trans activating an early promoter. In addition, transfection studies revealed that the 72-kDa protein was capable of trans activating the MIEP. In contrast, the 86-kDa protein specifically repressed the MIEP and this repression was suppressed by the 72-kDa protein. Furthermore, observations based on the primary sequence structure revealed a modular arrangement of putative regulatory motifs that could either potentiate or repress gene expression. These modular domains are either shared or unique among the IE proteins. From these data, we propose a model for IE protein function in the coordinate control of CMV gene expression. Images PMID:2157043

  18. Modulation of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin activity by a mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Goutam; Sharma, Mansi; Kruse, Martin; Sander-Juelch, Claudia; Munro, Laura Anne; Wang, Yong; Vilg, Jenny Veide; Tamás, Markus J; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Wiese, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Summary Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin (LmjAQP1) adventitiously facilitates the uptake of antimonite [Sb(III)], an active form of Pentostam® or Glucantime®, which are the first line of defense against all forms of leishmaniasis. The present paper shows that LmjAQP1 activity is modulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase, LmjMPK2. Leishmania parasites co-expressing LmjAQP1 and LmjMPK2 show increased Sb(III) uptake and increased Sb(III) sensitivity. When subjected to a hypo-osmotic stress, these cells show faster volume recovery than cells expressing LmjAQP1 alone. LmjAQP1 is phosphorylated in vivo at Thr197 and this phosphorylation requires LmjMPK2 activity. Lys42 of LmjMPK2 is critical for its kinase activity. Cells expressing altered T197A LmjAQP1 or K42A LmjMPK2 showed decreased Sb(III) influx and a slower volume recovery than cells expressing wild type proteins. Phosphorylation of LmjAQP1 led to a decrease in its turnover rate affecting LmjAQP1 activity. Although LmjAQP1 is localized to the flagellum of promastigotes, upon phosphorylation, it is relocalized to the entire surface of the parasite. L. mexicana promastigotes with an MPK2 deletion showed reduced Sb(III) uptake and slower volume recovery than wild type cells. This is the first report where a parasite aquaglyceroporin activity is post-translationally modulated by a MAP kinase. PMID:22779703

  19. Activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase blocks cumulus cell expansion through inhibition of protein synthesis during in vitro maturation in Swine.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Sasseville, Maxime; Laforest, Martin; Guillemette, Christine; Gilchrist, Robert B; Richard, François J

    2014-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein known as a metabolic switch, is involved in oocyte nuclear maturation in mice, cattle, and swine. The present study analyzed AMPK activation in cumulus cell expansion during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is a well-known activator of AMPK. It inhibited oocyte meiotic resumption in COC. Moreover, cumulus cell expansion did not occur in the presence of AICAR, demonstrating its marked impact on cumulus cells. Activation of AMPK was supported by AICAR-mediated phosphorylation of alpha AMPK subunits. Furthermore, the presence of AICAR increased glucose uptake, a classical response to activation of this metabolic switch in response to depleted cellular energy levels. Neither nuclear maturation nor cumulus expansion was reversed by glucosamine, an alternative substrate in hyaluronic acid synthesis, through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which ruled out possible depletion of substrates. Both increased gap junction communication and phosphodiesterase activity in COC are dependent on protein synthesis during the initial hours of IVM; however, both were inhibited in the presence of AICAR, which supports the finding that activation of AMPK by AICAR mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, this protein synthesis inhibition was equivalent to that of the well-known protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, as observed on cumulus expansion and protein concentration. Finally, the phosphorylation level of selected kinases was investigated. The pattern of raptor phosphorylation is supportive of activation of AMPK-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AICAR-mediated AMPK activation in porcine COC inhibited cumulus cell expansion and protein synthesis. These results bring new considerations to the importance of this kinase in ovarian

  20. Prevention of neuronal apoptosis by phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C: blockade of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Behrens, M M; Strasser, U; Koh, J Y; Gwag, B J; Choi, D W

    1999-01-01

    Consistent with previous studies on cell lines and non-neuronal cells, specific inhibitors of protein kinase C induced mouse primary cultured neocortical neurons to undergo apoptosis. To examine the complementary hypothesis that activating protein kinase C would attenuate neuronal apoptosis, the cultures were exposed for 1 h to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, which activated protein kinase C as evidenced by downstream enhancement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Exposure to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, or another active phorbol ester, phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, but not to the inactive ester, 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, markedly attenuated neuronal apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate also attenuated neuronal apoptosis induced by exposure to beta-amyloid peptide 1-42, or oxygen-glucose deprivation in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists. The neuroprotective effects of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate were blocked by brief (non-toxic) concurrent exposure to the specific protein kinase C inhibitors, but not by a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 inhibitor. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate blocked the induction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and specific inhibition of this kinase by SB 203580 attenuated serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activity was high at rest and not modified by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment. These data strengthen the idea that protein kinase C is a key modulator of several forms of central neuronal apoptosis, in part acting through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulated pathways.

  1. Biological Signaling: the Role of ``Electrostatic Epicenter'' in ``Protein Quake'' and Receptor Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aihua; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Kang, Zhouyang; Hendriks, Johnny; Hellingwerf, Klaas

    2013-03-01

    Activation of a receptor protein during biological signaling is often characterized by a two state model: a receptor state (also called ``off state'') for detection of a stimuli, and a signaling state (``on state'') for signal relay. Receptor activation is a process that a receptor protein is structurally transformed from its receptor state to its signaling state through substantial conformational changes that are recognizable by its downstream signal relay partner. What are the structural and energetic origins for receptor activation in biological signaling? We report extensive evidence that further support the role of ``electrostatic epicenter'' in driving ``protein quake'' and receptor activation. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein for the negative phototaxis of a salt loving Halorhodospira halophia, is employed as a model system in this study. We will discuss potential applications of this receptor activation mechanism to other receptor proteins, including B-RAF receptor protein that is associated with many cancers.

  2. Enzymatic activity and thermal stability of metallo proteins in hydrated ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kyoko; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    Hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate (Hy[ch][dhp]) containing 30 wt% water was investigated as a novel protein solvent. The Hy[ch][dhp] dissolved some metallo proteins (cytochrome c, peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, azurin, pseudoazurin and fructose dehydrogenase) without any modification. These proteins retained the surroundings of the active site after dissolution in Hy[ch][dhp]. Some metallo proteins were found to retain their activity in the Hy[ch][dhp].

  3. Berberine promotes glucose consumption independently of AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Yin, Jun; Hou, Wolin; Yu, Xueying; Shen, Li; Liu, Fang; Wei, Li; Jia, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with anti-diabetic action. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway has been proposed as mechanism for berberine's action. This study aimed to examine whether AMPK activation was necessary for berberine's glucose-lowering effect. We found that in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes, berberine significantly increased glucose consumption and lactate release in a dose-dependent manner. AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACC) phosphorylation were stimulated by 20 µmol/L berberine. Nevertheless, berberine was still effective on stimulating glucose utilization and lactate production, when the AMPK activation was blocked by (1) inhibition of AMPK activity by Compound C, (2) suppression of AMPKα expression by siRNA, and (3) blockade of AMPK pathway by adenoviruses containing dominant-negative forms of AMPKα1/α2. To test the effect of berberine on oxygen consumption, extracellular flux analysis was performed in Seahorse XF24 analyzer. The activity of respiratory chain complex I was almost fully blocked in C2C12 myotubes by berberine. Metformin, as a positive control, showed similar effects as berberine. These results suggest that berberine and metformin promote glucose metabolism by stimulating glycolysis, which probably results from inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, independent of AMPK activation.

  4. GSK621 Targets Glioma Cells via Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Shi-Kun; Pan, Yi-Xin; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang; Pan, Si-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the anti-glioma cell activity by a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator GSK621. We showed that GSK621 was cytotoxic to human glioma cells (U87MG and U251MG lines), possibly via provoking caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Its cytotoxicity was alleviated by caspase inhibitors. GSK621 activated AMPK to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and downregulate Tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) in glioma cells. AMPK inhibition, through shRNA knockdown of AMPKα or introduction of a dominant negative (T172A) AMPKα, almost reversed GSK621-induced AMPK activation, mTOR inhibition and Tspan8 degradation. Consequently, GSK621’s cytotoxicity in glioma cells was also significantly attenuated by AMPKα knockdown or mutation. Further studies showed that GSK621, at a relatively low concentration, significantly potentiated temozolomide (TMZ)’s sensitivity and lethality against glioma cells. We summarized that GSK621 inhibits human glioma cells possibly via activating AMPK signaling. This novel AMPK activator could be a novel and promising anti-glioma cell agent. PMID:27532105

  5. Controlled activation of protein rotational dynamics using smart hydrogel tethering.

    PubMed

    Beech, Brenda M; Xiong, Yijia; Boschek, Curt B; Baird, Cheryl L; Bigelow, Diana J; McAteer, Kathleen; Squier, Thomas C

    2014-09-24

    Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications that take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with (13)C and (15)N, permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The protein dynamics is suppressed upon initial formation of hydrogels, with a concomitant increase in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in enhanced protein dynamics and resolution of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain rearrangements.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase α1-sensitive activation of AP-1 in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Voelkl, Jakob; Alesutan, Ioana; Primessnig, Uwe; Feger, Martina; Mia, Sobuj; Jungmann, Andreas; Castor, Tatsiana; Viereck, Robert; Stöckigt, Florian; Borst, Oliver; Gawaz, Meinrad; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Metzler, Bernhard; Katus, Hugo A; Müller, Oliver J; Pieske, Burkert; Heinzel, Frank R; Lang, Florian

    2016-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk) regulates myocardial energy metabolism and plays a crucial role in the response to cell stress. In the failing heart, an isoform shift of the predominant Ampkα2 to the Ampkα1 was observed. The present study explored possible isoform specific effects of Ampkα1 in cardiomyocytes. To this end, experiments were performed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, as well as in Ampkα1-deficient and corresponding wild-type mice and mice following AAV9-mediated cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Ampkα1. As a result, in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, overexpression of constitutively active Ampkα1 increased the phosphorylation of Pkcζ. Constitutively active Ampkα1 further increased AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity and mRNA expression of the AP-1 target genes c-Fos, Il6 and Ncx1, effects blunted by Pkcζ silencing. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, angiotensin-II activated AP-1, an effect blunted by silencing of Ampkα1 and Pkcζ, but not of Ampkα2. In wild-type mice, angiotensin-II infusion increased cardiac Ampkα1 and cardiac Pkcζ protein levels, as well as c-Fos, Il6 and Ncx1 mRNA expression, effects blunted in Ampkα1-deficient mice. Pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) similarly increased cardiac Ampkα1 and Pkcζ abundance as well as c-Fos, Il6 and Ncx1 mRNA expression, effects again blunted in Ampkα1-deficient mice. AAV9-mediated cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Ampkα1 increased Pkcζ protein abundance and the mRNA expression of c-Fos, Il6 and Ncx1 in cardiac tissue. In conclusion, Ampkα1 promotes myocardial AP-1 activation in a Pkcζ-dependent manner and thus contributes to cardiac stress signaling.

  7. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  8. Differential activities of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein isoforms.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Rama; Wang, Jian; Melters, Daniël; Pearce, David

    2007-12-14

    Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is expressed in both epithelial and immune tissues and modulates a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. A number of reports have described various GILZ activities, focusing on a single isoform with molecular mass of approximately 17 kDa, now termed GILZ1. In GILZ immunoblots using a newly developed antiserum, we detected multiple species in extracts from cultured kidney cells. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that one of these represented a previously uncharacterized distinct isoform of GILZ, GILZ2. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to clone cDNAs corresponding to four isoforms, which, in addition to GILZ1 and GILZ2, included new isoforms GILZ3 and GILZ4. Heterologous expression of these four GILZ isoforms in cultured cells revealed striking functional differences. Notably, GILZ1 was the only isoform that significantly stimulated ENaC-mediated Na+ current in a kidney collecting duct cell line, although GILZ2 and GILZ3 also stimulated ENaC surface expression in HEK 293 cells. GILZ1 and GILZ3, and to a lesser extent GILZ2, inhibited ERK phosphorylation. Interestingly, GILZ4, which had no effect on either ENaC or ERK, potently suppressed cellular proliferation, as did GILZ1, but not GILZ2 or GILZ3. Finally, rat and mouse tissues all expressed multiple GILZ species but varied in the relative abundance of each. These data suggest that multiple GILZ isoforms are expressed in most cells and tissues and that these play distinct roles in regulating key cellular functions, including proliferation and ion transport. Furthermore, GILZ inhibition of ERK appears to play an essential role in stimulation of cell surface ENaC but not in inhibition of proliferation.

  9. Protein Conformational Gating of Enzymatic Activity in Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F.

    2012-05-24

    In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E{sub sq/hq}) is {approx}170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD{sup +} as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD{sup +}), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD{sup +}- and NADH-complexed XDH, E{sub sq/hq} were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E{sub sq/hq} difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD{sup +} binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD{sup +} ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD{sup +} molecule all contribute to altering E{sub sq/hq} upon NAD{sup +} binding to XDH.

  10. Rassf Proteins as Modulators of Mst1 Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bitra, Aruna; Sistla, Srinivas; Mariam, Jessy; Malvi, Harshada; Anand, Ruchi

    2017-01-01

    Rassf1A/5 tumor suppressors serve as adaptor proteins possessing a modular architecture with the C-terminal consisting of a coiled-coil SARAH (Salvador-Rassf-Hippo) domain and the central portion being composed of Ras associated (RA) domain. Here, we investigate the effect of Rassf effectors on Mst1 function by mapping the interaction of various domains of Rassf1A/5 and Mst1 kinase using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results revealed that apart from the C-terminal SARAH domain of Mst1 which interacts to form heterodimers with Rassf1A/5, the N-terminal kinase domain of Mst1 plays a crucial role in the stabilization of this complex. In addition, SPR experiments show that the RA domains play an important role in fine-tuning the Mst1-Rassf interaction, with Rassf5 being a preferred partner over a similar Rassf1A construct. It was also demonstrated that the activity profile of Mst1 in presence of Rassf adaptors completely switches. A Rassf-Mst1 complexed version of the kinase becomes apoptotic by positively regulating Mst1-H2B mediated serine 14 histone H2B phosphorylation, a hallmark of chromatin condensation. In contrast, the heterodimerization of Mst1 with Rassf1A/5 suppresses the phosphorylation of FoxO, thereby inhibiting the downstream Mst1-FoxO signalling pathway. PMID:28327630

  11. HAMLET - A protein-lipid complex with broad tumoricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Ho, James C S; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina

    2017-01-15

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex with broad effects against cancer cells of different origin. The therapeutic potential is emphasized by a high degree of specificity for tumor tissue. Here we review early studies of HAMLET, in collaboration with the Orrenius laboratory, and some key features of the subsequent development of the HAMLET project. The early studies focused on the apoptotic response that accompanies death in HAMLET treated tumor cells and the role of mitochondria in this process. In subsequent studies, we have identified a sequence of interactions that starts with the membrane integration of HAMLET and the activation of ion fluxes followed by HAMLET internalization, progressive inhibition of MAPK kinases and GTPases and sorting of HAMLET to different cellular compartments, including the nuclei. Therapeutic efficacy of HAMLET has been demonstrated in animal models of glioblastoma, bladder cancer and intestinal cancer. In clinical studies, HAMLET has been shown to target skin papillomas and bladder cancers. The findings identify HAMLET as a new drug candidate with promising selectivity for cancer cells and a strong therapeutic potential.

  12. Activated protein C inhibits neutrophil extracellular trap formation in vitro and activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Healy, Laura D; Puy, Cristina; Fernández, José A; Mitrugno, Annachiara; Keshari, Ravi S; Taku, Nyiawung A; Chu, Tiffany T; Xu, Xiao; Gruber, András; Lupu, Florea; Griffin, John H; McCarty, Owen J T

    2017-04-13

    Activated protein C (APC) is a multi-functional serine protease with anticoagulant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition to the cytoprotective effects of APC on endothelial cells, podocytes, and neurons, APC cleaves and detoxifies extracellular histones, a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs promote pathogen clearance but also can lead to thrombosis; the pathways that negatively regulate NETosis are largely unknown. Thus, we studied whether APC is capable of directly inhibiting NETosis via receptor-mediated cell signaling mechanisms. Here, by quantifying extracellular DNA or myeloperoxidase, we demonstrate that APC binds human leukocytes and prevents activated platelet supernatant or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) from inducing NETosis. Of note, APC proteolytic activity was required for inhibiting NETosis. Moreover, antibodies against the neutrophil receptors endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3), and macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) blocked APC inhibition of NETosis. Select mutations in the Gla and protease domains of recombinant APC caused a loss of NETosis. Interestingly, pretreatment of neutrophils with APC prior to induction of NETosis inhibited platelet adhesion to NETs. Lastly, in a non-human primate model of E. coli-induced sepsis, pre-treatment of animals with APC abrogated release of myeloperoxidase from neutrophils, a marker of neutrophil activation. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory function of APC at therapeutic concentrations may include the inhibition of NETosis in an EPCR-, PAR3-, and Mac-1-dependent manner, providing additional mechanistic insight into the diverse functions of neutrophils and APC in disease states including sepsis.

  13. Protein mutated in paroxysmal dyskinesia interacts with the active zone protein RIM and suppresses synaptic vesicle exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yiguo; Ge, Woo-Ping; Li, Yulong; Hirano, Arisa; Lee, Hsien-Yang; Rohlmann, Astrid; Missler, Markus; Tsien, Richard W.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptáček, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is an autosomal dominant episodic movement disorder precipitated by coffee, alcohol, and stress. We previously identified the causative gene but the function of the encoded protein remains unknown. We also generated a PNKD mouse model that revealed dysregulated dopamine signaling in vivo. Here, we show that PNKD interacts with synaptic active zone proteins Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)1 and RIM2, localizes to synapses, and modulates neurotransmitter release. Overexpressed PNKD protein suppresses release, and mutant PNKD protein is less effective than wild-type at inhibiting exocytosis. In PNKD KO mice, RIM1/2 protein levels are reduced and synaptic strength is impaired. Thus, PNKD is a novel synaptic protein with a regulatory role in neurotransmitter release. PMID:25730884

  14. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by natural and synthetic activators

    PubMed Central

    Grahame Hardie, David

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that is almost universally expressed in eukaryotic cells. While it appears to have evolved in single-celled eukaryotes to regulate energy balance in a cell-autonomous manner, during the evolution of multicellular animals its role has become adapted so that it also regulates energy balance at the whole body level, by responding to hormones that act primarily on the hypothalamus. AMPK monitors energy balance at the cellular level by sensing the ratios of AMP/ATP and ADP/ATP, and recent structural analyses of the AMPK heterotrimer that have provided insight into the complex mechanisms for these effects will be discussed. Given the central importance of energy balance in diseases that are major causes of morbidity or death in humans, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders, there has been a major drive to develop pharmacological activators of AMPK. Many such activators have been described, and the various mechanisms by which these activate AMPK will be discussed. A particularly large class of AMPK activators are natural products of plants derived from traditional herbal medicines. While the mechanism by which most of these activate AMPK has not yet been addressed, I will argue that many of them may be defensive compounds produced by plants to deter infection by pathogens or grazing by insects or herbivores, and that many of them will turn out to be inhibitors of mitochondrial function. PMID:26904394

  15. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits calcium-activated potassium channels in rat pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shipston, M J; Armstrong, D L

    1996-01-01

    1. The regulation of large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in clonal rat anterior pituitary cells (GH4C1), which were voltage clamped at -40 mV in a physiological potassium gradient through amphotericin-perforated patches. 2. Maximal activation of PKC by 100 nM phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PdBu) almost completely inhibited the voltage-activated outward current through BK channels. In contrast PdBu had no significant effect on the residual outward current after block of BK channels with 2 mM TEA or 30 nM charybdotoxin. In single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches, PdBu reduced the open probability of BK channels more than eightfold with no significant effect on mean open lifetime or unitary conductance. 3. The effects of PdBu on BK channels were not mimicked by the 4 alpha-isomer, which does not activate PKC, and were blocked almost completely by 25 microM chelerythrine, a specific, noncompetitive PKC inhibitor. 4. PdBu had no significant effect on the amplitude of the pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. 5. Inhibition of BK channel activity by PKC provides the first molecular mechanism linking hormonal activation of phospholipase C to sustained excitability in pituitary cells. PMID:8799890

  16. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls gating of the sodium-activated potassium channel Slack

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maile R.; Kronengold, Jack; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Chen, Yi; Strumbos, John G.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, absence of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein, results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability. Here we report through biochemical and electrophysiological studies that FMRP binds the C-terminus of the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel to activate the channel. The findings suggest that Slack activity may provide a link between patterns of neuronal firing and changes in protein translation. PMID:20512134

  17. HMGA proteins as modulators of chromatin structure during transcriptional activation

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Nihan; Singh, Indrabahadur; Mehta, Aditi; Braun, Thomas; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    High mobility group (HMG) proteins are the most abundant non-histone chromatin associated proteins. HMG proteins bind to DNA and nucleosome and alter the structure of chromatin locally and globally. Accessibility to DNA within chromatin is a central factor that affects DNA-dependent nuclear processes, such as transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. HMG proteins associate with different multi-protein complexes to regulate these processes by mediating accessibility to DNA. HMG proteins can be subdivided into three families: HMGA, HMGB, and HMGN. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in understanding the function of HMGA family members, specifically their role in gene transcription regulation during development and cancer. PMID:25364713

  18. Detection of proteins related to starch synthase activity in the developing mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Yuan-Tih; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ya-Ting; Chang, Jin-Yi

    2005-06-15

    Proteins associated with starch synthase (SS) activities were identified in immature mungbeans (Vigna radiata L. cv KPS1). Seed soluble extract was separated by native-PAGE and subjected to in situ activity staining. The gel zymogram located starch-enzyme complex bands. The soluble extract was also partitioned by preparative-IEF and screened for SS activity using radioactive assay. IEF fractions eluted within pH 4-6 revealed enriched SS activity of 145-fold. Parallel comparison of the protein profiles among the activity stained enzyme complex and the active isoelectric focused fractions on SDS-PAGE depicted three SS-activity-related proteins with molecular size of 32, 53, and 85 kDa. The 85 kDa protein, however, was identified to be methionine synthase by MALDI-TOF analysis and should be a protein physically associated with the active SS. Polyclonal antibodies raised from eluted native enzyme complex neutralized up to 90% activity and antigenically recognize the other 53 and 32 kDa proteins on Western blot. Antibodies raised from the two individual denatured proteins were able to neutralize SS activities near 60% separately, indicating that the 53 kDa and 32 proteins associated with SS activity are potentially involved in starch biosynthesis during mungbean seed development.

  19. Peroxide Sensors for the Fission Yeast Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Vicky; Quinn, Janet; Pino, Teresa Soto; Martin, Humberto; Saldanha, Jose; Makino, Kozo; Morgan, Brian A.; Millar, Jonathan B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe stress-activated Sty1p/Spc1p mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase regulates gene expression through the Atf1p and Pap1p transcription factors, homologs of human ATF2 and c-Jun, respectively. Mcs4p, a response regulator protein, acts upstream of Sty1p by binding the Wak1p/Wis4p MAP kinase kinase kinase. We show that phosphorylation of Mcs4p on a conserved aspartic acid residue is required for activation of Sty1p only in response to peroxide stress. Mcs4p acts in a conserved phospho-relay system initiated by two PAS/PAC domain-containing histidine kinases, Mak2p and Mak3p. In the absence of Mak2p or Mak3p, Sty1p fails to phosphorylate the Atf1p transcription factor or induce Atf1p-dependent gene expression. As a consequence, cells lacking Mak2p and Mak3p are sensitive to peroxide attack in the absence of Prr1p, a distinct response regulator protein that functions in association with Pap1p. The Mak1p histidine kinase, which also contains PAS/PAC repeats, does not regulate Sty1p or Atf1p but is partially required for Pap1p- and Prr1p-dependent transcription. We conclude that the transcriptional response to free radical attack is initiated by at least two distinct phospho-relay pathways in fission yeast. PMID:11179424

  20. Role of diacylglycerol-regulated protein kinase C isotypes in growth factor activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Smola, U; Wixler, V; Eisenmann-Tappe, I; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J; Rapp, U; Cooper, G M

    1997-01-01

    The Raf protein kinases function downstream of Ras guanine nucleotide-binding proteins to transduce intracellular signals from growth factor receptors. Interaction with Ras recruits Raf to the plasma membrane, but the subsequent mechanism of Raf activation has not been established. Previous studies implicated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in Raf activation; therefore, we investigated the role of the epsilon isotype of protein kinase C (PKC), which is stimulated by PC-derived diacylglycerol, as a Raf activator. A dominant negative mutant of PKC epsilon inhibited both proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells and activation of Raf in COS cells. Conversely, overexpression of active PKC epsilon stimulated Raf kinase activity in COS cells and overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative Ras in NIH 3T3 cells. PKC epsilon also stimulated Raf kinase in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and was able to directly activate Raf in vitro. Consistent with its previously reported activity as a Raf activator in vitro, PKC alpha functioned similarly to PKC epsilon in both NIH 3T3 and COS cell assays. In addition, constitutively active mutants of both PKC alpha and PKC epsilon overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative mutants of the other PKC isotype, indicating that these diacylglycerol-regulated PKCs function as redundant activators of Raf-1 in vivo. PMID:9001227

  1. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits ER stress and renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyosang; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Joon-Seok; Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Miyeon; Min, Ji Yeon; Lee, Sang Koo

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling. Therefore, modulation of ER stress may serve as one of the possible therapeutic approaches to renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed ER stress induced by chemical ER stress inducers [tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG)] and also nonchemical inducers in tubular HK-2 cells. We further investigated the in vivo effects of AMPK on ER stress and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, small interfering (si)RNA experiments, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed TM- or TG-induced ER stress, as shown by the inhibition of TM- or TG-induced upregulation of glucose-related protein (GRP)78 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α through induction of heme oxygenase-1. Metformin inhibited TM- or TG-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transitions as well. Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) blocked the effect of metformin, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β riboside (another AMPK activator) exerted the same effects as metformin. Transfection with siRNA targeting AMPK blocked the effect of metformin. Consistent with the results of cell culture experiments, metformin reduced renal cortical GRP78 expression and increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in a mouse model of ER stress-induced acute kidney injury by TM. Activation of AMPK also suppressed ER stress by transforming growth factor-β, ANG II, aldosterone, and high glucose. Furthermore, metformin reduced GRP78 expression and renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, AMPK may serve as a promising therapeutic target through reducing ER stress and renal fibrosis.

  2. Comparative cell signalling activity of ultrapure recombinant chaperonin 60 proteins from prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Maria; Poole, Stephen; Coates, Anthony R M; Tormay, Peter; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline; Henderson, Brian

    2005-06-01

    Heat-shock protein (hsp)60/chaperonin 60 is a potent immunogen which has recently been claimed to have cell-signalling actions upon myeloid and vascular endothelial cells. The literature is controversial with different chaperonin 60 proteins producing different patterns of cellular activation and the ever-present criticism that activity is the result of bacterial contaminants. To clarify the situation we have cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity the chaperonin 60 proteins from Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and the human mitochondrion. These highly purified proteins were compared for their ability to stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine synthesis and vascular endothelial cell adhesion protein expression. In spite of their significant sequence homology, the H. pylori protein was the most potent PBMC activator with the human protein the least potent. PBMC activation by C. pneumoniae and human, but not H. pylori, chaperonin 60 was blocked by antibody neutralization of Toll-like receptor-4. The C. pneumoniae chaperonin 60 was the most potent endothelial cell activator, with the human protein being significantly less active than bacterial chaperonin 60 proteins. These results have implications for the role of chaperonin 60 proteins as pathological factors in autoimmune and cardiovascular disease, and raise the possibility that each of these proteins may result in different pathological effects in such diseases.

  3. Enhanced transcriptional activation by E2 proteins from the oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Kovelman, R; Bilter, G K; Glezer, E; Tsou, A Y; Barbosa, M S

    1996-01-01

    A systematic comparison of transcriptional activation by papillomavirus E2 proteins revealed that the E2 proteins from high-risk human papillomaviruses (human papillomavirus type 16 [HPV-16] and HPV-18) are much more active than are the E2 proteins from low-risk HPVs (HPV-6b and HPV-11). Despite the tropism of HPVs for particular epithelial cell types, this difference in transcriptional activation was observed in a number of different epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The enhanced activities of the E2 proteins from high-risk HPVs did not result from higher steady-state levels of protein in vivo, and in vitro DNA-binding assays revealed similar binding properties for these two classes of E2 proteins. These results demonstrate that the E2 proteins from high-risk HPVs have an intrinsically enhanced potential to activate transcription from promoters with E2-responsive elements. We found that there are also substantial differences between the activation properties of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein and those of either of the two classes of HPV E2 proteins, especially with regard to requirements for particular configurations of E2 binding sites in the target promoter. Our results indicate that there are at least three distinct functional classes of E2 proteins and that these classes of E2 proteins may perform different roles during the respective viral life cycles. PMID:8892874

  4. Construction and genetic selection of small transmembrane proteins that activate the human erythropoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Cammett, Tobin J; Jun, Susan J; Cohen, Emily B; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M; Dimaio, Daniel

    2010-02-23

    This work describes a genetic approach to isolate small, artificial transmembrane (TM) proteins with biological activity. The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a dimeric, 44-amino acid TM protein that transforms cells by specifically binding and activating the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFbetaR). We used the E5 protein as a scaffold to construct a retrovirus library expressing approximately 500,000 unique 44-amino acid proteins with randomized TM domains. We screened this library to select small, dimeric TM proteins that were structurally unrelated to erythropoietin (EPO), but specifically activated the human EPO receptor (hEPOR). These proteins did not activate the murine EPOR or the PDGFbetaR. Genetic studies with one of these activators suggested that it interacted with the TM domain of the hEPOR. Furthermore, this TM activator supported erythroid differentiation of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro in the absence of EPO. Thus, we have changed the specificity of a protein so that it no longer recognizes its natural target but, instead, modulates an entirely different protein. This represents a novel strategy to isolate small artificial proteins that affect diverse membrane proteins. We suggest the word "traptamer" for these transmembrane aptamers.

  5. Practical application of the protein C activator Protac from Agkistrodon contortrix venom.

    PubMed

    Stocker, K; Fischer, H; Meier, J

    1988-01-01

    The protein C activator Protac from A. contortrix venom is being investigated as a potential antithrombotic agent and as a tool for the preparation of activated protein C. Its established major application is the zymogen activation in functional protein C determinations based on either a clotting assay or a chromogenic substrate technique. The sensitivity of the activated partial thromboplastin time as an indicator reaction for Protac activated protein C depends on the contact activator component of the reagent. Protein C dose-response increased in the following order: kaolin greater than ellagic acid greater than sulfatide. This phenomenon is due to a competition of molecular affinities between Protac, plasma components and the different activating surfaces.

  6. Acid-denatured Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Rosa E; Meléndez-López, Samuel G; Ramos, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has been observed after acid-induced denaturation. Furthermore, this acid-denatured GFP has been used as substrate in studies of the folding activity of some bacterial chaperones and other chaperone-like molecules. Protein disulfide isomerase enzymes, a family of eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in nascent polypeptides, play a key role in protein folding and it could display chaperone activity. However, contrasting results have been reported using different proteins as model substrates. Here, we report the further application of GFP as a model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) enzymes. Since refolding of acid-denatured GFP can be easily and directly monitored, a simple micro-assay was used to study the effect of the molecular participants in protein refolding assisted by PDI. Additionally, the effect of a well-known inhibitor of PDI chaperone activity was also analyzed. Because of the diversity their functional activities, PDI enzymes are potentially interesting drug targets. Since PDI may be implicated in the protection of cells against ER stress, including cancer cells, inhibitors of PDI might be able to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy; furthermore, it has been demonstrated that blocking the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds of proteins associated with the cell surface markedly reduces the infectivity of the human immunodeficiency virus. Although several high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to test PDI reductase activity have been described, we report here a novel and simple micro-assay to test the chaperone activity of PDI enzymes, which is amenable for HTS of PDI

  7. Perfluorinated poly(dimethylsiloxane) via the covalent attachment of perfluoroalkylsilanes on the oxidized surface: Effects on zeta-potential values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peiling; Horton, J. Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is a widely-used polymer in microfluidic devices due to its range of physical and chemical properties suitable for molding micron-sized features. However, its hydrophobicity also leads to some limitations: it poorly supports electro-osmotic flow, and can be incompatible with biomolecules and with many organic solvents. Surface modification is commonly used to vary PDMS surface properties to make it more suitable for specific microfluidic applications. Here, we report on the surface modification of PDMS using perfluoroalkane-triethoxysilanes, via the covalent attachment of triethoxysilane groups on plasma-oxidized PDMS. A device constructed from such fluorinated materials could be used for separating fluorous-tagged proteins or peptides. Modified PDMS were characterized using a range of surface analytical methods. In particular, zeta- (ζ-) potential values at the interfaces of both modified and unmodified PDMS and under varying pH conditions were measured, as ζ-potential is an essential parameter to support electroosmotic flow (EOF), a common pumping method in microfluidic devices. The results showed the length of fluorinated alkane chain has significant effect on the density of surface modifying species and topography following modification. In addition, the perfluorinated modification increases the magnitude of the ζ-potential at the PDMS interface when compared to that of native PDMS, increasing the electro-osmotic flow rate, over a wide pH range. The modified surface is resistant to the diffusion of PDMS oligomers that affects other PDMS surface modification processes.

  8. Evolutionary Conservation of a GPCR-Independent Mechanism of Trimeric G Protein Activation

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Brantley D.; Marivin, Arthur; Parag-Sharma, Kshitij; DiGiacomo, Vincent; Kim, Seongseop; Pepper, Judy S.; Casler, Jason; Nguyen, Lien T.; Koelle, Michael R.; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric G protein signaling is a fundamental mechanism of cellular communication in eukaryotes. The core of this mechanism consists of activation of G proteins by the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of G protein coupled receptors. However, the duration and amplitude of G protein-mediated signaling are controlled by a complex network of accessory proteins that appeared and diversified during evolution. Among them, nonreceptor proteins with GEF activity are the least characterized. We recently found that proteins of the ccdc88 family possess a Gα-binding and activating (GBA) motif that confers GEF activity and regulates mammalian cell behavior. A sequence similarity-based search revealed that ccdc88 genes are highly conserved across metazoa but the GBA motif is absent in most invertebrates. This prompted us to investigate whether the GBA motif is present in other nonreceptor proteins in invertebrates. An unbiased bioinformatics search in Caenorhabditis elegans identified GBAS-1 (GBA and SPK domain containing-1) as a GBA motif-containing protein with homologs only in closely related worm species. We demonstrate that GBAS-1 has GEF activity for the nematode G protein GOA-1 and that the two proteins are coexpressed in many cells of living worms. Furthermore, we show that GBAS-1 can activate mammalian Gα-subunits and provide structural insights into the evolutionarily conserved determinants of the GBA–G protein interface. These results demonstrate that the GBA motif is a functional GEF module conserved among highly divergent proteins across evolution, indicating that the GBA-Gα binding mode is strongly constrained under selective pressure to mediate receptor-independent G protein activation in metazoans. PMID:26659249

  9. Structure-activity relationship of synthetic branched-chain distearoylglycerol (distearin) as protein kinase C activators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qingzhong; Raynor, R.L.; Wood, M.G. Jr.; Menger, F.M.; Kuo, J.F. )

    1988-09-20

    Several representative branched-chain analogues of distearin (DS) were synthesized and tested for their abilities to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and to compete for the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to the enzyme. Substitutions of stearoyl moieties at sn-1 and sn-2 with 8-methylstearate decreased activities on these parameters, relative to those of the parental diacylglycerol DS, a weak PKC activator. Substitutions with 8-butyl, 4-butyl, or 8-phenyl derivatives, on the other hand, increased activities of the resulting analogues to levels comparable to those seen for diolein (DO), a diacylglycerol prototype shown to be a potent PKC activator. Kinetic analysis indicated that 8-methyldistearin (8-MeDS) acted by decreasing, whereas 8-butyldistearin (8-BuDS) and 8-phenyldistearin (8-PhDS) acted by increasing, the affinities of PKC for phosphatidylserine (PS, a phospholipid cofactor) and Ca{sup 2+} compared to the values seen in the absence or presence of DS. The stimulatory effect of 8-BuDS and 8-PhDS on PKC, as DO, was additive to that of 1,2-(8-butyl)distearoylphosphatidylcholine (1,2(8-Bu)DSPC) and, moreover, they abolished the marked inhibition of the enzyme activity caused by high concentrations of 1,2(8-Bu)DSPC. The present findings demonstrated a structure-activity relationship of the branched-chain DS analogues in the regulation of PKC, perhaps related to their abilities to specifically modify interactions of PKC with PS and/or Ca{sup 2+} critically involved in enzyme activation/inactivation.

  10. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2009-04-01

    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of the DNA and Protein Binding Activities of Adenovirus Core Protein V

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Vaughan, Robert C.; Houser, Carolyn; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Kao, C. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The structure of adenovirus outer capsid was revealed recently at 3- to 4-Å resolution (V. Reddy, S. Natchiar, P. Stewart, and G. Nemerow, Science 329:1071–1075, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1187292); however, precise details on the function and biochemical and structural features for the inner core still are lacking. Protein V is one the most important components of the adenovirus core, as it links the outer capsid via association with protein VI with the inner DNA core. Protein V is a highly basic protein that strongly binds to DNA in a nonspecific manner. We report the expression of a soluble protein V that exists in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Using reversible cross-linking affinity purification in combination with mass spectrometry, we found that protein V contains multiple DNA binding sites. The binding sites from protein V mediate heat-stable nucleic acid associations, with some of the binding sites possibly masked in the virus by other core proteins. We also demonstrate direct interaction between soluble proteins V and VI, thereby revealing the bridging of the inner DNA core with the outer capsid proteins. These findings are consistent with a model of nucleosome-like structures proposed for the adenovirus core and encapsidated DNA. They also suggest an additional role for protein V in linking the inner nucleic acid core with protein VI on the inner capsid shell. IMPORTANCE Scant knowledge exists of how the inner core of adenovirus containing its double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome and associated proteins is organized. Here, we report a purification scheme for a recombinant form of protein V that allowed analysis of its interactions with the nucleic acid core region. We demonstrate that protein V exhibits stable associations with dsDNA due to the presence of multiple nucleic acid binding sites identified both in the isolated recombinant protein and in virus particles. As protein V also binds to the membrane lytic protein VI molecules

  12. Engineering a minimal G protein to facilitate crystallisation of G protein-coupled receptors in their active conformation

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Byron; Tate, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate cytoplasmic signalling in response to extracellular stimuli, and are important therapeutic targets in a wide range of diseases. Structure determination of GPCRs in all activation states is important to elucidate the precise mechanism of signal transduction and to facilitate optimal drug design. However, due to their inherent instability, crystallisation of GPCRs in complex with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestins, has proved challenging. Here, we describe the design of a minimal G protein, mini-Gs, which is composed solely of the GTPase domain from the adenylate cyclase stimulating G protein Gs. Mini-Gs is a small, soluble protein, which efficiently couples GPCRs in the absence of Gβγ subunits. We engineered mini-Gs, using rational design mutagenesis, to form a stable complex with detergent-solubilised β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Mini G proteins induce similar pharmacological and structural changes in GPCRs as heterotrimeric G proteins, but eliminate many of the problems associated with crystallisation of these complexes, specifically their large size, conformational dynamics and instability in detergent. They are therefore novel tools, which will facilitate the biochemical and structural characterisation of GPCRs in their active conformation. PMID:27672048

  13. Engineering a minimal G protein to facilitate crystallisation of G protein-coupled receptors in their active conformation.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Byron; Tate, Christopher G

    2016-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate cytoplasmic signalling in response to extracellular stimuli, and are important therapeutic targets in a wide range of diseases. Structure determination of GPCRs in all activation states is important to elucidate the precise mechanism of signal transduction and to facilitate optimal drug design. However, due to their inherent instability, crystallisation of GPCRs in complex with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestins, has proved challenging. Here, we describe the design of a minimal G protein, mini-Gs, which is composed solely of the GTPase domain from the adenylate cyclase stimulating G protein Gs Mini-Gs is a small, soluble protein, which efficiently couples GPCRs in the absence of Gβγ subunits. We engineered mini-Gs, using rational design mutagenesis, to form a stable complex with detergent-solubilised β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Mini G proteins induce similar pharmacological and structural changes in GPCRs as heterotrimeric G proteins, but eliminate many of the problems associated with crystallisation of these complexes, specifically their large size, conformational dynamics and instability in detergent. They are therefore novel tools, which will facilitate the biochemical and structural characterisation of GPCRs in their active conformation.

  14. Protein Mediated Oxidative Stress in Patients with Diabetes and its Associated Neuropathy: Correlation with Protein Carbonylation and Disease Activity Markers

    PubMed Central

    Almogbel, Ebtehal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been implicated as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) contributors in type 2 DM and its associated Diabetes Mellitus Neuropathy (DMN). However, the potential for protein mediated oxidative stress to contribute disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Aim To investigate the status and contribution of protein mediated oxidative stress in patients with DM or DMN and to explore whether oxidative protein modification has a role in DM progression to DM associated neuropathy. Materials and Methods Sera from 42 DM and 37 DMN patients with varying levels of disease activities biomarkers (HbA1C, patients’ age or disease duration) and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated for serum levels of protein mediated oxidative stress. Results Serum analysis showed significantly higher levels of protein carbonyl contents in both DM and DMN patients compared with healthy controls. Importantly, not only was there an increased number of subjects positive for protein carbonylation, but also the levels of protein carbonyl contents were significantly higher among DM and DMN patients, whose HbA1C were ≥8.8 as compared with patients with lower HbA1C (HbA1C<8.8). Similar pattern of protein carbonyls formation was also observed with patients’ ages or with patient’s disease durations, suggesting a possible relationship between protein oxidation and disease progression. Furthermore, sera from DMN patients had higher levels of protein carbonylation compared with non-neuropathic DM patients’ sera, suggesting an involvement of protein oxidation in the progression of diabetes to diabetes neuropathy. Conclusion These findings support an association between protein oxidation and DM or DMN progression. The stronger response observed in patients with higher HbA1C or patients’ ages or disease durations suggests, that protein mediated oxidative stress may be useful in evaluating the progression of DM and its associated DMN and in elucidating the

  15. Effects of axotomy on telomere length, telomerase activity, and protein in activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Flanary, Barry E; Streit, Wolfgang J

    2005-10-15

    The adult central nervous system (CNS) is generally thought of as a postmitotic organ. However, DNA labeling studies have shown that one major population of nonneuronal cells, called microglia, retain significant mitotic potential. Microglial cell division is prominent during acute CNS injury involving neuronal damage or death. Prior work from this laboratory has shown that purified microglia maintained in vitro with continual mitogenic stimulation exhibit telomere shortening before entering senescence. In the current study, we sought to investigate whether telomere shortening occurs in dividing microglia in vivo. For this purpose, we used a nerve injury model that is known to trigger localized microglial proliferation in a well-defined CNS region, the facial motor nucleus. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent facial nerve axotomy, and facial motor nuclei were microdissected after 1, 4, 7, and 10 days. Whole tissue samples were subjected to measurements of telomere length, telomerase activity, and telomerase protein. Results revealed a tendency for all of these parameters to be increased in lesioned samples. In addition, microglial cells isolated directly from axotomized facial nuclei with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed increased telomerase activity relative to unoperated controls, suggesting that microglia are the primary cell type responsible for the increases observed in whole tissue samples. Overall, the results show that microglia activated by injury are capable of maintaining telomere length via telomerase during periods of high proliferation in vivo. We conclude that molecular mechanisms pertaining to telomere maintenance are active in the injured CNS.

  16. Pravastatin activates activator protein 2 alpha to argument the angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Liang, Wen-Jing; Shan, Mei-Rong; Wang, Xue-Qing; Zhou, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Yuan; Guo, Tao; Li, Peng; Yu, Hai-Ya; Liu, Chao; Yin, Ya-Ling; Wang, Yu-Lin; Dong, Bo; Pang, Xin-Yan; Wang, Shuang-Xi

    2017-02-04

    We have previously reported that activation of AMP-activated kinase alpha 2 (AMPKα2) by nicotine or angiotensin II (AngII) instigates formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Apoe-/- mice. Statins, used to treat hyperlipidemia widely, activate AMPK in vascular cells. We sought to examine the effects of pravastatin on AAA formation and uncover the molecular mechanism. The AAA model was induced by AngII and evaluated by incidence, elastin degradation, and maximal abdominal aortic diameter in Apoe-/- mice. The phosphorylated levels of AMPKα2 and activator protein 2 alpha (AP-2α) were examined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or in mice. We observed that pravastatin (50 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) remarkably increased the AngII-induced AAA incidence in mice. In VSMCs, pravastatin increased the levels of pAMPK, pAP-2α, and MMP2 in both basal and AngII-stressed conditions, which were abolished by tempol and compound C. Pravastatin-upregulated MMP2 was abrogated by AMPKα2 or AP-2α siRNA. Lentivirus-mediated gene silence of AMPKα2 or AP-2α abolished pravastatin-worsened AAA formations in AngII-infused Apoe-/- mice. Clinical investigations demonstrated that both AMPKα2 and AP-2α phosphorylations were increased in AAA patients or human subjects taking pravastatin. In conclusion, pravastatin promotes AAA formation through AMPKα2-dependent AP-2α activations.

  17. Cadmium activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene and MBP kinases in rice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Hsiao, Lin-June; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2004-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are modules involved in the transduction of extracellular signals to intracellular targets in all eukaryotes. In plants, it has been evidenced that MAPKs play a role in the signaling of biotic and abiotic stresses, plant hormones, and cell cycle cues. However, the effect of heavy metals on plant MAPKs has not been well examined. The Northern blot analysis of OsMAPK mRNA levels has shown that only OsMAPK2, but not OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK4, expressed in suspension-cultured cells in response to 100-400 microM Cd treatments. The OsMAPK2 transcripts increased within 12 h upon 400 microM Cd treatment. In addition, we found that 42- and 50-kDa MBP kinases were significantly activated by Cd treatment in rice suspension-cultured cells. And 40-, 42-, 50- and 64-kDa MBP kinases were activated in rice roots. Furthermore, GSH inhibits Cd-induced 40-kDa MBP kinase activation. By immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation followed by in-gel kinase assay, we confirmed that Cd-activated 42-kDa MBP kinase is a MAP kinase. Our results suggest that a MAP kinase cascade may function in the Cd-signalling pathway in rice.

  18. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 activity during meiosis resumption in mammals.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Radek; Blaha, Milan

    2015-01-01

    In vivo, resumption of oocyte meiosis occurs in large ovarian follicles after the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). The LH surge leads to the activation of a broad signaling network in mural granulosa cells equipped with LH receptors. The signals generated in the mural granulosa cells are further augmented by locally produced peptides or steroids and transferred to the cumulus cell compartment and the oocyte itself. Over the last decade, essential progress has been made in the identification of molecular events associated with the final maturation and ovulation of mammalian oocytes. All new evidence argues for a multiple roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) in the gonadotropin-induced ovulation processes. However, the knowledge of gonadotropin-induced signaling pathways leading to MAPK3/1 activation in follicular cells seems limited. To date, only the LH-induced transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor/MAPK3/1 pathway has been described in granulosa/cumulus cells even though other mechanisms of MAPK3/1 activation have been detected in other types of cells. In this review, we aimed to summarize recent advances in the elucidation of gonadotropin-induced mechanisms leading to the activation of MAPK3/1 in preovulatory follicles and cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes and to point out a specific role of this kinase in the processes accompanying final maturation of the mammalian oocyte.

  19. Resveratrol Prevents Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration via Suppressing Activator Protein-1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Shunsuke; Kurihara, Toshihide; Ebinuma, Mari; Kubota, Miyuki; Yuki, Kenya; Sasaki, Mariko; Noda, Kousuke; Ozawa, Yoko; Oike, Yuichi; Ishida, Susumu; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Light damage to the retina accelerates retinal degeneration in human diseases and rodent models. Recently, the polyphenolic phytoalexin resveratrol has been shown to exert various bioactivities in addition to its classical antioxidant property. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on light-induced retinal degeneration together with its underlying molecular mechanisms. BALB/c mice with light exposure (5000-lux white light for 3 hours) were orally pretreated with resveratrol at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 5 days. Retinal damage was evaluated by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, outer nuclear layer morphometry, and electroretinography. Administration of resveratrol to mice with light exposure led to a significant suppression of light-induced pathological parameters, including TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive retinal cells, outer nuclear layer thinning, and electroretinography changes. To clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms, the nuclear translocation of activator protein−1 subunit c-fos was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the retinal activity of sirtuin 1 was measured by deacetylase fluorometric assay. Retinal activator protein-1 activation, up-regulated following light exposure, was significantly reduced by application of resveratrol. In parallel, retinal sirtuin 1 activity, reduced in animals with light damage, was significantly augmented by resveratrol treatment. Our data suggest the potential use of resveratrol as a therapeutic agent to prevent retinal degeneration related to light damage. PMID:20709795

  20. Dobesilate diminishes activation of the mitogen - activated protein kinase ERK1/2 in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, P; Diaz-González, Diana; Garcia-Martin-Córdova, C; Sánchez, I; Lozano, Rosa Maria; Giménez-Gallego, G; Dujovny, M

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors, regularly expressed at high levels in gliomas, are further upregulated during the transition of the tumor from low- to high-grade malignancy, and are essential for glioma progression. FGFs induce upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in cultured glioma cells, which suggests that MAPK pathway participates in the FGF-dependent glioma development. Recently, it has been shown that dobesilate, an inhibitor of FGF mitogenic activity, shows antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in glioma cell cultures. Accordingly, it should be expected this new synthetic FGF inhibitor to affect the activation levels of MAPK. Here we report that immunocytochemical and Western blot data unequivocally show that treatment of cell cultures with dobesilate causes a significant decrease of the intracellular levels of ERK1/2 activation, one of the components of the MAPK signalling cascade. This finding supports an important role for dobesilate in glioma growth, suggesting that dobesilate should be a treatment to be born in mind for glioma management. PMID:16563234

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase activation leads to lysome-mediated NA(+)/I(-)-symporter protein degradation in rat thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Cazarin, J M; Andrade, B M; Carvalho, D P

    2014-05-01

    Iodide uptake by thyroid cells is mediated by a transmembrane glycoprotein known as the Na+/I--symporter (NIS). NIS-mediated iodide uptake plays important physiological role in thyroid gland function, as well as in diagnostic and treatment of Graves' disease and thyroid cancer. Although different studies investigated the transcriptional mechanisms of NIS expression, there is no report on the NIS post-translational regulation related to NIS protein degradation in thyroid cells. Recently, our group showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a pivotal role in the rat thyroid gland, downregulating iodide uptake, NIS protein, and mRNA content. Since several studies demonstrated that AMPK regulates post-transcriptional mechanisms, such as autophagy-mediated processes in different tissues, we hypothesized that AMPK activation could also regulate NIS protein degradation through the lysosome pathway in thyroid cells. Rat follicular thyroid PCCL3 cells cultivated in Ham's F12 supplemented with 5% calf serum and hormones were exposed to the AMPK pharmacological activator 5-aminoimidazole-4 carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), in the presence or absence of Bafilomycin A1 or MG132 for 24 h. Treatment of PCCL3 cells with Bafilomycin A1 fully prevented the decrease of iodide uptake and NIS protein content mediated by AMPK activation. In contrast, the treatment with MG132 was unable to prevent the effects of AMPK activation on NIS. Our results show that AMPK activation significantly induces NIS protein degradation through a lysosome-mediated mechanism.

  2. Intracellular protein delivery activity of peptides derived from insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Inomata, Kosuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have various IGF-independent cellular activities, including receptor-independent cellular uptake followed by transcriptional regulation, although mechanisms of cellular entry remain unclear. Herein, we focused on their receptor-independent cellular entry mechanism in terms of protein transduction domain (PTD) activity, which is an emerging technique useful for clinical applications. The peptides of 18 amino acid residues derived from IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, which involve heparin-binding regions, mediated cellular delivery of an exogenous protein into NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Relative protein delivery activities of IGFBP-3/5-derived peptides were approximately 20-150% compared to that of the HIV-Tat peptide, a potent PTD. Heparin inhibited the uptake of the fusion proteins with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, indicating that the delivery pathway is heparin-dependent endocytosis, similar to that of HIV-Tat. The delivery of GST fused to HIV-Tat was competed by either IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5-derived synthetic peptides. Therefore, the entry pathways of the three PTDs are shared. Our data has shown a new approach for designing protein delivery systems using IGFBP-3/5 derived peptides based on the molecular mechanisms of IGF-independent activities of IGFBPs.

  3. Protein kinase A activation of the surfactant protein B gene is mediated by phosphorylation of thyroid transcription factor 1.

    PubMed

    Yan, C; Whitsett, J A

    1997-07-11

    Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a homeodomain-containing nuclear transcription factor expressed in epithelial cells of the lung and thyroid. TTF-1 binds to and activates the transcription of genes expressed selectively in the respiratory epithelium including pulmonary surfactant A, B, C and Clara cell secretory protein. Transfection with a plasmid encoding the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A; PKA) catalytic subunit, Cat-beta, stimulated the phosphorylation of a TTF-1-flag fusion protein 6-7-fold in H441 pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. Recombinant TTF-1 was phosphorylated by purified PKA catalytic subunit in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. PKA catalytic subunit family members, Cat-alpha and Cat-beta, markedly enhanced the transcriptional activation of surfactant B gene promoters by TTF-1 in vitro. Peptide mapping was used to identify a PKA phosphorylation site at the NH2 terminus of TTF-1. A 17-amino acid synthetic peptide comprising this site completely inhibited the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of TTF-1 in vitro. A substitution mutation of TTF-1 (Thr9 two head right arrow Ala) abolished phosphorylation by PKA and reduced transactivation of the surfactant B gene promoter. Transfection with a plasmid encoding the cAMP regulatory element binding factor inhibited transcriptional activity of the surfactant protein B gene promoter. Phosphorylation of TTF-1 mediates PKA-dependent activation of surfactant protein B gene transcription.

  4. Gender Differences in C - reactive protein and Muscle Strengthening Activity

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michael R.; Johnson, Tammie M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Ford, Earl S.; Boyer, William R.; Churilla, James R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We sought to examine the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA) in U.S. adults (≥20 years of age). METHODS The sample (n=9,135) included participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Three categories of reported MSA participation were created: no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L). RESULTS Gender stratified analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45–0.83, P=0.0023), or volumes of MSA meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54–0.82, P=0.0004). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the recommendation (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61–0.88, P=0.0011). Following adjustment for WC these odds remained significant in men but not women. CONCLUSIONS Women reporting any MSA were found to have lower odds of having elevated CRP when compared to those reporting no MSA prior to adjustment for WC. Significantly lower odds in men were only observed in those meeting the recommendation. These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women. PMID:26963135

  5. Protein kinase A inhibition facilitates the antitumor activity of xanthohumol, a valosin-containing protein inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Yuki; Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Komatsu, Masato; Katoh, Hiroto; Sato, Reiko; Kanagaki, Shuhei; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Toyokuni, Shinya; Tashiro, Etsu; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Imoto, Masaya

    2017-01-25

    Xanthohumol (XN), a simple prenylated chalcone, can be isolated from hops