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Sample records for activation ratio car

  1. Car speed estimation based on cross-ratio using video data of car-mounted camera (black box).

    PubMed

    Han, Inhwan

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes several methods for using footages of car-mounted camera (car black box) to estimate the speed of the car with the camera, or the speed of other cars. This enables estimating car velocities directly from recorded footages without the need of specific physical locations of cars shown in the recorded material. To achieve this, this study collected 96 cases of black box footages and classified them for analysis based on various factors such as travel circumstances and directions. With these data, several case studies relating to speed estimation of camera-mounted car and other cars in recorded footage while the camera-mounted car is stationary, or moving, have been conducted. Additionally, a rough method for estimating the speed of other cars moving through a curvilinear path and its analysis results are described, for practical uses. Speed estimations made using cross-ratio were compared with the results of the traditional footage-analysis method and GPS calculation results for camera-mounted cars, proving its applicability.

  2. Polyphenols in alcoholic beverages activating constitutive androstane receptor CAR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Taieishi, Norifumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Kiso, Yoshionobu; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor CAR is a xenosensing nuclear receptor that can be activated by natural polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins. We examined alcoholic beverage phytochemicals for their ability to activate CAR. HepG2 cells were transfected with CAR expression vector and its reporter gene, and then treated with trans-resveratrol, ellagic acid, β-caryophyllene, myrcene, and xanthohumol. A luciferase assay revealed that ellagic acid and trans-resveratrol activated both human and mouse CAR. Since CAR regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, the possibility exists that these polyphenols would reduce the risk of certain alcohol-induced metabolic disorders with the help of CAR.

  3. Pyrene is a Novel Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator and Causes Hepatotoxicity by CAR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Zhe; Lyv, Jing-Xi; He, Xuyan; Englert, Neal A; Zhang, Shu-Yun

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent environmental pollutants which are primarily formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials. Many potential sources of human exposure to PAHs exist, including daily exposures from the ambient environment or occupational settings. PAHs have been found to cause harmful effects on human health. Here, we evaluated the adverse effects of pyrene, a common PAH, on the liver. The present study demonstrates that pyrene is able to activate mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). CAR protein, as measured by Western blot analysis, was observed to translocate into the nucleus from the cytoplasm in mouse liver after exposure to pyrene. Utilizing CAR null mice, we identified that CAR mediates pyrene-induced hepatotoxicity. Increased relative liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels were found in wild-type but not CAR null mice after orally administered pyrene. We further show that pyrene induced the expression of mouse liver metabolism enzymes including CYP2B10, CYP3A11, GSTm1, GSTm3, and SULT1A1, and caused hepatic glutathione depletion in wild-type but not CAR null mice. Moreover, by luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, pyrene was found to be a potential inducer of CYP2B6 expression via activation of human CAR in HepG2 cells and human primary hepatocytes. Our observations suggest that pyrene is a novel CAR activator and that CAR is essential for mediating pyrene-induced liver injury.

  4. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  5. Phosphorylated nuclear receptor CAR forms a homodimer to repress its constitutive activity for ligand activation.

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Osabe, Makoto; Perera, Lalith; Moore, Rick; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-03-06

    Nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) regulates hepatic drug and energy metabolism as well as cell fate. Its activation can be a critical factor in drug-induced toxicity and disease development such as diabetes and tumors. CAR inactivates its constitutive activity by phosphorylation at threonine 38. Utilizing receptor for protein kinase 1 (RACK1) as the regulatory subunit, protein phosphatase PP2A dephosphorylates threonine 38 to activate CAR. Here we have demonstrated that CAR undergoes its homodimer-monomer conversion to regulate this dephosphorylation. By co-expressing two differently-tagged CAR proteins in Huh-7 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and mouse livers, co-immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that CAR can form a homodimer in a configuration in which the PP2A/RACK1 binding site is buried within its dimer interface. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was found to stimulate CAR homo-dimerization, thus constraining CAR in its inactive form. The agonistic ligand CITCO binds directly to the CAR homodimer and dissociates phosphorylated CAR into its monomer, exposing the PP2A/RACK1 binding site for dephosphorylation. Phenobarbital, which is not a CAR ligand, binds the EGF receptor, reversing the EGF signal to monomerize CAR for its indirect activation. Thus, the homodimer-monomer conversion is the underlying molecular mechanism that regulates CAR activation, by placing phosphorylated threonine 38 as the common target for both direct and in direct activation of CAR.

  6. A Global Genomic Screening Strategy Reveals Diverse Activators of Constitutive Activated Receptor (CAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive survey of conditions that activate CAR in the mouse liver has not been carried out but would be useful in understanding their impact on CAR-dependent liver tumor induction. A gene signature dependent on CAR activation was identified by comparing the transcript pr...

  7. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline.

  8. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car{sup -/-}) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car{sup -/-} livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: > The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. > OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. > OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. > OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

  9. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes.

    PubMed

    Smetanina, Mariya A; Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Kurinna, Svitlana M; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P; Moore, David D; Merkulova, Tatyana I

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car(-/-)) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car(-/-) livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor.

  10. Cars, Cars, Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  11. Catalytically Active Regenerative Sorbent beds (CARS) for airborne contaminants.

    PubMed

    Akse, J R; Thompson, J O

    1995-01-01

    The Pd on Al2O3 catalyst used in the projected Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) catalytic oxidizer can be poisoned by volatile halogen-, sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing organic species. Catalytically Active Regenerable Sorbents (CARS) eliminate these problematic contaminants and the large carbon bed used for their elimination in a three-step process. Contaminants are conventionally adsorbed by the CARS bed. After saturation, the bed is connected to an off-line recirculation loop, filled with hydrogen, and then heated. At temperature, contaminants are hydrogenated on catalytic sites within the bed, forming simple alkanes and acid gases that are efficiently converted to innocuous salts in an in-line alkaline bed. The CARS bed is regenerated by this cycle and alkane gases are released to be safely oxidized in the catalytic oxidizer. A challenge mixture containing Freon-113, thiophene, trichloroethylene, Halon-1301, and dichloromethane at 1670, 75, 81, 68, and 83 mg/m3 was successfully treated using this technology, demonstrating the CARS feasibility.

  12. Aspects of achievable performance for quarter-car active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkay, Semiha; Akçay, Hüseyin

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, constraints on the transfer functions from the road disturbance to the vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived for a quarter-car active suspension system using the vertical acceleration and/or the suspension travel measurements for feedback. The derived constraints complement the similar constraints in the literature. By using the factorization approach to feedback stability, it is shown that tire damping couples the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses; and eliminates a constraint at the wheel-hop frequency. The influence of tire damping on the design of an active suspension system for a quarter-car model by a mixture of the LQG methodology and the interpolation approach is also illustrated.

  13. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher’s algorithm (p-value ≤ 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  14. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium.

    PubMed

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Thomas, Russell S; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D; Corton, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher's algorithm (p-value ≤ 10(-4))) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  15. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change: opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward; Steg, Linda; Anable, Jillian

    2009-10-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options--walking or cycling--or with public transportation. In this commentary, we review a number of immediate, practical opportunities to implement policies and programs that reduce short car trips and increase active transportation.

  16. Chrysin, baicalein and galangin are indirect activators of the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Carazo Fernández, Alejandro; Smutny, Tomas; Hyrsová, Lucie; Berka, Karel; Pavek, Petr

    2015-03-04

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a crucial transcriptional regulator of key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6. The flavonoids chrysin, baicalein and galangin have been reported to activate CAR and interfere with EGFR signaling. Nevertheless, it is not known if these flavonoids are direct CAR ligands or indirect phenobarbital-like CAR activators via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We analyze the interactions of chrysin, galangin and baicalein and its glycoside baicalin with human CAR. We have employed and validated methods that can study direct interaction with the CAR ligand binding pocket. Secondly, we determined if the compounds affect human EGFR signaling and interact with EGFR. Employing a TR-FRET coactivator assay with recombinant CAR or CAR assembly assay, a consistent activation of CAR with flavonoids and phenobarbital was not observed. It was determined, however, that galangin, chrysin, and baicalein may slightly repress EGFR-Tyr1068 autophosphorylation after EGF treatment, phosphorylation of downstream transcription factor ELK1 and stimulate EGFP-CAR nuclear translocation in primary human hepatocytes. These data suggest that flavonoids chrysin, galangin and baicalein are indirect human CAR activators. This study also demonstrates new approach how to test the direct CAR interaction with its ligands.

  17. The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR: structural determinants of constitutive activation and heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Suino, Kelly; Peng, Li; Reynolds, Ross; Li, Yong; Cha, Ji-Young; Repa, Joyce J; Kliewer, Steven A; Xu, H Eric

    2004-12-22

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induces xenobiotic, bilirubin, and thyroid hormone metabolism as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Unlike ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, CAR is constitutively active. Here, we report the heterodimeric structure of the CAR and RXR ligand binding domains (LBDs), which reveals an unusually large dimerization interface and a small CAR ligand binding pocket. Constitutive CAR activity appears to be mediated by the compact nature of the CAR LBD that displays several unique features including a shortened AF2 helix and helix H10, which are linked by a two-turn helix that normally adopts an extended loop in other receptors, and an extended helix H2 that stabilizes the canonical LBD fold by packing tightly against helix H3. These structural observations provide a molecular framework for understanding the atypical transcriptional activation properties of CAR.

  18. Trunk extensor and flexor strength of long-distance race car drivers and physically active controls.

    PubMed

    Baur, Heiner; Muller, Steffen; Pilz, Frederike; Mayer, Patrizia; Mayer, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Seventy percent of motor sports athletes report low back pain. Information on the physical capacity of race car drivers is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum trunk extensor and flexor strength of elite race car drivers and physically active controls. Thirteen elite race car drivers and 13 controls were measured in concentric mode for maximal trunk flexion and extension at 60° x s(-1) and 120° x s(-1). Peak torque (mean ± s) at 60° x s(-1) in trunk extension was 283 ± 80 N x m in the drivers and 260 ± 88 N x m in controls (P > 0.05). At 120° x s(-1), drivers produced peak torques of 248 ± 55 N x m compared with 237 ± 74 N x m for controls (P > 0.05). Peak torques in flexion were less than in extension for both groups (60° x s(-1): drivers 181 ± 56 N x m, controls 212 ± 54 N x m, P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): drivers 191 ± 57 N x m, controls 207 ± 48 N x m, P > 0.05). Individual ratios of flexion to extension forces exhibited ratios of 0.88 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.93 (120° x s(-1)) for controls and 0.66 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.77 (120° x s(-1)) for drivers (60° x s(-1): P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): P > 0.05). The maximum strength performance capacity of the trunk muscles of elite motor sport athletes competing in long-distance racing did not differ from that of anthropometrically matched and physically active controls.

  19. Regulation of Drug Disposition Gene Expression in Pregnant Mice with Car Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Amanda S.; Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Moscovitz, Jamie E.; You, Dahea; Guo, Grace L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2016-01-01

    More than half of pregnant women use prescription medications in order to maintain both maternal and fetal health. The constitutive androstane receptor (Car) critically affects the disposition of chemicals by regulating the transcription of genes encoding metabolic enzymes and transporters. However, the effects of Car activation on chemical disposition during pregnancy are unclear. This study aims to determine the degree to which pregnancy alters the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in response to the pharmacological activation of Car. To test this, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were administered IP doses of vehicle, or a potent Car agonist, TCPOBOP, on gestation days 14, 15 and 16. Hepatic mRNA and protein expression of Car target genes (phase I, II and transporters) were quantified on gestation day 17. Pregnancy-related changes, such as induction of Cyp2b10, Ugt1a1 and Sult1a1 and repression of Ugt1a6, Gsta1, Gsta2 and Mrp6, were observed. Interestingly, the induction of Cyp2b10, Gsta1, Gsta2 and Mrp2-4 mRNAs by TCPOBOP was attenuated in maternal livers suggesting that Car activation is impeded by the biochemical and/or physiological changes that occur during gestation. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy and pharmacological activation of Car can differentially regulate the expression of drug metabolism and transport genes. PMID:27818994

  20. The NO 2/NO x ratio in emissions from gasoline-powered cars: High NO 2 percentage in idle engine measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenner, Magnus; Lindqvist, Oliver; Rosén, Åke

    Measurements of the fraction of NO 2 in NO x emissions from a gasoline-powered passenger car showed, that when idling NO 2/NO x (v/v) goes as high as ~ 0.3 for a warm engine. This should be compared with the widely accepted assumption that gasoline cars emit 2-5 % of NO x in the form of NO 2. It can be concluded, that the NO 2 concentration in the exhaust gases from an idle engine is some four times as high as the NO 2 concentration in exhausts from a car driven at 40 km h -1. The high NO 2/NO x ratio, built up at rush hours in Swedish cities, may thus be rationalized as direct emissions from idling gasoline-powered cars.

  1. Vibration control of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system by reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucak, İ. Ö.; Öz, H. R.

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the investigation of performance of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system with a stochastic real-valued reinforcement learning control strategy. As an example, a model of a quarter car with a nonlinear suspension spring subjected to excitation from a road profile is considered. The excitation is realised by the roughness of the road. The quarter-car model to be considered here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed active suspension system suppresses the vibrations greatly. A simulation of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and examine the performance of the learning control algorithm.

  2. Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, David T; Mazagova, Magdalena; Hampton, Eric N; Cao, Yu; Ramadoss, Nitya S; Hardy, Ian R; Schulman, Andrew; Du, Juanjuan; Wang, Feng; Singer, Oded; Ma, Jennifer; Nunez, Vanessa; Shen, Jiayin; Woods, Ashley K; Wright, Timothy M; Schultz, Peter G; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Young, Travis S

    2016-01-26

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR-T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens.

  3. Donor CD19 CAR T cells exert potent graft-versus-lymphoma activity with diminished graft-versus-host activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Smith, Melody; James, Scott E; Davila, Marco L; Velardi, Enrico; Argyropoulos, Kimon V; Gunset, Gertrude; Perna, Fabiana; Kreines, Fabiana M; Levy, Emily R; Lieberman, Sophie; Jay, Hillary V; Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Tan, Lisa; Young, Lauren F; Takvorian, Kate; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Hanash, Alan M; Motta, Ana Carolina F; Murphy, George F; Liu, Chen; Schietinger, Andrea; Sadelain, Michel; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies. However, the use of allogeneic CAR T cells poses a concern in that it may increase risk of the occurrence of GVHD, although this has not been reported in selected patients infused with donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells after allo-HSCT. To understand the mechanism whereby allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells may mediate anti-lymphoma activity without causing a significant increase in the incidence of GVHD, we studied donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells in allo-HSCT and lymphoma models in mice. We demonstrate that alloreactive T cells expressing CD28-costimulated CD19 CARs experience enhanced stimulation, resulting in the progressive loss of both their effector function and proliferative potential, clonal deletion, and significantly decreased occurrence of GVHD. Concurrently, the other CAR T cells that were present in bulk donor T cell populations retained their anti-lymphoma activity in accordance with the requirement that both the T cell receptor (TCR) and CAR be engaged to accelerate T cell exhaustion. In contrast, first-generation and 4-1BB-costimulated CAR T cells increased the occurrence of GVHD. These findings could explain the reduced risk of GVHD occurring with cumulative TCR and CAR signaling.

  4. Heparanase promotes tumor infiltration and antitumor activity of CAR-redirected T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Ignazio; Savoldo, Barbara; Hoyos, Valentina; Weber, Gerrit; Liu, Hao; Kim, Eugene S.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Marchetti, Dario; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T lymphocytes (CAR-T cells) has had less striking effects in solid tumors1–3 than in lymphoid malignancies4, 5. Although active tumor-mediated immunosuppression may play a role in limiting efficacy6, functional changes in T lymphocytes following their ex vivo manipulation may also account for cultured CAR-T cells’ reduced ability to penetrate stroma-rich solid tumors. We therefore studied the capacity of human in vitro-cultured CAR-T cells to degrade components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast to freshly isolated T lymphocytes, we found that in vitro-cultured T lymphocytes lack expression of the enzyme heparanase (HPSE) that degrades heparan sulphate proteoglycans, which are main components of ECM. We found that HPSE mRNA is down regulated in in vitro-expanded T cells, which may be a consequence of p53 binding to the HPSE gene promoter. We therefore engineered CAR-T cells to express HPSE and showed improved capacity to degrade ECM, which promoted tumor T-cell infiltration and antitumor activity. Employing this strategy may enhance the activity of CAR-T cells in individuals with stroma-rich solid tumors. PMID:25849134

  5. Tuning sensitivity of CAR to EGFR density limits recognition of normal tissue while maintaining potent anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Hillary G.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Najjar, Amer; Rushworth, David; Ang, Sonny; Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Switzer, Kirsten; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Heimberger, Amy B.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Many tumors over express tumor-associated antigens relative to normal tissue, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This limits targeting by human T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) due to potential for deleterious recognition of normal cells. We sought to generate CAR+ T cells capable of distinguishing malignant from normal cells based on the disparate density of EGFR expression by generating two CARs from monoclonal antibodies which differ in affinity. T cells with low affinity Nimo-CAR selectively targeted cells over-expressing EGFR, but exhibited diminished effector function as the density of EGFR decreased. In contrast, the activation of T cells bearing high affinity Cetux-CAR was not impacted by the density of EGFR. In summary, we describe the generation of CARs able to tune T-cell activity to the level of EGFR expression in which a CAR with reduced affinity enabled T cells to distinguish malignant from non-malignant cells. PMID:26330164

  6. Activating CAR and β-catenin induces uncontrolled liver growth and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingning; Lee, Ju-Seog; Park, Yun-Yong; Yang, Feng; Xu, Ganyu; Huang, Wendong; Finegold, Milton J; Moore, David D

    2015-02-09

    Aberrant β-catenin activation contributes to a third or more of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but β-catenin activation alone is not sufficient to induce liver cancer in mice. Differentiated hepatocytes proliferate upon acute activation of either β-catenin or the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR. These responses are strictly limited and are tightly linked, since β-catenin is activated in nearly all of the CAR-dependent tumours generated by the tumour promoter phenobarbital. Here, we show that full activation of β-catenin in the liver induces senescence and growth arrest, which is overcome by combined CAR activation, resulting in uncontrolled hepatocyte proliferation, hepatomegaly and rapid lethality despite maintenance of normal liver function. Combining CAR activation with limited β-catenin activation induces tumorigenesis, and the tumours share a conserved gene expression signature with β-catenin-positive human HCC. These results reveal an unexpected route for hepatocyte proliferation and define a murine model of hepatocarcinogenesis with direct relevance to human HCC.

  7. Activating CAR and β-Catenin Induces Uncontrolled Liver Growth and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bingning; Lee, Ju-Seog; Park, Yun-Yong; Yang, Feng; Xu, Ganyu; Huang, Wendong; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant β-catenin activation contributes to a third or more of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but β-catenin activation alone is not sufficient to induce liver cancer in mice. Differentiated hepatocytes proliferate upon acute activation of either β-catenin or the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR. These responses are strictly limited and are tightly linked, since β-catenin is activated in nearly all of the CAR-dependent tumors generated by the tumor promoter phenobarbital. Here we show that full activation of β-catenin in the liver induces senescence and growth arrest, which is overcome by combined CAR activation, resulting in uncontrolled hepatocyte proliferation, hepatomegaly, and rapid lethality despite maintenance of normal liver function. Combining CAR activation with limited β-catenin activation induces tumorigenesis, and the tumors share a conserved gene expression signature with β-catenin positive human HCC. These results reveal an unexpected route for hepatocyte proliferation and define a murine model of hepatocarcinogenesis with direct relevance to human HCC. PMID:25661872

  8. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  9. Xenoreceptors CAR and PXR activation and consequences on lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Amélie; Vilarem, Marie José; Maurel, Patrick; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2008-01-01

    Xenobiotic and drug metabolism and transport are managed by a large number of genes coordinately regulated by at least three nuclear receptors or xenosensors: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). Initially characterized as xenosensors, it is now evident that CAR and PXR also trigger pleiotropic effects on liver function. Recent studies have shown the existence of crosstalk between xenosensors and other nuclear receptors or transcription factors controlling endogenous signaling pathways which regulate physiological functions. This review is focused on recent observations showing that activation of CAR and PXR alters lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation by interfering with HNF4alpha, FoxO1, FoxA2, PGC1alpha, or NFkB p65. Such crosstalks explain clinical observations and provide molecular mechanisms allowing understanding how xenobiotics and drugs may affect physiological functions and provoke endocrine disruptions.

  10. The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

  11. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  12. Time-course comparison of xenobiotic activators of CAR and PPAR{alpha} in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Pamela K.; Woods, Courtney G.; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Gatti, Daniel M.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2009-03-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} are transcription factors known to be primary mediators of liver effects, including carcinogenesis, by phenobarbital-like compounds and peroxisome proliferators, respectively, in rodents. Many similarities exist in the phenotypes elicited by these two classes of agents in rodent liver, and we hypothesized that the initial transcriptional responses to the xenobiotic activators of CAR and PPAR{alpha} will exhibit distinct patterns, but at later time-points these biological pathways will converge. In order to capture the global transcriptional changes that result from activation of these nuclear receptors over a time-course in the mouse liver, microarray technology was used. First, differences in basal expression of liver genes between C57Bl/6J wild-type and Car-null mice were examined and 14 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Next, mice were treated with phenobarbital (100 mg/kg by gavage for 24 h, or 0.085% w/w diet for 7 or 28 days), and liver gene expression changes with regards to both time and treatment were identified. While several pathways related to cellular proliferation and metabolism were affected by phenobarbital in wild-type mice, no significant changes in gene expression were found over time in the Car-nulls. Next, we determined commonalities and differences in the temporal response to phenobarbital and WY-14,643, a prototypical activator of PPAR {alpha}. Gene expression signatures from livers of wild-type mice C57Bl6/J mice treated with PB or WY-14,643 were compared. Similar pathways were affected by both compounds; however, considerable time-related differences were present. This study establishes common gene expression fingerprints of exposure to activators of CAR and PPAR{alpha} in rodent liver and demonstrates that despite similar phenotypic changes, molecular pathways differ between classes of chemical carcinogens.

  13. Murine allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells harbor potent antileukemic activity but have the potential to mediate lethal GVHD.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Elad; Yang, Yinmeng; Qin, Haiying; Chien, Christopher D; Kochenderfer, James N; Fry, Terry J

    2016-03-10

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) persisting or relapsing following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has a dismal prognosis. Success with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells offers an opportunity to treat these patients with leukemia-redirected donor-derived T cells, which may be more functional than T cells derived from patients with leukemia but have the potential to mediate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We, together with others, have previously demonstrated tumor-specific T-cell dysfunction in the allogeneic environment. Here, we studied CAR T-cell function following BMT using an immunocompetent murine model of minor mismatched allogeneic transplantation followed by donor-derived CD19-CAR T cells. Allogeneic donor-derived CD19-CAR T cells eliminated residual ALL with equal potency to those administered after syngeneic BMT. Surprisingly, allogeneic CAR T cells mediated lethal acute GVHD with early mortality, which is atypical for this minor mismatch model. We demonstrated that both allogeneic and syngeneic CAR T cells show initial expansion as effector T cells, with a higher peak but rapid deletion of allogeneic CAR T cells. Interestingly, CAR-mediated acute GVHD was only seen in the presence of leukemia, suggesting CAR-target interactions induced GVHD. Indeed, serum interleukin (IL)-6 was elevated only in the presence of both leukemia and CAR T cells, and IL-6 neutralization ameliorated the severity of GVHD in a delayed donor lymphocyte infusion model. Finally, allogeneic CD4(+) CAR T cells were responsible for GVHD, which correlated with their ability to produce IL-6 upon CAR stimulation. Altogether, we demonstrate that donor-derived allogeneic CAR T cells are active but have the capacity to drive GVHD.

  14. Specific inhibition of transcriptional activity of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by the splicing factor SF3a3.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hye Jin; Kwon, Jungsun; Seol, Wongi

    2008-10-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays an important role in the degradation of xenobiotics in the liver. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified SF3a3, a 60-kDa subunit of the splicing factor 3a complex, as a specific CAR-interacting protein. We further confirmed their interaction by both co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. Functional studies showed that overexpression of SF3a3 inhibited the reporter activity driven by a promoter containing CAR binding sequences by up to 50%, whereas reduced expression of SF3a3 activated the same reporter activity by approximately three-fold. The inhibitory function of SF3a3 is independent of the presence of TCPOBOP, a CAR ligand. These data suggest that SF3a3 functions as a co-repressor of CAR transcriptional activity, in addition to its canonical function.

  15. Activity ratios of thorium daughters in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Essling, M.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Slane, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method of least squares has been used to analyze the /sup 228/Ac and /sup 212/Pb-/sup 212/Bi and daughter ..gamma..-ray spectra obtained in vivo from 133 former workers at a thorium refinery. In addition, the exhalation rate of /sup 220/Rn was determined for each subject and expressed as pCi of emanating /sup 224/Ra. This value was added to the /sup 212/Pb value determined from the ..gamma..-ray measurements to obtain the total /sup 224/Ra present, and the ratio of /sup 224/Ra to /sup 228/Ac was calculated. Values of the ratio ranged from 0.52 +- 0.32 to 2.1 +- 1.7, with a weighted mean of 0.92 +- 0.17. However, it appears that the ratio observed in a given case is characteristic for that case alone; the computed mean value may not be meaningful. The least squares fitting procedure and the overall calibration of the counting system were validated by measurements of /sup 224/Ra in the lungs of one subject postmortem, compared with results obtained from the same subject in vivo. 6 references, 5 figures.

  16. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars.

  17. Species-specific responses of constitutively active receptor (CAR)-CYP2B coupling: lack of CYP2B inducer-responsive nuclear translocation of CAR in marine teleost, scup (Stenotomus chrysops).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Negishi, Masahiko; Stegeman, John J

    2002-04-01

    The mammalian constitutively active receptor (CAR) is a novel ligand-activated transcription factor that participates in controlling the expression of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) genes in response to pharmaceutical agents (phenobarbital) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (ortho-substituted PCBs). The occurrence and physiological function of this protein are as yet unknown in marine animals, where there has been a paradoxical lack of induction by PB-type chemicals. One approach to understanding CAR function is to study the evolutionary history of processes such as CAR-CYP2B coupling. In this study, CAR function was evaluated in a representative teleost fish (scup, Stenotomus chrysops). Treatment of scup with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), which is one of the most potent CYP2B inducers in mouse, caused no increase in hepatic alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity nor in immunodetectable CYP2B-like protein levels. Western blot analyses of scup livers using anti-human CAR antisera revealed the occurrence of a putative CAR homologue in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, but no nuclear accumulation of CAR following TCPOBOP treatment, which is a first step regulating the transcriptional activation of CYP2B genes in mouse. Immunohistochemical study also showed no translocation of CAR into nucleus in the hepatocytes of TCPOBOP-treated scup. These results suggest that there may be species-specific differences in CAR activation or CAR-CYP2B coupling signaling transduction in fish from those in mouse.

  18. Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles. Using the First Law of Thermodynamics To Calculate the "Corn-Area-per-Car" Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietro, William J.

    2009-05-01

    Students will use the first law of thermodynamics to determine the feasibility of using corn ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in automobiles. Energy flow is tracked from the Sun, to photosynthesized carbohydrate, to ethanol through fermentation, and finally to work in the combustion engine. Feasibility is gauged by estimating a "corn-area-per-car" ratio: the area of Earth on which sufficient corn must grow to support the energy needs of an average motor vehicle. This exercise requires students to gain an understanding of the thermochemistry of combustion, fermentation, and the energetics of photosynthesis through an issue of current environmental significance.

  19. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toshio; Takagi, Atsushi

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and functions by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  20. Effects of zinc on CarE activities and its gene transcript level in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Zu-Qing; Hu, Xiang-Shun

    2014-05-15

    As a selective stress, heavy metals play an important role in inducing the adaptive adjustments of insects to changing environments. Carboxylesterase (CarE) is one kind of biomarker that could help us to explore the adaptation mechanism of aphids to heavy metal stress. In this study, CarE activity and gene expression level were investigated in English grain aphids, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), exposed to Zn2+ at concentrations of 0, 400, and 1600 mg/kg for 5, 15, 25, and 30 generations. The results showed that the CarE activity was significantly different between different Zn2+ concentrations and different generations. The CarE activity significantly decreased with increasing generations. In the higher generations, the CarE activity was strongly inhibited by the 1600 mg/kg of Zn2+. Realtime quantitative PCR revealed that the CarE gene expression pattern in S. avenae was up-regulated under the condition of 400 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg of Zn2+, but a significant difference was not found after long-term exposure to high concentrations of Zn2+. It was concluded that CarE could be the sensitive biomarker for S. avenae response to the presence of Zn2+. In order to adapt to heavy metal Zn2+ stress, S. avenae had particular patterns of gene expression under long-term stress.

  1. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients.

  2. Cryptic carbapenem antibiotic production genes are widespread in Erwinia carotovora: facile trans activation by the carR transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Holden, M T; McGowan, S J; Bycroft, B W; Stewart, G S; Williams, P; Salmond, G P

    1998-06-01

    Few strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) make carbapenem antibiotics. Strain GS101 makes the basic carbapenem molecule, 1-carbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid (Car). The production of this antibiotic has been shown to be cell density dependent, requiring the accumulation of the small diffusible molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) in the growth medium. When the concentration of this inducer rises above a threshold level, OHHL is proposed to interact with the transcriptional activator of the carbapenem cluster (CarR) and induce carbapenem biosynthesis. The introduction of the GS101 carR gene into an Ecc strain (SCRI 193) which is naturally carbapenem-negative resulted in the production of Car. This suggested that strain SCRI 193 contained functional cryptic carbapenem biosynthetic genes, but lacked a functional carR homologue. The distribution of trans-activatable antibiotic genes was assayed in Erwinia strains from a culture collection and was found to be common in a large proportion of Ecc strains. Significantly, amongst the Ecc strains identified, a larger proportion contained trans-activatable cryptic genes than produced antibiotics constitutively. Southern hybridization of the chromosomal DNA of cryptic Ecc strains confirmed the presence of both the car biosynthetic cluster and the regulatory genes. Identification of homologues of the transcriptional activator carR suggests that the cause of the silencing of the carbapenem biosynthetic cluster in these strains is not the deletion of carR. In an attempt to identify the cause of the silencing in the Ecc strain SCRI 193 the carR homologue from this strain was cloned and sequenced. The SCRI 193 CarR homologue was 94% identical to the GS101 CarR and contained 14 amino acid substitutions. Both homologues could be expressed from their native promoters and ribosome-binding sites using an in vitro prokaryotic transcription and translation assay, and when the SCRI 193 carR homologue was

  3. Activation of CAR and PXR by Dietary, Environmental and Occupational Chemicals Alters Drug Metabolism, Intermediary Metabolism, and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, J.P.; Mota, L.C.; Baldwin, W.S.

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane × receptor (PXR) are activated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, such as steroid hormones, bile acids, pharmaceuticals, and environmental, dietary, and occupational chemicals. In turn, they induce phase I–III detoxification enzymes and transporters that help eliminate these chemicals. Because many of the chemicals that activate CAR and PXR are environmentally-relevant (dietary and anthropogenic), studies need to address whether these chemicals or mixtures of these chemicals may increase the susceptibility to adverse drug interactions. In addition, CAR and PXR are involved in hepatic proliferation, intermediary metabolism, and protection from cholestasis. Therefore, activation of CAR and PXR may have a wide variety of implications for personalized medicine through physiological effects on metabolism and cell proliferation; some beneficial and others adverse. Identifying the chemicals that activate these promiscuous nuclear receptors and understanding how these chemicals may act in concert will help us predict adverse drug reactions (ADRs), predict cholestasis and steatosis, and regulate intermediary metabolism. This review summarizes the available data on CAR and PXR, including the environmental chemicals that activate these receptors, the genes they control, and the physiological processes that are perturbed or depend on CAR and PXR action. This knowledge contributes to a foundation that will be necessary to discern interindividual differences in the downstream biological pathways regulated by these key nuclear receptors. PMID:20871735

  4. Interpretation of FTIR spectra of polymers and Raman spectra of car paints by means of likelihood ratio approach supported by wavelet transform for reducing data dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Michalska, Aleksandra; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    The problem of interpretation of common provenance of the samples within the infrared spectra database of polypropylene samples from car body parts and plastic containers as well as Raman spectra databases of blue solid and metallic automotive paints was under investigation. The research involved statistical tools such as likelihood ratio (LR) approach for expressing the evidential value of observed similarities and differences in the recorded spectra. Since the LR models can be easily proposed for databases described by a few variables, research focused on the problem of spectra dimensionality reduction characterised by more than a thousand variables. The objective of the studies was to combine the chemometric tools easily dealing with multidimensionality with an LR approach. The final variables used for LR models' construction were derived from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a data dimensionality reduction technique supported by methods for variance analysis and corresponded with chemical information, i.e. typical absorption bands for polypropylene and peaks associated with pigments present in the car paints. Univariate and multivariate LR models were proposed, aiming at obtaining more information about the chemical structure of the samples. Their performance was controlled by estimating the levels of false positive and false negative answers and using the empirical cross entropy approach. The results for most of the LR models were satisfactory and enabled solving the stated comparison problems. The results prove that the variables generated from DWT preserve signal characteristic, being a sparse representation of the original signal by keeping its shape and relevant chemical information.

  5. Reciprocal activation of Xenobiotic response genes by nuclear receptors SXR/PXR and CAR

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Barwick, Joyce L.; Simon, Cynthia M.; Pierce, Alexis M.; Safe, Stephen; Blumberg, Bruce; Guzelian, Philip S.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene products such as CYP3A and CYP2B are essential for the metabolism of steroid hormones and xenochemicals including prescription drugs. Nuclear receptor SXR/PXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor/pregnenolone X receptor) has been shown both biochemically and genetically to activate CYP3A genes, while similar studies have established constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as a CYP2B regulator. The response elements in these genes are also distinct, furthering the concept of independent regulation. Unexpectedly, we found that SXR can regulate CYP2B, both in cultured cells and in transgenic mice via adaptive recognition of the phenobarbital response element (PBRE). In a type of functional symmetry, orphan receptor CAR was also found to activate CYP3A through previously defined SXR/PXR response elements. These observations not only provide a rational explanation for the activation of multiple CYP gene classes by certain xenobiotics, but also reveal the existence of a metabolic safety net that confers a second layer of protection to the harmful effects of toxic compounds and at the same time increases the propensity for drug–drug interactions. PMID:11114890

  6. Car Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  7. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA networks following the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ruixin; Su, Shengzhong; Wan, Yinan; Shen, Frank; Niu, Ben; Coslo, Denise M; Albert, Istvan; Han, Xing; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2016-09-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a xenosensor, serving to regulate xenobiotic detoxification, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism. CAR activation is also a key contributor to the development of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. The underlying pathways affected by CAR in these processes are complex and not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of gene expression and appear to impact many cellular pathways, including those involved in chemical detoxification and liver tumor development. In this study, we used deep sequencing approaches with an Illumina HiSeq platform to differentially profile microRNA expression patterns in livers from wild type C57BL/6J mice following CAR activation with the mouse CAR-specific ligand activator, 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP). Bioinformatic analyses and pathway evaluations were performed leading to the identification of 51 miRNAs whose expression levels were significantly altered by TCPOBOP treatment, including mmu-miR-802-5p and miR-485-3p. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs revealed altered effector pathways, including those involved in liver cell growth and proliferation. A functional network among CAR targeted genes and the affected microRNAs was constructed to illustrate how CAR modulation of microRNA expression may potentially mediate its biological role in mouse hepatocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  8. Transactivation Assays to Assess Canine and Rodent Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pinne, Marija; Ponce, Elsa; Raucy, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR/SXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) are nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in the regulation of many genes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and transporters important in metabolism and uptake of both endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Activation of these receptors can lead to adverse drug effects as well as drug-drug interactions. Depending on which nuclear receptor is activated will determine which adverse effect could occur, making identification important. Screening for NR activation by New Molecular Entities (NMEs) using cell-based transactivation assays is the singular high throughput method currently available for identifying the activation of a particular NR. Moreover, screening for species-specific NR activation can minimize the use of animals in drug development and toxicology studies. With this in mind, we have developed in vitro transactivation assays to identify compounds that activate canine and rat PXR and CAR3. We found differences in specificity for canine and rat PXR, with the best activator for canine PXR being 10 μM SR12813 (60.1 ± 3.1-fold) and for rat PXR, 10 μM dexamethasone (60.9 ± 8.4 fold). Of the 19 test agents examined, 10 and 9 significantly activated rat and canine PXR at varying degrees, respectively. In contrast, 5 compounds exhibited statistically significant activation of rat CAR3 and 4 activated the canine receptor. For canine CAR3, 50 μM artemisinin proved to be the best activator (7.3 ± 1.8 and 10.5 ± 2.2 fold) while clotrimazole (10 μM) was the primary activator of the rat variant (13.7 ± 0.8 and 26.9 ± 1.3 fold). Results from these studies demonstrated that cell-based transactivation assays can detect species-specific activators and revealed that PXR was activated by at least twice as many compounds as was CAR3, suggesting that there are many more agonists for PXR than CAR. PMID:27732639

  9. Active vibration control on a quarter-car for cancellation of road noise disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.

  10. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  11. Activity ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase accurately reflect carbamylation ratios. [Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacla oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, N.D.; Sharkey, T.D. )

    1989-03-01

    Activity ratios and carbamylation ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were determined for leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Spinacia oleracea exposed to a variety of partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and photon flux densities (PFD). It was found that activity ratios accurately predicted carbamylation ratios except in extracts from leaves held in low PFD. In particular, it was confirmed that the loss of FuBPCase activity in low partial pressure of O{sub 2} and high PFD results from reduced carbamylation. Activity ratios of RuBPCase were lower than carbamylation ratios for Phaseolus leaves sampled in low PFD, presumably because of the presence of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate. Spinacia leaves sampled in darkness also exhibited lower activity ratios than carbamylation ratios indicating that this species may also have an RuBPCase inhibitor even though carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate has not been detected in this species in the past.

  12. Cao-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated activation of K+ channels is blunted in CaR gene-deficient mouse neurons.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, P M; Ho-Pao, C L; Kanazirska, M P; Ye, C; Hong, K; Seidman, C E; Seidman, J G; Brown, E M

    1997-04-14

    The extracellular Ca2+ (Cao)-sensing receptor (CaR) is expressed in hippocampus and other brain regions, suggesting that it could mediate some of the well recognized but poorly understood direct actions of Cao on neuronal function. This study presents evidence that the CaR is functionally coupled to Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels. The effects of CaR agonists on these channels in neurons from wild type (WT) and CaR-deficient (CaR -/-) mice were compared. Neomycin (100 mM) and elevation of Cao from 0.5 to 3 mM significantly increased the probability of channel opening (Po) in neurons from WT but not in those from CaR -/- mice. Thus the CaR activates neuronal K+ channels and could potentially inhibit neuronal excitability and neurotransmission via membrane repolarization.

  13. Acceleration control system for semi-active in-car crib with joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, T.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce the risk of injury to an infant in an in-car crib (or in a child safety bed) collision shock during a car crash, it is necessary to maintain a constant force acting on the crib below a certain allowable value. To realize this objective, we propose a semi-active in-car crib system with the joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms. The arms of the proposed crib system support the crib like a pendulum while the pendulum system itself is supported like an inverted pendulum by the arms. In addition, the friction torque of each arm is controlled using a brake mechanism that enables the proposed in-car crib to decrease the acceleration of the crib gradually and maintain it around the target value. This system not only reduces the impulsive force but also transfers the force to the infant's back using a spin control system, i.e., the impulse force acts is made to act perpendicularly on the crib. The spin control system was developed in our previous work. This work focuses on the acceleration control system. A semi-active control law with acceleration feedback is introduced, and the effectiveness of the system is demonstrated using numerical simulation and model experiment.

  14. Access to recreational physical activities by car and bus: an assessment of socio-spatial inequalities in mainland Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Neil S; Lamb, Karen E; Wang, Yang; Ogilvie, David; Ellaway, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and other chronic conditions linked with low levels of physical activity (PA) are associated with deprivation. One reason for this could be that it is more difficult for low-income groups to access recreational PA facilities such as swimming pools and sports centres than high-income groups. In this paper, we explore the distribution of access to PA facilities by car and bus across mainland Scotland by income deprivation at datazone level. GIS car and bus networks were created to determine the number of PA facilities accessible within travel times of 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Multilevel negative binomial regression models were then used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities, adjusting for datazone population size and local authority. Access to PA facilities by car was significantly (p<0.01) higher for the most affluent quintile of area-based income deprivation than for most other quintiles in small towns and all other quintiles in rural areas. Accessibility by bus was significantly lower for the most affluent quintile than for other quintiles in urban areas and small towns, but not in rural areas. Overall, we found that the most disadvantaged groups were those without access to a car and living in the most affluent areas or in rural areas.

  15. Novel CAR-mediated mechanism for synergistic activation of two distinct elements within the human cytochrome P450 2B6 gene in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Kakizaki, Satoru; Yamamoto, Yukio; Inoue, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Negishi, Masahiko

    2005-02-04

    The constitutive active receptor (CAR) regulates the induction of the cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) gene by phenobarbital-type inducers, such as 1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) via the distal phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM, at -1732/-1685 bp). Activation of the PBREM by TCPOBOP generated a 10-fold induction of CYP2B6 mRNA in HepG2 cells stably expressing mouse CAR (Ym17). Co-treatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) synergistically increased this induction over 100-fold without directly activating CAR or the PBREM. Although OA synergy required the presence of PBREM, deletion assays delineated the OA-responsive activity to a proximal 24-bp (-256/-233) sequence (OARE) in the CYP2B6 promoter. CAR did not directly bind to the OARE in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, both DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a significant increase in CAR association with the OARE after co-treatment with TCPOBOP and OA, indicating the indirect binding of CAR to the OARE. The two cis-acting elements, the distal PBREM and the proximal OARE, within the chromatin structure are both regulated by CAR in response to TCPOBOP and OA, respectively, to maximally induce the CYP2B6 promoter. This functional interaction between the two sites expands the current understanding of the mechanism of CAR-mediated inducible transcription.

  16. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane technical mixture regulates cell cycle and apoptosis genes through the activation of CAR and ERα in mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.

    2013-09-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and a xenoestrogen that promotes rodent hepatomegaly and tumours. A recent study has shown significant correlation between DDT serum concentration and liver cancer incidence in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesised that a mixture of DDT isomers could exert effects on the liver through pathways instead of classical ERs. The acute effects of a DDT mixture containing the two major isomers p,p′-DDT (85%) and o,p′-DDT (15%) on CAR and ERα receptors and their cell cycle and apoptosis target genes were studied in mouse livers. ChIP results demonstrated increased CAR and ERα recruitment to their specific target gene binding sites in response to the DDT mixture. The results of real-time RT-PCR were consistent with the ChIP data and demonstrated that the DDT was able to activate both CAR and ERα in mouse livers, leading to target gene transcriptional increases including Cyp2b10, Gadd45β, cMyc, Mdm2, Ccnd1, cFos and E2f1. Western blot analysis demonstrated increases in cell cycle progression proteins cMyc, Cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2f1 and anti-apoptosis proteins Mdm2 and Gadd45β. In addition, DDT exposure led to Rb phosphorylation. Increases in cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis proteins were accompanied by a decrease in p53 content and its transcriptional activity. However, the DDT was unable to stimulate the β-catenin signalling pathway, which can play an important role in hepatocyte proliferation. Thus, our results indicate that DDT treatment may result in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition through CAR- and ERα-mediated gene activation in mouse livers. These findings suggest that the proliferative and anti-apoptotic conditions induced by CAR and ERα activation may be important contributors to the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis as produced by DDT in rodent livers. - Highlights: • DDT activated both CAR and ERα and their cell

  17. Experimental investigation of different active noise control concepts applied to a passenger car equipped with an active windshield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misol, M.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2012-05-01

    The main purpose of this work is the implementation and experimental investigation of different active structural acoustic control (ASAC) concepts for the reduction of interior noise in an automobile passenger compartment. For the control experiments, a medium-class test car was used, which had been equipped with an active windshield. The active windshield consists of the serial-production laminated glass pane augmented with piezoceramic patch-transducers applied to the blackened rim of the windshield. A multi-reference test provided measurement data for the identification of a local discrete-time state-space model (SSM). The subsequent acquisition of frequency response functions (FRF) by way of using the same actuators but measuring on a much finer grid provided the database for the formulation of a least-squares problem to derive a global system model. Based on the local and global discrete-time SSMs, different controllers were designed and experimentally realized. The comparison of the vibration levels in open- and closed-loop showed a global reduction of 5-7 dB in the acoustically relevant frequency band containing the second and third structural resonance of the windshield system. The occurrence of complex operational deflection shapes (ODS) was identified as the main limitation concerning the disturbance rejection of the active system. The acoustic performance of the ASAC system is reflected in a reduction up to 15 dB in sound pressure level (SPL).

  18. Multiphysics modelling of multibody systems: application to car semi-active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docquier, N.; Poncelet, A.; Delannoy, M.; Fisette, P.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the present article is to analyse the performances of a modern vehicle equipped with a novel suspension system linking front, rear, right and left cylinders via a semi-active hydraulic circuit, developed by the Tenneco Automotive company. In addition to improving the vehicle's vertical performances (in terms of comfort), both the stiff roll motion of the carbody and the soft wrap motion of the rear/front wheel-axle units can be obtained and tuned via eight electrovalves. The proposed system avoids the use of classical anti-roll bars, which would be incompatible with the wrap performance. A major problem of the project is to produce a realistic and efficient 3D multibody dynamic model of an Audi A6 coupled, at the equational level, with an hydraulic model of the suspension including cylinders, accumulators, valve characteristics, oil compressibility and pipe dynamics. As regards the hydraulic submodel, a particular attention is paid to assemble resistive components properly without resorting to the use of artificial volumes, as proposed by some software dealing with the dynamics of hydraulic systems. According to Tenneco Automotive requirements, this model must be produced in a Matlab/Simulink form, in particular for control purposes. Thanks to the symbolic approach underlying our multibody program; a unified hybrid model can be obtained as a unique plant dynamic block to be real-time integrated in the Simulink environment on a standard computer. Simulation results highlight the advantages of this new suspension system, in particular regarding the behaviour of the car which can remain stiff in roll for curve negotiation, while maintaining a soft wrap behaviour on uneven surfaces.

  19. Assessment of anti-CarP antibodies, disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients on conventional and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Pangtey, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Rachna; Rehan, Harmeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Objective Good biomarkers are important to guide decisions in the clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients harbor antibodies directed against carbamylated proteins which may predict joint damage. This study investigated whether antibodies against carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) may serve as surrogate prognostic markers. Material and methods Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis according to ACR 1987 criteria were included. Blood samples were analyzed for CarP antibody levels using the ELISA method. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the WHO SF-36 questionnaire, and disease activity was assessed using the DAS28 calculator. Newly diagnosed patients were assessed at the first visit and at 12 weeks of treatment, while a single assessment was made for patients already on maintenance therapy. Results Out of 53 patients, 22 had titers of anti-CarP above the cut-off range and considered as positive for anti-CarP antibodies. Anti-CarP antibody serum level was significantly higher in patients with deformity of joints and with erosions in comparison to those without any destructive changes (p < 0.05). There was a weak positive correlation between anti-CarP and DAS 28 (p > 0.05). Also there was a weak negative correlation in all domains of quality of life with anti-CarP antibody titers (p > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between titers of anti-CarP antibodies and presence or absence of rheumatoid factor. Conclusions Serum levels of anti-CarP antibodies in RA patients with joint erosions/deformities were much higher than in those without any joint damage. Anti-CarP antibodies may have good prognostic value in RA patients with erosions. Disease activity and QoL of RA patients improved during treatment, but no correlation was found between DAS 28/QoL and anti-CarP antibody serum levels. PMID:28386136

  20. Covariances for measured activation and fission ratios data

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Watanabe, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Methods which are routinely used in the determination of covariance matrices for both integral and differential activation and fission-ratios data acquired at the Argonne National Laboratory Fast-Neutron Generator Facility (FNG) are discussed. Special consideration is given to problems associated with the estimation of correlations between various identified sources of experimental error. Approximation methods which are commonly used to reduce the labor involved in this analysis to manageable levels are described. Results from some experiments which have been recently carried out in this laboratory are presented to illustrate these procedures. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  2. Flame retardant BDE-47 effectively activates nuclear receptor CAR in human primary hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 (2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is a thyroid hormone disruptor in mice; hepatic induction of various metabolic enzymes and transporters has been suggested as the mechanism for this disruption. Utilizing Car-/- and Pxr-/- mice as well as h...

  3. "RED" Matters When Naming "CAR": The Cascading Activation of Nontarget Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sébastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Seven experiments tested, whether when naming a colored object (e.g., "CAR"), its color (e.g., "red") is phonologically encoded. In the first experiment, adults had to say aloud the names of colored line drawings of objects that were each displayed among 3 black-and-white line drawings (Experiment 1a) or that were presented…

  4. Non-dimensionalised closed-form parametric analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions using a quarter-car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Blanchard, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a non-dimensionalised closed-form analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions, using a quarter-car model. The derivation of the closed-form solutions for three indices that can be used for ride comfort, vehicle handling, and stability are presented based on non-dimensionalised suspension parameters. The behaviour of semi-active vehicle suspensions is evaluated using skyhook, groundhook, and hybrid control policies, and compared with passive suspensions. The relationship between vibration isolation, suspension deflection, and road holding is studied, using three performance indices based on the mean square of the sprung mass acceleration, rattle space, and tyre deflection, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid control policy yields significantly better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The results also indicate that for typical passenger cars, the hybrid control policy results in a better compromise between comfort, road holding and suspension travel requirements than both the skyhook and groundhook control methods.

  5. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of all radioxenons in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radioxenons, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different diffusivities due to mass differences between the radioxenons. A previous study showed surface arrival time of a chemically inert gaseous tracer is affected by its diffusivity. They observed detectable amount for SF6 50 days after detonation and 375 days for He-3. They predict 50 and 80 days for Xe-133 and Ar-37 respectively. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations , fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic

  6. Signal-to-noise ratio in neuro activation PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Votaw, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    It has become commonplace to compare scanner sensitivity characteristics by comparing noise equivalent count rate curves. However, because a 20-cm diameter uniform phantom is drastically difference from a human brain, these curves give misleading information when planning a neuro activation PET experiment. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations have been performed using measured data (Siemens 921 scanner) from the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom for the purpose of determining the optimal injection and scanning protocol for [{sup 15}O] labeled activation experiments. Region of interest (ROI) values along with the variance due to prompt (trues plus randoms) and random events were determined for various regions and radioactivity concentrations. Calculated attenuation correction was used throughout. Scatter correction was not used when calculating the SNR in activation studies because the number of scattered events is almost identical in each data acquisition and hence cancels. The results indicate that randoms correction should not be performed and that rather than being limited by the scanner capabilities, neuro activation experiments are limited by the amount of radioactivity that can be injected and the length of time the patient can stay in the scanner.

  7. Expression of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris and characterization of its anti-coxsackievirus activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kebin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Wei; Xu, Zihui; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Sheng, Halei; He, Xiaomei; Xiong, Junzhi; Qian, Guisheng

    2013-04-15

    Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors (CARs) are the common cellular receptors which mediate coxsackievirus or adenovirus infection. Receptor trap therapy, which uses soluble viral receptors to block the attachment and internalization of virus, has been developed for the inhibition of virus infection. In this study, we have constructed a pPIC3.5K/CAR-Fc expression plasmid for the economical and scale-up production of CAR-Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris. The coding sequence of the fusion protein was optimized according to the host codon usage bias. The amount of the CAR-Fc protein to total cell protein was up to 10% by 1% methanol induction for 96h and the purity was up to 96% after protein purification. Next, the virus pull-down assay demonstrated the binding activity of the CAR-Fc to coxsackievirus. The analyses of MTT assay, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR after virus neutralization assay revealed that CAR-Fc could significantly block coxsackievirus B3 infection in vitro. In coxsackievirus B3 infected mouse models, CAR-Fc treatment reduced mortality, myocardial edema, viral loads and inflammation, suggesting the significant virus blocking effect in vivo. Our results indicated that the P. pastoris expression system could be used to produce large quantities of bioactive CAR-Fc for further clinical purpose.

  8. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  9. Comparison of homology models and X-ray structures of the nuclear receptor CAR: assessing the structural basis of constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Windshügel, Björn; Jyrkkärinne, Johanna; Vanamo, Jenni; Poso, Antti; Honkakoski, Paavo; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) possesses an intrinsic basal activity whose structural basis has been analysed during the last decade. Recently, we published a homology model of the CAR ligand binding domain (LBD) based on the X-ray structures of the closely related pregnane X (PXR) and vitamin D (VDR) receptor. A detailed analysis of the homology model and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations afforded us to propose a potential mechanism underlying the constitutive activity of CAR. Almost simultaneously, X-ray structures of human and mouse CAR LBD were released. In the present study, a detailed analysis and comparison of homology model and X-ray structures is carried out in order to evaluate the quality and reliability of our homology modelling procedure. The hypothesis of the constitutive activity which we proposed on the basis of our modelling results was tested for consistency with the crystal structures. In addition, the features stated to be essential for the basal activity based on the X-ray data were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the homology modelling procedure was able to predict the CAR LBD structure with high accuracy. Structural features that have been revealed as critical for constitutive activity in the model are also observed in the X-ray structures. Furthermore, the MD simulations of the CAR X-ray structures and a detailed analysis of other NRs clarify the role of distinct structural features that have been assigned an important role for the constitutive activity.

  10. Car Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic ... Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español ...

  11. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  12. Getting More Mileage out of Mousetrap Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Wylo, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    Building and racing mousetrap cars is a common activity in many eighth- and ninth-grade physical science classrooms. However, once students have raced their cars, most mousetrap assignments come to an end. In this article, the authors developed a project to help teachers get more mileage out of mousetrap cars. The Mousetrap Car Project addresses…

  13. Spontaneous Activity Defines Effective Convergence Ratios in an Inhibitory Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many neurons fire spontaneously, and the rate of this firing is subject to neuromodulation. How this firing affects functional connectivity within a neural network remains largely unexplored. Here we show that changes in spontaneous firing of cartwheel interneurons in the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) alter the effective convergence ratio of interneurons onto their postsynaptic targets through short-term synaptic plasticity. Spontaneous firing of cartwheel cells led to activity-dependent synaptic depression of individual cartwheel synapses. Depression was rapid and profound at stimulation frequencies between 10 and 200 Hz, suggesting the presence of high release probability (Pr) vesicles at these inhibitory synapses. Weak, transient synaptic facilitation could be induced after synapses were predepressed, indicating that low-Pr vesicles are also recruited, and may thus support steady-state transmission. A two-pool vesicle depletion model with 10-fold differences in Pr could account for the synaptic depression over a wide range of stimulus conditions. As a result of depression during high spontaneous activity, more cartwheel interneurons were required for effective inhibition. Convergence of four interneurons was sufficient to compensate for the effects of depression during physiologically expected rates of activity. By simulating synaptic release during spontaneous firing, we found that recruitment of low-Pr vesicles at the synapse plays a critical role in maintaining effective inhibition within a small population of interneurons. The interplay between spontaneous spiking, short-term synaptic plasticity, and vesicle recruitment thus determines the effective size of a convergent neural network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We examined the relationship between the structure of a small neural circuit and the properties of its individual synapses. Successful synaptic inhibition of a target cell firing requires a critical inhibitory synaptic strength. Synapses often

  14. Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: evidence that CarS acts as an anti-repressor of CarA.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, D E; Hodgson, D A

    2001-11-01

    In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, carotenoids are produced in response to illumination, as a result of expression of the crt carotenoid biosynthesis genes. The majority of crt genes are clustered in the crtEBDC operon, which is repressed in the dark by CarA. Genetic data suggest that, in the light, CarS is synthesized and achieves activation of the crtEBDC operon by removing the repressive action of CarA. As CarS contains no known DNA-binding motif, the relief of CarA-mediated repression was postulated to result from a direct interaction between these two proteins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated direct interaction between CarA and CarS. The two-hybrid system also implied that CarA and, possibly, CarS are capable of homodimerization. Direct evidence for CarS anti-repressor action was provided in vitro. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-CarA protein fusion was shown to bind specifically to a palindromic operator sequence within the crtEBDC promoter. CarA was prevented from binding to its operator, and prebound CarA was removed by the addition of purified CarS. CarS is therefore an anti-repressor.

  15. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Is an Endogenous Signal Retaining the Nuclear Constitutive Active/Androstane Receptor (CAR) in the Cytoplasm of Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Chika; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) is sequestered in the cytoplasm of liver cells before its activation by therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics such as phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) in mouse liver, the regulatory mechanism of which remains poorly understood. Given the finding that epidermal growth factor repressed PB activation of CAR-mediated transcription (Mol Pharmacol 65:172–180, 2004), here we investigated the regulatory role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated signal in sequestering CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse primary hepatocytes. HGF treatment effectively repressed the induction of endogenous CYP2b10 gene by PB and TCPOBOP in mouse primary hepatocytes. On the other hand, inhibition by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(methyl-thio)butadiene (U0126) of an HGF downstream kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) induced the Cyp2b10 gene and up-regulated the CAR-regulated promoter activity in the absence of TCPOBOP. HGF treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in the cytosol, thus decreasing the TCPOBOP-induced nuclear accumulation of CAR. In contrast, U0126 dephosphorylated ERK1/2 and increased nuclear CAR accumulation in the absence of TCPOBOP. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the HGF-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is the endogenous signal that sequesters CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse primary hepatocytes. PMID:17314319

  16. Helium/Carbon dioxide ratios as premonitors of volcanic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Naughton, J J

    1979-06-15

    The composition of the gaseous emissions of two fumaroles at the summit of Kilauea Volcano was monitored for môre than 2 years. Magma was released from the summit reservoir on three occasions during this period; prior to or during each event the ratios of helium to carbon dioxide in the fumarole gases decreased substantially from that observed during periods of quiescence.

  17. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  18. Car sick.

    PubMed

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission

  19. Development of a Systems Computational Model to Investigate Early Biological Events in Hepatic Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by Phenobarbital

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activation of the nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive active/androstane receptor) is implicated in the control several key biological events such as metabolic pathways. Here, we combined data from literature with information obtained from in vitro assays in the US EPA ToxCast dat...

  20. Optimized coordination of brakes and active steering for a 4WS passenger car.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Ali; Naraghi, Mahyar; Shakeri, Heman

    2012-09-01

    Optimum coordination of individual brakes and front/rear steering subsystems is presented. The integrated control strategy consists of three modules. A coordinated high-level control determines the body forces/moment required to achieve vehicle motion objectives. The body forces/moment are allocated to braking and steering subsystems through an intermediate unit, which integrates available subsystems based on phase plane notion in an optimal manner. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints is defined and solved analytically, such that a real-time implementation can be realized without the use of numeric optimization software. A low-level slip-ratio controller works to generate the desired longitudinal forces at small longitudinal slip-ratios, while averting wheel locking at large slip-ratios. The efficiency of the suggested approach is demonstrated through computer simulations.

  1. CAR, driving into the future.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Negishi, Masahiko

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear orphan receptor CAR is active in the absence of ligand with the unique capability to be further regulated by activators. A number of these activators, including phenobarbital, do not directly bind to the receptor. Considered a xenobiotic sensing receptor, CAR transcriptionally modifies the expression of genes involved in the metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics and steroids in response to these compounds and other cellular metabolites. Its hepatic expression pattern endows the liver with the ability to protect against not only exogenous but also endogenous insults. The mechanism of CAR activation is complex, involving translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of activators, followed by further activation steps in the nucleus. Although this mechanism remains under investigation, we have summarized here the cellular signaling pathways elucidated so far and speculate on the mechanism by which CAR activators regulate gene expression through this network.

  2. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  3. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Akihama, K.; Asai, T. )

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free {ital S}-branch CARS spectra of N{sub 2} are investigated in the temperature range of 300--700 K for pressures of 1--20 atm. Collisional narrowing for {ital S}-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual {ital S}-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry.

  4. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry.

    PubMed

    Akihama, K; Asai, T

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free S-branch CARS spectra of N(2) are investigated in the temperature range of 300-700 K for pressures of 1-20 atm. Collisional narrowing for S-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual S-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of S-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of S-branch CARS thermometry.

  5. Xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation associated with constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is enhanced by pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Benoki, Satoshi; Numakura, Yuki; Kodama, Susumu; Miyata, Masaaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    Xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) play pivotal roles in the metabolic functions of the liver such as xenobiotics detoxification and energy metabolism. While CAR or PPARα activation induces hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent models, it remains unclear whether PXR activation also shows such effects. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PXR in the xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation with or without CAR activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital, or PPARα activation by Wy-14643 in mice. Treatment with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital increased the percentage of Ki-67-positive nuclei as well as mRNA levels of cell proliferation-related genes in livers as expected. On the other hand, treatment with the PXR activator pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) alone showed no such effects. Surprisingly, PCN co-treatment significantly augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by CAR activation with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital in wild-type mice but not in PXR-deficient mice. Intriguingly, PXR activation also augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by Wy-14643 treatment. Moreover, PCN treatment increased the RNA content of hepatocytes, suggesting the induction of G0/G1 transition, and reduced mRNA levels of Cdkn1b and Rbl2, encoding suppressors of cell cycle initiation. Our present findings indicate that xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation mediated by CAR or PPARα is enhanced by PXR co-activation despite that PXR activation alone does not cause the cell proliferation in mouse livers. Thus PXR may play a novel and unique role in the hepatocyte/liver hyperplasia upon exposure to xenobiotics.

  6. CAR-T Cells Inflict Sequential Killing of Multiple Tumor Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Cross, Ryan S; Yong, Carmen S; Prince, H Miles; Ritchie, David S; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells shows great promise clinically. However, there are important aspects of CAR-T-cell biology that have not been explored, particularly with respect to the kinetics of activation, immune synapse formation, and tumor cell killing. Moreover, the effects of signaling via the endogenous T-cell receptor (TCR) or CAR on killing kinetics are unclear. To address these issues, we developed a novel transgenic mouse (designated CAR.OT-I), in which CD8(+) T cells coexpressed the clonogenic OT-I TCR, recognizing the H-2K(b)-presented ovalbumin peptide SIINFEKL, and an scFv specific for human HER2. Primed CAR.OT-I T cells were mixed with SIINFEKL-pulsed or HER2-expressing tumor cells and visualized in real-time using time-lapse microscopy. We found that engagement via CAR or TCR did not affect cell death kinetics, except that the time from degranulation to CAR-T-cell detachment was faster when CAR was engaged. We showed, for the first time, that individual CAR.OT-I cells can kill multiple tumor cells ("serial killing"), irrespective of the mode of recognition. At low effector:target ratios, the tumor cell killing rate was similar via TCR or CAR ligation over the first 20 hours of coincubation. However, from 20 to 50 hours, tumor cell death mediated through CAR became attenuated due to CAR downregulation throughout the time course. Our study provides important insights into CAR-T-tumor cell interactions, with implications for single- or dual receptor-focused T-cell therapy.

  7. An Exploratory Simulator Study on the Use of Active Control Devices in Car Driving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    system to the driver and therefore concurrently serve as a proprioceptive -tactual display (RPihmann, 1981). The term "tactual" is used in the meaning of...displayed proprioceptive -tactual cues (see common coding approach in information processing, Prinz, 1990). The control loop for an active control...KlMckner & St6cker; 1990). In its present form the accelerator hardly pvrode- any systematic proprioceptive - tactual feedback to the driver abot.t the

  8. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  9. Influence of bite force on jaw muscle activity ratios in subject-controlled unilateral isometric biting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Pröschel, Peter Alfred; Morneburg, Thomas Riccardo

    2010-10-01

    Ratios of muscle activities in unilateral isometric biting are assumed to provide information on strategies of muscle activation independently from bite force. If valid, this assumption would facilitate experiments as it would justify subject-control instead of transducer-based force control in biting studies. As force independence of ratios is controversial, we tested whether activity ratios are associated with bite force and whether this could affect findings based on subject-controlled force. In 52 subjects, bite force and bilateral masseter and temporalis electromyograms were recorded during unilateral biting on a transducer with varying force levels and with uniform subject-controlled force. Working/balancing and temporalis/masseter ratios of activity peaks were related to bite force peaks. Activity ratios were significantly but weakly correlated with the bite force. The subject-controlled force varied within +/-25% around the prescribed force in 95% of all bites. This scatter could cause a variation of group mean activity ratios of at most +/-6% because of the weak correlation between bite force and ratios. As this small variation is negligible in most cases, subject-control of bite force can be considered an appropriate method to obtain group means of relative muscle activation in particular when force control with transducers is not feasible.

  10. [Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Cardiology for car driving, airplane flying,and underwater activities in subjects with heart disease].

    PubMed

    García-Cosío Mir, F; Alberca Vela, T; Rubio Sanz, J; Grande Ruiz, A; Viqueira Caamaño, J A; Curcio Ruigómez, A; Navarro Ruiz, V

    2001-04-01

    Car driving, airplane piloting and underwater activities by subjects with heart disease may cause sudden incapacitation leading to the loss of the safety margins necessary to avoid accidents. In the case of car driving and airplane piloting the risk affects, not only the driver or pilot, but also passengers and/or bystanders within an accident zone. In the case of diving the risk resides basically in the loss of control of the vital support mechanisms necessary in a very hostile medium. This document reviews the possible causes of unexpected incapacitation, with or without loss of consciousness, in the light of the pathophysiologic consequences of fatigue, hypoxia, stress or barotrauma posed by each activity. Detailed recommendations are made for limiting driving, piloting and diving, based on official Spanish and European regulations and the addresses of specialized centers are provided for consultation. Moreover, recommendations for airplane travel for patients with heart disease are indicated.

  11. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  12. Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator

    PubMed Central

    Elcombe, Clifford R.; Peffer, Richard C.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Bailey, Jason; Bars, Remi; Bell, David; Cattley, Russell C.; Ferguson, Stephen S.; Geter, David; Goetz, Amber; Goodman, Jay I.; Hester, Susan; Jacobs, Abigail; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Schoeny, Rita; Xie, Wen; Lake, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk. PMID:24180433

  13. Effective and persistent antitumor activity of HER2-directed CAR-T cells against gastric cancer cells in vitro and xenotransplanted tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjing; Tong, Chuan; Wang, Yao; Gao, Yunhe; Dai, Hanren; Guo, Yelei; Zhao, Xudong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zizheng; Han, Weidong; Chen, Lin

    2017-03-10

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) proteins are overexpressed in a high proportion of gastric cancer (GC) cases and affect the maintenance of cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations, which are used as targets for the clinical treatment of patients with HER2-positive GC. Despite improvements in survival, numerous HER2-positive patients fail treatment with trastuzumab, highlighting the need for more effective therapies. In this study, we generated a novel type of genetically modified human T cells, expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), and targeting the GC cell antigen HER2, which harbors the CD137 and CD3ζ moieties. Our findings show that the expanded CAR-T cells, expressing an increased central memory phenotype, were activated by the specific recognition of HER2 antigens in an MHC-independent manner, and effectively killed patient-derived HER2-positive GC cells. In HER2-positive xenograft tumors, CAR-T cells exhibited considerably enhanced tumor inhibition ability, long-term survival, and homing to targets, compared with those of non-transduced T cells. The sphere-forming ability and in vivo tumorigenicity of patient-derived gastric cancer stem-like cells, expressing HER2 and the CD44 protein, were also inhibited. Our results support the future development and clinical application of this adoptive immunotherapy in patients with HER2-positive advanced GC.

  14. Activity ratio between antiprostacyclin and antiaggregating effects of acetylsalicylic acid, indometacin and ditazole.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Togna, G; Antonetti, F; Borrelli, F

    1980-01-01

    The effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) indometacin and ditazole on prostacyclin production from rabbit aortic rings were studied in comparison to their inhibiting activity on platelet aggregation. The result were expressed as the ratio between the drug dose inhibiting by 50% prostacycline production and the minimum oral antiaggregating dose. The following ratios were found: 2.4 for ASA, 7.3 for indometacin and 20.4 for ditazole.

  15. Relationship between active cervical range of motion and flexion-relaxation ratio in asymptomatic computer workers.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Ra

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of neck and shoulder pain is present in the working population, especially sedentary workers. Recent findings have indicated that the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio in the cervical erector spinae (CES) muscles might be a significant criteria of neuromuscular impairment and function. Additionally, the active cervical range of motion (ROM) is frequently used for discriminating between individuals with pain and those who are asymptomatic. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio in a sample of regular visual display terminal (VDT) workers. In total, 20 asymptomatic male VDT workers were recruited. Active cervical ROM was measured by a cervical ROM (CROM) instrument. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect myoelectrical signals from the CES muscles, and the FR ratio was calculated for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio. The values obtained for the FR ratio in the right CES muscles correlated significantly with the active cervical ROM measured in flexion (r=0.73, p<0.01), left lateral flexion (r=0.64, p<0.01), and left rotation (r=0.60, p<0.01). Flexion (r=0.74, p<0.01) and right lateral flexion (r=0.61, p<0.01) positively correlated with the left FR ratio. Extension and right rotation showed either a very weak or no correlation with the mean value of the right and left FR ratio. Our findings suggested that the cervical FR ratio had a positive correlation with cervical movements, and that changes of the activation patterns in CES demonstrated as cervical FR ratio are associated with reduction of the cervical range of motion including flexion and lateral flexion. In addition, muscular dysfunction of the CES could occur in regular computer workers prior to occurrence of pain; this means that the FR ratio could be used to evaluate the potential

  16. Determining Linac Beam Energy from C-11/O-15 Activity Ratios in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardman, Ryan; Shepherd, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A method for precisely measuring the beam energy of 20-25 MeV electron linear accelerator was developed. Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (acrylic) samples were irradiated with an electron linac at several energy settings of the accelerator simultaneously producing C-11 and O-15 via photonuclear reactions within each of the polymers. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy the activity ratios of C-11/O-15 were measured by analyzing the decay of activity vs. time. The C-11/O-15 ratio exhibits an energy dependence due to differences in the production cross section vs. energy. The observed dependence can be matched to predictions of the activity ratio vs. energy, developed from GEANT4 Monte Carlo models of an electromagnetic shower and knowledge of the cross sections, in order to determine the energy of the beam at a sub-MeV level of precision. National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates.

  17. 17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN LOADING AREA NEXT TO CAR DUMP AND CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  19. Abundance ratios of oxygen, neon, and magnesium in solar active regions and flares: The FIP effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widing, K. G.; Feldman, U.

    1995-01-01

    Relative abundances of oxygen, neon, and magnesium have been derived for a sample of nine solar active regions, flares, and an erupting prominance by combining plots of the ion differential emission measures. The observations were photographed in the 300-600 A range by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) spectroheliograph on Skylab. Methods for deriving the Mg/Ne abundance ratio-which measures the separation between the low- first ionization potential (FIP) and high-FIP abundnace plateaus-have been described in previous papers. In this paper we describe the spectroscopic methods for deriving the O/Ne abundance ratio, which gives the ratio between two high-FIP elements. The plot of the O/Ne ratio versus the Mg/Ne ratio in the sample of nine Skylab events is shown. The variation in the Mg/Ne ratio by a factor of 6 is associated with a much smaller range in the O/Ne ratio. This is broadly consistent with the presence of the standard FIP pattern of abundances in the outer atmosphere of the Sun. However, a real change in the relative abundances of oxygen and neon by a factor of 1.5 cannot be excluded.

  20. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  1. THE EVOLUTION AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF COMPTON THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contribution to the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) consider only observable parameters such as luminosity and absorbing column. Here, for the first time, we extend the study of the CXB to physical parameters including the Eddington ratio of the sources and the black hole mass. In order to calculate the contribution to the CXB of AGN accreting at various Eddington ratios, an evolving Eddington ratio space density model is calculated. In particular, Compton thick (CT) AGNs are modeled as accreting at specific, physically motivated Eddington ratios instead of as a simple extension of the Compton thin type 2 AGN population. Comparing against the observed CT AGN space densities and log N-log S relation indicates that CT AGNs are likely a composite population of AGNs made up of sources accreting either at >90% or <1% of their Eddington rate.

  2. Influence of Solids-to-liquid and Activator Ratios on Calcined Kaolin Cement Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Y. M.; Kamarudin, H.; Bakri, A. M. Mustafa Al; Binhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Nizar, I. Khairul; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    This paper summarizes the effect of activator ratio on the processing of cement powder. Geopolymer slurry was produced via alkaline activation of calcined kaolin. Once the geopolymer slurry solidified, it was crushed and ground to obtain cement powder. Ultilizing the concept of "just adding water", hardened cement paste could be produced from cement powder. This paper concluded that solids-to-liquid and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratios have a significant effect on compressive strength of hardened cement paste. The optimum solids-to-liquid and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratios were 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. SEM micrographs showed that a processing route to produce cement powder by "just adding water" was possible, and the structure became denser and fewer unreacted particles were observed.

  3. The experimental isomeric cross-section ratio in the nuclear activation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vänskä, R.; Rieppo, R.

    1981-02-01

    First, the experimental isomeric cross-section ratio is discussed considering a single metastable state induced. The experimental ratio is given in a straightforward and exact formula, which is generally applicable to any incident particle activation and to any isomeric pair of an exclusive, fractional or non-existing isomeric transition decay. Second, the derived experimental isomeric yield ration is adapted for the present work where neutron induced reactions are considered and gamma-ray spectrometry is utilized in the determination of the 14-15 MeV neutron activation cross-sections and isomeric cross-section ratios for the germanium reactions, 74Ge(n, α) 71m,gZn and 76Ge(n, 2n) 75m,gGe, leading to single metastable and ground states in the product.

  4. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-03

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  6. Effect of aspect ratio and surface defects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Xue, Yanan; Yu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Limin; Liu, Riping

    2014-01-01

    ZnO, aside from TiO2, has been considered as a promising material for purification and disinfection of water and air, and remediation of hazardous waste, owing to its high activity, environment-friendly feature and lower cost. However, their poor visible light utilization greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of different aspect ratios of the ZnO nanorods with surface defects by mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition method. The experiments revealed that ZnO nanorods with higher aspect ratio and surface defects show significantly higher photocatalytic performances. PMID:24699790

  7. Determination of thorium concentrations and activity ratios in silicate rocks by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, R N; Marques, L S; Nicolai, S H A; Ribeiro, F B

    2004-01-01

    A detailed radiochemical procedure for alpha spectrometry measurements of thorium concentrations and of 230Th/232Th activity ratios in silicates is presented. The Th behaviour, during each step of the chemical process, was investigated by using a 234Th tracer, which is a gamma-ray emitter. The described chemical processing provides relatively high thorium yields, which varied between 56% and 88%, in the analysis of GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) Brazilian geological standards. Also, the application of the established radiochemical method allowed a determination of both Th concentrations and activity ratios with high reproducibility, on the order of 2%. The estimation of the concentration result accuracy is also about 2%, which was calculated by using published data obtained from neutron activation analysis as reference values.

  8. A High Aspect Ratio Microelectrode Array for Mapping Neural Activity in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, Andrew B.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-aspect-ratio penetrating microelectrode array was designed and fabricated for the purpose of recording neural activity. The array allows two dimensional recording of 64 sites in vitro with high aspect ratio penetrating electrodes. Traditional surface electrode arrays, although easy to fabricate, do not penetrate to the viable tissue such as central hippocampus slices and thus have a lower signal/noise ratio and lower selectivity than a penetrating array. In the unfolded hippocampus preparation, the CA1–CA3 pyramidal cell layer in the whole unfolded rodent hippocampus preparation is encased by the alveus on one side and the Schaffer tract on the other and requires penetrating electrodes for high signal to noise ratio recording. An array of 64 electrode spikes, each with a target height of 200 μm and diameter of 20μm, was fabricated in silicon on a transparent glass substrate. The impedance of the individual electrodes was measured to be approximately 1.5MΩ± 497kΩ. The signal to noise ratio was measured and found to be 19.4 ± 3 dB compared to 3.9 ± 0.8 dB S/N for signals obtained with voltage sensitive dye RH414. A mouse unfolded hippocampus preparation was bathed in solution containing 50 micro-molar 4-Amino Pyridine and a complex two dimensional wave of activity was recorded using the array. These results indicate that this novel penetrating electrode array is able to obtain data superior to that of voltage sensitive dye techniques for broad field two-dimensional neuronal activity recording. When used with the unfolded hippocampus preparation, the combination forms a uniquely capable tool for imaging hippocampal network activity in the entire hippocampus. PMID:22179041

  9. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-02-05

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

  10. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activities of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Fazhe; Zhao, Zengdian; Qiao, Xueliang; Tan, Fatang; Wang, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized linked ZnO nanorods by a facile microwave method. • The effect of reaction parameters on ZnO was investigated. • ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios were prepared. • The photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods was evaluated. - Abstract: Linked ZnO nanorods have been successfully prepared via a facile microwave method without any post-synthesis treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the precursor had completely transformed into the pure ZnO crystal. The images of field emitting scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that linked ZnO nanorods consisted predominantly of ZnO bipods. The formation process of the ZnO bipods was clearly discussed. ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios have been obtained by tuning the concentrations of reagents and microwave power. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios for degradation of methylene blue was systematically evaluated. The results of photocatalytic experiments showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with the aspect ratios of ZnO bipods increased. The reason is that ZnO bipods with larger aspect ratio have higher surface area, which can absorb more MB molecules to react with ·OH radicals.

  11. Signaling control of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-02-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) plays a crucial role in the regulation of drug metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cancer development through modulating the transcription of its numerous target genes. Different from prototypical nuclear receptors, CAR can be activated by either direct ligand binding or ligand-independent (indirect) mechanisms both initiated with nuclear translocation of CAR from the cytoplasm. In comparison to the well-defined ligand-based activation, indirect activation of CAR appears to be exclusively involved in the nuclear translocation through mechanisms yet to be fully understood. Accumulating evidence reveals that without activation, CAR forms a protein complex in the cytoplasm where it can be functionally affected by multiple signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent progresses in our understanding of the signaling regulation of CAR nuclear accumulation and activation. We expect that this review will also provide greater insight into the similarity and difference between the mechanisms of direct vs. indirect human CAR activation.

  12. Effect of food:microorganism ratio in activated sludge foam control.

    PubMed

    Chua, H; Yu, P H; Sin, S N; Tan, K N

    2000-01-01

    Foaming is a common operational problem in activated sludge processes that often adversely affects the quality of the treated effluent. Overgrowth of the filamentous Nocardia spp. in the microbial ecosystem was previously identified as the cause of foaming. In the present study, the specific growth rate of Nocardia amarae was found to be much higher than that of nonfilamentous bacteria under food:microorganism (F:M) ratios lower than 0.5 mg of biological oxygen demand (BOD)/(mg of mixed liquor suspended solids [MLSS].d). This indicated that filamentous overgrowth may occur in normal activated sludge processes that are continually operated under the usual F:M range of 0.2-0.6 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d). A novel two-component feast-fast operation (FFO) that capitalized on the sensitivity of filamentous bacteria to F:M ratio was designed to prevent and control foaming problems. The F:M ratio in the "feasting" aeration unit was 0.8 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d) whereas that in the "fasting" aeration unit was 0.2 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d). The FFO resulted in an overall process F:M ratio that still remained within the normal range, while avoiding prolonged exposure of the activated sludge ecosystem to an F:M ratio below 0.5 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d). The FFO suppressed the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria without adversely affecting the organic treatment efficiency of the modified process.

  13. Increased lactate/pyruvate ratio augments blood flow in physiologically activated human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintun, Mark A.; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Rundle, Melissa M.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2004-01-01

    The factors regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in physiological activation remain the subject of great interest and debate. Recent experimental studies suggest that an increase in cytosolic NADH mediates increased blood flow in the working brain. Lactate injection should elevate NADH levels by increasing the lactate/pyruvate ratio, which is in near equilibrium with the NADH/NAD+ ratio. We studied CBF responses to bolus lactate injection at rest and in visual stimulation by using positron-emission tomography in seven healthy volunteers. Bolus lactate injection augmented the CBF response to visual stimulation by 38-53% in regions of the visual cortex but had no effect on the resting CBF or the whole-brain CBF. These lactate-induced CBF increases correlated with elevations in plasma lactate/pyruvate ratios and in plasma lactate levels but not with plasma pyruvate levels. Our observations support the hypothesis that an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio activates signaling pathways to selectively increase CBF in the physiologically stimulated brain regions.

  14. Work and Learning in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises. A Comparative Study on the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John

    Work and learning in microenterprises in the car repair industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 21 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (6 firms in Ireland and 5 each in Greece, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and 60 motor vehicle mechanics at…

  15. ELECTRIC MOTOR CARS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The electric automobiles studied are designed as the equivalent of their gasoline-engine counterparts in size, comfort, performance, and initial...acceleration. Top speeds comparable to those of small present-day cars are shown to be realizable, though the range between refueling is not. Batteries...noise abatement. The lifetime costs derived can be somewhat lower than those of conventional cars ; therefore it is concluded that electric cars

  16. Comparison of hepatic-like cell production from human embryonic stem cells and adult liver progenitor cells: CAR transduction activates a battery of detoxification genes.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Natalie; Duret, Cédric; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Blanc, Pierre; Maurel, Patrick; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine

    2011-09-01

    In vitro production of human hepatocytes is of primary importance in basic research, pharmacotoxicology and biotherapy of liver diseases. We have developed a protocol of differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ES) towards hepatocyte-like cells (ES-Hep). Using a set of human adult markers including CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4/7 ratio (HNF4alpha1/HNF4alpha7), cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), CYP3A4 and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and fetal markers including alpha-fetoprotein, CYP3A7 and glutathione S-transferase P1, we analyzed the expression of a panel of 41 genes in ES-Hep comparatively with human adult primary hepatocytes, adult and fetal liver. The data revealed that after 21 days of differentiation, ES-Hep are representative of fetal hepatocytes at less than 20 weeks of gestation. The glucocorticoid receptor pathway was functional in ES-Hep. Extending protocols of differentiation to 4 weeks did not improve cell maturation. When compared with hepatocyte-like cells derived from adult liver non parenchymal epithelial (NPE) cells (NPE-Hep), ES-Hep expressed several adult and fetal liver makers at much greater levels (at least one order of magnitude), consistent with greater expression of liver-enriched transcription factors Forkhead box A2, C/EBPalpha, HNF4alpha and HNF6. It therefore seems that ES-Hep reach a better level of differentiation than NPE-Hep and that these cells use different lineage pathways towards the hepatic phenotype. Finally we showed that lentivirus-mediated expression of xenoreceptor CAR in ES-Hep induced the expression of several detoxification genes including CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UDP-glycosyltransferase 1A1, solute carriers 21A6, as well as biotransformation of midazolam, a CYP3A4-specific substrate.

  17. UPPER BODY PUSH AND PULL STRENGTH RATIO IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, William J.; Pabian, Patrick; Kolber, Morey J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Agonist to antagonist strength data is commonly analyzed due to its association with injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the agonist to antagonist ratio of upper body strength using two simple field tests (timed push up/timed modified pull up) in recreationally active adults and to establish the basis for reference standards. Methods: One hundred eighty (180) healthy recreationally active adults (111 females and 69 males, aged 18‐45 years) performed two tests of upper body strength in random order: 1. Push‐ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set and 2. Modified pull‐ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set. Results: The push‐up to modified pull‐up ratio for the males was 1.57:1, whereas females demonstrated a ratio of 2.72:1. The results suggest that for our group of healthy recreationally active subjects, the upper body “pushing” musculature is approximately 1.5–2.7 times stronger than the musculature involved for pulling. Conclusions: In this study, these recreationally active adults displayed greater strength during the timed push‐ups than the modified pull‐ups. The relationship of these imbalances to one's performance and or injury risk requires further investigation. The reference values, however, may serve the basis for future comparison and prospective investigations. The field tests in this study can be easily implemented by clinicians and an agonist/antagonist ratio can be determined and compared to our findings. Level of Evidence: 2b PMID:23593552

  18. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  19. Enhanced CCR5+/CCR3+ T helper cell ratio in patients with active cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Freutel, S; Gaffal, E; Zahn, S; Bieber, T; Tüting, T; Wenzel, J

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is characterized by enhanced interferon α (IFNα) levels in serum and in tissue. Since IFNα promotes a Th1-biased immune response, we hypothesized that a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile should be a typical finding in patients with active CLE. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from patients with different CLE subsets (n = 15), healthy controls (n = 13) and patients under immunotherapy with IFNα (n = 7). T helper cells were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the chemokines receptor CCR5, indicative for Th1 cells, and of CCR3, indicating Th2. In addition, intracellular levels of the type I IFN-inducible MxA protein were measured. Patients with widespread active CLE skin lesions had a significantly increased expression of CCR5, whereas expression of CCR3 was decreased when compared with healthy controls. MxA expression was significantly enhanced in all investigated CLE subtypes, with the highest levels in patients with widespread skin lesions. The enhanced CCR5/CCR3 ratio closely correlated with the MxA levels in peripheral lymphocytes and with disease activity. Our analyses revealed that active CLE is associated with a systemic type I IFN effect that appears to induce a shift towards a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile. The CCR5/CCR3 T-helper cell ratio might therefore represent an indirect marker for the disease activity in CLE.

  20. Regulation of gene expression by CAR: an update.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Mari; Honkakoski, Paavo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a well-known xenosensor that regulates hepatic drug metabolism and detoxification. CAR activation can be elicited by a large variety of xenobiotics, including phenobarbital (PB) which is not a directly binding CAR ligand. The mechanism of CAR activation is complex and involves translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, followed by further activation steps in the nucleus. Recently, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been identified as a PB-responsive receptor, and PB activates CAR by inhibiting the EGFR signaling. In addition to regulation of drug metabolism, activation of CAR has multiple biological end points such as modulation of xenobiotic-elicited liver injury, and the role of CAR in endobiotic functions such as glucose metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Thus, investigations on the molecular mechanism of CAR activation are critical for the real understanding of CAR-mediated processes. Here, we summarize the current understanding of mechanisms by which CAR activators regulate gene expression through cellular signaling pathways and the roles of CAR on xenobiotic-elicited hepatocellular carcinoma, liver injury, glucose metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis.

  1. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  2. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  3. Temporal variability of local abundance, sex ratio and activity in the Sardinian chalk hill blue butterfly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casula, P.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    When capturing and marking of individuals is possible, the application of newly developed capture-recapture models can remove several sources of bias in the estimation of population parameters such as local abundance and sex ratio. For example, observation of distorted sex ratios in counts or captures can reflect either different abundances of the sexes or different sex-specific capture probabilities, and capture-recapture models can help distinguish between these two possibilities. Robust design models and a model selection procedure based on information-theoretic methods were applied to study the local population structure of the endemic Sardinian chalk hill blue butterfly, Polyommatus coridon gennargenti. Seasonal variations of abundance, plus daily and weather-related variations of active populations of males and females were investigated. Evidence was found of protandry and male pioneering of the breeding space. Temporary emigration probability, which describes the proportion of the population not exposed to capture (e.g. absent from the study area) during the sampling process, was estimated, differed between sexes, and was related to temperature, a factor known to influence animal activity. The correlation between temporary emigration and average daily temperature suggested interpreting temporary emigration as inactivity of animals. Robust design models were used successfully to provide a detailed description of the population structure and activity in this butterfly and are recommended for studies of local abundance and animal activity in the field.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability in the GDH activity to ammonium excretion ratio in epipelagic marine zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Maldonado, F.; Gómez, M.

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities have been widely used in oceanographic research as an index of in situ NH4+ excretion rates (RNH4+) in zooplankton. Here we study the variability in the relationship between the enzymatic rates and the actual rates measured in epipelagic marine zooplankton between several marine ecosystems. Although both measures were significantly correlated across zooplankton assemblages, the regression models yielded different GDH/RNH4+ ratios across ecosystems. Accordingly, the error of a general equation increased up to ±42.5 % when regressing all our data together. Aside from possible interspecific differences, some of the variability was explained by the unequal allometric relation that each rate maintained with protein. Scaling exponents were 1.38 for GDH activities and 0.87 for RNH4+, which would induce uncertainties in the GDH/RNH4+ ratios when organisms with different sizes were considered. Nevertheless, the main factor causing divergence between GDH activities and RNH4+ was the potential prey availability. We compared the excretory metabolism of the zooplankton community at different productivity periods in waters off Gran Canaria, and observed an important decrease in the RNH4+ during stratification. A similar decrease was found in the internal pool of glutamate, which may be critical in the regulation of in vivo rates. Strengthening our knowledge of the relationship between GDH activities and the RNH4+ will lead to more meaningful predictions of phytoplankton regeneration and community nitrogen fluxes across large spatial scales.

  5. Microbial activities and phosphorus cycling: An application of oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Lisa M.; Joshi, Sunendra R.; Kana, Todd M.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2014-08-01

    Microorganisms carry out biochemical transformations of nutrients that make up their cells. Therefore, understanding how these nutrients are transformed or cycled in natural environments requires knowledge of microbial activity. Commonly used indicators for microbial activity typically include determining microbial respiration by O2/CO2 measurements, cell counts, and measurement of enzyme activities. However, coupled studies on nutrient cycling and microbial activity are not given enough emphasis. Here we apply phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18OP) as a tool for measurement of microbial activity and compare the rate of isotope exchange with methods of measuring microbial activities that are more commonly applied in environmental studies including respiration, dehydrogenase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and cell counts. Our results show that different bacteria may have different strategies for P uptake, storage and release, their respiration and consequently expression of DHA and APase activities, but in general the trend of their enzyme activities are comparable. Phosphate δ18OP values correlated well with these other parameters used to measure microbial activity with the strongest linear relationships between δ18OP and CO2 evolution (r = -0.99). Even though the rate of isotope exchange for each microorganism used in this study is different, the rate per unit CO2 respiration showed one general trend, where δ18OP values move towards equilibrium while CO2 is generated. While this suggests that P cycling among microorganisms used in this study can be generalized, further research is needed to determine whether the microorganism-specific isotope exchange trend may occur in natural environments. In summary, phosphate oxygen isotope measurements may offer an alternative for use as a tracer to measure microbial activity in soils, sediments, and many other natural environments.

  6. 2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF LOADING AREA OF CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. 3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH THE VAL TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  10. Binarity of the LBV HR Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, Th.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Wit, W. J.; Mehner, A.; Martayan, Ch.; Guieu, S.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2015-01-01

    VLTI/AMBER and VLTI/PIONIER observations of the LBV HR Car show an interferometric signature that could not possibly be explained by an extended wind, more or less symmetrically distributed around a single object. Instead, observations both in the Brγ line and the H-band continuum are best explained by two point sources (or alternatively one point source and one slightly extended source) at about 2 mas separation and a contrast ratio of about 1:5. These observations establish that HR Car is a binary, but further interpretation will only be possible with future observations to constrain the orbit. Under the assumption that the current separation is close to the maximum one, the orbital period can be estimated to be of the order of 5 years, similar as in the η Car system. This would make HR Car the second such LBV binary.

  11. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  12. Characterization of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) Treated Rice Husk Activated Carbon and Adsorption of Lead from Car Battery Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanum, F.; Bani, O.; Izdiharo, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The use of rice husk as adsorbent would not only reduce its disposal problems, but would also produce value-added products, such as activated carbon derived from rice husk. This study aimed to determine the optimum carbonization temperature for activated carbon production from rice husk and its adsorption performance on Pb in car battery wastewater. In this study, activated carbon was produced by carbonizing rice husk 400–600 °C for 90–150 minutes followed by chemical activation using 5% Na2CO3 and sieving to 100 meshes. Lead adsorption was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results suggested that highest carbon yield of 47.75% was obtained for carbonization at 500 °C for 150 minutes. At that condition, produced activated carbon contained 3.35% moisture, 30.86% ash, 18.04% volatile matter. The adsorption capacity was found to be 0.6007 mg lead/g adsorbent with % adsorpsi 58.08%

  13. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R. E-mail: pastoriza@ufrgs.b

    2010-12-10

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at {lambda} = 23 {mu}m and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T {approx} 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 {mu}m) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 {mu}m, [Ar II] 6.9 {mu}m, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 {mu}m were detected in all the starbursts and in {approx}80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 {mu}m, 11.3 {mu}m, and 12.7 {mu}m, we find that they are present in {approx}80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 {mu}m and 8.6 {mu}m PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 {mu}m/7.7 {mu}m x 11.3 {mu}m/7.7 {mu}m) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules ({>=}180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 {mu}m) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 {mu}m and 11.3 {mu}m) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 {mu}m and 11.3 {mu}m bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 {mu}m) or neutral (11.3 {mu}m) bands, may be destroyed

  14. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in dogs' hair.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Szymańska, Karolina; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activity concentrations of radiolead (210)Pb as well as (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in dog hair. The objectives of this research were also to investigate the utility of domestic animal hair as a noninvasive indicator of metal exposure for radiotoxic, naturally occurring (210)Pb and find the correlations between (210)Pb concentration in hair and age, gender, hair type or diet of analyzed animals. The highest (210)Pb concentrations were measured in a 2-year-old Shih Tzus (9.82 ± 0.53 Bq kg(-1) dw(-1)) and a 2-year-old Bichon Maltese (8.09 ± 0.42 Bq kg(-1) dw(-1)), both longhair males, while the lowest was found in a 15-year-old Yorkshire Terrier (0.44 ± 0.02 Bq kg(-1) dw(-1)), small longhair male as well. As results showed, mainly dog hair color as well as their age and gender influenced the differences in the values of (210)Pb concentrations in analyzed hair samples. Also the values of activity ratios of (210)Po/(210)Pb in analyzed dog hair samples were calculated and obtained results were similar to those observed in human hair.

  15. Study concerning the loads over driver's chests in car crashes with cars of the same or different generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, N.; Năstăsoiu, M.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing occupant injuries for cars involves in traffic accidents is a main target of today cars designers. Known as active or passive safety, many technological solutions were developing over the time for an actual better car's occupant safety. In the real world, in traffic accidents are often involved cars from different generations with various safety historical solutions. The main aim of these papers are to quantify the influences over the car driver chest loads in cases of same or different generation of cars involved in side car crashes. Both same and different cars generations were used for the study. Other goal of the paper was the study of in time loads conformity for diver's chests from both cars involved in crash. The paper's experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2015 PC-Crash Seminar”. In all crashes we obtaining results from both dummy placed in impacted and hits car. The novelty of the paper are the comparisons of data set from each of driver (dummy) of two cars involved in each of six experimental crashes. Another novelty of this paper consists in possibilities to analyse the influences of structural historical cars solutions over deformation and loads in cases of traffic accidents involved. Paper's conclusions can be future used for car passive safety improvement.

  16. [Antioxidant activity of vegetable oils with various omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio].

    PubMed

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.

  17. DUST IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANOMALOUS SILICATE TO OPTICAL EXTINCTION RATIOS?

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Jianwei; Hao, Lei; Li, Aigen

    2014-09-01

    Dust plays a central role in the unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, little is known about the nature (e.g., size, composition) of the dust that forms a torus around the AGN. In this Letter, we report a systematic exploration of the optical extinction (A{sub V} ) and the silicate absorption optical depth (Δτ{sub 9.7}) of 110 type 2 AGNs. We derive A{sub V} from the Balmer decrement based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and Δτ{sub 9.7} from the Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph data. We find that with a mean ratio of (A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7}) ≲ 5.5, the optical-to-silicate extinction ratios of these AGNs are substantially lower than that of the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) for which A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ≈ 18.5. We argue that the anomalously low A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ratio could be due to the predominance of larger grains in the AGN torus compared to that in the Galactic diffuse ISM.

  18. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    PubMed

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p < 0.01); and in the up-right position were r = 0.7765, r(2) = 0.9153 (p < 0.01). The cut-off values of ARR and ADRR ≥ 100 presented highest specificity (99%) for the diagnosis of PA; however, quite acceptable specificity and sensitivity (> 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  19. Audit of Car Ownership Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    In this report, a review was presented of existing models for car ownership. This review contains a description and comparison of existing Dutch car ...the AVV car ownership models. The car ownership model that AVV uses for most applications is the so-called FACTS model (Forecasting Air pollution...through Car Traffic Simulation). FACTS also provides the future total number of cars that is used as an external total in the Dutch national Model System

  20. Application of a self-tuning fuzzy PI-PD controller in an active anti-roll bar system for a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniandy, V.; Samin, P. M.; Jamaluddin, H.

    2015-11-01

    A fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has not been widely investigated for active anti-roll bar (AARB) application due to its unspecific mathematical analysis and the derivative kick problem. This paper briefly explains how the derivative kick problem arises due to the nature of the PID controller as well as the conventional fuzzy PID controller in association with an AARB. There are two types of controllers proposed in this paper: self-tuning fuzzy proportional-integral-proportional-derivative (STF PI-PD) and PI-PD-type fuzzy controller. Literature reveals that the PI-PD configuration can avoid the derivative kick, unlike the standard PID configuration used in fuzzy PID controllers. STF PI-PD is a new controller proposed and presented in this paper, while the PI-PD-type fuzzy controller was developed by other researchers for robotics and automation applications. Some modifications were made on these controllers in order to make them work with an AARB system. The performances of these controllers were evaluated through a series of handling tests using a full car model simulated in MATLAB Simulink. The simulation results were compared with the performance of a passive anti-roll bar and the conventional fuzzy PID controller in order to show improvements and practicality of the proposed controllers. Roll angle signal was used as input for all the controllers. It is found that the STF PI-PD controller is able to suppress the derivative kick problem but could not reduce the roll motion as much as the conventional fuzzy PID would. However, the PI-PD-type fuzzy controller outperforms the rest by improving ride and handling of a simulated passenger car significantly.

  1. Transient CD4/CD8 ratio inversion and aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Chuan; Huang, Kao-Jean; Lin, Yee-Shin; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2002-10-01

    The immune status after dengue virus infection was studied in dengue patients from an outbreak of serotype 3 dengue virus infection in the southern part of Taiwan during November and December 1998. Consecutive blood samples from 29 dengue patients, of whom 21 had dengue fever and 8 had dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, were collected, and the immunophenotypes of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The early activation marker CD69 appeared on lymphocytes and monocytes at day 4 after the onset of fever, and declined afterward. However, a transient reverse in the CD4/CD8 ratio occurred at days 6-10 after the onset of fever. The CD4/CD8 ratio inversion was manifested in 10 of 29 dengue patients and was encountered more frequently in dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome than in dengue fever patients. Analysis of the clinical blood cell count of these 10 cases showed that increase of immature neutrophils developed at fever days 5-6, CD4(dim) or CD8(dim) monocytosis at days 6-7, and atypical lymphocytosis at days 8-10 after the onset of fever. Serum IL-6 was found at either day 7 or day 9-11. The PHA-stimulated T-cell response was depressed as well. These changes in immune parameters indicate aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection and might be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection.

  2. Transcription coactivator PRIP, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-interacting protein, is redundant for the function of nuclear receptors PParalpha and CAR, the constitutive androstane receptor, in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Joy; Qi, Chao; Guo, Dongsheng; Ahmed, Mohamed R; Jia, Yuzhi; Usuda, Nobuteru; Viswakarma, Navin; Rao, M Sambasiva; Reddy, Janardan K

    2007-01-01

    Disruption of the genes encoding for the transcription coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-interacting protein (PRIP/ASC-2/RAP250/TRBP/NRC) and PPAR-binding protein (PBP/TRAP220/DRIP205/MED1), results in embryonic lethality by affecting placental and multiorgan development. Targeted deletion of coactivator PBP gene in liver parenchymal cells (PBP(LIV-/-)) results in the near abrogation of the induction of PPARalpha and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor)-regulated genes in liver. Here, we show that targeted deletion of coactivator PRIP gene in liver (PRIP(LIV-/-)) does not affect the induction of PPARalpha-regulated pleiotropic responses, including hepatomegaly, hepatic peroxisome proliferation, and induction of mRNAs of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation system, indicating that PRIP is not essential for PPARalpha-mediated transcriptional activity. We also provide additional data to show that liver-specific deletion of PRIP gene does not interfere with the induction of genes regulated by nuclear receptor CAR. Furthermore, disruption of PRIP gene in liver did not alter zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Studies with adenovirally driven EGFP-CAR expression in liver demonstrated that, unlike PBP, the absence of PRIP does not prevent phenobarbital-mediated nuclear translocation/retention of the receptor CAR in liver in vivo and cultured hepatocytes in vitro. These results show that PRIP deficiency in liver does not interfere with the function of nuclear receptors PPARalpha and CAR. The dependence of PPARalpha- and CAR-regulated gene transcription on coactivator PBP but not on PRIP attests to the existence of coactivator selectivity in nuclear receptor function.

  3. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01) in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day) range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02) and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  4. Open-wheel race car driving: energy cost for pilots.

    PubMed

    Beaune, Bruno; Durand, Sylvain; Mariot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy cost of speedway open-wheel race car driving using actimetry. Eight pilot students participated in a training session consisting of 5 successive bouts of around 30 minutes driving at steady speed on the Bugatti speedway of Le Mans (France). Energy expenditure (EE, kcal) was determined continuously by the actimetric method using the standard equation. Energy cost was estimated through physical activity ratio (PAR = EE/BMR ratio, Mets) calculation after basal metabolism rate (BMR, kcal·min-1) estimation. A 1-met PAR value was attributed to the individual BMR of each volunteer. Bout durations and EE were not significantly different between driving bouts. Mean speed was 139.94 ± 2.96 km·h-1. Physical activity ratio values ranged 4.92 ± 0.50 to 5.43 ± 0.47 Mets, corresponding to a 5.27 ± 0.47-Mets mean PAR values and a 1.21 ± 0.41 kcal·min-1 mean BMR value. These results suggest that actimetry is a simple and efficient method for EE and PAR measurements in motor sports. However, further studies are needed in the future to accurately evaluate relationships between PAR and driving intensity or between PAR and race car type.

  5. Temporal trends in nutrient ratios: chemical evidence of Mediterranean ecosystem changes driven by human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthoux, Jean P.; Morin, Pascal; Ruiz-Pino, Diana P.

    Over the last few decades, the Mediterranean ecosystem has experienced changes in biodiversity due to climatic and environmental change or to accidental inputs of exotic species. But the plankton community, which is the base of the food chain and remains only partly described, is also probably experiencing a drastic change. Observed changes in nutrient concentrations and ratios in the deep waters of the western Mediterranean, as well as differences between the eastern and western Mediterranean, suggest that shifts have occurred in the relative distribution of nutrients and therefore probably phytoplankton species over the whole sea. A shift from a diatom-dominated ecosystem to a non-siliceous one (as already observed in some coastal areas, with increasing algal blooms and eutrophication events) may involve the whole Mediterranean Sea and have consequences for fishery and tourism activities.

  6. Quantitative High-throughput Luciferase Screening in Identifying CAR Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Wang, Hongbing; Xia, Menghang

    2017-01-01

    Summary The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is responsible for the transcription of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. There are two possible methods of activation for CAR, direct ligand binding and a ligand-independent method, which makes this a unique nuclear receptor. Both of these mechanisms require translocation of CAR from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Interestingly, CAR is constitutively active in immortalized cell lines due to the basal nuclear location of this receptor. This creates an important challenge in most in vitro assay models because immortalized cells cannot be used without inhibiting the basal activity. In this book chapter, we go into detail of how to perform quantitative high-throughput screens to identify hCAR1 modulators through the employment of a double stable cell line. Using this line, we are able to identify activators, as well as deactivators, of the challenging nuclear receptor, CAR. PMID:27518621

  7. Evolutionary history and functional characterization of the amphibian xenosensor CAR.

    PubMed

    Mathäs, Marianne; Burk, Oliver; Qiu, Huan; Nusshag, Christian; Gödtel-Armbrust, Ute; Baranyai, Dorothea; Deng, Shiwei; Römer, Kristin; Nem, Dieudonné; Windshügel, Björn; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The xenosensing constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is widely considered to have arisen in early mammals via duplication of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We report that CAR emerged together with PXR and the vitamin D receptor from an ancestral NR1I gene already in early vertebrates, as a result of whole-genome duplications. CAR genes were subsequently lost from the fish lineage, but they are conserved in all taxa of land vertebrates. This contrasts with PXR, which is found in most fish species, whereas it is lost from Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) and plays a role unrelated to xenosensing in Xenopus. This role is fulfilled in Xenopus by CAR, which exhibits low basal activity and pronounced responsiveness to activators such as drugs and steroids, altogether resembling mammalian PXR. The constitutive activity typical for mammalian CAR emerged first in Sauropsida, and it is thus common to all fully terrestrial land vertebrates (Amniota). The constitutive activity can be achieved by humanizing just two amino acids of the Xenopus CAR. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the NR1I subfamily of nuclear receptors. They identify CAR as the more conserved and remarkably plastic NR1I xenosensor in land vertebrates. Nonmammalian CAR should help to dissect the specific functions of PXR and CAR in the metabolism of xeno- and endobiotics in humans. Xenopus CAR is a first reported amphibian xenosensor, which opens the way to toxicogenomic and bioaugmentation studies in this critically endangered taxon of land vertebrates.

  8. Mode of Action and Human Relevance Analysis for Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Liver Toxicity: A Case Study with Phenobarbital as a Model Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are key nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses. to exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non­ genotoxic i...

  9. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos A; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies.

  10. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Carlos A.; Heslop, Helen E.; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies. PMID:26332003

  11. Use of Dynamic Geometry as a Support to Paper and Pencil Activities for Comprehension of Ratio and Proportion Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elena Fabiola; Lupianez, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper shows the importance of a joint use of pencil and paper activities and of technology so that students may develop a complete understanding of ratio and proportion. A previous experience with strategy use when solving ratio and proportion problems provided background. Prompted by a recognition of the cognitive…

  12. Car driving with and without a movable back support: Effect on transmission of vibration through the trunk and on its consequences for muscle activation and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of a movable backrest on vibration transmission through the trunk during driving and on the physiological consequences thereof. Eleven healthy male subjects drove for about 1 h on normal roads with a movable and with a fixed backrest while surface electromyography (EMG) was measured at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) and vertical accelerations were measured at the seat, backrest and at the spine at the levels of the second sacral vertebra (S2) and seventh cervical vertebra (C7). The movable backrest significantly reduced accelerations at C7 by up to 11.9% at the 5 Hz frequency band. The movable backrest also significantly reduced the coherence and transmission between S2 and C7 accelerations, but not the differential motion between these sensors. EMG at both sides of L5 was on average 28% lower when using the movable backrest. Spinal shrinkage was unaffected by backrest type. It is concluded that a movable backrest reduces the transmission of vibration through the trunk and that it reduces low back EMG. Car driving is associated with the risk of developing low back pain and this may be related to exposure to whole body vibration. This study found an effect of a simple ergonomics measure on the transmission of vibration through the trunk as well as on back muscle activation.

  13. Use of plutonium isotope activity ratios in dating recent sediments. [/sup 238/Pu//sup 239/Pu + /sup 240/Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    The majority of plutonium presently in the biosphere has come from the testing of nuclear devices. In the early 1950s, the Pu-238/239+240 activity ratio of fallout debris was > 0.04; in the more extensive test series of 1961 to 1962, the Pu-238/239+240 activity ratios were quite consistent at 0.02 to 0.03 and maximum fallout delivery occurred in mid-1963. A significant perturbation in Pu isotope activity ratios occurred in mid-1966 with the deposition of Pu-238 from the SNAP-9A reentry and burn-up. Recently deposited sediments have recorded these events and where accumulation rates are rapid (> 1 cm/y), changes in Pu isotope activity ratios can be used as a geochronological tool.

  14. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  16. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and {sup 210}Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & MANUFACTURING COMPANY. BATCH STORAGE SILOS IN BACKGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratio proxy for specific microbial activity in marine sediments (Peru Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Blake, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    Oxygen (O) isotope ratios of biogenic apatites have been widely used as paleotemperature and environmental geochemical proxies. With improved knowledge of the phosphate O isotope effects of different P cycling pathways, the δ18O value of inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) has been proposed as a useful proxy and tracer of biological reactions and P cycling in natural environments[1,2,3,4]. Being the only way of removing P from oceanic water, sedimentary P burial is one of the most important processes during biogeochemical cycling of P. The high concentrations of organic matter and pronounced microbial activity at ODP Site 1230 along the Peru Margin result in unusually high interstitial water phosphate concentrations, which provides a unique opportunity to use δ18OP to investigate inorganic phosphate (Pi) regeneration and P cycling pathways in marine sediments. The isotopic measurements of both dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) and bulk sediment Pi show that DIP δ18OP values are affected by three different processes, which are all induced by specific microbial activities present in the sediments. In sediments at ~ 65 to 120 mbsf, porewater DIP is derived from dissolved organophosphorus compounds (DOP) through enzymatic degradation pathways, evidenced by both DIP δ18OP values and interstitial water chemistry. Measured porewater DIP δ18OP values also suggest that 4 to 8% of interstitial water DIP reflects regeneration of Pi from Porg by microbially-synthesized enzymes. Throughout the sediment column and especially at ~ 120 to 150 mbsf, DIP is released from the sediments by microbially-induced reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides, which contributes to the overall high DIP concentrations at Site 1230. The third and dominant process controlling measured DIP δ18OP values is microbial turnover of regenerated Pi. The presence of high microbial activities in organic-rich Site 1230 sediments promotes the remobilization of P and affects marine P cycling by potentially enhancing

  19. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  20. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network.

    PubMed

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-04-13

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car.

  1. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING NORTH TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Design of an intelligent car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  3. [Car driving, cognitive aging and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Fabrigoule, Colette; Lafont, Sylviane

    2015-10-01

    Older drivers are more numerous on the roads. They are expert drivers, but with increasing age certain physiological changes can interfere with driving, which is a complex activity of daily living. Older drivers are involved in fewer accidents than younger drivers, but they have a higher accident rate per kilometer driven. The elderly are heavily represented in the balance sheet of road deaths, being motorists or pedestrians. This high mortality is largely explained by their physical frailty. In the presence of deficits, self-regulation of driving habits, changes/reductions or stopping in driving activity occur in the elderly. But cognitive deficits are associated with an increased risk of accidents. Among drivers with Alzheimer's disease, there is a heterogeneity of driving ability, making difficult the advisory role of a physician for driving. A protocol for physicians was developed to assess cognitive impairments that may affect driving in an elderly patient. The car plays an important role in the autonomy of the elderly and patient advice on stopping driving should take into account the risk/benefit ratio.

  4. Car crash and injury among young drivers: contribution of social, circumstantial and car attributes.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, L; Vaez, M

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the independent contribution of individual, car and circumstantial features in severe and fatal car crashes involving young drivers. A prospective longitudinal, register-based cohort study was conducted at national level (in Sweden), in which people born in the years 1970-1972 (n = 334070) were followed up for the period 1988-2000 (aged 16-18 years in 1988) for their first two-car crashes leading to severe or fatal injury. Ten variables descriptive of the driver (sociodemographics), the car (safety level) and the crash have been analysed using multiple logistic regressions for male and female drivers separately, compiling crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. When controlling for other features, none of the variables descriptive of male and female drivers' socio-demographic characteristics impacts significantly on the odds of being severely injured or dying in a car-to-car crash. After adjustment, significant excess risks are observed for speed limits higher than the lowest one, type of crash other than rear end collision and road and light conditions other than favourable (dry and daylight), for both male and female drivers. For males only, cars from all car safety levels have significantly higher odds than those from the safest category. Among male and female young drivers, class differences in the risk of being severely injured in a traffic injury are substantial. Yet, despite this imbalance, crash characteristics (for males and females) and safety level of the vehicle driven (for males) remain the most determinant factors of crash severity. Understanding the social patterning of road traffic injuries is a challenge for public health and it seems that qualitative and quantitative differences in crash exposure offer part of the explanation. Young drivers from all social groups need, however, to be sensitized to the risk factors.

  5. Chem-E-Car Downunder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Presents the Chem-E-Car competition in which students build a small car powered by a chemical reaction. Focuses on a controlled chemical reaction in which the car travels a required specific distance and stops. Requires participants to prepare poster presentations. (YDS)

  6. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks, rail cars carrying solid rocket booster segments sit idle. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  7. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of two solid rocket booster rail cars is off the track after being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  8. Activity of sulphate reducing bacteria according to COD/SO4(2-) ratio of acrylonitrile wastewater containing high sulphate.

    PubMed

    Byun, I G; Lee, T H; Kim, Y O; Song, S K; Park, T J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biodegradability of acrylonitrile wastewater, microbial inhibition effect of acrylonitrile wastewater on removal efficiency and the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) according to COD/sulphate ratio. Acrylonitrile wastewater was hardly biodegradable in a biodegradability test, however, SRB activity was 57% for overall consumption of electron donor and it was relatively high value compared to 17% of reference test with glucose. COD removal of acrylonitrile wastewater was improved to 57% and 61% from 20% as the COD/sulphate ratio were 0.5 and 0.3 by sulphate addition to acrylonitrile wastewater. First order reaction rate constants k on organic removal of acrylonitrile wastewater were 0.001, 0.004 and 0.004 at each COD/sulphate ratio of 0.9, 0.5 and 0.3. Thus it was suggested that the activity of SRB was a significant factor for removing organics and sulphate simultaneously in acrylonitrile wastewater.

  9. Girls, Cars, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2005-03-01

    For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.

  10. A convenient method for experimental determination of yields and isomeric ratios in photonuclear reactions measured by the activation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, D.; Dobreva, E.; Nenov, N.; Todorov, V.

    1995-02-01

    A generalized exact formula is derived for a determination of the experimental isomeric ratio in any incident particle activation. For the particular case, when the activity of the ground state results from the simultaneous decay of both states and can be conveniently measured, the appropriate modification of this formula is evaluated and applied to six photonuclear reactions induced by 43 MeV bremsstrahlung. The experimental isomeric yield ratios of (γ, 3n) 110m,gIn; (γ, p) (γ, pn), (γ, 2n2p) 117m,gIn; (γ, n) 164m,gHo and (γ, 3n) 162m,gHo are deduced.

  11. Usability of car stereo.

    PubMed

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  12. New developments in clinical CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  13. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  14. Hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using copper/zinc oxide-based catalyst: Effect of active metal ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Tasfy, Sara; Shaharun, Maizatul Shima

    2016-11-01

    Effects of Cu:Zn ratio on the catalytic performance of synthesized SBA-15 supported Cu/ZnO-based (CZS) catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol was investigated in a fixed bed reactor. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized CZS catalyst in terms of textural properties, morphological and reducibility are presented. Methanol productivity was found to be influenced by the ratio of Cu and Zn in the catalyst formulation. Methanol selectivity of 92.1 % and CO2 conversion of 14.2 % was achieved over CZS catalyst with active metal ratio of 70 %Cu:30% Zn in CO2 hydrogenation reaction performed at 250°C, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3.

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia therapeutics: CARs in the driver's seat.

    PubMed

    Mardiros, Armen; Brown, Christine E; Budde, L Elizabeth; Wang, Xiuli; Forman, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. To this end, we developed CD123 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T cells which exhibited potent antileukemic activity. We discuss what we learned during the development of CD123 CARs and future directions for this immunotherapy.

  16. Classifying organic materials by oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio to predict the activation regime of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, M.; Shao, W.; Lebouteiller, R.; Martin, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The governing highly soluble, slightly soluble, or insoluble activation regime of organic compounds as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was examined as a function of oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C). New data were collected for adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic and pinonic acids. Secondary organic materials (SOMs) produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and isoprene photo-oxidation were also included in the analysis. The saturation concentrations C of the organic compounds in aqueous solutions served as the key parameter for delineating regimes of CCN activation, and the values of C were tightly correlated to the O : C ratios. The highly soluble, slightly soluble, and insoluble regimes of CCN activation were found to correspond to ranges of [O : C] > 0.6, 0.2 < [O : C] < 0.6, and [O : C] < 0.2, respectively. These classifications were evaluated against CCN activation data of isoprene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.69-0.72) and α-pinene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.38-0.48). Isoprene-derived SOM had highly soluble activation behavior, consistent with its high O : C ratio. For α-pinene-derived SOM, although CCN activation can be modeled as a highly soluble mechanism, this behavior was not predicted by the O : C ratio, for which a slightly soluble mechanism was anticipated. Complexity in chemical composition, resulting in continuous water uptake and the absence of a deliquescence transition that can thermodynamically limit CCN activation, might explain the differences of α-pinene-derived SOM compared to the behavior of pure organic compounds. The present results suggest that atmospheric particles dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic components do not activate (i.e. insoluble regime) whereas those dominated by oxygenated organic components activate (i.e. highly soluble regime).

  17. Classifying organic materials by oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio to predict the activation regime of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, M.; Shao, W.; Lebouteiller, R.; Martin, S. T.

    2013-05-01

    The governing highly soluble, slightly soluble, or insoluble activation regime of organic compounds as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was examined as a function of oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C). New data were collected for adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and pinonic acids. Secondary organic materials (SOMs) produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and isoprene photo-oxidation were also included in the analysis. The saturation concentrations C of the organic compounds in aqueous solutions served as the key parameter for delineating regimes of CCN activation, and the values of C were tightly correlated to the O : C ratios. The highly soluble, slightly soluble, and insoluble regimes of CCN activation were found to correspond to ranges of [O : C] > 0.6, 0.2 < [O : C] < 0.6, and [O : C] < 0.2, respectively. These classifications were evaluated against CCN activation data of isoprene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.69-0.72) and α-pinene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.38-0.48). Isoprene-derived SOM had highly soluble activation behavior, consistent with its high O : C ratio. For α-pinene-derived SOM, although CCN activation can be modeled as a highly soluble mechanism, this behavior was not predicted by the O : C ratio, for which a slightly soluble mechanism was anticipated. Complexity in chemical composition, resulting in continuous water uptake and the absence of a deliquescence transition that can thermodynamically limit CCN activation, might explain the difference in the behavior of α-pinene-derived SOM compared to that of pure organic compounds. The present results suggest that atmospheric particles dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic components do not activate (i.e., insoluble regime) whereas those dominated by oxygenated organic components activate (i.e., highly soluble regime) for typical atmospheric cloud life cycles.

  18. A single amino acid controls the functional switch of human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) 1 to the xenobiotic-sensitive splicing variant CAR3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Tompkins, Leslie M; Li, Linhao; Li, Haishan; Kim, Gregory; Zheng, Yuxin; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is constitutively activated in immortalized cell lines independent of xenobiotic stimuli. This feature of CAR has limited its use as a sensor for xenobiotic-induced expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Recent reports, however, reveal that a splicing variant of human CAR (hCAR3), which contains an insertion of five amino acids (APYLT), exhibits low basal but xenobiotic-inducible activities in cell-based reporter assays. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms of this functional shift are not well understood. We have now generated chimeric constructs containing various residues of the five amino acids of hCAR3 and examined their response to typical hCAR activators. Our results showed that the retention of alanine (hCAR1+A) alone is sufficient to confer the constitutively activated hCAR1 to the xenobiotic-sensitive hCAR3. It is noteworthy that hCAR1+A was significantly activated by a series of known hCAR activators, and displayed activation superior to that of hCAR3. Moreover, intracellular localization assays revealed that hCAR1+A exhibits nuclear accumulation upon 6-(4-chlorophenyl) imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl) oxime (CITCO) treatment in COS1 cells, which differs from the spontaneous nuclear distribution of hCAR1 and the nontranslocatable hCAR3. Mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays further demonstrated that hCAR1+A interacts with the coactivator SRC-1 and GRIP-1 at low level before activation, while at significantly enhanced level in the presence of CITCO. Thus, the alanine residue in the insertion of hCAR3 seems in charge of the xenobiotic response of hCAR3 through direct and indirect mechanisms. Activation of hCAR1+A may represent a sensitive avenue for the identification of hCAR activators.

  19. Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangming; Tu, Jiangfeng; Liu, Lingang; Luo, Laisheng; Wu, Jiaqi; Tao, Lisha; Zhang, Chenjing; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Ai, Xinbo; Shen, Bo; Pan, Wensheng

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND Serum albumin (ALB) may be low during acute inflammation, but it is also affected by nutritional status. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALB and the C-reactive protein/ALB ratio (CRP/ALB) may be associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 100 patients with CD and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The patients with CD were subdivided into patients with active disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and those in remission. ALB levels, CRP levels, and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS ALB and CRP levels and the CRP/ALB ratio were the most useful for differentiating between active and nonactive CD. ALB levels (r=-0.50, P<0.01), CRP levels (r=0.39, P<0.01), and CRP/ALB ratio (r=0.42, P<0.01) all correlated with CD activity. These correlations were more prominent in males. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) representing ALB (0.79) was higher than the AUC representing CRP (0.73) or CRP/ALB ratio (0.75; P>0.05). The AUCs corresponding to ALB level, CRP level, and CRP/ALB ratio were more prominent in males versus females (P<0.05). CRP level (14.55 mg/L), ALB level (34.35 g/L), and CRP/ALB ratio (0.69) had sensitivities of 67.7%, 72.6%, and 59.7%, and specificities of 73.7%, 78.9%, and 81.6%, respectively, for CD activity. CONCLUSIONS In the present retrospective study, we found that ALB level and CRP/ALB ratio were useful biomarkers for identifying CD activity, especially in males. These results suggest that, in addition to inflammation, assessment of patient nutritional status could also aid in identifying CD activity.

  20. Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, R. C.

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. 234U/238U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M=6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  1. The Effect of the CO32- to Ca2+ Ion activity ratio on calcite precipitation kinetics and Sr2+ partitioning

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A proposed strategy for immobilizing trace metals in the subsurface is to stimulate calcium carbonate precipitation and incorporate contaminants by co-precipitation. Such an approach will require injecting chemical amendments into the subsurface to generate supersaturated conditions that promote mineral precipitation. However, the formation of reactant mixing zones will create gradients in both the saturation state and ion activity ratios (i.e., aCO32-/aCa2+). To better understand the effect of ion activity ratios on CaCO3 precipitation kinetics and Sr2+ co-precipitation, experiments were conducted under constant composition conditions where the supersaturation state (Ω) for calcite was held constant at 9.4, but the ion activity ratio (r=aCO32-/aCa2+) was varied between 0.0032 and 4.15. Results Calcite was the only phase observed, by XRD, at the end of the experiments. Precipitation rates increased from 41.3 ± 3.4 μmol m-2 min-1 at r = 0.0315 to a maximum rate of 74.5 ± 4.8 μmol m-2 min-1 at r = 0.306 followed by a decrease to 46.3 ± 9.6 μmol m-2 min-1 at r = 1.822. The trend was simulated using a simple mass transfer model for solute uptake at the calcite surface. However, precipitation rates at fixed saturation states also evolved with time. Precipitation rates accelerated for low r values but slowed for high r values. These trends may be related to changes in effective reactive surface area. The aCO32-/aCa2+ ratios did not affect the distribution coefficient for Sr in calcite (DPSr2+), apart from the indirect effect associated with the established positive correlation between DPSr2+ and calcite precipitation rate. Conclusion At a constant supersaturation state (Ω = 9.4), varying the ion activity ratio affects the calcite precipitation rate. This behavior is not predicted by affinity-based rate models. Furthermore, at the highest ion ratio tested, no precipitation was observed, while at the lowest ion ratio precipitation occurred immediately

  2. Coal unit trains: operations, maintenance, and technology. Volume 4. Costs and benefits of aluminum coal cars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boghani, A.B.

    1984-11-01

    This report examines the costs and benefits to a utility of acquiring aluminum coal cars. After discussing the history of aluminum car production, the report describes in detail the characteristics of several aluminum cars now in use, and the experience of railroads and utilities with them. The effects of acquiring aluminum cars instead of steel cars on the fuel cost, crew cost, maintenance-of-way cost, and car costs (capital and maintenance) are discussed. An illustrative example is given, in which the internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period of the extra investment made to acquire aluminum cars are calculated. A parametric analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of IRR and payback period to the freight-rate discount for the aluminum car, the inflation rate, the purchase price of aluminum and steel cars, their maintenance costs, bad order ratios, car lives, salvage values, trip length, and car utilization. The study concludes that the aluminum cars can be an excellent investment, provided a reasonable freight-rate discount is obtained. The first cost of an aluminum car compared to that of a steel car, its estimated downtime, its estimated maintenance cost, and the anticipated degree of its utilization are also shown to significantly affect the attractiveness of the extra investment. In addition, the study reveals that some aluminum cars have proved more durable in service than others. Thus, the importance of a thorough evaluation of the design of the aluminum cars being offered is demonstrated. 11 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Activities of Pu and Am isotopes and isotopic ratios in a soil contaminated by weapons-grade plutonium.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Clark, S B

    2005-08-01

    An accident and fire at the former McGuire Air Force Base and Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) site in New Jersey resulted in dispersion of weapons-grade plutonium in particulate form to the local environment. Soil samples collected at the BOMARC site were measured for their activities and isotopic ratios of Pu and Am isotopes by radioanalytical techniques. The activities of the Pu and Am isotopes in the BOMARC soil were markedly higher than fallout levels, and they decreased nearly exponentially with increasing particle size of the soil. The measured (241)Am activity was compared to calculated values based on decay of (241)Pu. The activity ratios of (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu, (241)Pu/(239,240)Pu, and (241)Am/(239,240)Pu observed in the BOMARC soil were much lower than those attributed to nuclear reprocessing plants and Chernobyl fallout. From the activity ratios of (241)Pu/(239,240)Pu and (241)Am/(239,240)Pu, the origin of the Pu isotopes was identified as weapons-grade and the time since production of the material was estimated. Furthermore, the atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu in the BOMARC soil was remarkably lower than the fallout value influenced by nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. The atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu was very close to the value of the weapons-grade Pu detected from the Thule accident in Greenland. This work demonstrates the utility of radioanalytical measurements and decay calculations for defining characteristics of the source term and discriminating multiple processes that contribute to a source. Such an approach would also be needed to respond to a terrorist event involving an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device.

  4. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Elahe; Rafraf, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef¬fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa¬tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure¬ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con¬centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both) and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048) compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women. PMID:24688934

  5. Use of polarization to improve signal to clutter ratio in an outdoor active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontoura, Patrick F.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the methodology and presents the results of the design of a polarization-sensitive system used to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio in a robust outdoor structured lighting sensor that uses standard CCD camera technology. This lighting sensor is intended to be used on an autonomous vehicle, looking down to the ground and horizontal to obstacles in an 8 foot range. The kinds of surfaces to be imaged are natural and man-made, such as asphalt, concrete, dirt and grass. The main problem for an outdoor eye-safe laser imaging system is that the reflected energy from background clutter tends to be brighter than the reflected laser energy. A narrow-band optical filter does not reduce significantly the background clutter in bright sunlight, and problems also occur when the surface is highly absorptive, like asphalt. Therefore, most of applications are limited to indoor and controlled outdoor conditions. A series of measurements was made for each of the materials studied in order to find the best configuration for the polarizing system and also to find out the potential improvement in the signal-to-clutter ratio (STC). This process was divided into three parts: characterization of the reflected sunlight, characterization of the reflected laser light, and measurement of the improvement in the STC. The results show that by using polarization properties it is possible to design an optical system that is able to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio from approximately 30% to 100% in the imaging system, depending on the kind of surface and on the incidence angle of the sunlight. The technique was also analyzed for indoor use, with the background clutter being the room illumination. For this specific case, polarization did not improve the signal-to-clutter ratio.

  6. Genome-wide Analysis of Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Transcriptome in Wild-type and CAR-knockout HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daochuan; Mackowiak, Bryan; Brayman, Timothy G.; Mitchell, Michael; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) modulates the transcription of numerous genes involving drug metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Most functions of CAR however were defined from animal studies. Given the known species difference of CAR and the significant cross-talk between CAR and the pregnane X receptor (PXR), it is extremely difficult to decipher the exact role of human CAR (hCAR) in gene regulation, relying predominantly on pharmacological manipulations. Here, utilizing a newly generated hCAR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, we carried out RNA-seq analysis of the global transcriptomes in wild-type (WT) and hCAR-KO HepaRG cells treated with CITCO, a selective hCAR agonist, phenobarbital (PB), a dual activator of hCAR and hPXR, or vehicle control. Real-time PCR assays in separate experiments were used to validate RNA-seq findings. Our results indicate that genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes are among the main clusters altered by both CITCO and PB. Specifically, CITCO significantly changed the expression of 135 genes in an hCAR-dependent manner, while PB altered the expression of 227 genes in WT cells of which 94 were simultaneously modulated in both cell lines reflecting dual effects of PB on hCAR/PXR. Notably, we found that many genes promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were up-regulated in hCAR-KO cells, suggesting that hCAR may play an important role in cell growth that differs from mouse CAR. Together, our results reveal both novel and known targets of hCAR and support the role of hCAR in maintaining the homeostasis of metabolism and cell proliferation in the liver. PMID:26275810

  7. Genome-wide analysis of human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transcriptome in wild-type and CAR-knockout HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Daochuan; Mackowiak, Bryan; Brayman, Timothy G; Mitchell, Michael; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-11-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) modulates the transcription of numerous genes involving drug metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Most functions of CAR however were defined from animal studies. Given the known species difference of CAR and the significant cross-talk between CAR and the pregnane X receptor (PXR), it is extremely difficult to decipher the exact role of human CAR (hCAR) in gene regulation, relying predominantly on pharmacological manipulations. Here, utilizing a newly generated hCAR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, we carried out RNA-seq analysis of the global transcriptomes in wild-type (WT) and hCAR-KO HepaRG cells treated with CITCO, a selective hCAR agonist, phenobarbital (PB), a dual activator of hCAR and hPXR, or vehicle control. Real-time PCR assays in separate experiments were used to validate RNA-seq findings. Our results indicate that genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes are among the main clusters altered by both CITCO and PB. Specifically, CITCO significantly changed the expression of 135 genes in an hCAR-dependent manner, while PB altered the expression of 227 genes in WT cells of which 94 were simultaneously modulated in both cell lines reflecting dual effects of PB on hCAR/PXR. Notably, we found that many genes promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were up-regulated in hCAR-KO cells, suggesting that hCAR may play an important role in cell growth that differs from mouse CAR. Together, our results reveal both novel and known targets of hCAR and support the role of hCAR in maintaining the homeostasis of metabolism and cell proliferation in the liver.

  8. On potentiality of brake rigging unification for freight cars with separate braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, V. V.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of unified rigging use with a brake cylinder (BC) in bogie areas or on a bogie in a freight car is defined. Two ranges of transmission ratios were obtained for freight cars with pressure control in cylinders with the aid of the automated mode. To change transmission ratios, two openings are supposed to be used in rigging.

  9. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the... STB-54, Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated, together with the accompanying...

  10. CARS-based silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Nathalie; Debaes, Christof; Thienpont, Hugo

    2009-05-01

    In this invited paper, we will first discuss the recent research progress regarding silicon-on-insulator (SOI) Raman wavelength converters, the working principle of which is based on the four-wave mixing process of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). Next, we will present our research results on other aspects of CARS in SOI waveguides. First, starting from the basic formalism for CARS we will show that, in contrast to what most scientists believe, CARS exchanges energy with the Raman medium in which it takes place and is even able to extract energy (i.e. extract phonons) from it. Furthermore, we will introduce a novel CARS-based approach to reduce the heat dissipation in Raman lasers due to the quantum defect between pump and lasing photons, and we will numerically demonstrate that with this "CARS-based heat mitigation technique" the quantum-defect heating in SOI waveguide Raman lasers could be reduced with as much as 35%.

  11. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  12. Thiamine pyrophosphate effect and normalized erythrocyte transketolase activity ratio in Wernicke-Korsakoff patients and acute alcoholics undergoing detoxification.

    PubMed

    Rooprai, H K; Pratt, O E; Shaw, G K; Thomson, A D

    1996-09-01

    Thiamine deficiency may be assessed clinically by an abnormally low specific erythrocyte transketolase activity and/or by abnormally large activation by thiamine diphosphate in vitro (or 'TPP effect'). In the present investigation, we report erythrocyte transketolase activation by TPP in acute alcoholics and Wernicke-Korsakoff patients undergoing detoxification. A new age-dependent parameter was used to improve the reliability of transketolase activity as an indicator of marginal thiamine deficiency. Thus normalized transketolase activity ratio (NTKZ), primary activation ratio (PAR) and further activation ratio (FAR) were measured in 29 acute alcoholics and 12 Wernicke-Korsakoff patients upon admission, and also on 47 control subjects. It was possible to follow up 14 of the 29 acute alcoholics after 7 days of treatment. Twenty-one per cent of the acute alcoholics and 33% of the Wernicke-Korsakoff patients, on admission to the detoxification Unit, had NTKZ values beyond the defined critical conditions for thiamine deficiency, whereas 7% of the former and 25% of the latter had PAR values beyond these critical conditions. Furthermore, all three parameters were significantly different in the Wernicke-Korsakoff patients compared to the other groups. The pattern of improvement of the different parameters on follow-up varied considerably and is difficult to explain, as only the NTKZ was statistically significant. Hence, only eight out of 14 acute alcoholics showed improvement in NTKZ, seven showed improvement of PAR and six showed improvement of FAR after treatment. Five patients showed improvement of both NTKZ and PAR and none of the patients showed improvement of all three parameters. We conclude that our findings confirm previous reports and that this modified transketolase activation test improves its reliability as an indicator of marginal thiamine deficiency.

  13. The Effect of the CO32- to Ca2+ Ion activity ratio on calcite precipitation kinetics and Sr2+ partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigabu Gebrehiwet; Mikala S. Beig; George Redden; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Engineering the precipitation of calcium carbonate, which can co-precipitate trace metal contaminants, is a proposed strategy for remediating toxic or radioactive metals in subsurface environments. Engineering precipitation of multi-component minerals will involve injection of chemical amendments that must be mixed at a molecular level to supersaturated conditions that are sufficient to promote rapid mineral precipitation relative to natural systems. In subsurface systems this often means reactant mixing zones will be formed that are characterized by gradients in solute concentrations, saturation state, and solute activity ratios. To better understand the effect of ion activity ratios on CaCO{sub 3} precipitation kinetics and Sr{sup 2+} co-precipitation we experiments were conducted under constant composition conditions where the supersaturation state ({Omega}) with respect to calcite was held constant at 9.4, but the ion activity ratio (r = a{sub co{sub 3}{sup 2-}}/a{sub Ca{sup 2+}}) ranged from 0.003 to 4.15. Results: Under the chosen experimental conditions the CaCO{sub 3} phase formed was calcite and initial precipitation rates varied from a maximum rate of 84.7 {mu}mol/ m{sup 2}/min for a carbonate to calcium activity ratio of (0.21). However, precipitation rates were found to vary with time which could be indicative of variations in precipitation mechanisms that are related to the ion activity ratio. The observed trends in the distribution coefficients for co-precipitated Sr2+ (D{sup P}{sub Sr}{sup 2+}) relative to the calcite precipitation rate (i.e. a positive correlation) indicate that increasing calcite precipitation rates increase the incorporation of Sr{sup 2+}. Conclusion: The observed variation between the rate maxima and minima based on the ion activity ratio could have great deal of implication for sequestering radionuclides (e.g. {sup 90}Sr) and other toxic metals in engineered systems at contaminated sites. Extending our data plot range allowed us

  14. No Difference in Transverse Abdominis Activation Ratio between Healthy and Asymptomatic Low Back Pain Patients during Therapeutic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gorbet, Nathaniel; Selkow, Noelle M.; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction of the transverse abdominis (TrA) has been associated with LBP. Several therapeutic exercises are prescribed to help target the TrA. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to capture activation of the TrA during exercise. The purpose was to examine TrA activation during the ADIM and quadruped exercises between healthy and nonsymptomatic LBP patients. We instructed the subjects how to perform the exercises and measured muscle thickness of the TrA at rest and during the exercises using RUSI. This allowed us to calculate TrA activation ratio during these exercises. We found no significant differences between activation ratios of the two groups during either exercise; however TrA activation during the ADIM was higher than the quadruped exercise. These exercises were capable of activating the TrA, which may be in part due to the verbal instruction they received. These exercises could be used during prevention or rehabilitation programs, since the TrA is activated. PMID:22110965

  15. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  16. Critical evaluation of changes in the ratio of insoluble bound to soluble phenolics on antioxidant activity of lentils during germination.

    PubMed

    Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-21

    A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods.

  17. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Bele,:1t )"(vaiaable Copy AD AD-E4OI 102 TECMNICA._ REPORT ;RLCD-TR-83047 CARS SPECTROSCOPY Of PROPELLANT FLAMES L. E. HARRIS DTIC ii IELECTE0 "" NOV...4. TITLE (mid Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CARS SPECTROSCOPY OF PROPELLANT FLAMES Final Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a...ea•abo. Broadband CARS CARS spectra Spectroscopy Propellant *0AUINIACT (0w o roemtae 401 N uueedswr Mu $000tit? b7 61"k Auhee) Obtaining useful

  18. Sparks fly over electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, V.

    1994-10-01

    While the US automobile industry scrambles to meet 1998 deadlines to put electric vehicles on the market, controversy about the environmental benefits and commercial viability of battery-operated cars is mounting. Circumstances in the US increasingly favor the electric car. Air quality laws in California and Massachusetts now demand that {open_quotes}zero-emission{close_quotes} vehicles comprise 2 percent of total sales in the car market by 1998. Electric cars are the only vehicles to meet such standards so far. Other states are considering similar laws. This article examines the pros and cons of electric vehicle use.

  19. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial diversity in activated sludge at different COD/N ratios and dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Joanna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N) in wastewater and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency, and total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge in constantly aerated sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was determined. At DO of 0.5 and 1.5 mg O2/L during the aeration phase, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation exceeded 90%, with nitrates as the main product. Nitrification and denitrification achieved under the same operating conditions suggested the simultaneous course of these processes. The most effective nitrogen elimination (above 50%) was obtained at the COD/N ratio of 6.8 and DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. Total bacterial diversity was similar in all experimental series, however, for both COD/N ratios of 6.8 and 0.7, higher values were observed at DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. The diversity and abundance of AOB were higher in the reactors with the COD/N ratio of 0.7 in comparison with the reactors with the COD/N of 6.8. For both COD/N ratios applied, the AOB population was not affected by oxygen concentration. Amplicons with sequences indicating membership of the genus Nitrosospira were the determinants of variable technological conditions.

  20. Activation of high and low affinity dopamine receptors generates a closed loop that maintains a conductance ratio and its activity correlate

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C.; Hooper, Ryan M.; Parker, Anna R.; Prinz, Astrid A.; Baro, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulators alter network output and have the potential to destabilize a circuit. The mechanisms maintaining stability in the face of neuromodulation are not well described. Using the pyloric network in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, we show that dopamine (DA) does not simply alter circuit output, but activates a closed loop in which DA-induced alterations in circuit output consequently drive a change in an ionic conductance to preserve a conductance ratio and its activity correlate. DA acted at low affinity type 1 receptors (D1Rs) to induce an immediate modulatory decrease in the transient potassium current (IA) of a pyloric neuron. This, in turn, advanced the activity phase of that component neuron, which disrupted its network function and thereby destabilized the circuit. DA simultaneously acted at high affinity D1Rs on the same neuron to confer activity-dependence upon the hyperpolarization activated current (Ih) such that the DA-induced changes in activity subsequently reduced Ih. This DA-enabled, activity-dependent, intrinsic plasticity exactly compensated for the modulatory decrease in IA to restore the IA:Ih ratio and neuronal activity phase, thereby closing an open loop created by the modulator. Activation of closed loops to preserve conductance ratios may represent a fundamental operating principle neuromodulatory systems use to ensure stability in their target networks. PMID:24155696

  1. O2 (1Δg) detection using broadband CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Jingwei; Cai, Xianglong; Gai, Baodong; Meng, Qingkun; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    1 Δg oxygen was the active medium of chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), the concentration and distribution of 1 Δg oxygen was important for the output power and beam quality. However, the current test technique, such as fluorescence detection method, absorption spectrum method could not get accurate 1 Δg oxygen information, due to the interference from the iodine fluorescence or the rigorous request of the laser source and optics and detection elements. The anti-stokes Raman spectrum of 1 Δg oxygen was regarded as a potential technique to obtain desirable signal, and the coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) was the most feasible technique to get better signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we reported a broadband nanosecond coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) detecting system built up for the detection of the concentration and distribution of O2( 1 Δg) in COIL:The second harmonic of a Nd: YAG pulse laser was separated into two parts, one part was used to pump a broadband nanosecond dye laser to generate light of 578-580 nm, which covered both stokes lines of O2 ( 1 Δg)and O2 (3 ∑) The other part was combined with dye laser output by a dichroic mirror, and then introduced into the detection region of COIL through a focus lens. CARS signals for O2(1 Δg)and O2 (3 ∑)have different wavelengths, and their intensity was proportional to the square of the concentration of O2(1 Δg) and O2( 3 ∑). By changing the focus spot of pump and stokes laser, the concentration distribution of O2(1 Δg) and O2(3 ∑)at different position could be obtained.

  2. 54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ASSEMBLIES AND METAL REINFORCING, December 19, 1947. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultra-high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires due to Cu induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Ramu; Duy Dao, Thang; Nanda, Karuna Kar; Nagao, Tadaaki; Hishita, Shunichi; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires in ambient air at 650°C by a single-step vapor transport method using two different sources Zn (ZnO nanowires-I) and Zn:Cu (ZnO nanowires-II). The Zn:Cu mixed source co-vaporize Zn with a small amount of Cu at temperatures where elemental Cu source does not vaporize. This method provides us a facile route for Cu doping into ZnO. The aspect ratio of the grown ZnO nanowires-II was found to be higher by more than five times compared ZnO nanowires-I. Photocatalytic activity was measured by using a solar simulator and its ultraviolet-filtered light. The ZnO nanowires-II shows higher catalytic activity due to increased aspect ratio and higher content of surface defects because of incorporation of Cu impurities.

  4. Isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in seaweed measured by neutron activation analysis with gamma-gamma coincidence.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y; Hatsukawa, Y; Oshima, M; Shinohara, N; Hayakawa, T; Kushita, K; Ueno, T

    2002-07-01

    129I is a long-lived (1.6 x 10(7) y) radionuclide that is produced in nature as the result of spontaneous fission of heavy elements and reaction of xenon with cosmic rays. Recently, however, artificial sources from nuclear power plants and nuclear test explosions have become a significant component of environmental radioactive iodine. Coincidence gamma-ray detection using Ge detectors makes it possible to simultaneously resolve the numerous gamma-rays produced by neutron activation. In this study, the coincidence gamma-ray detection technique was combined with neutron activation analysis to determine the radioactive iodine composition of seaweed. The ratio of 129I/127I in this common Japanese food item collected from the Ibaraki prefecture has been derived without the need for radiochemical purification. The isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in Kajime algae is 3.5(5) x 10(-10).

  5. [Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified CAR-T/NK Cells to Treatment of Multiple Myeloma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ou, jian-Feng; Bai, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor(CAR) is a synthesized transmembrane protein, which redirects the modified cells through specific or associated antigen on tumor cells. CAR-modified T/NK cells, especially CAR-T cells, are a new tool of rapidly developing of adoptive immunotherapy of tumor in recent years, they give T/NK cells the targeting cytotoxic activity and can overcome the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and break the state of the host immune tolerance. CAR combines the single-chain antibody to tumor-associated antigen with T/NK cells' activated motifs, giving T/NK cells' tumor targeting activity, so enhancing their cytotoxic activity and lasting the vitality by gene transduction. In this article the CAR development, comparison of CAR-T and CAR-NK cells, surface markers on MM cells and use of CAR in MM, and CAR perspectives are summarized.

  6. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:28210036

  7. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  8. Active Learning Strategies to Teach Renal-Cardiovascular Integration with High Student-to-Teacher Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brands, Michael W.; Schumacher, Lori

    2009-01-01

    To address the challenge of increasing opportunities for active learning into a medical physiology course with 190 students enrolled, we chose an integrated approach. This was facilitated by the availability of a patient simulator facility at the School of Nursing at the Medical College of Georgia, and an 20-min simulation of acute hemorrhage on…

  9. Car versus bicycle: conclusion.

    PubMed

    Ross, David W; Wichman, Carol; Mackinnon, Mike

    2009-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was riding his bicycle and was struck by a car. He was ejected and landed on his back on the pavement of the roadway. He complained of severe pain in his lower back and sacral area. Ground emergency medical services (EMS) arrived to find a pale, diaphoretic man who was alert but in distress. His medical history was negative, and he was taking no medications. The initial heart rate was 130 beats/minute, and the blood pressure was 70 mmHg by palpation. A helicopter air ambulance was requested from the rural scene location to transport the patient to a trauma center. The physical examination by the flight crew demonstrated the patient had not changed from the original EMS assessment, despite the administration of 1 L normal saline intravenously. There were no apparent injuries to his head, neck, chest, or extremities.

  10. Detailed velocity ratio mapping during the aftershock sequence as a tool to monitor the fluid activity within the fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    The rheological properties of Earth materials are expressed by their seismic velocities and VP /VS ratio, which is easily obtained by the Wadati method. Its double-difference version based on cross-correlated waveforms enables focusing on very local structures and allows tracking, monitoring and analysing the fluid activity along faults. We applied the method to three 2014 mainshock-aftershock sequences in the West Bohemia/Vogtland (Czech Republic) earthquake swarm area and found pronounced VP /VS variations in time and space for different clusters of events located on a steeply dipping fault zone at depths ranging from 7 to 11 km. Each cluster reflects the spatial distribution of earthquakes along the fault plane but also the temporal evolution of the activity. Low values of VP /VS ratio down to 1.59 ± 0.02 were identified in the deeper part of the fault zone whereas higher values up to 1.73 ± 0.01 were estimated for clusters located on a shallower segment of the fault. Temporally the low VP /VS values are associated with the early aftershocks, while the higher VP /VS ratios are related only to later aftershocks. We interpret this behaviour as a result of saturation of the focal zone by compressible fluids: in the beginning the mainshock and early aftershocks driven by over-pressured fluids increased the porosity due to opening the fluid pathways. This process was associated with a decrease of the velocity ratio. In later stages the pressure and porosity decreased and the velocity ratio recovered to levels of 1.73, typical for a Poissonian medium and Earth's crust.

  11. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  12. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  13. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  14. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  15. Of CARs and TRUCKs: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells engineered with an inducible cytokine to modulate the tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Markus; Hombach, Andreas A; Abken, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy recently achieved impressive efficacy in early phase trials, in particular in hematologic malignancies, strongly supporting the notion that the immune system can control cancer. A current strategy of favor is based on ex vivo-engineered patient T cells, which are redirected by a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and recognize a predefined target by an antibody-derived binding domain. Such CAR T cells can substantially reduce the tumor burden as long as the targeted antigen is present on the cancer cells. However, given the tremendous phenotypic diversity in solid tumor lesions, a reasonable number of cancer cells are not recognized by a given CAR, considerably reducing the therapeutic success. This article reviews a recently described strategy for overcoming this shortcoming of the CAR T-cell therapy by modulating the tumor stroma by a CAR T-cell-secreted transgenic cytokine like interleukin-12 (IL-12). The basic process is that CAR T cells, when activated by their CAR, deposit IL-12 in the targeted tumor lesion, which in turn attracts an innate immune cell response toward those cancer cells that are invisible to CAR T cells. Such TRUCKs, T cells redirected for universal cytokine-mediated killing, exhibited remarkable efficacy against solid tumors with diverse cancer cell phenotypes, suggesting their evaluation in clinical trials.

  16. UV activation of polymeric high aspect ratio microstructures: ramifications in antibody surface loading for circulating tumor cell selection†

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua M.; Witek, Małgorzata A.; Hupert, Mateusz L.; Brady, Charles; Pullagurla, Swathi; Kamande, Joyce; Aufforth, Rachel D.; Tignanelli, Christopher J.; Torphy, Robert J.; Yeh, Jen Jen

    2014-01-01

    The need to activate thermoplastic surfaces using robust and efficient methods has been driven by the fact that replication techniques can be used to produce microfluidic devices in a high production mode and at low cost, making polymer microfluidics invaluable for in vitro diagnostics, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis, where device disposability is critical to mitigate artifacts associated with sample carryover. Modifying the surface chemistry of thermoplastic devices through activation techniques can be used to increase the wettability of the surface or to produce functional scaffolds to allow for the covalent attachment of biologics, such as antibodies for CTC recognition. Extensive surface characterization tools were used to investigate UV activation of various surfaces to produce uniform and high surface coverage of functional groups, such as carboxylic acids in microchannels of different aspect ratios. We found that the efficiency of the UV activation process is highly dependent on the microchannel aspect ratio and the identity of the thermoplastic substrate. Colorimetric assays and fluorescence imaging of UV-activated microchannels following EDC/NHS coupling of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotides indicated that UV-activation of a PMMA microchannel with an aspect ratio of ∼3 was significantly less efficient toward the bottom of the channel compared to the upper sections. This effect was a consequence of the bulk polymer's damping of the modifying UV radiation due to absorption artifacts. In contrast, this effect was less pronounced for COC. Moreover, we observed that after thermal fusion bonding of the device's cover plate to the substrate, many of the generated functional groups buried into the bulk rendering them inaccessible. The propensity of this surface reorganization was found to be higher for PMMA compared to COC. As an example of the effects of material and microchannel aspect ratios on device functionality, thermoplastic devices for the

  17. UV activation of polymeric high aspect ratio microstructures: ramifications in antibody surface loading for circulating tumor cell selection.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua M; Witek, Małgorzata A; Hupert, Mateusz L; Brady, Charles; Pullagurla, Swathi; Kamande, Joyce; Aufforth, Rachel D; Tignanelli, Christopher J; Torphy, Robert J; Yeh, Jen Jen; Soper, Steven A

    2014-01-07

    The need to activate thermoplastic surfaces using robust and efficient methods has been driven by the fact that replication techniques can be used to produce microfluidic devices in a high production mode and at low cost, making polymer microfluidics invaluable for in vitro diagnostics, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis, where device disposability is critical to mitigate artifacts associated with sample carryover. Modifying the surface chemistry of thermoplastic devices through activation techniques can be used to increase the wettability of the surface or to produce functional scaffolds to allow for the covalent attachment of biologics, such as antibodies for CTC recognition. Extensive surface characterization tools were used to investigate UV activation of various surfaces to produce uniform and high surface coverage of functional groups, such as carboxylic acids in microchannels of different aspect ratios. We found that the efficiency of the UV activation process is highly dependent on the microchannel aspect ratio and the identity of the thermoplastic substrate. Colorimetric assays and fluorescence imaging of UV-activated microchannels following EDC/NHS coupling of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotides indicated that UV-activation of a PMMA microchannel with an aspect ratio of ~3 was significantly less efficient toward the bottom of the channel compared to the upper sections. This effect was a consequence of the bulk polymer's damping of the modifying UV radiation due to absorption artifacts. In contrast, this effect was less pronounced for COC. Moreover, we observed that after thermal fusion bonding of the device's cover plate to the substrate, many of the generated functional groups buried into the bulk rendering them inaccessible. The propensity of this surface reorganization was found to be higher for PMMA compared to COC. As an example of the effects of material and microchannel aspect ratios on device functionality, thermoplastic devices for the

  18. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  19. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  20. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  1. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  2. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  3. Immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a defined ratio of CD8+ and CD4+ CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells

    PubMed Central

    Turtle, Cameron J.; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Berger, Carolina; Hudecek, Michael; Pender, Barbara; Robinson, Emily; Hawkins, Reed; Chaney, Colette; Cherian, Sindhu; Chen, Xueyan; Soma, Lorinda; Wood, Brent; Li, Daniel; Heimfeld, Shelly; Riddell, Stanley R.; Maloney, David G.

    2016-01-01

    CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have antitumor activity in B cell malignancies, but factors that impact toxicity and efficacy have been difficult to define because of differences in lymphodepletion regimens and heterogeneity of CAR-T cells administered to individual patients. We conducted a clinical trial in which CD19 CAR-T cells were manufactured from defined T cell subsets and administered in a 1:1 CD4+:CD8+ ratio of CAR-T cells to 32 adults with relapsed and/or refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based lymphodepletion chemotherapy with or without fludarabine (Flu). Patients who received Cy/Flu lymphodepletion had markedly increased CAR-T cell expansion and persistence, and higher response rates (50% CR, 72% ORR, n=20) than patients who received Cy-based lymphodepletion without Flu (8% CR, 50% ORR, n=12). The complete response (CR) rate in patients treated with Cy/Flu at the maximally tolerated dose was 64% (82% ORR, n=11). Cy/Flu minimized the effects of an immune response to the murine scFv component of the CAR, which limited CAR-T cell expansion, persistence, and clinical efficacy in patients who received Cy-based lymphodepletion without Flu. Severe cytokine release syndrome (sCRS) and grade ≥ 3 neurotoxicity were observed in 13% and 28% of all patients, respectively. Serum biomarkers one day after CAR-T cell infusion correlated with subsequent development of sCRS and neurotoxicity. Immunotherapy with CD19 CAR-T cells in a defined CD4+:CD8+ ratio allowed identification of correlative factors for CAR-T cell expansion, persistence, and toxicity, and facilitated optimization of a lymphodepletion regimen that improved disease response and overall and progression-free survival. PMID:27605551

  4. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  5. Atmospheric residence time of (210)Pb determined from the activity ratios with its daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po.

    PubMed

    Semertzidou, P; Piliposian, G T; Appleby, P G

    2016-08-01

    The residence time of (210)Pb created in the atmosphere by the decay of gaseous (222)Rn is a key parameter controlling its distribution and fallout onto the landscape. These in turn are key parameters governing the use of this natural radionuclide for dating and interpreting environmental records stored in natural archives such as lake sediments. One of the principal methods for estimating the atmospheric residence time is through measurements of the activities of the daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po, and in particular the (210)Bi/(210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios. Calculations used in early empirical studies assumed that these were governed by a simple series of equilibrium equations. This approach does however have two failings; it takes no account of the effect of global circulation on spatial variations in the activity ratios, and no allowance is made for the impact of transport processes across the tropopause. This paper presents a simple model for calculating the distributions of (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po at northern mid-latitudes (30°-65°N), a region containing almost all the available empirical data. By comparing modelled (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios with empirical data a best estimate for the tropospheric residence time of around 10 days is obtained. This is significantly longer than earlier estimates of between 4 and 7 days. The process whereby (210)Pb is transported into the stratosphere when tropospheric concentrations are high and returned from it when they are low, significantly increases the effective residence time in the atmosphere as a whole. The effect of this is to significantly enhance the long range transport of (210)Pb from its source locations. The impact is illustrated by calculations showing the distribution of (210)Pb fallout versus longitude at northern mid-latitudes.

  6. Effect of Ag+ and PO43- ratios on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jiaqian; Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Chengwu; Song, Aijun; Zhang, Bing; Rajendran, Saravanan; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the catalyst silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) with different initial ratios of Ag+ and PO43- in aqueous solution was synthesized by a simple precipitation method from AgNO3 and NH4H2PO4 which were used as the precursor. After that, the prepared samples were characterized by different techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) and decomposition evolution of rhodamine B (RhB) solution. The results indicate that the initial ratios of Ag+/PO43- in aqueous solution can modify the morphology and also it can significantly affect the photocatalytic performance. During photocatalytic process, the rich Ag+ ion Ag3PO4 can form the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles, which inhibit the reduction of Ag3PO4 resulting in higher photocatalytic activity and stability.

  7. Variations in stable- isotope ratios of ground waters in seismically active regions of California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Chi-Yu, King

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of D and 18O concentrations of ground waters in seismically active regions are potentially useful in earthquake prediction and in elucidating mechanisms operative during earthquakes. Principles of this method are discussed and some preliminary data regarding a magnitude 5.7 earthquake at the Oroville Dam in 1975 and a series of events near San Juan Bautista in 1980 are presented to support the utility of such measurements. After earthquakes, the D content of nearby ground waters increased by several permil while the 18O content remained constant. This increase implies that H2O may have either decomposed or reacted to form molecular H2 at depth. It is emphasized that many areas must be investigated for these effects in order to find a sufficient number of 'sensitive' water wells and springs to permit a truly effective program of earthquake research. -Authors

  8. Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Meenakshi; Mukherjee, Malini; Grada, Zakaria; Pignata, Antonella; Landi, Daniel; Navai, Shoba A; Wakefield, Amanda; Fousek, Kristen; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Chow, Kevin K H; Brawley, Vita S; Byrd, Tiara T; Krebs, Simone; Gottschalk, Stephen; Wels, Winfried S; Baker, Matthew L; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mamonkin, Maksim; Brenner, Malcolm K; Orange, Jordan S; Ahmed, Nabil

    2016-08-01

    In preclinical models of glioblastoma, antigen escape variants can lead to tumor recurrence after treatment with CAR T cells that are redirected to single tumor antigens. Given the heterogeneous expression of antigens on glioblastomas, we hypothesized that a bispecific CAR molecule would mitigate antigen escape and improve the antitumor activity of T cells. Here, we created a CAR that joins a HER2-binding scFv and an IL13Rα2-binding IL-13 mutein to make a tandem CAR exodomain (TanCAR) and a CD28.ζ endodomain. We determined that patient TanCAR T cells showed distinct binding to HER2 or IL13Rα2 and had the capability to lyse autologous glioblastoma. TanCAR T cells exhibited activation dynamics that were comparable to those of single CAR T cells upon encounter of HER2 or IL13Rα2. We observed that TanCARs engaged HER2 and IL13Rα2 simultaneously by inducing HER2-IL13Rα2 heterodimers, which promoted superadditive T cell activation when both antigens were encountered concurrently. TanCAR T cell activity was more sustained but not more exhaustible than that of T cells that coexpressed a HER2 CAR and an IL13Rα2 CAR, T cells with a unispecific CAR, or a pooled product. In a murine glioblastoma model, TanCAR T cells mitigated antigen escape, displayed enhanced antitumor efficacy, and improved animal survival. Thus, TanCAR T cells show therapeutic potential to improve glioblastoma control by coengaging HER2 and IL13Rα2 in an augmented, bivalent immune synapse that enhances T cell functionality and reduces antigen escape.

  9. Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Malini; Grada, Zakaria; Pignata, Antonella; Landi, Daniel; Navai, Shoba A.; Wakefield, Amanda; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Chow, Kevin K.H.; Brawley, Vita S.; Byrd, Tiara T.; Krebs, Simone; Gottschalk, Stephen; Wels, Winfried S.; Baker, Matthew L.; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mamonkin, Maksim; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical models of glioblastoma, antigen escape variants can lead to tumor recurrence after treatment with CAR T cells that are redirected to single tumor antigens. Given the heterogeneous expression of antigens on glioblastomas, we hypothesized that a bispecific CAR molecule would mitigate antigen escape and improve the antitumor activity of T cells. Here, we created a CAR that joins a HER2-binding scFv and an IL13Rα2-binding IL-13 mutein to make a tandem CAR exodomain (TanCAR) and a CD28.ζ endodomain. We determined that patient TanCAR T cells showed distinct binding to HER2 or IL13Rα2 and had the capability to lyse autologous glioblastoma. TanCAR T cells exhibited activation dynamics that were comparable to those of single CAR T cells upon encounter of HER2 or IL13Rα2. We observed that TanCARs engaged HER2 and IL13Rα2 simultaneously by inducing HER2-IL13Rα2 heterodimers, which promoted superadditive T cell activation when both antigens were encountered concurrently. TanCAR T cell activity was more sustained but not more exhaustible than that of T cells that coexpressed a HER2 CAR and an IL13Rα2 CAR, T cells with a unispecific CAR, or a pooled product. In a murine glioblastoma model, TanCAR T cells mitigated antigen escape, displayed enhanced antitumor efficacy, and improved animal survival. Thus, TanCAR T cells show therapeutic potential to improve glioblastoma control by coengaging HER2 and IL13Rα2 in an augmented, bivalent immune synapse that enhances T cell functionality and reduces antigen escape. PMID:27427982

  10. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    PubMed

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity.

  11. Car design and risk of pedestrian deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1990-01-01

    Fatal pedestrian injury rates by cars with relatively sharp front-corner designs were compared to such rates by cars of similar-size with relatively smooth front-corner designs. The relative risk of death by front-corner impact was 26 percent greater among the sharp-cornered cars. Pedestrian death rates from impact with other points on the cars and insurance claim frequencies among the studied cars were similar between the two sets of cars. PMID:2327543

  12. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  13. Safety upgrades plug car leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    To lessen the chance of a chemical leak occurring during rail transport, some companies are improving tank car sturdiness and safety by adding such features as top-loading valves, on-board monitoring devices, and thicker, more impact-resistant hulls. Results include a dramatic drop in the number of rail incidents and leak tank cars. Chemicals Division of Olin Corporation (Stamford, Connecticut) has assigned its name to a new fleet of chlorine, caustic soda and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) tank cars. Each car carries the company's Care[trademark]Car registered trademark. The upgrade is part of a company-wide quality improvement process started in 1986. The company requires acoustic emissions (AE) testing on all hazardous materials tank cars. If an area has a defect, it expands and makes a slight sound when subjected to stress. In an AE test, cars are subject to simulated bumps and jolts as in rail shipment. Electronic sensors transfer any stress noises onto a computer screen, where an operator can pinpoint the trouble source.

  14. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  15. Distributed wireless sensor for smart car seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baz, A.; Smoker, Jason

    2009-03-01

    A distributed wireless sensor network is embedded inside car seats to enable the measurements of the weight of the occupants, location of their center of gravity, and spatial orientation of their bodies. Based on these measurements, intelligent decisions can be made to ensure their comfort and safety particularly in case of accidents. Appropriate activation of the inflatable bags according to the weight and position of the occupants will be critical to avoiding unnecessary and undesirable injuries.

  16. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  17. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  18. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  19. A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE IONIZATION STATE OF THE INNER ACCRETION DISK AND THE EDDINGTON RATIO OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, D. R.; McDuffie, J. R.; Rusin, J. S.

    2011-06-20

    X-ray reflection features observed from the innermost regions of accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) allow important tests of accretion theory. In recent years, it has been possible to use the Fe K{alpha} line and reflection continuum to parameterize the ionization state of the irradiated inner accretion disk. Here, we collect 10 measurements of {xi}, the disk ionization parameter, from eight AGNs with strong evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk and good black hole mass estimates. We find strong statistical evidence (98.56% confidence) for a nearly linear correlation between {xi} and the AGN Eddington ratio. Moreover, such a correlation is predicted by a simple application of {alpha}-disk accretion theory, albeit with a stronger dependence on the Eddington ratio. The theory shows that there will be intrinsic scatter to any correlation as a result of different black hole spins and radii of reflection. There are several possibilities to soften the predicted dependence on the Eddington ratio to allow a closer agreement with the observed correlation, but the current data do not allow for a unique explanation. The correlation can be used to estimate that MCG-6-30-15 should have a highly ionized inner accretion disk, which would imply a black hole spin of {approx}0.8. Additional measurements of {xi} from a larger sample of AGNs are needed to confirm the existence of this correlation, and will allow investigation of the accretion disk/corona interaction in the inner regions of accretion disks.

  20. Raman optical activity spectroscopy by visible-excited coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kotaro; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Nagata, Takashi; Kano, Hideaki

    2015-09-01

    We developed a Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopic system with visible-excited coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). A supercontinuum within the visible region was generated with a photonic crystal fiber pumped with both 532 and 1064 nm excitation, generating a multiplexed CARS-ROA spectrum covering the whole fingerprint region. In visible excitation, the CARS-ROA spectrum of (-)-β-pinene shows a higher contrast ratio of the chirality-induced signal to the achiral background than that of the previously reported near-infrared CARS-ROA spectrum.

  1. Regional delivery of mesothelin-targeted CAR T cell therapy generates potent and long-lasting CD4-dependent tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Adusumilli, Prasad S; Cherkassky, Leonid; Villena-Vargas, Jonathan; Colovos, Christos; Servais, Elliot; Plotkin, Jason; Jones, David R; Sadelain, Michel

    2014-11-05

    Translating the recent success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for hematological malignancies to solid tumors will necessitate overcoming several obstacles, including inefficient T cell tumor infiltration and insufficient functional persistence. Taking advantage of an orthotopic model that faithfully mimics human pleural malignancy, we evaluated two routes of administration of mesothelin-targeted T cells using the M28z CAR. We found that intrapleurally administered CAR T cells vastly outperformed systemically infused T cells, requiring 30-fold fewer M28z T cells to induce long-term complete remissions. After intrapleural T cell administration, prompt in vivo antigen-induced T cell activation allowed robust CAR T cell expansion and effector differentiation, resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy and functional T cell persistence for 200 days. Regional T cell administration also promoted efficient elimination of extrathoracic tumor sites. This therapeutic efficacy was dependent on early CD4(+) T cell activation associated with a higher intratumoral CD4/CD8 cell ratios and CD28-dependent CD4(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, intravenously delivered CAR T cells, even when accumulated at equivalent numbers in the pleural tumor, did not achieve comparable activation, tumor eradication, or persistence. The ability of intrapleurally administered T cells to circulate and persist supports the concept of delivering optimal CAR T cell therapy through "regional distribution centers." On the basis of these results, we are opening a phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of intrapleural administration of mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells in patients with primary or secondary pleural malignancies.

  2. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  3. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kakehashi, Anna; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Nagano, Kasuke; Nishimaki, Fukumi; Banton, Marcy; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans.

  4. Surface localization of the nuclear receptor CAR in influenza A virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Moriyama, Yusuke; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miwa, Masao

    2008-04-11

    Constitutive active/androstane receptor CAR is a member of the nuclear receptors which regulate transcription of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. CAR is usually localized in the cytosol and nucleus. Here, we found that CAR was localized at the cell surface of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that expression of a viral envelope glycoprotein, either hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), but not viral nucleoprotein (NP), was responsible for this localization. This report is the first demonstration of CAR at the surface of tissue culture cells, and suggests that CAR may exert the IAV infection mechanism.

  5. Black Carbon, Metal Concentrations and Lead Isotopes Ratios in Aerosols as Tracers of Human and Natural Activities in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric brown clouds (ABC) observed as widespread layers of brownish haze are regional scale plumes of air pollutants with a hot spot of emission located in East Asia. ABC are mainly composed of aerosol particles such as Black Carbon (BC) emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning and fossil fuels combustion. The atmospheric lifetime of BC ranges from a few days in wet season up to one month in dry season. The use of stable lead isotopes and 21 elements as tracers of air pollution was applied to identify and characterized the main sources of anthropogenic activities in Asian region. Aerosol samples from Haiphong (North Vietnam) were collected by a high volume sampler for a period of one year from October 2012 to October 2013. Vietnam's 207Pb/206Pb ratios were almost identical to those found for China. Ratios of 207Pb/206Pb ranged from 0.837 to 0.871 which agrees with values previously reported for the last 10 years in China (0.841 - 0.879). No significant variation in isotope ratio was observed during the sampling period, which suggests that there was no large seasonal variation in the isotope ratios of airborne lead. Trajectory analysis showed that almost two third of the air masses originated from East Northeast which implies that China was a major source of lead in atmosphere. Enrichment factor calculations indicated a large influence of coal activity (EF(Al) As = 1982 ± 796, EF(Al) Cd = 972 ± 659, EF(Al) Sb = 1358 ± 930) but the difference between combustion and mining exploitation could not be evidenced. Significant correlations were found between two others groups of elements: As, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Al, Fe K, Co. Wind dilution was effective on metals concentration variation. During the cold and dry season (winter) ambient concentrations were high and variable, during the warm and wet season (summer) concentrations were stable and low. Taken together, these factors also identified industrial and lithogenic activities in the region.

  6. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios and succinate dehydrogenase activities in adult rat slow and fast muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, B. S.; Kasper, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between myonuclear number, cellular size, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and myosin type was examined in single fiber segments (n = 54; 9 +/- 3 mm long) mechanically dissected from soleus and plantaris muscles of adult rats. One end of each fiber segment was stained for DNA before quantitative photometric analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity; the other end was double immunolabeled with fast and slow myosin heavy chain monoclonal antibodies. Mean +/- S.D. cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus ratio was higher in fast and slow plantaris fibers (112 +/- 69 vs. 34 +/- 21 x 10(3) microns3) than fast and slow soleus fibers (40 +/- 20 vs. 30 +/- 14 x 10(3) microns3), respectively. Slow fibers always had small volumes/myonucleus, regardless of fiber diameter, succinate dehydrogenase activity, or muscle of origin. In contrast, smaller diameter (< 70 microns) fast soleus and plantaris fibers with high succinate dehydrogenase activity appeared to have low volumes/myonucleus while larger diameter (> 70 microns) fast fibers with low succinate dehydrogenase activity always had large volume/myonucleus. Slow soleus fibers had significantly greater numbers of myonuclei/mm than did either fast soleus or fast plantaris fibers (116 +/- 51 vs. 55 +/- 22 and 44 +/- 23), respectively. These data suggest that the myonuclear domain is more limited in slow than fast fibers and in the fibers with a high, compared to a low, oxidative metabolic capability.

  7. Car Safety for Special Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Suzanne Hauser

    1983-01-01

    Various car seats, harnesses, and vests that can be used with handicapped children are described. Suggestions are also made for improvment when existing equipment is not appropriate. A list of resources on the topic is also provided. (CL)

  8. CAR and PXR: The Xenobiotic-Sensing Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Timsit, Yoav E.; Negishi, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    The xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR constitute two important members of the NR1I nuclear receptor family. They function as sensors of toxic byproducts of endogenous metabolism and of exogenous chemicals and enhance their elimination. This unique function of CAR and PXR sets them apart from the steroid hormone receptors. In contrast, the steroid receptors, exemplified by the estrogen receptor (ER) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), are the sensors that tightly monitor and respond to changes in circulating steroid hormone levels to maintain body homeostasis. This divergence of the chemical- and steroid-sensing functions has evolved to ensure the fidelity of the steroid hormone endocrine regulation while allowing development of metabolic elimination pathways for xenobiotics. The development of the xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR also reflect the increasing complexity of metabolism in higher organisms, which necessitate novel mechanisms for handling and eliminating metabolic byproducts and foreign compounds from the body. The purpose of this review is to discuss similarities and differences between the xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR with the prototypical steroid hormone receptors ER and GR. Interesting differences in structure explain in part the divergence in function and activation mechanisms of CAR/PXR from ER/GR. In addition, the physiological roles of CAR and PXR will be reviewed, with discussion of interactions of CAR and PXR with endocrine signaling pathways. PMID:17284330

  9. The effect of water loading on the urinary ratio of cortisone to cortisol in healthy subjects and a new approach to the evaluation of the ratio as an index for in vivo human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Akitomo; Takasaka, Toru; Shibasaki, Hiromi; Kasuya, Yasuji; Kawashima, Soko; Yamada, Akira; Furuta, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Factors that give rise to a large variation in the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF) were investigated to accurately estimate 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) activity in humans in vivo. A water loading test was first carried out in two healthy subjects to examine the effect of water intake or urine volume on the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF). The ratio was found to increase by water loading. We also examined urinary concentrations and amounts of cortisol, cortisone, creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), and urine volume, as possible factors affecting the urinary ratio (UFE/UFF), in 60 urine samples obtained from 15 healthy volunteers. Among these factors tested, the urinary concentration of cortisol was most highly correlated with the UFE/UFF ratio (r=-0.858), indicating that the in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 (UFE/UFF) should fluctuate with the changes of the urinary concentration of cortisol. Based on the findings, we proposed a new estimation method of in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 in humans, using the UFE/UFF ratio correlated with the urinary concentration of cortisol (UFE/UFF-cortisol concentration). Taking into consideration the intra-individual variabilities in the urinary concentration of cortisol, there were no significant within-day variations in 11β-HSD2 activity. The findings indicate that 11β-HSD2 activities can be accurately evaluated by simply measuring free cortisol and cortisone concentrations in spot urine samples. Furthermore, administrations of glycyrrhetinic acid in three healthy volunteers were performed to confirm the usefulness of the present assessment for the activity of 11β-HSD2.

  10. A dynamic multi-channel speech enhancement system for distributed microphones in a car environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheja, Timo; Buck, Markus; Fingscheidt, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Supporting multiple active speakers in automotive hands-free or speech dialog applications is an interesting issue not least due to comfort reasons. Therefore, a multi-channel system for enhancement of speech signals captured by distributed distant microphones in a car environment is presented. Each of the potential speakers in the car has a dedicated directional microphone close to his position that captures the corresponding speech signal. The aim of the resulting overall system is twofold: On the one hand, a combination of an arbitrary pre-defined subset of speakers' signals can be performed, e.g., to create an output signal in a hands-free telephone conference call for a far-end communication partner. On the other hand, annoying cross-talk components from interfering sound sources occurring in multiple different mixed output signals are to be eliminated, motivated by the possibility of other hands-free applications being active in parallel. The system includes several signal processing stages. A dedicated signal processing block for interfering speaker cancellation attenuates the cross-talk components of undesired speech. Further signal enhancement comprises the reduction of residual cross-talk and background noise. Subsequently, a dynamic signal combination stage merges the processed single-microphone signals to obtain appropriate mixed signals at the system output that may be passed to applications such as telephony or a speech dialog system. Based on signal power ratios between the particular microphone signals, an appropriate speaker activity detection and therewith a robust control mechanism of the whole system is presented. The proposed system may be dynamically configured and has been evaluated for a car setup with four speakers sitting in the car cabin disturbed in various noise conditions.

  11. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    PubMed

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production.

  12. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  13. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  14. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  15. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  16. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  17. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  18. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  19. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  20. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned...

  1. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  2. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  3. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  4. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  5. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  6. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  7. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  8. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  9. PD98059 and U0126 activate AMP-activated protein kinase by increasing the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and not via inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Dokladda, Kanchana; Green, Kevin A; Pan, David A; Hardie, D Grahame

    2005-01-03

    The MAP kinase pathway inhibitor U0126 caused phosphorylation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased phosphorylation of its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase, in HEK293 cells. This effect only occurred in cells expressing the upstream kinase, LKB1. Of two other widely used MAP kinase pathway inhibitors not closely related in structure to U0126, PD98059 also activated AMPK but PD184352 did not. U0126 and PD98059, but not PD184352, also increased the cellular ADP:ATP and AMP:ATP ratios, accounting for their ability to activate AMPK. These results suggest the need for caution in interpreting experiments conducted using U0126 and PD98059.

  10. Ultrafast active cavitation imaging with enhanced cavitation to tissue ratio based on wavelet transform and pulse inversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Xu, Shanshan; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2015-06-01

    The quality of ultrafast active cavitation imaging (UACI) using plane wave transmission is hindered by low transmission pressure, which is necessary to prevent bubble destruction. In this study, a UACI method that combined wavelet transform with pulse inversion (PI) was proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The main challenge in using wavelet transform is the selection of the optimum mother wavelet. A mother wavelet named "cavitation bubble wavelet" and constructed according to Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model was expected to obtain a high correlation between the bubbles and beamformed echoes. The method was validated by in vitro experiments. Results showed that the image quality was associated with the initial radius of bubble and the scale. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the best optimum cavitation bubble wavelet transform (CBWT) mode image was improved by 3.2 dB compared with that of the B-mode image in free-field experiments. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio of the best optimum PI-based CBWT mode image was improved by 2.3 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image in tissue experiments. Furthermore, the SNR versus initial radius curve had the potential to estimate the size distribution of cavitation bubbles.

  11. Use of ICP/MS with ultrasonic nebulizer for routine determination of uranium activity ratios in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Doughten, M.W.; Bullen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described that allows precise determination of 234U/238U activity ratios (UAR) in most natural waters using commonly available inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) instrumentation and accessories. The precision achieved by this technique (??0.5% RSD, 1 sigma) is intermediate between thermal ionization mass spectrometry (??0.25% RSID, 1 sigma) and alpha particle spectrometry (??5% RSD, 1 sigma). It is precise and rapid enough to allow analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time at low cost using standard, commercially available quadrupole instrumentation with ultrasonic nebulizer and desolvator accessories. UARs have been analyzed successfully in fresh to moderately saline waters with U concentrations of from less than 1 ??g/L to nearly 100 ??g/L. An example of the uses of these data is shown for a study of surface-water mixing in the North Platte River in western Nebraska. This rapid and easy technique should encourage the wider use of uranium isotopes in surface-water and groundwater investigations, both for qualitative (e.g. identifying sources of water) and quantitative (e.g. determining end-member mixing ratios purposes.

  12. The risk of airborne influenza transmission in passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, L D; Morawska, L; Bell, S C

    2012-03-01

    Travel in passenger cars is a ubiquitous aspect of the daily activities of many people. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic a case of probable transmission during car travel was reported in Australia, to which spread via the airborne route may have contributed. However, there are no data to indicate the likely risks of such events, and how they may vary and be mitigated. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the risk of airborne influenza transmission in two cars (1989 model and 2005 model) by employing ventilation measurements and a variation of the Wells-Riley model. Results suggested that infection risk can be reduced by not recirculating air; however, estimated risk ranged from 59% to 99·9% for a 90-min trip when air was recirculated in the newer vehicle. These results have implications for interrupting in-car transmission of other illnesses spread by the airborne route.

  13. pH-susceptibility of HLA-DO tunes DO/DM ratios to regulate HLA-DM catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Strohman, Michael J.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Ayyangar, Sashi; Hou, Tieying; Wang, Nan; Mellins, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide-exchange catalyst, HLA-DM, and its inhibitor, HLA-DO control endosomal generation of peptide/class II major histocompatibility protein (MHC-II) complexes; these complexes traffic to the cell surface for inspection by CD4+ T cells. Some evidence suggests that pH influences DO regulation of DM function, but pH also affects the stability of polymorphic MHC-II proteins, spontaneous peptide loading, DM/MHC-II interactions and DM catalytic activity, imposing challenges on approaches to determine pH effects on DM-DO function and their mechanistic basis. Using optimized biochemical methods, we dissected pH-dependence of spontaneous and DM-DO-mediated class II peptide exchange and identified an MHC-II allele-independent relationship between pH, DO/DM ratio and efficient peptide exchange. We demonstrate that active, free DM is generated from DM-DO complexes at late endosomal/lysosomal pH due to irreversible, acid-promoted DO destruction rather than DO/DM molecular dissociation. Any soluble DM that remains in complex with DO stays inert. pH-exposure of DM-DO in cell lysates corroborates such a pH-regulated mechanism, suggesting acid-activated generation of functional DM in DO-expressing cells. PMID:26610428

  14. Effect of isotretinoin on prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Uncu, Murat; Ozyurt, Selcuk; Hincal, Evren

    2013-08-01

    Patients with severe acne may need elective/urgent surgical interventions during treatment with isotretinoin and it is critical for the surgeon to consider the possible effects of this medication on coagulation systems. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) during isotretinoin treatment. PT, aPTT, and INR values of 51 severe acne patients were evaluated during routine pre-treatment biochemical analysis. Only patients with normal values were included in the study. The results of before and after 1 month treatment were compared statistically. There were no statistically significant change in mean alanine aminotranferease (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), PT, and INR values after treatment. A significant increase in aPTT was detected. The INR values, which are more trusted and safe, showed no difference. Isotretinoin seems to have no effect on these coagulation parameters.

  15. pH Measurement Using Dual-Wavelength Fluorescent Ratio by Two-Photon Excitation for Mitochondrial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazashi, Yasuaki; Li, Yongbo; Onojima, Takumi; Iwami, Kentaro; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Umeda, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    A mitochondrion has a pH gradient between the two sides of its inner membrane in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Because ATP depletion causes numerous diseases, the measurement of the pH value around the mitochondrion is expected to clarify the mechanism of these diseases. In this study, a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye was excited by two-photon absorption initiated using a femtosecond pulse laser. In addition, fluorescence from the dye was directly collected from the fluorescent point using the collection-mode probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope. By this proposed method, a pH calibration curve was obtained from the fluorescent intensity ratio of the dye solution, and temporal pH variations with 0.1 s time resolution following the addition of acid were observed. Moreover, mitochondrial activity on the basis of the pH changes was successfully observed in three different mitochondrial densities.

  16. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability.

  17. Application of neural network method to detect type of uranium contamination by estimation of activity ratio in environmental alpha spectra.

    PubMed

    Einian, M R; Aghamiri, S M R; Ghaderi, R

    2016-01-01

    The discrimination of the composition of environmental and non-environmental materials by the estimation of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in alpha-particle spectrometry is important in many applications. If the interfering elements are not completely separated from the uranium, they can interfere with the determination of (234)U. Thickness as a result of the existence of iron in the source preparation phase and their alpha lines can broaden the alpha line of (234)U in alpha spectra. Therefore, the asymmetric broadening of the alpha line of (234)U and overlapping of peaks make the analysis of the alpha particle spectra and the interpretation of the results difficult. Applying Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to a spectrometry system is a good idea because it eliminates limitations of classical approaches by extracting the desired information from the input data. In this work, the average of a partial uranium raw spectrum, were considered. Each point that its slope was of the order of 0-1% per 10 channels, was used as input to the multi-layer feed forward error-back propagation network. The network was trained by an alpha spectrum library which has been developed in the present work. The training data in this study was actual spectral data with any reasonable thickness and interfering elements. According to the results, the method applied to estimate the activity ratio in this work, can examine the alpha spectrum for peaks which would not be expected for a source of given element and provide the clues about composition of uranium contamination in the environmental samples in a fast screening and classifying procedures.

  18. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Yarushkin, Andrei A; Kazantseva, Yuliya A; Prokopyeva, Elena A; Markova, Diana N; Pustylnyak, Yuliya A; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O

    2016-09-23

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in a mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation.

  19. DEPENDENCE OF THE OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY ON THE EMISSION-LINE PROPERTIES AND EDDINGTON RATIO IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Y. L.; Yuan, W.; Wang, J. G.

    2010-06-10

    The dependence of the long-term optical/UV variability on the spectral and fundamental physical parameters for radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is investigated. The multi-epoch-repeated photometric scanning data in the Stripe-82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are exploited for two comparative AGN samples (mostly quasars) selected therein: a broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) type sample and a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) type AGN sample within redshifts 0.3-0.8. Their spectral parameters are derived from the SDSS spectroscopic data. It is found that on rest-frame timescales of several years the NLS1-type AGNs show systematically smaller variability compared to the BLS1-type AGNs. In fact, the variability amplitude is found to correlate, though only moderately, with the eigenvector 1 parameters, i.e., the smaller the H{beta} linewidth, the weaker the [O III] and the stronger the Fe II emission, the smaller the variability amplitude. Moreover, an interesting inverse correlation is found between the variability and the Eddington ratio, which is perhaps more fundamental. The previously known dependence of the variability on luminosity is not significant, and the dependence on black hole mass-as claimed in recent papers and also present in our data-fades out when controlling for the Eddington ratio in the correlation analysis, though these may be partly due to the limited ranges of luminosity and black hole mass of our samples. Our result strongly supports that an accretion disk is likely to play a major role in producing the optical/UV variability.

  20. Exploring the active galactic nuclei population with extreme X-ray-to-optical flux ratios (fx/fo > 50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ceca, R.; Carrera, F. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Corral, A.; Del Moro, A.; Mateos, S.; Ruiz, A.; Watson, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    The cosmic history of the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic centres parallels that of star formation in the Universe. However, an important fraction of this growth occurs inconspicuously in obscured objects, where ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission is heavily obscured by dust. Since the X-ray flux is less attenuated, a high X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (fx/fo) is expected to be an efficient tool to find out these obscured accreting sources. We explore here via optical spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and infrared photometry the most extreme cases of this population (those with fx/fo > 50, EXO50 sources hereafter), using a well-defined sample of seven X-ray sources extracted from the 2XMM catalogue. Five EXO50 sources (˜70 per cent of the sample) in the bright flux regime explored by our survey (f(2-10 keV) ≥ 1.5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) are associated with obscured AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2), spanning a redshift range between 0.75 and 1 and characterized by 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities in the QSO regime (e.g. well in excess to 1044 erg s-1). We did not find compelling evidence of Compton thick active galacic nuclei (AGN). Overall, the EXO50 type 2 QSOs do not seem to be different from standard X-ray-selected type 2 QSOs in terms of nuclear absorption; a very high AGN/host galaxy ratio seems to play a major role in explaining their extreme properties. Interestingly, three out of five EXO50 type 2 QSO objects can be classified as extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs, f24 μm/fR ≥ 2000), suggesting that a very high AGN/host ratios (along with the large amount of dust absorption) could be the natural explanation also for a part of the EDOG population. The remaining two EXO50 sources are classified as BL Lac objects, having rather extreme properties, and which are good candidates for TeV emission.

  1. CAR-T therapy for leukemia: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Xiao, Qing; Wang, Zhe; Feng, Wen-Li

    2016-10-27

    Despite the rapid development of therapeutic strategies, leukemia remains a type of difficult-to-treat hematopoietic malignancy that necessitates introduction of more effective treatment options to improve life expectancy and quality of patients. Genetic engineering in adoptively transferred T cells to express antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has proved highly powerful and efficacious in inducing sustained responses in patients with refractory malignancies, as exemplified by the success of CD19-targeting CAR-T treatment in patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Recent strategies, including manipulating intracellular activating domains and transducing viral vectors, have resulted in better designed and optimized CAR-T cells. This is further facilitated by the rapid identification of an accumulating number of potential leukemic antigens that may serve as therapeutic targets for CAR-T cells. This review will provide a comprehensive background and scrutinize recent important breakthrough studies on anti-leukemia CAR-T cells, with focus on recently identified antigens for CAR-T therapy design and approaches to overcome critical challenges.

  2. Cortisol awakening response (CAR)'s flexibility leads to larger and more consistent associations with psychological factors than CAR magnitude.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Vanootighem, Valentine; Lambert, Florence; Lahaye, Magali; Fillée, Catherine; de Timary, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is increasingly recognized as a potential biological marker of psychological and physical health status. Yet, the CAR literature is replete with contradictory results: both supposedly protective and vulnerability psychosocial factors have been associated with both increased and decreased CAR. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CAR flexibility would be a better indicator of psychological status than CAR magnitude. Forty-two men measures of happiness, perceived stress and neuroticism, and took saliva samples immediately on awakening, then at 15, 30, 45 and 60min post-awakening on three study days (i.e., Sunday, Monday and Tuesday). When considering the CAR magnitude, our effects perfectly reflect the inconsistencies previously observed in the literature (i.e., the main effects of the psychological predictors are not consistent with each other, and the effect of one predictor on a given day contradicts the effect of the same predictor on another day). However, considering the CAR flexibility leads to a fully consistent pattern: protective factors (i.e., high happiness, low stress, low neurotiscim) are associated with a flexible CAR (i.e., lower CAR during weekends compared to workdays) whereas vulnerability factors (i.e., low happiness, high stress, high neurotiscim) are associated with a stiff CAR (i.e., same magnitude during weekends and workdays). We conclude that considering the CAR flexibility (e.g., between weekends and workdays) rather than the traditional CAR magnitude might be a way to understand the apparent conflicts in the CAR literature.

  3. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kakehashi, Anna; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Nagano, Kasuke; Nishimaki, Fukumi; Banton, Marcy; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

  4. Structure-Based Design of Mucor pusillus Pepsin for the Improved Ratio of Clotting Activity/Proteolytic Activity in Cheese Manufacture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai; Li, Zhuolin; Luo, Quan; Li, Tiezhu; Wang, Tuoyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies have determined the intermolecular interactions between Mucor pusillus pepsin (MPP) and the key domain of κ-casein, with the aim to understand the mechanism of milk clotting in the specific hydrolysis of κ-casein by MPP for cheese making. Here, we combined the docking model with site-directed mutagenesis to further investigate the functional roles of amino acid residues in the active site of MPP. T218S replacement caused a low thermostability and moderate increase in the clotting activity. Mutations of three amino acid residues, T218A and T218S in S2 region and L287G in S4 region, led to a significant decrease in proteolytic activity. For T218S and L287G, an increase in the ratio of clotting activity to proteolytic activity (C/P) was observed, in particular 3.34-fold increase was found for T218S mutants. Structural analysis of the binding mode of MPP and chymosin splitting domain (CSD) of κ-casein indicated that T218S plays a critical role in forming a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl group of Ser(104) around the MPP-sensitive Phe(105)-Met(106) peptide bond of κ- casein and L287G is partially responsible for CSD accommodation in a suitable hydrophobic environment. These data suggested that T218S mutant could serve as a promising milk coagulant that contributes to an optimal flavor development in mature cheese.

  5. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  6. Occupational asthma in apprentice adolescent car painters.

    PubMed

    Eifan, Aarif Omar; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray; Sekerel, Bulent Enis; Kutluk, Tezer

    2005-12-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the leading causes of pulmonary diseases and has been extensively studied in adults. Childhood employment, a significant problem in many developing countries, should be studied to determine and evaluate its effects on psychosocial and lung health. In order to investigate the presence of work-related asthma-like symptoms and OA in apprentice adolescent car painters, 72 adolescents between the ages of 15-20 yr studying in Vocational Training Centres of Ankara were investigated using questionnaire, pulmonary function test (PFT), serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements and methacholine inhalation tests. As a control group, 72 adolescents studying in Industrial and Commercial Training Centres located in the same environment were investigated with questionnaire and PFT. Almost 50% of the study group had work-related asthma-like symptoms for which occupational dermatitis history was predictive [odds ratio: 2.9 (1.026-8.13) (95% confidence interval)]. Seventeen of 22 with serial PEF measurements showed a variability of > or =20% and three (4.2%) of 12 tested with methacholine inhalation test had a PC20 < or = 8 mg/ml, which led to the diagnosis of OA. There was no statistically significant difference between study and control groups in terms of PFT. In conclusion, the high prevalence of work-related asthma-like symptoms among adolescent car painters clearly indicates the need for routine follow-up of adolescent workers for lung health.

  7. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Barry; Husemann, Bernd; Busch, Gerold; Dierkes, Jens; Eckart, Andreas; Krajnovic, Davor; Scharwaechter, Julia; Tremblay, Grant R.; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    We present the first science results from the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). This program is a snapshot survey of 39 local type 1 AGN (0.01 < z <0.06) designed to address the issue of AGN-driven star formation quenching by characterizing the condition for star formation in AGN host galaxies. The primary sample was observed with Multi Unit Spectrscopic Explorer (MUSE), an optical wavelength integral field unit (IFU) with a 1'x1' field of view on the VLT. The optical 3D spectroscopy complements existing sub-mm CO(1-0) data and near-IR imaging to establish a unique dataset combining molecular and stellar masses with star formation rates, gas, stellar kinematics and AGN properties. The primary goals of CARS are to:1) investigate if the star formation efficiency and gas depletion time scales are suppressed as a consequence of AGN feedback; 2) identify AGN-driven outflows and their relation to the molecular gas reservoir of the host galaxy; 3) investigate the the balance of AGN feeding and feedback through the ratio of the gas reservoir to the AGN luminosity; and 4) provide the community with a reference survey of local AGN with a high legacy value. Future work will incorporate near-infrared IFU observations to present a complete spatially resolved picture of the interplay among AGN, star-formation, stellar populations, and the ISM.

  8. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  9. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  10. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  11. Friction in a Moving Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

  12. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  13. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  14. Coke quench car emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coke quench car emission control system includes a coke car and a filter car connected in tandem for joint movement on rails disposed adjacent a coke oven. A hood and recuperator are mounted on a third car disposed on auxiliary rails which extend longitudinally along the upper portions of both the quench car and the filter car and in end-wise alignment. The hood is adapted to be coupled to the coke oven for receiving coke during a pushing operation. The recuperation has an inlet coupled to the hood for receiving emissions and withdrawing heat therefrom. The recuperator also has an outlet which is disposed adjacent the inlet of a filter system mounted on the filter car, when the third car is positioned atop the quench car. The third car is sized so that it can be moved on the auxiliary rails from a position atop the quench car to a position atop the filter car whereby the quench car can be exposed for a quenching operation.

  15. Effect of lipid/polysaccharide ratio on surface activity of model root mucilage in its solid and liquid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengxian; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere can be defined as the volume of soil around living roots, which is influenced by root activity. The biological, chemical and physical conditions that prevail in the rhizosphere are significantly different from those of the bulk soil. Plant roots can release diverse organic materials in the rhizosphere which may have different effects on its bio-chemo-physical activity. Among these exudates is the root mucilage which can play a role on the maintenance of root-soil contact, lubrication of the root tip, protection of roots from desiccation and disease, stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and the selective absorption and storage of ions. The surface activity of the root mucilage at the liquid-air interface deduced from its surface tension depression relative to water, implying on its amphiphilic nature. Consequently as the rhizosphere dry out, hydrophobic functional groups may exhibit orientation at the solid-air interface and thus, the wettability of the rhizosphere may temporarily decrease. The major fraction of the root mucilage comprise of polysaccharides and to a much lesser extent, amino acids, organic acids, and phospholipids. The most frequent polysaccharide and phospholipids detected in root mucilage are polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. The latter, is thought to be main cause for the surface active nature of root mucilage. Nevertheless, the role and function of root mucilage in the rhizosphere is commonly studied based on model root mucilage that comprise of only one component, where the most frequent ones are PGA or PC (or lecithin). The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of concentration and PGA/PC ratios on the wettability of a model rhizosphere soil and the surface tension of the model root mucilage at the liquid-air interface. The PGA/PC mixtures were measured for their equilibrium and dynamic surface tension using the Wilhelmy-Plate method. Quartz sand or glass slides were

  16. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Doñana National Park, South of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolívar, J. P.; Olías, M.; González-García, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Doñana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and 210Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that 234U/238U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  17. Temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in sediments of the Central Portuguese Margin: a fingerprint of human activities.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Ana M; Lebreiro, Susana; Richter, Thomas; de Stigter, Henko; Trancoso, Maria A; Brito, Pedro

    2013-09-15

    Stable Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb), (210)Pb, Pb, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and Si concentrations were measured in 7 sediment cores from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula to assess the Pb contamination throughout the last 200 years. Independently of their locations, all cores are characterized by increasing Pb/Al rends not related to grain-size changes. Conversely, decreasing trends of (206)Pb/(207)Pb were found towards the present. This tendency suggest a change in Pb sources reflecting an increased proportion derived from anthropogenic activities. The highest anthropogenic Pb inventories for sediments younger than 1950s were found in the two shallowest cores of Cascais and Lisboa submarine canyons, reflecting the proximity of the Tagus estuary. Lead isotope signatures also help demonstrate that sediments contaminated with Pb are not constrained to estuarine-coastal areas and upper parts of submarine canyons, but are also to transferred to a lesser extent to deeper parts of the Portuguese Margin.

  18. Compensatory changes in CYP expression in three different toxicology mouse models: CAR-null, Cyp3a-null, and Cyp2b9/10/13-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramiya; Mota, Linda C.; Litoff, Elizabeth J.; Rooney, John P.; Boswell, W. Tyler; Courter, Elliott; Henderson, Charles M.; Hernandez, Juan P.; Corton, J. Christopher; Moore, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Targeted mutant models are common in mechanistic toxicology experiments investigating the absorption, metabolism, distribution, or elimination (ADME) of chemicals from individuals. Key models include those for xenosensing transcription factors and cytochrome P450s (CYP). Here we investigated changes in transcript levels, protein expression, and steroid hydroxylation of several xenobiotic detoxifying CYPs in constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-null and two CYP-null mouse models that have subfamily members regulated by CAR; the Cyp3a-null and a newly described Cyp2b9/10/13-null mouse model. Compensatory changes in CYP expression that occur in these models may also occur in polymorphic humans, or may complicate interpretation of ADME studies performed using these models. The loss of CAR causes significant changes in several CYPs probably due to loss of CAR-mediated constitutive regulation of these CYPs. Expression and activity changes include significant repression of Cyp2a and Cyp2b members with corresponding drops in 6α- and 16β-testosterone hydroxylase activity. Further, the ratio of 6α-/15α-hydroxylase activity, a biomarker of sexual dimorphism in the liver, indicates masculinization of female CAR-null mice, suggesting a role for CAR in the regulation of sexually dimorphic liver CYP profiles. The loss of Cyp3a causes fewer changes than CAR. Nevertheless, there are compensatory changes including gender-specific increases in Cyp2a and Cyp2b. Cyp2a and Cyp2b were down-regulated in CAR-null mice, suggesting activation of CAR and potentially PXR following loss of the Cyp3a members. However, the loss of Cyp2b causes few changes in hepatic CYP transcript levels and almost no significant compensatory changes in protein expression or activity with the possible exception of 6α-hydroxylase activity. This lack of a compensatory response in the Cyp2b9/10/13-null mice is probably due to low CYP2B hepatic expression, especially in male mice. Overall, compensatory and

  19. A molecular marker of disease activity in autoimmune liver diseases with histopathological correlation; FoXp3/RORγt ratio.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Anand, Shashi; Das, Ashim; Thapa, Baburam; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Minz, Ranjana Walker

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) encompass a group of diseases with variable clinicopathological manifestations. Th17 and Treg cells have roles in the pathogenesis of AILDs with a balance shifted towards a relative increase in activity of the Th17 cells. In this study, the balance between the transcription factors of Treg and Th17 cells (FoXp3 and RORγt) was sought as a molecular marker of disease activity and to highlight the pathogenesis. The peripheral blood samples of 46 treatment-naive patients were collected and RNA was extracted. Real time PCR was performed and the ratio of gene expression was calculated. Histopathology of 18 patients was obtained and the activity score of these biopsies were also corroborated with their respective molecular (FoXp3/RORγt) (FRGT=FoXp3-ROR Gamma T) ratio. The FRGT ratio in healthy individuals was close to 1 and in disease the ratio changed significantly. This ratio (FRGT) was not significantly different in different varieties of AILD or in adult or paediatric form of the disease. However, the ratio remained consistently below 1 (mean 0.3) in acute disease and high (mean 224.7) in chronic or asymptomatic form of the disease (p < 0.001). The histopathological activity score also significantly correlated with the ratio. This signified the relative excess of Th17 (RORγt) in active disease as compared to Treg (FoXp3) and the reverse in chronic form. This ratio can be an important peripheral molecular marker to assess the disease activity without the necessity of performing a liver biopsy.

  20. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  1. A Demonstration of Car Braking Instabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Jack; Swinson, Derek

    1990-01-01

    Detailed are the construction of a demonstration car, apparatus and procedures used in the demonstration, and the analysis of the effects of car braking. The cases of rear-wheel and front-wheel braking are considered. (CW)

  2. Solar-powered car. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, D.

    1982-03-30

    The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)

  3. RNA-Seq Reveals Age- and Species Differences of CAR-targeted Drug-Processing Genes in Liver.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Bammler, Theo K; Cui, Julia Yue

    2017-02-23

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is an important xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in liver, and is well known to have species differences. During development, age-specific activation of CAR may lead to modified pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of drugs and environmental chemicals, leading to higher risks for adverse drug reactions in newborns and children. The goal of this study was to systematically investigate the age- and species-specific regulation of various drug-processing genes (Li et al.) following neonatal or adult CAR activation in livers of wild-type (WT), CAR-null, and humanized CAR-transgenic (hCAR-TG) mice. At either 5- or 60-days of age, the 3 genotypes of mice were administered a species-appropriate CAR ligand or vehicle once daily for 4-days (i.p.). The majority of DPGs were differentially regulated by age and/or CAR activation, and they partitioned into 3 patterns: DPGs in Pattern-1 (up-regulated with age) and Pattern-2 (down-regulated with age) were predominantly regulated by age, whereas DPGs in Pattern 3 were predominantly regulated by CAR activation. There were 36 DPGs that were commonly up-regulated by CAR activation regardless of age or species of CAR; however, the fold-induction in the mRNA expression of these genes was profoundly modified by age. Although the cumulative mRNAs of uptake transporters were not readily altered by CAR, the cumulative Phase-I and -II enzymes as well as efflux transporters were all increased following CAR activation in both species. In general, mCAR activation produced comparable or even greater fold-increases of many DPGs in newborns than in adults; conversely, hCAR activation produced weaker induction in newborns than in adults. Western blotting and enzyme activity assays confirmed the age- and species-specificities of selected CAR-targeted DPGs. In conclusion, neonatal livers appear to be more sensitive to CAR-activators, whereas hCAR and mCAR produce overlapping

  4. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  5. Shuttle-Car System for Continuous Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Buffer storage catches coal production between loadings. Telescoping reservoir filled continuously. With tailgate down, shuttle car slides into place along sides and bottom of reservoir. Reservoir retracts along inside of car and out through tailgate, leaving coal behind in car. System not restricted to coal mining and may prove economical for hauling other solid materials.

  6. Determining the Air Drag on a Car.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Students' cars and wristwatches are used as "apparatus" to introduce and demonstrate Newton's second law of motion. Forces acting on cars are discussed and typical student data (for different makes of cars) are provided. Data could also be used in discussions of work, horsepower, efficiency, and energy cost. (JN)

  7. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  8. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  9. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  10. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  11. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  12. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  13. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  14. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  15. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  16. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  17. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  18. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  19. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  20. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be able to conduct independent inspections...

  1. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  2. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  3. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  4. The progressive ratio schedule as a model for studying the psychomotor stimulant activity of drugs in the rat.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, M; Chermat, R; Soubrie, P; Simon, P

    1983-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were trained to press a lever with food reinforcement according to a continuously reinforced schedule (CRF). Afterwards, rats were subjected to three experimental sessions (30 min each) during which responding was rewarded according to a progressive ratio schedule (following an initial 2-min CRF period, the number of presses necessary for the pellet delivery was doubled every second minute). Responding during the first half of each session, i.e., pressing for food, was maintained at a significant level, whereas it was almost suppressed during the second part of the session. As compared to controls (200 +/- 20 presses/30 min) animals given amfonelic acid (0.5, 1 mg/kg IP), methylphenidate (4, 8 mg/kg IP), caffeine (16 mg/kg IP), cocaine (4 mg/kg IP), oxolinic acid (32 mg/kg IP), nomifensine (4 mg/kg IP), DR 250 (2, 4 mg/kg IP) and d-amphetamine (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg IP) showed an increased rate of responding ranging from 400 to 950 presses/30 min. In contrast, apomorphine, MK 486 + L-dopa, trihexyphenidyl, imipramine, salbutamol and diazepam did not increase responding. These results suggested that this test is highly sensitive for psychomotor stimulants and perhaps for their ability to enhance the reinforcing value of the reward or stimuli associated with the reward. Such activity seemed related to a catecholaminergic substrate since the increase of responding induced by amphetamine was blocked by pimozide, d,l-propranolol and prazosin.

  5. DEEP, LOW-MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-05-15

    We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary system. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass ratio overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.

  6. A brief history of the discovery of PXR and CAR as xenobiotic receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiong; Xie, Wen

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were cloned and/or established as xenobiotic receptors in 1998. Due to their activities in the transcriptional regulation of phase I and phase II enzymes as well as drug transporters, PXR and CAR have been defined as the master regulators of xenobiotic responses. The discovery of PXR and CAR provides the essential molecular basis by which drugs and other xenobiotic compounds regulate the expression of xenobiotic enzymes and transporters. This article is intended to provide a historical overview on the discovery of PXR and CAR as xenobiotic receptors.

  7. Testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences the 2D:4D ratio and open field motor activity of rat siblings in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Talarovicová, Alzbeta; Krsková, Lucia; Blazeková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    In humans, the relationship between the prenatal testosterone exposure and the ratio of the second and the fourth digits (2D:4D) has been extensively studied. Surprisingly, data on this relationship have thus far been lacking in experimental animals such as rats. We studied the effect of maternal testosterone enhancement during pregnancy on the digit ratio and open field activity of adult progeny in Wistar rats. Elevated levels of maternal testosterone resulted in lower 2D:4D ratios and an elongated 4D on the left and right forepaws in both males and females. We found no sex difference in 2D:4D in control animals. In the open field test, control females were more active than control males and testosterone females, while the activity of testosterone females did not differ from that of control males. We found a positive correlation between motor activity and the right forepaw 2D:4D ratio of control males and females. Prenatal exposure to testosterone resulted in the disappearance of this correlation in both males and females. Our results show that elevated levels of testosterone during the prenatal period can influence forepaw 4D length, 2D:4D ratio, and open field motor activity of rats, and that these variables are positively correlated. Thus, this approach represents a noninvasive and robust method for evaluating the effects of prenatal testosterone enhancement on anatomical and physiological parameters.

  8. Mean individual muscle activities and ratios of total muscle activities in a selective muscle strengthening experiment: the effects of lower limb muscle activity based on mediolateral slope angles during a one-leg stance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for research on selective muscle strengthening by identifying mean muscle activities and calculating muscle ratios for use in developing strengthening methods. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were included in this study. Muscle activity was measured during a one-leg stance under 6 conditions of slope angle: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The data used in the analysis were root mean square and % total muscle activity values. [Results] There were significant differences in the root mean square of the gluteus medius, the hamstring, and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. There were significant differences in % total muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] Future studies aimed at developing selective muscle strengthening methods are likely to yield more effective results by using muscle activity ratios based on electromyography data. PMID:27799690

  9. Differences in Gene Regulation by Dual Ligands of Nuclear Receptors Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) and Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) in HepG2 Cells Stably Expressing CAR/PXR.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Tanuma, Nobuaki; Yazawa, Saki; Zhao, Shuai; Inaba, Miki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Inouye, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulate various genes involved in xenobiotics and drug metabolism. In many cases, CAR/PXR share ligands termed dual ligands of CAR/PXR. It is difficult to investigate the effect of CAR/PXR dual ligands in cell lines because CAR and PXR expression is scarcely detected in cultured cell lines. Here, we established a tetracycline-inducible human CAR and stably human PXR-overexpressing HepG2 cell line (HepTR/hCAR/hPXR) to examine CAR/PXR dual ligands. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, which are target genes of CAR/PXR, by dual ligands of CAR/PXR in two transfectants. Activation of CAR and PXR in cells treated with a high dose of CITCO [6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo(2,1-b)thiazole-5-carbaldehyde] or cotreated with rifampicin and tetracycline resulted in synergistic enhancement of CYP3A4, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, or UGT1A1, mRNA expression in HepTR/hCAR/hPXR cells. In contrast, this synergistic effect was not observed in HepTR/hCAR cells. These observations were also demonstrated in human primary hepatocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that dual ligands of CAR/PXR show distinct gene regulation patterns by cross-talk between CAR and PXR. Furthermore, the two newly established cell lines are useful tools to investigate dual ligands of CAR/PXR.

  10. Evolution of the crashworthiness and aggressivity of the Spanish car fleet.

    PubMed

    Gómez Méndez, Alvaro; Aparicio Izquierdo, Francisco; Arenas Ramírez, Blanca

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a passenger car's year of registration and its crashworthiness and aggressivity in real-world crashes. Crashworthiness is defined as the ability of a car to protect its own occupants, and has been evaluated in single and two-car crashes. Aggressivity is defined as the ability to protect users travelling in other vehicles, and has been evaluated only in two-car crashes. The dependent variable is defined as the proportion of injured drivers who are killed or seriously injured; following previous research, we refer to this magnitude as injury severity. A decrease in the injury severity of a driver is interpreted as an improvement in the crashworthiness of their car; similarly, a decrease in the injury severity of the opponent driver is regarded as an improvement in aggressivity. Data have been extracted from the Spanish Road Accident Database, which contains information on every accident registered by the police in which at least one person was injured. Two types of regression models have been used: logistic regression models in single-car crashes, and generalised estimating equations (GEE) models in two-car crashes. GEE allow to take account of the correlation between the injury severities of drivers involved in the same crash. The independent variables considered have been: year of registration of the subject car (crashworthiness component), year of registration of the opponent car (aggressivity component), and several factors related to road, driver and environment. Our models confirm that crashworthiness has largely improved in two-car crashes: when crashing into the average opponent car, drivers of cars registered before 1985 have a significantly higher probability of being killed or seriously injured than drivers of cars registered in 2000-2005 (odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.61; 2.01). In single-car crashes, the improvement in crashworthiness is very slight (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% confidence interval

  11. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  12. The ratio of alpha-galactosidase to beta-glucuronidase activities in dried blood for the identification of female Fabry disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, Z; Keil, A; Kohlschütter, A; Beck, M; Mengel, E

    2005-01-01

    Female heterozygous patients with Fabry disease are difficult to identify because of the relatively high residual activity of alpha-galactosidase. We systematically evaluated the activities of various lysosomal enzymes in dried blood samples from Fabry patients and found that the beta-glucuronidase activity was frequently elevated. The ratio of alpha-galactosidase to beta-glucuronidase proved to be a helpful tool for the diagnosis of female Fabry disease patients.

  13. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  14. Comparison of Infant Car Seat grip orientations and lift strategies.

    PubMed

    Clamann, Michael; Zhu, Biwen; Beaver, Leah; Taylor, Kinley; Kaber, David

    2012-07-01

    The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) is designed to meet federal requirements for transporting children less than 1 year old. Typical use includes transfer in and out of a vehicle, which is shown to be a difficult lift. Despite the frequency of this lift, manufacturers provide little guidance for users. Review of relevant literature suggested an ICS featuring an angled handle, promoting a neutral wrist posture, would increase grip stability and decrease lifting effort. Popular press suggested a foot-in-car stance for the ICS lift would do the same. An experiment was conducted in which wrist deviations from neutral posture were recorded along with lifting muscle activation levels (multiple flexor muscles and biceps brachii) and overall perceived exertion for straight versus a new bent handle design and conventional stance versus foot-in-car. Foot position was examined to test the recommendations in the popular press. Surprisingly, wrist deviation was not significantly affected by the new bent handle design (due to compensatory behavior with the straight handle) but was related to foot placement (p=0.04). Results revealed the bent handle to significantly reduce flexor activation compared with the straight handle (p=0.0003); however, the level of biceps activation increased. Biceps activation also significantly increased for foot-in-car stance (p=0.035) but not flexor activation. In general, the bent handle enabled the user to lift the ICS with a steadier grip and less effort.

  15. The Role of Ice Compositions for Snowlines and the C/N/O Ratios in Active Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Pegues, Jamila; Öberg, Karin I.

    2016-12-01

    The elemental compositions of planets define their chemistry, and could potentially be used as beacons for their formation location if the elemental gas and grain ratios of planet birth environments, i.e., protoplanetary disks, were well understood. In disks, the ratios of volatile elements, such as C/O and N/O, are regulated by the abundance of the main C, N, O carriers, their ice binding environment, and the presence of snowlines of major volatiles at different distances from the central star. We explore the effects of disk dynamical processes, molecular compositions and abundances, and ice compositions on the snowline locations of the main C, O, and N carriers, and the C/N/O ratios in gas and dust throughout the disk. The gas-phase N/O ratio enhancement in the outer disk (exterior to the H2O snowline) exceeds the C/O ratio enhancement for all reasonable volatile compositions. Ice compositions and disk dynamics individually change the snowline location of N2, the main nitrogen carrier, by a factor of 2-3, and when considered together the range of possible N2 snowline locations is ˜11-˜79 au in a standard disk model. Observations that anchor snowline locations at different stages of planet formation are therefore key to developing C/N/O ratios as a probe of planet formation zones.

  16. Car surfing: case studies of a growing dangerous phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest

    2008-03-01

    Car surfing is a dangerous new pastime for American youth. Car surfing is an activity that is defined as standing (or lying) on a vehicle while it is being driven. This activity frequently results in severe injuries that often require significant surgical intervention. Despite its destructive nature, however, there are many Internet sites that encourage this behavior and view it as amusing. As a result, car surfing is becoming increasingly popular. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients injured as a result of car surfing over the last 4 years at our Urban Level II trauma center. Data collected included Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), age, gender, injury pattern, surgical intervention, and length of stay. Eight car surfers were identified. The average age was 17. The average Revised Trauma Score was 6.8 with an average Injury Severity Score of 16.9. Five patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Four of these five patients needed to be intubated for ventilatory support. Five of the eight patients had significant intracranial injuries. Two patients had epidural hematomas that required evacuation. Two other patients had subdural hematomas that were treated nonoperatively, and one patient had a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was also treated nonoperatively. Four of the eight patients required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in this study. Car surfing leads to severe injuries that can result in significant morbidity. American youth have access to Internet sites that project this activity as an acceptable behavior. Five of our eight patients had a significant intracranial injury. Trauma surgeons need to be more aware of this injury phenomenon.

  17. Nuclear receptors CAR and PXR: Molecular, functional, and biomedical aspects.

    PubMed

    di Masi, Alessandra; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors sharing a common evolutionary history and having similar sequence features at the protein level. Selective ligand(s) for some NRs is not known, therefore these NRs have been named "orphan receptors". Whenever ligands have been recognized for any of the orphan receptor, it has been categorized and grouped as "adopted" orphan receptor. This group includes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). They function as sensors of toxic byproducts derived from endogenous metabolites and of exogenous chemicals, in order to enhance their elimination. This unique function of CAR and PXR sets them apart from the steroid hormone receptors. The broad response profile has established that CAR and PXR are xenobiotic sensors that coordinately regulate xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for CAR and PXR in modulating hormone, lipid, and energy homeostasis as well as cancer and liver steatosis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the structural and molecular bases of CAR and PXR impact on human health, providing information on mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease.

  18. Neural correlates of culturally familiar brands of car manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Berens, Harald; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Brands have a high impact on people's economic decisions. People may prefer products of brands even among almost identical products. Brands can be defined as cultural-based symbols, which promise certain advantages of a product. Recent studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be crucial for the processing of brand knowledge. The aim of this study was to examine the neural correlates of culturally based brands. We confronted subjects with logos of car manufactures during an fMRI session and instructed them to imagine and use a car of these companies. As a control condition, we used graphically comparable logos of car manufacturers that were unfamiliar to the culture of the subjects participating in this study. If they did not know the logo of the brand, they were told to imagine and use a generic car. Results showed activation of a single region in the medial prefrontal cortex related to the logos of the culturally familiar brands. We discuss the results as self-relevant processing induced by the imagined use of cars of familiar brands and suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role for processing culturally based brands.

  19. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person in... single car air brake test on a car when: (1) A car has its brakes cut-out or inoperative when...

  20. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person in... single car air brake test on a car when: (1) A car has its brakes cut-out or inoperative when...

  1. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person in... single car air brake test on a car when: (1) A car has its brakes cut-out or inoperative when...

  2. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  3. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  4. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person in... single car air brake test on a car when: (1) A car has its brakes cut-out or inoperative when...

  5. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  6. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  7. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person in... single car air brake test on a car when: (1) A car has its brakes cut-out or inoperative when...

  8. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  9. enviroCar - citizen science for sustainable traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasch, Christoph; Remke, Albert; Jirka, Simon; Nuest, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing traffic flow is a challenging task, affecting both the mobility of people and the environment. Up to now, traffic monitoring is based on small samples using GPS devices or remote sensors such as cameras. Citizens are usually not actively involved in the process of collecting or analyzing traffic data. The enviroCar project (www.envirocar.org) aims at addressing this situation by providing an open platform that can be used by everyone to collect and analyze traffic-related data and thus to achieve sustainable traffic management by answering questions such as: How is the average speed on a certain route? Where are exceptionally long waiting times in front of traffic lights? At which crossings do more cars stop than drive through? Where are hotspots of fuel consumption and air pollutant emission during a certain time interval? In this presentation, an overview on the enviroCar project is given and current research challenges addressed in the context of the project are presented. Citizens are able to participate by registering at the enviroCar portal and downloading the enviroCar Android app. Once installed, the Android app allows citizens to collect car sensor data, e.g. speed, mass air flow, or intake temperature via an On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD-II) Adapter. After finishing a car ride, the data can be uploaded to the central enviroCar server where the data is anonymized and published as open data. Each enviroCar member has a profile page giving control on his own data and providing statistics on personal driving behavior. The portal also allows comparing personal statistics with the statistics of other members. It thus facilitates analysis whether, for example, a member is driving in a more fuel saving manner than other users. Besides only acting as a data collector, citizens can also explore the enviroCar data in online maps or download the data in standard formats for certain spatial areas and/or time intervals allowing them to conduct spatio

  10. Serum flecainide S/R ratio reflects the CYP2D6 genotype and changes in CYP2D6 activity.

    PubMed

    Doki, Kosuke; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Kuga, Keisuke; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Homma, Masato

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify whether the ratio of S- to R-flecainide (S/R ratio) in the serum flecainide concentration was associated with the stereoselectivity of flecainide metabolism, and to investigate the effects of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype and CYP2D6 inhibitor on the serum flecainide S/R ratio. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms suggested that variability in the serum flecainide S/R ratio was associated with the stereoselectivity of CYP2D6-mediated flecainide metabolism. We examined the serum flecainide S/R ratio in 143 patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. The S/R ratio was significantly lower in intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers (IMs/PMs) than in extensive metabolizers (EMs) identified by the CYP2D6 genotype. The cut-off value for the S/R ratio to allow the discrimination between CYP2D6 EMs and IMs/PMs was 0.99. The S/R ratio in patients with co-administration of bepridil, a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor, was lower than 0.99, regardless of the CYP2D6 genotype status. Other factors, including age, sex, body weight, and renal function, did not affect the serum flecainide S/R ratio. This study suggests that the serum flecainide S/R ratio reflects the CYP2D6 genotype and changes in CYP2D6 activity on co-administration of a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  12. Cobra Strikes! High-Performance Car Inspires Students, Markets Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    Nestled in the Lower Piedmont region of upstate South Carolina, Piedmont Technical College (PTC) is one of 16 technical colleges in the state. Automotive technology is one of its most popular programs. The program features an instructive, motivating activity that the author describes in this article: building a high-performance car. The Cobra…

  13. Armored CAR T-cells: utilizing cytokines and pro-inflammatory ligands to enhance CAR T-cell anti-tumour efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yeku, Oladapo O; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells that have been genetically modified to express an artificial construct consisting of a synthetic T-cell receptor (TCR) targeted to a predetermined antigen expressed on a tumour. Coupling the T-cell receptor to a CD3ζ signalling domain paved the way for first generation CAR T-cells that were efficacious against cluster of differentiation (CD)19-expressing B-cell malignancies. Optimization with additional signalling domains such as CD28 or 4-1BB in addition to CD3ζ provided T-cell activation signal 2 and further improved the efficacy and persistence of these second generation CAR T-cells. Third generation CAR T-cells which utilize two tandem costimulatory domains have also been reported. In this review, we discuss a different approach to optimization of CAR T-cells. Through additional genetic modifications, these resultant armored CAR T-cells are typically modified second generation CAR T-cells that have been further optimized to inducibly or constitutively secrete active cytokines or express ligands that further armor CAR T-cells to improve efficacy and persistence. The choice of the 'armor' agent is based on knowledge of the tumour microenvironment and the roles of other elements of the innate and adaptive immune system. Although there are several variants of armored CAR T-cells under investigation, here we focus on three unique approaches using interleukin-12 (IL-12), CD40L and 4-1BBL. These agents have been shown to further enhance CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in the face of a hostile tumour microenvironment via different mechanisms.

  14. Within- and between-session reliability of the maximal voluntary knee extension torque and activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihong; Hopkins, J Ty

    2013-01-01

    A ratio between the torque generated by maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and exogenous electrical stimulus, central activation ratio (CAR), has been widely used to assess quadriceps function. To date, no data exist regarding between-session reliability of this measurement. Thirteen neurologically sound volunteers underwent three testing sessions (three trials per session) with 48 hours between-session. Subjects performed MVICs of the quadriceps with the knee locked at 90° flexion and the hip at 85°. Once the MVIC reached a plateau, an electrical stimulation from superimposed burst technique (SIB: 125 V with peak output current 450 mA) was manually delivered and transmitted directly to the quadriceps via stimulating electrodes. CAR was calculated by using the following equation: CAR = MVIC torque/MVIC + SIB torque. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated within- (ICC((2,1))) and between-session (ICC((2,k))) for MVIC torques and CAR values. Our data show that quadriceps MVIC and CAR are very reliable both within- (ICC((2,1)) = 0.99 for MVIC; 0.94 for CAR) and between-measurement sessions (ICC((2,k)) = 0.92 for MVIC; 0.86 for CAR) in healthy young adults. For clinical research, more data of the patients with pathological conditions are required to ensure reproducibility of calculation of CAR.

  15. [The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-3 and omega-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Marchenko, M M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p < 0.05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0.92 +/- 0.08 and 0.79 +/- 0.12 vs 1.26 +/- 0.10. The use of high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0.47 +/- 0.04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2.53 +/- 0.23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum.

  16. An improved car-following model considering the immediately ahead car's velocity difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Zhao, Xiangmo; Xu, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-11-01

    The field car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China are collected for data mining. An improved car-following model considering the immediately ahead car's velocity difference on a single-lane road was proposed, calibrated and verified based on full velocity difference model. The results of some numerical simulations indicate that the immediately ahead car's velocity difference has significant effects on the following car's motion, that the improved car-following model fits the measured data well and can qualitatively describe the impacts of the immediately ahead car's velocity difference on traffic flow, and that modeling the car-following behavior considering the immediately ahead car's velocity difference can improve the stability of the simulated traffic flow.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  18. Effects of Non-Guidance Activities, Supervision, and Student-to-Counselor Ratios on School Counselor Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    School counselors, like all mental health professionals are at high risk for burnout. High caseloads, job role ambiguity, and lack of supervision increase their propensity for burnout. Three areas were selected for study in this article due to their potential impact on burnout: supervision, student-to-counselor-ratios, and non-guidance related…

  19. The role of the nuclear receptor CAR as a coordinate regulator of hepatic gene expression in defense against chemical toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Negishi, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive active receptor) mediates the induction of transcription of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by phenobarbital (PB) and PB-type inducers. A recent study using CAR-null mice has shown that CAR regulates not only the CYP genes but also other genes encoding various drug/steroid-metabolizing enzymes. In addition to coordinating these enzymes, CAR plays other roles in hepatic gene expression: CAR represses various genes including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in response to PB, and the receptor regulates the constitutive expression of genes such as squalene epoxidase. On the other hand, induction of certain genes such as amino levulinate synthase 1 by PB is not regulated by CAR. Here we describe diverse roles of CAR in hepatic gene expression with a particular focus on endogenous substances such as cholesterol, bilirubin, and steroid hormones.

  20. The effects of diet, mating duration , female to male ratios and temperature on ovary activation, mating success and fecundity of Aethina tumida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of natural diet, mating and temperature on the ovary activation and fecundity of small hive beetles (SHB) Aethina tumida Murray were studied. The natural diets evaluated were brood, pollen, honey and their various combinations. Duration of mating (1 day versus 2 days), ratio of female (F...

  1. Uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, R.C.

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M = 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  2. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  3. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. - Highlights: • Nuclear receptor CAR interact with PRMT5. • PRMT5 enhances transcriptional activity of CAR. • PRMT5 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1, DP97 or PGC1α. • PRMT5 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR.

  4. Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities. Annual Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2011-08-24

    The objective of this work is to identify isotopic ratios suitable for analysis via mass spectrometry that distinguish between commercial nuclear reactor fuel cycles, fuel cycles for weapons grade plutonium, and products from nuclear weapons explosions. Methods will also be determined to distinguish the above from medical and industrial radionuclide sources. Mass spectrometry systems will be identified that are suitable for field measurement of such isotopes in an expedient manner.

  5. Rainfall estimation using moving cars as rain gauges - laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiei, E.; Haberlandt, U.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-04-01

    The spatial assessment of short time step precipitation is a challenging task. Low density of observation networks, as well as the bias in radar rainfall estimation motivated the new idea of exploiting cars as moving rain gauges with windshield wipers or optical sensors as measurement devices. In a preliminary study, this idea has been tested with computer experiments (Haberlandt and Sester, 2010). The results have shown that a high number of possibly inaccurate measurement devices (moving cars) provide more reliable areal rainfall estimations than a lower number of precise measurement devices (stationary gauges). Instead of assuming a relationship between wiper frequency (W) and rainfall intensity (R) with an arbitrary error, the main objective of this study is to derive valid W-R relationships between sensor readings and rainfall intensity by laboratory experiments. Sensor readings involve the wiper speed, as well as optical sensors which can be placed on cars and are usually made for automating wiper activities. A rain simulator with the capability of producing a wide range of rainfall intensities is designed and constructed. The wiper speed and two optical sensors are used in the laboratory to measure rainfall intensities, and compare it with tipping bucket readings as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the car speed on the estimation of rainfall using a car speed simulator device is investigated. The results show that the sensor readings, which are observed from wiper speed adjustment according to the front visibility, can be considered as a strong indicator for rainfall intensity. Also the optical sensors showed promising results toward measuring rainfall rate. It is observed that the car speed has a significant effect on the rainfall measurement. This effect is highly dependent on the rain type as well as the windshield angle.

  6. Rainfall estimation using moving cars as rain gauges - laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiei, E.; Haberlandt, U.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-11-01

    The spatial assessment of short time-step precipitation is a challenging task. Low density of observation networks, as well as the bias in radar rainfall estimation motivated the new idea of exploiting cars as moving rain gauges with windshield wipers or optical sensors as measurement devices. In a preliminary study, this idea has been tested with computer experiments (Haberlandt and Sester, 2010). The results have shown that a high number of possibly inaccurate measurement devices (moving cars) provide more reliable areal rainfall estimations than a lower number of precise measurement devices (stationary gauges). Instead of assuming a relationship between wiper frequency (W) and rainfall intensity (R) with an arbitrary error, the main objective of this study is to derive valid W-R relationships between sensor readings and rainfall intensity by laboratory experiments. Sensor readings involve the wiper speed, as well as optical sensors which can be placed on cars and are usually made for automating wiper activities. A rain simulator with the capability of producing a wide range of rainfall intensities is designed and constructed. The wiper speed and two optical sensors are used in the laboratory to measure rainfall intensities, and compare it with tipping bucket readings as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the car speed on the estimation of rainfall using a car speed simulator device is investigated. The results show that the sensor readings, which are observed from manual wiper speed adjustment according to the front visibility, can be considered as a strong indicator for rainfall intensity, while the automatic wiper adjustment show weaker performance. Also the sensor readings from optical sensors showed promising results toward measuring rainfall rate. It is observed that the car speed has a significant effect on the rainfall measurement. This effect is highly dependent on the rain type as well as the windshield angle.

  7. Real-time Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) Estimation for BPSK and QPSK Modulation Using the Active Communications Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and apparatus for estimating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gamma of a composite input signal e(t) on a phase modulated (e.g., BPSK) communications link. A first demodulator receives the composite input signal and a stable carrier signal and outputs an in-phase output signal; a second demodulator receives the composite input signal and a phase-shifted version of the carrier signal and outputs a quadrature-phase output signal; and phase error theta(sub E)(t) contained within the composite input signal e(t) is calculated from the outputs of the first and second demodulators. A time series of statistically independent phase error measurements theta(sub E)(t(sub 1)), theta (sub E)(t(sub 2)),..., theta (sub E)(t(sub k)) is obtained from the composite input signal subtending a time interval delta t = t(sub k) - t(sub 1) whose value is small enough such that gamma(t) and sigma(t) can be taken to be constant in delta t. A biased estimate gamma(sup *) for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gamma if the composite input signal is calculated using maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques, and an unbiased estimate gamma(sup ^) for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gamma of the composite input signal is determined from the biased estimate gamma(sup *), such as by use of a look-up table.

  8. Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities: Annual Report Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S; Buchholz, B

    2009-08-26

    The objective of this work is to identify isotopic ratios suitable for analysis via mass spectrometry that distinguish between commercial nuclear reactor fuel cycles, fuel cycles for weapons grade plutonium, and products from nuclear weapons explosions. Methods will also be determined to distinguish the above from medical and industrial radionuclide sources. Mass spectrometry systems will be identified that are suitable for field measurement of such isotopes in an expedient manner. Significant progress has been made with this project within the past year: (1) Isotope production from commercial nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear weapons fuel cycles have been modeled with the ORIGEN and MCNPX codes. (2) MCNPX has been utilized to calculate isotopic inventories produced in a short burst fast bare sphere reactor (to approximate the signature of a nuclear weapon). (3) Isotopic ratios have been identified that are good for distinguishing between commercial and military fuel cycles as well as between nuclear weapons and commercial nuclear fuel cycles. (4) Mass spectrometry systems have been assessed for analysis of the fission products of interest. (5) A short-list of forensic ratios have been identified that are well suited for use in portable mass spectrometry systems.

  9. Multiplex Genome Editing to Generate Universal CAR T Cells Resistant to PD1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Fang, Chongyun; Jiang, Shuguang; June, Carl H; Zhao, Yangbing

    2016-11-04

    Purpose: Using gene-disrupted allogeneic T cells as universal effector cells provides an alternative and potentially improves current chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy against cancers and infectious diseases.Experimental Design: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently emerged as a simple and efficient way for multiplex genome engineering. By combining lentiviral delivery of CAR and electro-transfer of Cas9 mRNA and gRNAs targeting endogenous TCR, β-2 microglobulin (B2M) and PD1 simultaneously, to generate gene-disrupted allogeneic CAR T cells deficient of TCR, HLA class I molecule and PD1.Results: The CRISPR gene-edited CAR T cells showed potent antitumor activities, both in vitro and in animal models and were as potent as non-gene-edited CAR T cells. In addition, the TCR and HLA class I double deficient T cells had reduced alloreactivity and did not cause graft-versus-host disease. Finally, simultaneous triple genome editing by adding the disruption of PD1 led to enhanced in vivo antitumor activity of the gene-disrupted CAR T cells.Conclusions: Gene-disrupted allogeneic CAR and TCR T cells could provide an alternative as a universal donor to autologous T cells, which carry difficulties and high production costs. Gene-disrupted CAR and TCR T cells with disabled checkpoint molecules may be potent effector cells against cancers and infectious diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 1-12. ©2016 AACR.

  10. Nanoparticles and cars - analysis of potential sources

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the present study analyzed the literature with regard to nanoparticles and cars. It can be stated that, to date, only a limited amount of research has been conducted in this area and more studies are needed to 1) address kind and sources of nanoparticles within automobiles and to 2) analyse whether there are health effects caused by these nanoparticles. PMID:22726351

  11. Efficacy and toxicity management of CAR-T-cell immunotherapy: a matter of responsiveness control or tumour-specificity?

    PubMed

    Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Álvarez-Méndez, Ana; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T-cells have demonstrated potent clinical efficacy in patients with haematological malignancies. However, the use of CAR-T-cells targeting solid tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) has been limited by organ toxicities related to activation of T-cell effector functions through the CAR. Most existing CARs recognize TAAs, which are also found in normal tissues. CAR-T-cell-mediated destruction of normal tissues constitutes a major roadblock to CAR-T-cell therapy, and must be avoided or mitigated. There is a broad range of strategies for modulating antigen responsiveness of CAR-T-cells, with varying degrees of complexity. Some of them might ameliorate the acute and chronic toxicities associated with current CAR constructs. However, further embellishments to CAR therapy may complicate clinical implementation and possibly create new immunogenicity issues. In contrast, the development of CARs targeting truly tumour-specific antigens might circumvent on-target/off-tumour toxicities without adding additional complexity to CAR-T-cell therapies, but these antigens have been elusive and may require novel selection strategies for their discovery.

  12. Collisions with passenger cars and moose, Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Björnstig, U; Eriksson, A; Thorson, J; Bylund, P O

    1986-01-01

    The number of collisions between motor vehicles and moose is increasing in many countries. Collisions with large, high animals such as moose cause typical rear- and downward deformation of the windshield pillars and front roof, most pronounced for small passenger cars; the injury risk increases with the deformation of the car. A strengthening of the windshield pillars and front roof and the use of antilacerative windshields would reduce the injury risk to car occupants. PMID:3953927

  13. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  14. Racing Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Unit conversion need not be boring. If students see that the skill is necessary, both their motivation to learn and their appreciation of the process can be enhanced. As a result, students become actively engaged and construct understanding and computational skills that they will retain over time. The activity described here makes use of scale…

  15. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  16. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  17. CARS thermometry in high temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Dunn-Rankin, D.

    1993-01-01

    CARS is an effective non-intrusive technique for measuring gas temperature in combustion environments. In regions of high temperature gradient, however, the CARS signal is complicated by contributions from gas at different temperature. This paper examines theoretically the uncertainty associated with CARS thermometry in steep temperature gradients. In addition, the work compares the temperature predicted from CARS with the adiabatic mixed temperature of the gas resident in the measurement volume. This comparison helps indicate the maximum sample volume size allowed for accurate temperature measurements.

  18. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that cotinine measurements may underestimate exposure of passive smokers to the lung carcinogen NNK in secondhand cigarette smoke. The total NNAL:total cotinine (× 103) ratio may provide an improved biomarker for evaluating the health effects of passive smoking. PMID:21812592

  19. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2-0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5-0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  20. Microbial protein production in activated suspension tanks manipulating C:N ratio in feed and the implications for fish culture.

    PubMed

    Azim, M E; Little, D C; Bron, J E

    2008-06-01

    The present experiment investigated the possibility of microbial protein production in 250 l indoor tanks by manipulating C:N ratio in fish feed applied. Two different levels of protein feed (35% and 22% CP) resulting in C:N ratio of 8.4 and 11.6, respectively, were applied at 25 g daily in each tank. Tanks were aerated and agitated continuously using a dome diffuser. The experiment was carried out for eight weeks. The biofloc development in terms of VSS and BOD5 was better in the low protein fed tanks than in the high protein fed tanks. An estimated biofloc productivity ranged 3-5 g Cm(-3)day(-1). A 3-D image stained with DAPI indicates that the biofloc is comprised of hundreds of bacterial nuclei, size being ranged from 100 to 200 microm. Biofloc quality was independent of the quality of feed applied and contained more than 50% crude protein, 2.5% crude lipid, 4% fibre, 7% ash and 22 kJ g(-1) energy on dry matter basis. The dietary composition and size of biofloc can be considered as appropriate for all omnivorous fish species. The underlying ecological processes are explained through factor analysis. The potential of using biofloc in fish culture is also discussed.

  1. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  2. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  3. Car driver casualty rates in Great Britain by type of car.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2008-07-01

    Since 1989, the British STATS19 national road accident reporting system has included the Vehicle Registration Mark (VRM). This allows the basic vehicle record to be augmented with details such as the date of first registration and codes that specify the vehicle's make and model. In order to examine the influence of car type upon the driver casualty rate, this paper groups car models into six types, ranging from 'Minis and Superminis' to '4x4s and people carriers (pc)'. Exploratory analyses of data from accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2005 show that the driver casualty rate falls markedly with size of car. In car-car collisions, the rate also rises markedly with the size of the other car. The car's year of first registration also influences the casualty rate, and represents the influence of changes in the characteristics of new cars. Statistical models are fitted to identify the separate influences on a driver's risk of injury in a car-car collision of the type and registration year of the driver's car and the type and registration year of the other car in the collision. The analysis is extended to include collisions with other vehicles such as lorries and buses.

  4. Measurement of Micro Vibration of Car by Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Masuyama, Kosuke; Nakamura, Testuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kajiro

    Recently, there are various accidents and crimes related to the car. In some cases, the accidents and the crimes can be prevented if it is possible to detect a human who is in the car. For example, we can prevent a baby who is left in a car under the hot weather from dehydration or death occurred by heat inside disease. In another case, it is estimated that the United States currently has as many as 12 million illegal immigrants. In order to prevent further influx of illegal immigrants, the police are physically searching incoming vehicles at national boundaries aiming at finding those who are hiding inside. However, the physical inspections require much manpower cost and time. An inspection method to see inside the vehicles through X-ray images has also been used for this end. But the cost and the installation places are the problems of the large-scale X-ray system. Proposed in this paper is a piezoelectric ceramic system to handily measure the micro vibrations of motor vehicles. And applying the algorithm of Support Vector Machine (SVM), the existence of human body inside vehicles can be detected. The experiment was carried out using four types of vehicles: a mini car; an auto mobile; a van; and a truck weighing 1.5 tons. As the results, the correct determination ratio was 91.2% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 97.0% under the rear wheels, when the vehicle used for the examination had also been used together with other three types of vehicles to obtain SVM training data. When the vehicle used for the examination had not been used together with the other three to obtain SVM training data, on the other hand, the correct determination ratio was 93.7% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 95.7% under the rear wheels.

  5. The growing world of CAR T cell trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Astrid; Barden, Markus; Abken, Hinrich

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, cancer treatment involving adoptive cell therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified patient's immune cells has attracted growing interest. Using gene transfer techniques, the patient's T cells are modified ex vivo with a CAR which redirects the T cells toward the cancer cells through an antibody-derived binding domain. The T cells are activated by the CAR primary signaling and costimulatory domains. Such "second generation" CAR T cells induced complete remission of B cell malignancies in the long-term. In this fast-moving field with a growing number of engineered T cell products, we list about 100 currently ongoing trials here that involve CAR T cells targeting hematopoietic malignancies and solid cancer. Major challenges in the further development of the therapy are briefly discussed.

  6. Targeted immunotherapy of cancer with CAR T cells: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lipowska-Bhalla, Grazyna; Gilham, David E; Hawkins, Robert E; Rothwell, Dominic G

    2012-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a relatively new but promising approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy. This therapeutic strategy is based on the genetic reprogramming of T cells with an artificial immune receptor that redirects them against targets on malignant cells and enables their destruction by exerting T cell effector functions. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of CAR T cells as an immunotherapy for cancer. In the pre-clinical setting, there has been a considerable focus upon optimizing the structural and signaling potency of the CAR while advances in bio-processing technology now mean that the clinical testing of these gene-modified T cells has become a reality. This review will summarize the concept of CAR-based immunotherapy and recent clinical trial activity and will further discuss some of the likely future challenges facing CAR-modified T cell therapies.

  7. High-affinity FRβ-specific CAR T cells eradicate AML and normal myeloid lineage without HSC toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lynn, R C; Feng, Y; Schutsky, K; Poussin, M; Kalota, A; Dimitrov, D S; Powell, D J

    2016-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy, and development of new treatments to prolong remissions is warranted. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies appear promising but on-target, off-tumor recognition of antigen in healthy tissues remains a concern. Here we isolated a high-affinity (HA) folate receptor beta (FRβ)-specific single-chain variable fragment (2.48 nm KD) for optimization of FRβ-redirected CAR T-cell therapy for AML. T cells stably expressing the HA-FRβ CAR exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor activity against FRβ(+) AML in vitro and in vivo compared with a low-affinity FRβ CAR (54.3 nm KD). Using the HA-FRβ immunoglobulin G, FRβ expression was detectable in myeloid-lineage hematopoietic cells; however, expression in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was nearly undetectable. Accordingly, HA-FRβ CAR T cells lysed mature CD14(+) monocytes, while HSC colony formation was unaffected. Because of the potential for elimination of mature myeloid lineage, mRNA CAR electroporation for transient CAR expression was evaluated. mRNA-electroporated HA-FRβ CAR T cells retained effective antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results highlight the importance of antibody affinity in target protein detection and CAR development and suggest that transient delivery of potent HA-FRβ CAR T cells is highly effective against AML and reduces the risk for long-term myeloid toxicity.

  8. The activity ratio of 228Th to 228Ra in bone tissue of recently deceased humans: a new dating method in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Zinka, Bettina; Kandlbinder, Robert; Schupfner, Robert; Haas, Gerald; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Graw, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of time since death in human skeletons or single bones often is limited by methodically difficulties. Determination of the specific activity ratio of natural radionuclides, in particular of 232Th (Thorium), 228Th and 228Ra (Radium) seems to be a new appropriate method to calculate the post mortem interval. These radionuclides are incorporated by any human being, mainly from food. So with an individual's death the uptake of radionuclides ends. But the decay of 232Th produces 228Ra and 228Th due to its decay series, whereas 228Th is continuously built up in the human's bones. Thus, it can be concluded that in all deceased humans at different times after death different activity ratios of 228Th to 228Ra will develop in bone. According to this fact it should be possible to calculate time since death of an individual by first analysing the specific activities of 228Th and 228Ra in bones of deceased and then determining the 228Th/228Ra activity ratio, which can be assigned to a certain post-mortem interval.

  9. R-carrying genotypes of serum paraoxonase (PON1) 192 polymorphism and higher activity ratio are related to susceptibility against ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Gohari, Ghorban; Hashemi, Mohammad-Bagher; Zargari, Mehryar; Musavi, Hadis; Abedini, Mahmoud; Alizadeh, Ahad

    2012-12-01

    The polymorphic gene of serum paraoxonase (PON1) and its activity involved in atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study was to analyze PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism and the enzyme activities in ischemic stroke. The polymorphism as the most common polymorphism in PON1 gene coding sequence is associated with variation in the enzyme activity and vascular disease. The study included 85 stroke patients and 71 control subjects. PON1 192 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR protocol. Paraoxonase activity (Para) and arylesterase activity (Aryl) were determined spectrophotometrically using paraoxon and phenylacetate as the substrates. The QR and RR genotypes were more frequent in stroke population compared to controls, resulting in a higher frequency of the R allele in patients (0.24 vs 0.18, OR = 1.41). Patients had significantly higher Para/Aryl ratio than that of controls (P = 0.016). In stroke patients, Para/Aryl and Para/HDL ratios increased with this order: QQ < QR < RR. Hypertension significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke by 15-fold among R-containing people, while this was significantly increased 4-fold for QQ homozygotes. Smoking increased the risk of having ischemic stroke in both QQ homozygote and QR + RR group (OR = 2.84 and OR = 2.33, respectively). In conclusion, these data highlight the importance of PON1 192 R allele and high Para/Aryl ratio in susceptibility to ischemic stroke in the population. The presence of the 192 R allele potentiates the risk of stroke especially in hypertensive people. Decreased Aryl and increased Para/Aryl, Para/HDL and Aryl/HDL ratios may be markers indicated the increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke in the population.

  10. Abnormal kappa:lambda light chain ratio in circulating immune complexes as a marker for B cell activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Low, J M; Chauhan, A K; Moore, T L

    2007-01-01

    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) which correlated with disease activity. Our aim was to assess B cell activity by measuring the amount of and the kappa:lambda chain immunoglobulin light (L) chain ratio in CICs from JIA patients and to determine potential evidence for either an antigen-driven response or B-cell receptor editing. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure kappa and lambda chains present in the CICs from the sera of patients with JIA. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Sera from 44 JIA patients were examined for the concentration of L chains in CICs. Healthy controls had a kappa:lambda chain ratio of 1.2:1, whereas this ratio was reversed among JIA subgroups with RF-positive polyarthritis (1:1.2), RF-negative polyarthritis (1:1.3), oligoarthritis (1:2.3) and systemic-onset arthritis (1:2.5). In addition, overall lambda chain selection was not significantly associated with a particular immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and occurred with all immunoglobulin isotypes. We showed preferential selection of lambda chains contributing to the formation of potentially pathogenic CICs from JIA patients, of all onset types compared to healthy controls, in an H chain-independent manner. The reversal of kappa:lambda chain ratio within the JIA CICs and association with all immunoglobulin isotypes demonstrated the potential for L chain editing. Furthermore, we conclude that a reversal of the normal kappa:lambda chain ratio in JIA CICs may be used as a marker for increased B-cell activity.

  11. Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions.

  12. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway by adiponectin and insulin in mouse adipocytes: requirement of acyl-CoA synthetases FATP1 and Acsl1 and association with an elevation in AMP/ATP ratio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Sun, Lei; Ruderman, Neil; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-11-01

    Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipocytes, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that AMP, generated in activating fatty acids to their CoA derivatives, catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetases, is involved in AMPK activation by adiponectin. Moreover, in adipocytes, insulin affects the subcellular localization of acyl-CoA synthetase FATP1. Thus, we also tested whether insulin activates AMPK in these cells and, if so, whether it activates through a similar mechanism. We examined these hypotheses by measuring the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activation on adiponectin and insulin stimulation and after knocking down acyl-CoA synthetases in adipocytes. We show that adiponectin activation of AMPK is accompanied by an ∼2-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Moreover, FATP1 and Acsl1, the 2 major acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms in adipocytes, are essential for AMPK activation by adiponectin. We also show that after 40 min. insulin activated AMPK in adipocytes, which was coupled with a 5-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Knockdown studies show that FATP1 and Acsl1 are required for these processes, as well as for stimulation of long-chain fatty acid uptake by adiponection and insulin. These studies demonstrate that a change in cellular energy state is associated with AMPK activation by both adiponectin and insulin, which requires the activity of FATP1 and Acsl1.

  13. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a) Definitions applicable to this section: (1) Car. A freight car bearing railroad reporting marks, other than an...

  14. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a) Definitions applicable to this section: (1) Car. A freight car bearing railroad reporting marks, other than an...

  15. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a) Definitions applicable to this section: (1) Car. A freight car bearing railroad reporting marks, other than an...

  16. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a) Definitions applicable to this section: (1) Car. A freight car bearing railroad reporting marks, other than an...

  17. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains...

  18. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  19. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains...

  20. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  1. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  2. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains...

  3. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains...

  4. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car...

  5. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  6. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains...

  7. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D.

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice.

  8. Dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hu; Wang, Dandan; Dong, Bin; Tang, Feifan; Wang, Baichuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2011-07-01

    The dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities were investigated. The results revealed that carbendazim dissipation was little affected by chloramphenicol, whereas chloramphenicol dissipation was found to be retarded significantly by the presence of carbendazim. The inhibitory effect of carbendazim on the fungal:bacterial ratios was increased by the presence of chloramphenicol, and the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on neutral phosphatase was increased by the presence of carbendazim. Carbendazim increased soil catalase and urease activities, but this increase was partially diminished by the presence of chloramphenicol. Little interaction was observed between carbendazim and chloramphenicol with regard to their influence on soil invertase. The results obtained in this study suggest that combinations of fungicides and antibiotics may alter the compounds' individual behaviors in soil and their effects on soil enzymes.

  9. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Smart CARs Engineered for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Priceman, Saul J.; Forman, Stephen J.; Brown, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic immunoreceptors that can redirect T cells to selectively kill tumor cells, and as “living-drugs” have the potential to generate long-term anti-tumor immunity. Given their recent clinical successes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, there is a strong push toward advancing this immunotherapy to other hematological diseases and solid cancers. Here, we summarize the current state of the field, highlighting key variables for the optimal application of CAR T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Recent Findings Advances in CAR T cell therapy have highlighted intrinsic CAR design and T cell manufacturing methods as critical components for maximal therapeutic success. Similarly, addressing the unique extrinsic challenges of each tumor type, including overcoming the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and tumor heterogeneity, as well as mitigating potential toxicity, will dominate the next wave of CAR T cell development. Summary CAR T cell therapeutic optimization, including intrinsic and extrinsic factors, is critical to developing effective CAR T cell therapies for cancer. The excitement of CAR T cell immunotherapy has just begun, and will continue with new insights revealed in laboratory research and in ongoing clinical investigations. PMID:26352543

  11. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  12. CRISPR Meets CAR T-cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    2017-03-21

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, researchers have devised a method to deliver a CAR gene to a specific locus, TRAC, in T cells. This targeted approach yielded therapeutic cells that were more potent even at low doses; in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, they outperformed CAR T cells created with a randomly integrating retroviral vector.

  13. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  14. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  15. Zoom Zoom: racing CARs for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; June, Carl H

    2013-04-15

    Chimeric antigen receptors redirect T cells to surface antigens. Discovery and validation of appropriate target antigens expand the possible indications for chimeric-antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is expressed only on mature B cells and plasma cells and promotes their survival. BCMA is a promising target for CAR-T cells in multiple myeloma.

  16. Development of acoustic health monitoring for railroad tank cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostautas, Richard; Finlayson, Richard; Godinez, Valery; Pollock, Adrian; Penya, Jose

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the research and development of an Acoustic Health Monitoring (AHM) system that uses Guided Lamb Wave (GLW) technology to determine the thickness of railroad tank car shells for identification of wall loss due to corrosion. In recent regulatory changes, the emphasis has shifted from the traditional hydrotest to more modern methods for assuring tank car integrity. The new generation of maintenance programs will rely heavily on nondestructive testing, and will use damage tolerance concepts and risk analysis to establish inspection frequencies and items to inspect. It is the responsibility of the owners to set up experience-based maintenance programs that are suitable for the working conditions of their own particular fleets. Development of an ideal AHM system for railroad cars would be an instrument that incorporates Acoustic Emission (AE) and GLW technology. The combination of active and passive acoustic technologies integrated into a single system would be a highly efficient means of determining the structural integrity of tank cars. The integration of the GLW technology will allow identification of corrosion wall loss in a zone between two sensors, rather than at a single point (traditional ultrasonic thickness measurements). Thus, a much larger area of the structure can be inspected for approximately the same inspection cost. With a suitable integration of this new technology into the overall inspection and corrosion management program, the fleet can be more efficiently maintained and the risk of accidental release through progressive corrosion damage can be significantly reduced.

  17. CAR T Cell Therapy: A Game Changer in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almåsbak, Hilde; Aarvak, Tanja; Vemuri, Mohan C.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles is critical to successful cancer outcomes with better survival rates. Immunotherapy offers promising opportunities with the potential to induce sustained remissions in patients with refractory disease. Recent dramatic clinical responses in trials with gene modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in B-cell malignancies have generated great enthusiasm. This therapy might pave the way for a potential paradigm shift in the way we treat refractory or relapsed cancers. CARs are genetically engineered receptors that combine the specific binding domains from a tumor targeting antibody with T cell signaling domains to allow specifically targeted antibody redirected T cell activation. Despite current successes in hematological cancers, we are only in the beginning of exploring the powerful potential of CAR redirected T cells in the control and elimination of resistant, metastatic, or recurrent nonhematological cancers. This review discusses the application of the CAR T cell therapy, its challenges, and strategies for successful clinical and commercial translation. PMID:27298832

  18. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  19. Coal cars - the first three hundred years

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Robert Karig III

    2007-12-15

    This is the comprehensive study of the freight cars that conveyed coal across broad swaths of land that had been impassible before the invention of the steam engine. This volume traces the history and evolution of coal cars from their earliest use in England to the construction of major railways for the purpose of coal hauling and the end of the steam era on American railroads. In addition to contextualizing coal cars in the annals of industrial history, the book features extensive design specifications and drawings as well as a complete history of the various safety and mechanical innovations employed on these freight cars. It concludes with a photographic essay illustrating the development of the coal car over its first 300 years of use. 608 photos.

  20. Effects of the molar ratio on the photo-generated charge separation behaviors and photocatalytic activities of (BiO)2CO3-BiOBr composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiufu; Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Huang, Shentian; Xiang, Zhen; Li, Minjiao

    2016-10-01

    The molar ratio of two semiconductors will remarkably influence the photo-induced charge separation behaviors of the composites constructed, thus affecting the corresponding photocatalytic activity. Therefore, it is critical to reveal the relationship between the molar ratio of two semiconductors and the photo-induced charge separation; the information can shed light on the study of nature of surface catalysis. In this work, (BiO)2CO3-BiOBr composites were facilely fabricated in-situ through a pore impregnating approach using HBr aqueous solution. The samples were studied by BET, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis DRS and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the discoloration of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution upon the simulated sunlight illumination. The results reveal that the (BiO)2CO3-BiOBr composite with 3/4 M ratio of (BiO)2CO3/BiOBr displays the highest photo-induced charge separation rate and photocatalytic activity, the results further manifest that no different electronic transfer property occurs after coupling (BiO)2CO3 with BiOBr.

  1. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

  2. Measurement, Ratios, and Graphing: Safety First. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. NASA CONNECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. Each program has three components: (1) a 30-minute television broadcast which can be viewed live or taped for later use; (2) an interactive Web activity that allows teachers to integrate…

  3. Car size or car mass: which has greater influence on fatality risk?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, L; Frick, M C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposed increases in corporate average fuel economy standards would probably lead to lighter cars. Well-established relationships between occupant risk and car mass predict consequent additional casualties. However, if size, not mass, is the causative factor in these relationships, then decreasing car mass need not increase risk. This study examines whether mass or size is the causative factor. METHODS. Data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System are used to explore relationships between car mass, car size (as represented by wheelbase), and driver fatality risk in two-car crashes. RESULTS. When cars of identical (or similar) wheelbase but different mass crash into each other, driver fatality risk depends strongly on mass; the relationship is quantitatively similar to that found in studies that ignore wheelbase. On the other hand, when cars of similar mass but different wheelbase crash into each other, the data reveal no dependence of driver fatality risk on wheelbase. CONCLUSIONS. Mass is the dominant causative factor in relationships between driver risk and car size in two-car crashes, with size, as such, playing at most a secondary role. Reducing car mass increases occupant risk. PMID:1636830

  4. A simplified CARS measurement system for rapid determination of temperature and oxygen concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, Shoichi

    1987-01-01

    A new spectroscopic concept for the rapid determination of temperature and oxygen concentration by CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) was described. The ratio of two spectral regions in the broadband Q-branch spectrum was detected by photomultipliers in a monochromator, which ratio depends on temperature and species concentration. The comparison of the measured data with theory was made using a flat flame burner and an electric furnace, with reasonable results. Various optical techniques for alignment were introduced including a highly efficient, stable dye oscillator. The combination of the spectroscopic concept and the optical techniques will make the CARS measurement system rapid in data processing and simple in optical parts.

  5. The ultraviolet emission properties of five low-redshift active galactic nuclei at high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laor, Ari; Bahcall, John N.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Green, Richard F.; Hartig, George F.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the ultraviolet (UV) emission line and continuum properties of five low-redshift active galactic nuclei (four luminous quasars: PKS 0405-123, H1821 + 643, PG 0953 + 414, and 3C 273, and one bright Seyfert 1 galaxy: Mrk 205). The HST spectra have higher signal-to-noise ratios (typically approximately 60 per resolution element) and spectral resolution (R = 1300) than all previously published UV spectra used to study the emission characteristics of active galactic nuclei. We include in the analysis ground-based optical spectra covering H beta and the narrow (O III) lambda lambda 4959, 5007 doublet. New results are obtained and presented.

  6. Plant/soil concentration ratios of 226Ra for contrasting sites around an active U mine-mill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W

    1988-12-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra were determined in native vegetation and underlying substrate (soil and tailings) at various sites around a conventional open-pit, acid leach U production operation in Wyoming. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for 226Ra were estimated for various sites, including weathered tailings; a tailings impoundment shoreline; downwind from exposed tailings; a mine overburden reclamation area; and several background locations. Radium-226 concentrations for vegetation and substrate and CR values from the perturbed sites were elevated above background. The highest vegetation concentration (1.3 Bq g-1) was found in a grass which had invaded exposed, weathered tailings. Levels of 226Ra in soil and vegetation and CR values decreased with distance from the tailings impoundment edge. CR values varied significantly among sites, but few differences were found between plant species groups. The observed CR values ranged from 0.07 at the background and reclamation areas to 0.4 downwind from the tailings area. Average CR values for plants growing on exposed tailings and within one meter from the impoundment edge were 0.15 and 0.3, respectively. CR values of 226Ra for plants on tailings substrates were comparatively low in contrast to other radionuclides in the U chain. We speculate that in the case of sulfuric acid leached tailings-derived material, 226Ra is sequestered as sulfate, which is highly insoluble relative to the sulfates of the other elements (e.g., U and Th) resulting in reduced availability for plant uptake.

  7. Structure-Function Dissection of Myxococcus xanthus CarD N-Terminal Domain, a Defining Member of the CarD_CdnL_TRCF Family of RNA Polymerase Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Bernal, Diego; Gallego-García, Aránzazu; García-Martínez, Gema; García-Heras, Francisco; Jiménez, María Angeles; Padmanabhan, S.; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Two prototypes of the large CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding proteins, Myxococcus xanthus CarD and CdnL, have distinct functions whose molecular basis remain elusive. CarD, a global regulator linked to the action of several extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ-factors, binds to the RNAP β subunit (RNAP-β) and to protein CarG via an N-terminal domain, CarDNt, and to DNA via an intrinsically unfolded C-terminal domain resembling eukaryotic high-mobility-group A (HMGA) proteins. CdnL, a CarDNt-like protein that is essential for cell viability, is implicated in σA-dependent rRNA promoter activation and interacts with RNAP-β but not with CarG. While the HMGA-like domain of CarD by itself is inactive, we find that CarDNt has low but observable ability to activate ECF σ-dependent promoters in vivo, indicating that the C-terminal DNA-binding domain is required to maximize activity. Our structure-function dissection of CarDNt reveals an N-terminal, five-stranded β -sheet Tudor-like domain, CarD1–72, whose structure and contacts with RNAP-β mimic those of CdnL. Intriguingly, and in marked contrast to CdnL, CarD mutations that disrupt its interaction with RNAP-β did not annul activity. Our data suggest that the CarDNt C-terminal segment, CarD61–179, may be structurally distinct from its CdnL counterpart, and that it houses at least two distinct and crucial function determinants: (a) CarG-binding, which is specific to CarD; and (b) a basic residue stretch, which is also conserved and functionally required in CdnL. This study highlights the evolution of shared and divergent interactions in similar protein modules that enable the distinct activities of two related members of a functionally important and widespread bacterial protein family. PMID:25811865

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING LARRY CARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING LARRY CARS BELOW HOPPER BIN. GRAY FITZSIMONS, HAER HISTORIAN, IS STANDING ON PLATFORM NEXT TO LARRY CARS - Lucernemines Coke Works, Larry Car Tipple, East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  9. 7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA INSIDE CAMERA CAR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF BRIDGE AND ENGINE CAR ON TRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA CAR WITH CAMERA MOUNT IN FOREGROUND. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

  13. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

  14. In vitro effect of different Na+/K+ ratios on plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity in maize and sugar beet shoot.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Sümer, Ali; Hanstein, Stefan; Yan, Feng; Schubert, Sven

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth is impaired primarily by osmotic stress in the first phase of salt stress, whereas Na+ toxicity affects the plant growth mainly in the second phase. Salinity leads to increased Na+/K+ ratio and thus displacement of K+ by Na+ in the plant cell. Relatively higher cytosolic Na+ concentrations may have an effect on the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+ -ATPase. A decreased PM-H+ -ATPase activity could increase the apoplastic pH. This process could limit the cell-wall extensibility and thus reduce growth according to the acid growth theory. To compare the effect of Na+ on PM H+ -ATPase activity in salt-sensitive maize (Zea mays L.) and salt-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) shoot, PM vesicles were isolated from growing shoots of both species and ATPase activity was determined by assaying the P(i) released by hydrolysis of ATP. The H+ pumping activity was measured as the quenching of acridine-orange absorbance. An increased Na+/K+ ratio decreased the PM H+ -ATPase activity in vesicles of maize as well as of sugar beet shoots. Nevertheless, the detrimental effect of increased Na+/K+ ratio was more severe in salt-sensitive maize compared to salt-resistant sugar beet. At 25 mM Na+ concentration, hydrolytic activity was not affected in sugar beet. However, a significant decrease in hydrolytic activity was observed in maize at pH 7. In maize and sugar beet, reduction in active H+ flux was 20% and 5% at 25 mM Na+ concentration in the assay, respectively. The active H+ flux was decreased to 80% and 60%, when 100 mM K+ were substituted by 100mM Na+. We conclude that PM H+ -ATPases of salt-resistant sugar beet and maize shoot are sensitive to higher concentration of Na+. However, sugar beet PM-H+ -ATPases are relatively efficient and may have constitutive resistance against lower concentration (25 mM) of Na+ as compared to that of salt-sensitive maize.

  15. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using (137)Cs activities and radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24km(2), Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n=36) and subsurface channel bank (n=17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n=41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. (137)Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of the pond. This original sediment

  16. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) across the female menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2011-07-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) has been established as a useful marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and has become a standard tool for stress research in ambulatory settings. Although much knowledge has been accumulated on a variety of factors modulating the CAR, the impact of the female menstrual cycle, especially during ovulation, still remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that measured the CAR during menses, the follicular phase, ovulation and the luteal phase in a repeated measurement design. For this purpose, a final sample of 29 naturally cycling, healthy, non-smoking, and medication-free women collected saliva samples directly after awakening as well as 30, 45, and 60 min later during each of the four different phases. To determine the timing of ovulation, an ambulatory chromatographic ovulation test kit was applied. A repeated measurements ANOVA resulted in a significant interaction effect sample × cycle phase (p=0.04), with the highest awakening response during ovulation. While awakening cortisol levels were comparable across the four cycle phases (p=n.s.), the net increase was significantly elevated during ovulation (p=0.05). Our data also confirmed earlier cross-sectional results reporting no differences in the CAR between the follicular and luteal phase. Finally, a concurrent assessment of mood applying the POMS (Profile of Mood States) yielded no differences across the four cycle phases (all p=n.s.). In sum, the present data points to the idea that the CAR is elevated during ovulation, an effect which is presumably mediated by elevated sex steroid levels during the ovulation period.

  17. Augmentation of CAR T-cell Trafficking and Antitumor Efficacy by Blocking Protein Kinase A Localization.

    PubMed

    Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Sun, Jing; Kapoor, Veena; Maceyko, Steven; Lo, Albert; Puré, Ellen; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    Antitumor treatments based on the infusion of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) are still relatively ineffective for solid tumors, due to the presence of immunosuppressive mediators [such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and adenosine] and poor T-cell trafficking. PGE2 and adenosine activate protein kinase A (PKA), which then inhibits T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. This inhibition process requires PKA to localize to the immune synapse via binding to the membrane protein ezrin. We generated CAR T cells that expressed a small peptide called the "regulatory subunit I anchoring disruptor" (RIAD) that inhibits the association of PKA with ezrin, thus blunting the negative effects of PKA on TCR activation. After exposure to PGE2 or adenosine in vitro, CAR-RIAD T cells showed increased TCR signaling, released more cytokines, and showed enhanced killing of tumor cells compared with CAR T cells. When injected into tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor efficacy of murine and human CAR-RIAD T cells was enhanced compared with that of CAR T cells, due to resistance to tumor-induced hypofunction and increased T-cell infiltration of established tumors. Subsequent in vitro assays showed that both mouse and human CAR-RIAD cells migrated more efficiently than CAR cells did in response to the chemokine CXCL10 and also had better adhesion to various matrices. Thus, the intracellular addition of the RIAD peptide to adoptively transferred CAR T cells augments their efficacy by increasing their effector function and by improving trafficking into tumor sites. This treatment strategy, therefore, shows potential clinical application for treating solid tumors. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 541-51. ©2016 AACR.

  18. Noise in the passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo Young; Cha, Yongwon; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of both room acoustic conditions and spectral characteristics of noises on acoustic discomfort in a high-speed train's passenger car. Measurement of interior noises in a high-speed train was performed when the train was operating at speeds of 100 km/h and 300 km/h. Acoustic discomfort caused by interior noises was evaluated by paired comparison methods based on the variation of reverberation time (RT) in a passenger car and the spectral differences in interior noises. The effect of RT on acoustic discomfort was not significant, whereas acoustic discomfort significantly varied depending on spectral differences in noise. Acoustic discomfort increased with increment of the sound pressure level (SPL) ratio at high frequencies, and variation in high-frequency noise components were described using sharpness. Just noticeable differences of SPL with low- and high-frequency components were determined to be 3.7 and 2.9 dB, respectively. This indicates that subjects were more sensitive to differences in SPLs at the high-frequency range than differences at the low-frequency range. These results support that, for interior noises, reduction in SPLs at high frequencies would significantly contribute to improved acoustic quality in passenger cars of high-speed trains.

  19. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-03-15

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  20. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a xenosensor and target for therapy.

    PubMed

    Kachaylo, E M; Pustylnyak, V O; Lyakhovich, V V; Gulyaeva, L F

    2011-10-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), which is under consideration in this review, is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors. However, certain features distinguish CAR from the variety of nuclear receptors. First, this receptor has structural features that allow it to display constitutive activity in the absence of a ligand and to interact in a species-specific manner with a huge number of ligands diverse in chemical structure and origin. Second, recently many researchers are focused on CAR because the significance is increasingly shown of its influence on a variety of physiological functions, such as gluconeogenesis, metabolism of xenobiotics, fatty acids, bilirubin, and bile acids, hormonal regulation, etc. In addition to the fundamental scientific interest, the study of CAR is of practical importance because changes in CAR activity can lead to disorders in physiological processes, which finally can result in changes in pathological states. However, despite intensive studies, many mechanisms are still unclear, which makes it difficult to understand the role of CAR in the overall picture of molecular regulation of physiological processes. This review analyzes the features and diversity of the functions of CAR.

  1. Activation of Human Complement System by Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Is Not Affected by Dextran/Fe Ratio, Hydroxyl Modifications, and Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K.; Holers, V. Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, S. Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum. Using complement inhibitors and measuring levels of fluid phase markers (sC5b-9, C5a, and Bb), we found that the majority of human complement activation by SPIO is through the alternative pathways (AP). SPIO prepared with high dextran/iron ratio showed some complement activation via calcium-sensitive pathways, but the AP was responsible for the bulk of complement activation and amplification. Activation via the AP required properdin, the positive regulator of the alternative C3bBb convertase. Modification of sugar alcohols of dextran with alkylating, acylating, or crosslinking agents did not overcome complement activation and C3 opsonization. These data demonstrate that human complement activation is independent of dextran modification of SPIO and suggest a crucial role of the AP in immune recognition of nano-assemblies in human serum. PMID:27777575

  2. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  3. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  4. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  5. A CARS solution with high temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landwehr, Stefanie; Lurquin, Vanessa; Hay, William C.; Krishnamachari, Vishnu; Schwarz, Ulf

    2011-03-01

    Confocal and multiphoton microscopy are powerful fluorescence techniques for morphological and dynamics studies of labeled elements. For non-fluorescent components, CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) microscopy can be used for imaging various elements of cells such as lipids, proteins, DNA, etc. This technique is based on the intrinsic vibrational properties of the molecules. Leica Microsystems has combined CARS technology with its TCS SP5 II confocal microscope to provide several advantages for CARS imaging. The Leica TCS CARS combines two technologies in one system: a conventional scanner for maximum accuracy and a resonant scanner for highly time resolved imaging. For CARS microscopy, two picosecond near-infrared lasers are overlapped tightly, spatially and temporally, and sent directly into the confocal system. The conventional scanner can be used for morphological studies and the resonant scanner for following dynamic processes of unstained living cells. The fast scanner has several advantages over other solutions. First, the sectioning is truly confocal and does not suffer from spatial leakage. Second, the high speed (29 images/sec @ 512x512 pixels) provides fast data acquisition at video rates, allowing studies at the sub-cellular level. In summary, CARS microscopy combined with the tandem scanner makes the Leica TCS CARS a powerful tool for multimodal and three-dimensional imaging of chemical and biological sample.

  6. EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVES, COAL AND PASSENGER CARS INCLUDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVES, COAL AND PASSENGER CARS INCLUDING THE WOODWARD IRON COMPANY NO. 38 LOCOMOTIVE AND TENDER LOCATED IN THE HEART OF DIXIE MUSEUM'S POWELL AVENUE YARD AND SOUTHERN RAILROAD BOXCARS ON ACTIVE TRACKS OF BIRMINGHAM'S RAILROAD RESERVATION. IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT AND CENTER IS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. - Heart of Dixie Railroad, Rolling Stock, 1800 Block Powell Avenue, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Monoclonal antibody against mouse CAR following genetic immunization.

    PubMed

    Carson, Steven D; Switzer, Barbara L; Tracy, Steven M; Chapman, Nora M

    2004-02-01

    To broaden our repertoire of monoclonal antibodies against CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor), we inoculated mice with an expression vector containing the cDNA encoding human CAR extracellular and transmembrane sequence, and boosted the response by inoculation with soluble human CAR protein produced in E. coli. Of the hybridomas obtained following this immunization protocol, one secreted IgG with exceptional reactivity against mouse CAR. Since CAR has been shown to form dimers, expression of human CAR in cells that express mouse CAR may have stimulated the host immune system to recognize endogenous CAR in heterodimers.

  8. Three-color multiplex CARS for fast imaging and microspectroscopy in the entire CHn stretching vibrational region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Se-Hwa; Moon, Dae Won; Lee, Eun Seong

    2009-12-07

    We present a three-color multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) setup that facilitates a prompt recording of broadband CARS spectra along with a fast CARS imaging. With separate narrowband Stokes and probe beams being introduced in the near IR, we are able to incorporate a stable, wideband Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser as a pump beam that covers the full range of Raman shift for CHn stretching vibrational modes. Experimentally, high-resolution multiplex CARS signals are allowed to investigate molecular vibrations over the range of 2650 cm-1 - 3050 cm-1, which are spectrally integrated to construct lipid-sensitive images. It is demonstrated that the proposed implementation promises a particular benefit on CARS imaging of lipid-rich tissue structures by providing detailed information on CHn Raman-active vibrations at points of interest on the CARS images that can be obtained at high frame rates.

  9. Potential health impact of switching from car to public transportation when commuting to work.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo; Mirer, Franklin E; Amstislavski, Tashia M; Eisl, Holger M; Werbe-Fuentes, Jordan; Gorczynski, John; Goranson, Chris; Wolff, Mary S; Markowitz, Steven B

    2010-12-01

    We assessed humidity-corrected particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure and physical activity (using global positioning system monitors and diaries) among 18 people who commuted by car to Queens College, New York, New York, for 5 days, and then switched to commuting for the next 5 days via public transportation. The PM(2.5) differed little between car and public transportation commutes (1.41 μg/M(3)·min; P = .226). Commuting by public transportation rather than by car increased energy expenditure (+124 kcal/day; P < .001) equivalent to the loss of 1 pound of body fat per 6 weeks.

  10. Modeling the ratio of photosynthetically active radiation to broadband global solar radiation using ground and satellite-based data in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjai, S.; Wattan, R.; Sripradit, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data from four stations in Thailand are used to model the ratio of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to broadband global solar radiation. The model expresses the ratio of PAR-to-broadband global solar radiation as a function of cloud index, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water, total ozone column and solar zenith angle. Data from the MTSAT-1R and OMI/AURA satellites are used to estimate the cloud index and total ozone column, respectively at each of the four stations, while aerosol optical depth and precipitable water are retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer measurements, also available at each station. When tested against hourly measurements, the model exhibits a coefficient of variance (R2) equal to or better than 0.96, and root mean square difference (RMSD) in the range of 7.3-7.9% and mean bias difference (MBD) of -4.5% to 3.5%. The model compares favorably with other existing models.

  11. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-05-02

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

  12. The human controller in car following

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, G. O.; Bekey, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The man machine interface between the human driver and his automobile during car following tasks was examined. A direct connection between models of the human operator and the theory of optimal control was established for car following situations involving both linear and nonlinear car dynamics. Results obtained from several types of mathematical models are discussed. Conventional parameter identification techniques were used to obtain the parameters of these models by comparing their performance to data obtained by aerial photogrammetry. The results indicate that there are two general classes of model structures: models assumed to have preview information and models without preview.

  13. Bupropion Increases Selection of High Effort Activity in Rats Tested on a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Procedure: Implications for Treatment of Effort-Related Motivational Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Hart, Evan; Yohn, Samantha E.; Jones, Myles; Rowland, Margaret; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Methods: Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Results: Bupropion (10.0–40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. Conclusion: The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. PMID:25575584

  14. Redirection of genetically engineered CAR-T cells using bifunctional small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soo; Ma, Jennifer S Y; Yun, Hwayoung; Cao, Yu; Kim, Ji Young; Chi, Victor; Wang, Danling; Woods, Ashley; Sherwood, Lance; Caballero, Dawna; Gonzalez, Jose; Schultz, Peter G; Young, Travis S; Kim, Chan Hyuk

    2015-03-04

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells (CAR-Ts) provide a potent antitumor response and have become a promising treatment option for cancer. However, despite their efficacy, CAR-T cells are associated with significant safety challenges related to the inability to control their activation and expansion and terminate their response. Herein, we demonstrate that a bifunctional small molecule "switch" consisting of folate conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (folate-FITC) can redirect and regulate FITC-specific CAR-T cell activity toward folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing tumor cells. This system was shown to be highly cytotoxic to FR-positive cells with no activity against FR-negative cells, demonstrating the specificity of redirection by folate-FITC. Anti-FITC-CAR-T cell activation and proliferation was strictly dependent on the presence of both folate-FITC and FR-positive cells and was dose titratable with folate-FITC switch. This novel treatment paradigm may ultimately lead to increased safety for CAR-T cell immunotherapy.

  15. Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: an inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life.

    PubMed

    Blake, R E; Alt, J C; Martini, A M

    2001-02-27

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (delta(18)O(p)) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity, the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO(4)-H(2)O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that delta(18)O(P) values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of delta(18)O(p) as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, delta(18)O(p) may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars.

  16. Special Feature: Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: An inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Ruth E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Martini, Anna M.

    2001-02-01

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (18Op) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity,the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO4-H2O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that δ18OP values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of δ18Op as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, δ18Op may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars.

  17. Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: An inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Ruth E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Martini, Anna M.

    2001-01-01

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (δ18Op) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity, the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO4–H2O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that δ18OP values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of δ18Op as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, δ18Op may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars. PMID:11226207

  18. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function.

    PubMed

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Davila, Marco L

    2016-01-01

    T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application.

  19. Policy: A challenging future for cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howey, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The rising demand for road vehicles increases Europe's oil dependency and carbon emissions. Switching to alternative cars and fuels can help energy security and climate change policy, if consumers can be persuaded.

  20. How to Buy a Car 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Charity A.

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the basics of problem-based learning units and tips for implementation. The problem-based learning unit described focuses on the course of action involved in purchasing a new car. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. CARS hyperspectral imaging of cartilage aiming for state discrimination of cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, Manabu; Shirai, Masataka; Izumisawa, Junko; Tanabe, Maiko; Watanabe, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive cell analyses are increasingly important for medical field. A CARS microscope is one of the non-invasive imaging equipments and enables to obtain images indicating molecular distribution. Some studies on discrimination of cell state by using CARS images of lipid are reported. However, due to low signal intensity, it is still challenging to obtain images of the fingerprint region (800~1800 cm-1), in which many spectrum peaks correspond to compositions of a cell. Here, to identify cell differentiation by using multiplex CARS, we investigated hyperspectral imaging of fingerprint region of living cells. To perform multiplex CARS, we used a prototype of a compact light source, which consists of a microchip laser, a single-mode fiber, and a photonic crystal fiber to generate supercontinuum light. Assuming application to regenerative medicine, we chose a cartilage cell, whose differentiation is difficult to be identified by change of the cell morphology. Because one of the major components of cartilage is collagen, we focused on distribution of proline, which accounts for approximately 20% of collagen in general. The spectrum quality was improved by optical adjustments about power branching ratio and divergence of broadband Stokes light. Hyperspectral images were successfully obtained by the improvement. Periphery of a cartilage cell was highlighted in CARS image of proline, and this result suggests correspondence with collagen generated as extracellular matrix. A possibility of cell analyses by using CARS hyperspectral imaging was indicated.

  2. Injuries resulting from car surfing--United States, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    2008-10-17

    "Car surfing" is a term introduced in the mid-1980s to describe a thrill-seeking activity that involves riding on the exterior of a moving motor vehicle while it is being driven by another person. Although reports of car-surfing injuries have been published in the United States, no study to date has analyzed these events from a national perspective. Because traditional public health datasets do not collect morbidity or mortality data on this practice, CDC searched U.S. newspaper reports to provide an initial characterization of car-surfing injuries on a national scale. That analysis identified 58 reports of car-surfing deaths and 41 reports of nonfatal injury from 1990 through August 2008. Most reports of car-surfing injuries came from newspapers in the Midwest and South (75%), and most of the injuries were among males (70%) and persons aged 15-19 years (69%). The first identified newspaper reports about car-surfing injuries were published in the early 1990s, and new reports have been published every year since then. Parents and teens should be aware of the potentially lethal consequences of car surfing, which can occur even at low vehicle speeds, sometimes resulting from unanticipated movements of the vehicle, such as swerving or braking.

  3. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) Measurements of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios In Soil Extracts Supplied by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-02-28

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) activities concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for a series of chemically purified soil extracts received from the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) in New Mexico. Samples were analyzed without further purification at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This report also includes a brief description of the AMS system and internal laboratory procedures used to ensure the quality and reliability of the measurement data.

  4. The CarERF genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and the identification of CarERF116 as abiotic stress responsive transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Deokar, Amit A; Kondawar, Vishwajith; Kohli, Deshika; Aslam, Mohammad; Jain, Pradeep K; Karuppayil, S Mohan; Varshney, Rajeev K; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor gene families that are involved in various plant processes, especially in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Complete genome sequences of one of the world's most important pulse crops chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), has provided an important opportunity to identify and characterize genome-wide ERF genes. In this study, we identified 120 putative ERF genes from chickpea. The genomic organization of the chickpea ERF genes suggested that the gene family might have been expanded through the segmental duplications. The 120 member ERF family was classified into eleven distinct groups (I-X and VI-L). Transcriptional factor CarERF116, which is differentially expressed between drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea cultivar under terminal drought stress has been identified and functionally characterized. The CarERF116 encodes a putative protein of 241 amino acids and classified into group IX of ERF family. An in vitro CarERF116 protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that CarERF116 protein specifically interacts with GCC box. We demonstrate that CarERF116 is capable of transactivation activity of and show that the functional transcriptional domain lies at the C-terminal region of the CarERF116. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CarERF116, significant up-regulation of several stress related genes were observed. These plants also exhibit resistance to osmotic stress and reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Based on these findings, we conclude that CarERF116 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which plays an important role in stress tolerance. In addition, the present study leads to genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of chickpea ERF gene family, which will facilitate further research on this important group of genes and provides valuable resources for comparative genomics among the grain legumes.

  5. CARS Diagnostics of High Pressure Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) J. H. Stufflebeam t JDAAG29- 79-C-0008J %A,, Shirley R,,. Hall 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10...also the work in N2 at elevated tem- perature up to 30 atmospheres. John H. Stufflebeam continued the high pressure CARS work under the contract...Spectroscopy, Bordeaux, France, September 1982. 12. J. H. Stufflebeam , J. F. Verdieck, and R. J. Hall: CARS Diagnostics of High Pressure and

  6. EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

  7. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  8. EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech

    ScienceCinema

    Gantt, Lynn

    2016-07-12

    Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

  9. Activation cross sections and isomeric ratios in reactions induced by 14.5 MeV neutrons on152Sm,154Sm and178Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, A.; Nenoff, N.; Georgieva, E.; Necheva, C.; Ephtimov, I.

    1993-09-01

    Cross sections for the reactions152Sm( n, p)152 g,m1, m2 Pm,154Sm( n, p)154 g,m Pm,178Hf( n, p)178 m,g Lu,154Sm( n, d)153Pm and152Sm( n, α)149Nd were measured at 14.5 MeV neutron energy by the activation method. On the basis of these cross sections, the associated isomeric ratios in154Pm,152Pm,178Lu and the comparison with the predictions of different compound and precompound models, conclusions are drawn about the role of the preequilibrium processes in 14.5 MeV neutron induced reactions. Calculations for equal angular momentum removal by equilibrium and preequilibrium emitted particles better reproduced the experimental isomeric ratios, than for higher angular momentum removal in the preequilibrium phase. The isomeric ratios may be used as a source of additional information about the spin of the isomeric states in152Pm and154Pm for which the spectroscopic information is uncertain.

  10. Small-molecule modulators of PXR and CAR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Sergio C; Cherian, Milu T; Wang, Yue-Ming; Chen, Taosheng

    2016-09-01

    Two nuclear receptors, the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), participate in the xenobiotic detoxification system by regulating the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in order to degrade and excrete foreign chemicals or endogenous metabolites. This review aims to expand the perceived relevance of PXR and CAR beyond their established role as master xenosensors to disease-oriented areas, emphasizing their modulation by small molecules. Structural studies of these receptors have provided much-needed insight into the nature of their binding promiscuity and the important elements that lead to ligand binding. Reports of species- and isoform-selective activation highlight the need for further scrutiny when extrapolating from animal data to humans, as animal models are at the forefront of early drug discovery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  11. Optimisation of lateral car dynamics taking into account parameter uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Jochen; Bestle, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    Simulation studies on an active all-wheel-steering car show that disturbance of vehicle parameters have high influence on lateral car dynamics. This motivates the need of robust design against such parameter uncertainties. A specific parametrisation is established combining deterministic, velocity-dependent steering control parameters with partly uncertain, velocity-independent vehicle parameters for simultaneous use in a numerical optimisation process. Model-based objectives are formulated and summarised in a multi-objective optimisation problem where especially the lateral steady-state behaviour is improved by an adaption strategy based on measurable uncertainties. The normally distributed uncertainties are generated by optimal Latin hypercube sampling and a response surface based strategy helps to cut down time consuming model evaluations which offers the possibility to use a genetic optimisation algorithm. Optimisation results are discussed in different criterion spaces and the achieved improvements confirm the validity of the proposed procedure.

  12. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2012-04-01

    As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

  13. Noble gas isotopic ratios from historical lavas and fumaroles at Mount Vesuvius (southern Italy): constraints for current and future volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Dario; Nagao, Keisuke; Scarsi, Paolo

    1998-12-01

    Helium, neon and argon isotope ratios have been analysed from phenocrysts of eleven lava samples belonging to the last eruptive cycle of Mount Vesuvius (1631 until 1944). The phenocrysts separates include pyroxene ( N=10) and olivine ( N=1). All phenocryst samples show similarly low gas contents (He, Ne and Ar ˜10 -10 cm 3/g). 3He/ 4He ratios, 5.3-2.11 Ra, are generally low if compared to those typical of the MORB and those of the European Subcontinental Mantle (ESCM), respectively R/ Ra 8.5±1 and 6.0-6.5. A decreasing trend is found from 1631 to 1796, while a more homogeneous set of data is obtained for more recent eruptions, as evidenced by an average R/ Ra value of 2.85. Neon ratios ( 21Ne/ 22Ne and 20Ne/ 22Ne) strongly differ from those typically found on volcanoes and suggest that a crustal component has been added in the source region to Mt. Vesuvius magmas. Argon ratios ( 40Ar/ 36Ar and 38Ar/ 36Ar) have values similar to the atmosphere and are well correlated. The low 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio (max. 302) is, however, in the range of the 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios obtained from several lava samples at other Italian volcanoes and might be considered to have a deep origin. Two hypothesis have been discussed: (1) a deep argon-like-air source, due to subduction of air-rich sediments and/or (2) a preferential loss of Ar, in comparison to lighter noble gases, from silicic melts. Helium isotopic analysis of gas samples recently collected from crater and submarine fumaroles are similar to those of lavas belonging to the final part of this eruptive cycle. This result supports the idea that no new juvenile fluids from the source region have been injected into the magmatic reservoir during the 1631-1944 eruptive cycle and, more importantly, until 1993. Both sets of data help to understand the genesis of these fluids and to constrain the current activity of the volcano.

  14. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    PubMed

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  15. Car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists: a survey.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Bibby, Peter; Clarke, David; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig

    2008-05-01

    Motorcyclists are over-represented in UK traffic accident statistics. Many car-motorcycle accidents are however due to the inappropriate actions of car drivers. It is predicted that car drivers at risk of collision with motorcycles have divergent attitudes and beliefs about motorcyclists compared to safer drivers, which may lead to a deficient mental model guiding their interactions with motorcyclists. To assess car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists, a survey was undertaken. Respondents filled in 26 general and motorcycle-related items and the 24 items of the reduced Driver Behaviour Questionnaire. Compared to an experienced dual driver group (who both drive cars and ride motorcycles), all other drivers showed divergent beliefs and attitudes. Four factors were extracted from the motorcycle items: negative attitudes, empathic attitudes, awareness of perceptual problems, and spatial understanding. Car drivers with a moderate amount of experience (between 2 and 10 years driving) held the most negative views and reported the most violations. The results have lead to several suggestions for interventions aimed at decreasing the divergence between drivers' perceptions of motorcyclists, and the perceptions of experienced dual drivers.

  16. Macroscopic car condensation in a parking garage.

    PubMed

    Ha, Meesoon; Den Nijs, Marcel

    2002-09-01

    An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density rho(o) and the exit probability alpha from the garage are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars N(p) diverges in both cases, with the length of the road N(s), as N(p) approximately N(y(p))(s) with y(p)=1/2. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as N(p) approximately epsilon(beta) with beta=1, epsilon=/alpha-alpha(*)/ or epsilon=|rho(*)(o)-rho(o)/ being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.

  17. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line Hα/Hβ ratio of ≈2.72 ± 0.04, consistent with a Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. (2004). The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (FUV-NUV) colour index strongly rules out a steep SMC-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum for the bluest AGNs. For very blue AGNs the Lyα/Hβ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhanced Lyα/Hβ ratio at very high velocities is a consequence of continuum fluorescence in the Lyman lines (Case C). Reddenings of AGNs mean that the far-UV luminosity is often underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. This is a major factor causing the discrepancies between measured accretion disc sizes and the predictions of simple accretion disc theory. Dust covering fractions for most AGNs are lower than has been estimated. The total mass in lower mass supermassive black holes must be greater than hitherto estimated.

  18. Characterizing drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters that are bona fide CAR-target genes in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinhee; Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-09-01

    Intestine is responsible for the biotransformation of many orally-exposed chemicals. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is known to up-regulate many genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (drug-processing genes/DPGs) in liver, but less is known regarding its effect in intestine. Sixty-day-old wild-type and Car(-/-) mice were administered the CAR-ligand TCPOBOP or vehicle once daily for 4 days. In wild-type mice, Car mRNA was down-regulated by TCPOBOP in liver and duodenum. Car(-/-) mice had altered basal intestinal expression of many DPGs in a section-specific manner. Consistent with the liver data (Aleksunes and Klaassen, 2012), TCPOBOP up-regulated many DPGs (Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Aldh1a1, Aldh1a7, Gsta1, Gsta4, Gstm1-m4, Gstt1, Ugt1a1, Ugt2b34, Ugt2b36, and Mrp2-4) in specific sections of small intestine in a CAR-dependent manner. However, the mRNAs of Nqo1 and Papss2 were previously known to be up-regulated by TCPOBOP in liver but were not altered in intestine. Interestingly, many known CAR-target genes were highest expressed in colon where CAR is minimally expressed, suggesting that additional regulators are involved in regulating their expression. In conclusion, CAR regulates the basal expression of many DPGs in intestine, and although many hepatic CAR-targeted DPGs were bona fide CAR-targets in intestine, pharmacological activation of CAR in liver and intestine are not identical.

  19. Lack of CAR impacts neuronal function and cerebrovascular integrity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boussadia, Baddreddine; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Rousset, Marie-Claude; de Bock, Frederic; Lassere, Frederic; Ghosh, Chaitali; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Janigro, Damir; Marchi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a group of transcription factors emerging as players in normal and pathological CNS development. Clinically, an association between the constitutive androstane NR (CAR) and cognitive impairment was proposed, however never experimentally investigated. We wished to test the hypothesis that the impact of CAR on neurophysiology and behavior is underlined by cerebrovascular-neuronal modifications. We have used CAR(-/-) C57BL/6 and wild type mice and performed a battery of behavioral tests (recognition, memory, motor coordination, learning and anxiety) as well as longitudinal video-electroencephalographic recordings (EEG). Brain cell morphology was assessed using 2-photon or electron microscopy and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. We observed recognition memory impairment and increased anxiety-like behavior in CAR(-/-) mice, while locomotor activity was not affected. Concomitantly to memory deficits, EEG monitoring revealed a decrease in 3.5-7Hz waves during the awake/exploration and sleep periods. Behavioral and EEG abnormalities in CAR(-/-) mice mirrored structural changes, including tortuous fronto-parietal penetrating vessels. At the cellular level we found reduced ZO-1, but not CLDN5, tight junction protein expression in cortical and hippocampal isolated microvessel preparations. Interestingly, the neurotoxin kainic acid, when injected peripherally, provoked a rapid onset of generalized convulsions in CAR(-/-) as compared to WT mice, supporting the hypothesis of vascular permeability. The morphological phenotype of CAR(-/-) mice also included some modifications of GFAP/IBA1 glial cells in the parenchymal or adjacent to collagen-IV(+) or FITC(+) microvessels. Neuronal defects were also observed including increased cortical NEUN(+) cell density, hippocampal granule cell dispersion and increased NPY immunoreactivity in the CA1 region in CAR(-/-) mice. The latter may contribute to the in vivo phenotype. Our results indicate that behavioral

  20. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  1. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  2. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Between-car barriers. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  3. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  4. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  5. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  6. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  8. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  9. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  10. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  11. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  13. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  14. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  15. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  16. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  17. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  18. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Between-car barriers. 1192.109... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  20. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....