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Sample records for activation ros generation

  1. Bioreductively Activated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generators as MRSA Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khodade, Vinayak S; Sharath Chandra, Mallojjala; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulipeta, Mallikarjuna; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-07-10

    The number of cases of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is on the rise globally and new strategies to identify drug candidates with novel mechanisms of action are in urgent need. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-triones, which were designed based on redox-active natural products. We find that the in vitro inhibitory activity of 6-(prop-2-ynyl)benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-trione (1f) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including a panel of patient-derived strains, is comparable or better than vancomycin. We show that the lead compound generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, contributing to its antibacterial activity. PMID:25050164

  2. Maternal inflammation activated ROS-p38 MAPK predisposes offspring to heart damages caused by isoproterenol via augmenting ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Deng, Yafei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Luo, Hongqin; Huang, Pei; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Dan, Guorong; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Zhang, Jianxiang; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inflammation contributes to the increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the susceptibility of cardiac damage responding to isoproterenol (ISO) in adult offspring that underwent maternal inflammation (modeled by pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge). We found that 2 weeks of ISO treatment in adult offspring of LPS-treated mothers led to augmented heart damage, characterized by left-ventricular systolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Mechanistically, prenatal exposure to LPS led to up-regulated expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, antioxidant enzymes, and p38 MAPK activity in left ventricular of adult offspring at resting state. ISO treatment exaggerated ROS generation, p38 MAPK activation but down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination capacity in the left ventricular of offspring from LPS-treated mothers, while antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed these changes together with improved cardiac functions. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the heart damage only via inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidases. Collectively, our data demonstrated that prenatal inflammation programs pre-existed ROS activation in the heart tissue, which switches on the early process of oxidative damages on heart rapidly through a ROS-p38 MAPK-NADPH oxidase-ROS positive feedback loop in response to a myocardial hypertrophic challenge in adulthood. PMID:27443826

  3. ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Shafer, Martin M; Heo, Jongbae; Pardo, Michal; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the possible causal role for soluble metal species extracted from roadway traffic emissions in promoting particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activation. To this end, these responses have been evaluated in alveolar macrophage and epithelial lung cells that have been exposed to 'Unfiltered', 'Filtered' and 'Filtered+Chelexed' water extracts of PM samples collected from the roadway urban environments of Thessaloniki, Milan and London. Except for Thessaloniki, our results demonstrate that filtration resulted in a minor decrease in ROS activity of the fine PM fraction, suggesting that ROS activity is attributed mainly to water-soluble PM species. In contrast to ROS, ARE activity was mediated predominantly by the water-soluble component of PM present in both the fine and coarse extracts. Further removal of metals by Chelex treatment from filtered water extracts showed that soluble metal species are the major factors mediating ROS and ARE activities of the soluble fraction, especially in the London PM extracts. Finally, utilizing step-wise multiple-regression analysis, we show that 87% and 78% of the total variance observed in ROS and ARE assays, respectively, is accounted for by changes in soluble metal concentration. Using a statistical analysis we find that As, Zn and Fe best predict the ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of the near roadway particulate matter in the pulmonary cells studied. Collectively, our findings imply that soluble metals present in roadside PM are potential drivers of both pro- and anti-oxidative effects of PM in respiratory tract. PMID:26775006

  4. ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Shafer, Martin M; Heo, Jongbae; Pardo, Michal; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the possible causal role for soluble metal species extracted from roadway traffic emissions in promoting particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activation. To this end, these responses have been evaluated in alveolar macrophage and epithelial lung cells that have been exposed to 'Unfiltered', 'Filtered' and 'Filtered+Chelexed' water extracts of PM samples collected from the roadway urban environments of Thessaloniki, Milan and London. Except for Thessaloniki, our results demonstrate that filtration resulted in a minor decrease in ROS activity of the fine PM fraction, suggesting that ROS activity is attributed mainly to water-soluble PM species. In contrast to ROS, ARE activity was mediated predominantly by the water-soluble component of PM present in both the fine and coarse extracts. Further removal of metals by Chelex treatment from filtered water extracts showed that soluble metal species are the major factors mediating ROS and ARE activities of the soluble fraction, especially in the London PM extracts. Finally, utilizing step-wise multiple-regression analysis, we show that 87% and 78% of the total variance observed in ROS and ARE assays, respectively, is accounted for by changes in soluble metal concentration. Using a statistical analysis we find that As, Zn and Fe best predict the ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of the near roadway particulate matter in the pulmonary cells studied. Collectively, our findings imply that soluble metals present in roadside PM are potential drivers of both pro- and anti-oxidative effects of PM in respiratory tract.

  5. Thioredoxin-2 Inhibits Mitochondrial ROS Generation and ASK1 Activity to Maintain Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qunhua; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Zhang, Haifeng; Huang, Yan; Hinojosa-Kirschenbaum, Ford; Fan, Peidong; Yao, Lina; Belardinelli, Luiz; Tellides, George; Giordano, Frank J.; Budas, Grant R.; Min, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a key mitochondrial protein which regulates cellular redox and survival by suppressing mitochondrial ROS generation and by inhibiting apoptosis stress kinase-1 (ASK1)-dependent apoptotic signaling. To date, the role of the mitochondrial Trx2 system in heart failure pathogenesis has not been investigated. Methods and Results Western blot and histological analysis revealed that Trx2 protein expression levels were reduced in hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), with a concomitant increase in increased ASK1 phosphorylation/activity. Cardiac-specific Trx2 knockout mice (Trx2-cKO). Trx2-cKO mice develop spontaneous DCM at 1 month of age with increased heart size, reduced ventricular wall thickness, and a progressive decline in left ventricular (LV) contractile function, resulting in mortality due to heart failure by ~4 months of age. The progressive decline in cardiac function observed in Trx2-cKO mice was accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increased mitochondrial ROS generation and reduced ATP production, correlating with increased ASK1 signaling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Chronic administration of a highly selective ASK1 inhibitor improved cardiac phenotype and reduced maladaptive LV remodeling with significant reductions in oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis and cardiac failure. Cellular data from Trx2-deficient cardiomyocytes demonstrated that ASK1 inhibition reduced apoptosis and reduced mitochondrial ROS generation. Conclusions Our data support an essential role for mitochondrial Trx2 in preserving cardiac function by suppressing mitochondrial ROS production and ASK1-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of ASK1 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. PMID:25628390

  6. Inhibitory activity of flavonoids from Prunus davidiana and other flavonoids on total ROS and hydroxyl radical generation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Jung, Mee Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2003-10-01

    Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl radicals (*OH) play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human degenerative diseases, much attention has focused on the development of safe and effective antioxidants. Preliminary experiments have revealed that the methanol (MeOH) extract of the stem of Prunus davidiana exerts inhibitory/scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, total ROS and peroxynitrites (ONOO-). In the present study, the antioxidant activities of this MeOH extract and the organic solvent-soluble fractions, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH), and the water layer of P. davidiana stem were evaluated for the potential to inhibit *OH and total ROS generation in kidney homogenates using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA), and for the potential to scavenge authentic ONOO-. We also evaluated the inhibitory activity of seven flavonoids isolated from P. davidiana stem, kaempferol, kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, (+)-catechin, dihydrokaempferol, hesperetin 5-O-beta-D-glucoside, naringenin and its 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, on the total ROS, *OH and ONOO- systems. For the further elucidation of the structure-inhibitory activity relationship of flavonoids on total ROS and *OH generation, we measured the antioxidant activity of sixteen flavonoids available, including three active flavonoids isolated from P. davidiana, on the total ROS and *OH systems. We found that the inhibitory activity on total ROS generation increases in strength with more numerous hydroxyl groups on their structures. Also, the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group, whether on the A-ring or B-ring, and a 3-hydroxyl group on the C-ring increased the inhibitory activity on both total ROS and *OH generation.

  7. Induction of ROS generation by fluconazole in Candida glabrata: activation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Mahl, Camila Donato; Behling, Camile Saul; Hackenhaar, Fernanda S; de Carvalho e Silva, Mélany Natuane; Putti, Jordana; Salomon, Tiago B; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Fuentefria, Alexandre; Benfato, Mara S

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we assessed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole in susceptible and resistant Candida glabrata strains at stationary growth phase and measured their oxidative responses parameters: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), consumption of hydrogen peroxide, and total glutathione, as well as oxidative damage in lipids, proteins, and DNA. Data showed that fluconazole increased generation of ROS and GPx and SOD enzymatic activity in treated cells; however, these enzymatic activities did not differ between resistant and susceptible strains. Susceptible strains exhibited higher GST activity than resistant, and when susceptible cells were treated with fluconazole, GST activity decreased. Fluconazole treatment cause oxidative damage only in DNA. There are a possible participation of ROS, as organic peroxides and O2(•-), in antifungal mechanism of fluconazole, which results in higher GPx and SOD enzymatic activities and oxidative DNA damage in C. glabrata.

  8. Cristacarpin promotes ER stress-mediated ROS generation leading to premature senescence by activation of p21(waf-1).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Souneek; Rasool, Reyaz Ur; Kumar, Sunil; Nayak, Debasis; Rah, Bilal; Katoch, Archana; Amin, Hina; Ali, Asif; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-06-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is quite similar to replicative senescence that is committed by cells exposed to various stress conditions viz. ultraviolet radiation (DNA damage), hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), chemotherapeutic agents (cytotoxic threat), etc. Here, we report that cristacarpin, a natural product obtained from the stem bark of Erythrina suberosa, promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to sub-lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and which eventually terminates by triggering senescence in pancreatic and breast cancer cells through blocking the cell cycle in the G1 phase. The majority of cristacarpin-treated cells responded to conventional SA-β-gal stains; showed characteristic p21(waf1) upregulation along with enlarged and flattened morphology; and increased volume, granularity, and formation of heterochromatin foci-all of these features are the hallmarks of senescence. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the expression of p21(waf1), confirming that the modulation in p21(waf1) by anti-proliferative cristacarpin was ROS dependent. Further, the elevation in p21(waf1) expression in PANC-1 and MCF-7 cells was consistent with the decrease in the expression of Cdk-2 and cyclinD1. Here, we provide evidence that cristacarpin promotes senescence in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, cristacarpin treatment induced p38MAPK, indicating the ROS-dependent activation of the MAP kinase pathway, and thus abrogates the tumor growth in mouse allograft tumor model.

  9. Potentiating effect of an endocrine disruptor, paranonylphenol, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human venous blood -- association with the activation of signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Okai, Yasuji; Sato, Eisuke F; Higashi-Okai, Kiyoka; Inoue, Masayasu

    2007-09-01

    An endocrine disruptor, para-nonylphenol (NP), caused a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human whole blood from 50 to 1000 microM, which was measured by chemiluminescence generation. ROS-scavenging enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the lipophilic antioxidative agents, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, showed preventive effects on NP-induced ROS generation. To analyze the biochemical mechanism of NP-induced ROS generation in human blood, we investigated the effects of different types of metabolic inhibitors on the activation pathways of ROS generation. An NADPH-dependent oxidase inhibitor, diphenyl iodonium chloride (DPI), and a myeloperoxidase inhibitor, sodium azide (NaN3), showed remarkable inhibitory effects on ROS generation induced by NP, but an inhibitor against mitochondrial respiratory function, potassium cyanide (KCN), did not exhibit a significant effect. Furthermore, a phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, protein phosphorylation inhibitor 1 (PP1), caused a strong suppression of NP-induced ROS generation. Selective protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB-203580, and ERK MAP kinase inhibitor, PD 98059, showed significant suppressive effects on NP-induced ROS generation. In addition, when human blood was exposed to lower concentrations (5-50 microM) of NP, they did not cause the significant ROS generation by themselves, but the priming and synergistic effects of NP were detected by the addition of secondary stimulants, opsonized zymosan (OZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The analysis of the priming and synergistic effects of NP on OZ- or PMA-dependent ROS generation by antioxidative substances and metabolic inhibitors showed similar results compared with those of human blood treated with NP alone. These results suggest that NP causes an enhancing effect by itself, or priming and synergistic

  10. Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Ureña-Peralta, Juan R.; Morillo-Bargues, Maria José; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs/inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1β and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1, and IPAF), although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1β and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 μM) or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4 μg/ml) or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 μM), abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ≈73% of total cell death (≈22%) and the remaining (≈25%) die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in

  11. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-08-20

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity.

  12. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity. PMID:27556432

  13. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity.

  14. High-Dose Nicotinamide Suppresses ROS Generation and Augments Population Expansion during CD8+ T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Jin; Jang, So-Young; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2015-01-01

    During T cell activation, mitochondrial content increases to meet the high energy demand of rapid cell proliferation. With this increase, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increases and causes the rapid apoptotic death of activated cells, thereby facilitating T cell homeostasis. Nicotinamide (NAM) has previously been shown to enhance mitochondria quality and extend the replicative life span of human fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effect of NAM on CD8+ T cell activation. NAM treatment attenuated the increase of mitochondrial content and ROS in T cells activated by CD3/CD28 antibodies. This was accompanied by an accelerated and higher-level clonal expansion resulting from attenuated apoptotic death but not increased division of the activated cells. Attenuation of ROS-triggered pro-apoptotic events and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved. Although cells activated in the presence of NAM exhibited compromised cytokine gene expression, our results suggest a means to augment the size of T cell expansion during activation without consuming their limited replicative potential. PMID:26442863

  15. High-Dose Nicotinamide Suppresses ROS Generation and Augments Population Expansion during CD8(+) T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ho Jin; Jang, So-Young; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2015-10-01

    During T cell activation, mitochondrial content increases to meet the high energy demand of rapid cell proliferation. With this increase, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increases and causes the rapid apoptotic death of activated cells, thereby facilitating T cell homeostasis. Nicotinamide (NAM) has previously been shown to enhance mitochondria quality and extend the replicative life span of human fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effect of NAM on CD8(+) T cell activation. NAM treatment attenuated the increase of mitochondrial content and ROS in T cells activated by CD3/CD28 antibodies. This was accompanied by an accelerated and higher-level clonal expansion resulting from attenuated apoptotic death but not increased division of the activated cells. Attenuation of ROS-triggered pro-apoptotic events and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved. Although cells activated in the presence of NAM exhibited compromised cytokine gene expression, our results suggest a means to augment the size of T cell expansion during activation without consuming their limited replicative potential. PMID:26442863

  16. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation.

  17. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. PMID:26971531

  18. Zinc Chelation Mediates the Lysosomal Disruption without Intracellular ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Andreza Cândido; Manieri, Tânia Maria; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    We report the molecular mechanism for zinc depletion caused by TPEN (N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine) in neuroblastoma cells. The activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently caspase 3 is not due to or followed by redox imbalance or ROS generation, though these are commonly observed in literature. We found that TPEN is not responsible for ROS generation and the mechanism involves essentially lysosomal disruption caused by intracellular zinc depletion. We also observed a modest activation of Bax and no changes in the Bcl-2 proteins. As a result, we suggest that TPEN causes intracellular zinc depletion which can influence the breakdown of lysosomes and cell death without ROS generation. PMID:27123155

  19. RAGE Expression and ROS Generation in Neurons: Differentiation versus Damage.

    PubMed

    Piras, S; Furfaro, A L; Domenicotti, C; Traverso, N; Marinari, U M; Pronzato, M A; Nitti, M

    2016-01-01

    RAGE is a multiligand receptor able to bind advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), amphoterin, calgranulins, and amyloid-beta peptides, identified in many tissues and cells, including neurons. RAGE stimulation induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly through the activity of NADPH oxidases. In neuronal cells, RAGE-induced ROS generation is able to favor cell survival and differentiation or to induce death through the imbalance of redox state. The dual nature of RAGE signaling in neurons depends not only on the intensity of RAGE activation but also on the ability of RAGE-bearing cells to adapt to ROS generation. In this review we highlight these aspects of RAGE signaling regulation in neuronal cells.

  20. RAGE Expression and ROS Generation in Neurons: Differentiation versus Damage

    PubMed Central

    Piras, S.; Furfaro, A. L.; Domenicotti, C.; Traverso, N.; Marinari, U. M.; Pronzato, M. A.; Nitti, M.

    2016-01-01

    RAGE is a multiligand receptor able to bind advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), amphoterin, calgranulins, and amyloid-beta peptides, identified in many tissues and cells, including neurons. RAGE stimulation induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly through the activity of NADPH oxidases. In neuronal cells, RAGE-induced ROS generation is able to favor cell survival and differentiation or to induce death through the imbalance of redox state. The dual nature of RAGE signaling in neurons depends not only on the intensity of RAGE activation but also on the ability of RAGE-bearing cells to adapt to ROS generation. In this review we highlight these aspects of RAGE signaling regulation in neuronal cells. PMID:27313835

  1. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling. PMID:26537039

  2. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products.

    PubMed

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47(phox) in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling.

  3. Pinus densiflora leaf essential oil induces apoptosis via ROS generation and activation of caspases in YD-8 human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jeong-Rang; Park, Ju Sung; Park, Yu-Kyoung; Chae, Young Zoo; Lee, Gyu-Hee; Park, Gy-Young; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-04-01

    The leaf of Pinus (P.) densiflora, a pine tree widely distributed in Asian countries, has been used as a traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of essential oil, extracted by steam distillation, from the leaf of P. densiflora in YD-8 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Treatment of YD-8 cells with P. densiflora leaf essential oil (PLEO) at 60 µg/ml for 8 h strongly inhibited proliferation and survival and induced apoptosis. Notably, treatment with PLEO led to generation of ROS, activation of caspase-9, PARP cleavage, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1/2 in YD-8 cells. Treatment with PLEO, however, did not affect the expression of Bax, XIAP and GRP78. Importantly, pharmaco-logical inhibition studies demonstrated that treatment with vitamin E (an anti-oxidant) or z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor), but not with PD98059 (an ERK-1/2 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK-1/2 inhibitor), strongly suppressed PLEO-induced apoptosis in YD-8 cells and reduction of their survival. Vitamin E treatment further blocked activation of caspase-9 and Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by PLEO. Thus, these results demonstrate firstly that PLEO has anti-proliferative, anti-survival and pro-apoptotic effects on YD-8 cells and the effects are largely due to the ROS-dependent activation of caspases.

  4. Pinus densiflora leaf essential oil induces apoptosis via ROS generation and activation of caspases in YD-8 human oral cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    JO, JEONG-RANG; PARK, JU SUNG; PARK, YU-KYOUNG; CHAE, YOUNG ZOO; LEE, GYU-HEE; PARK, GY-YOUNG; JANG, BYEONG-CHURL

    2012-01-01

    The leaf of Pinus (P.) densiflora, a pine tree widely distributed in Asian countries, has been used as a traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of essential oil, extracted by steam distillation, from the leaf of P. densiflora in YD-8 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Treatment of YD-8 cells with P. densiflora leaf essential oil (PLEO) at 60 μg/ml for 8 h strongly inhibited proliferation and survival and induced apoptosis. Notably, treatment with PLEO led to generation of ROS, activation of caspase-9, PARP cleavage, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1/2 in YD-8 cells. Treatment with PLEO, however, did not affect the expression of Bax, XIAP and GRP78. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition studies demonstrated that treatment with vitamin E (an anti-oxidant) or z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor), but not with PD98059 (an ERK-1/2 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK-1/2 inhibitor), strongly suppressed PLEO-induced apoptosis in YD-8 cells and reduction of their survival. Vitamin E treatment further blocked activation of caspase-9 and Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by PLEO. Thus, these results demonstrate firstly that PLEO has anti-proliferative, anti-survival and pro-apoptotic effects on YD-8 cells and the effects are largely due to the ROS-dependent activation of caspases. PMID:22086183

  5. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase–independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gaurav N.; Goetjen, Alexandra M.; Knecht, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  6. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  7. Comparison of UVA-induced ROS and sunscreen nanoparticle-generated ROS in human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cenchao; Turney, Terence W; Piva, Terrence J; Feltis, Bryce N; Wright, Paul F A

    2014-05-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues from free radicals induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be attenuated by sunscreen components, such as ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Although it is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by cells upon exposure to ZnO and TiO2 NPs, it is unknown to what extent the amount generated is altered with UV co-exposure. As it is a critical component for determining the relative risk of these NPs when used in sunscreen formulations, we have investigated ROS generation by these NPs in human THP-1 monocyte immune cells following UVA co-exposure. Whilst the applied UVA dose (6.7 J cm(-2)) did not alter cell viability after 24 h, it induced significant ROS production - causing a 7-fold increase in intracellular peroxide and 3.3-fold increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels after 1 h. However, co-exposure to NPs and UVA generated the same or less ROS than with UVA exposure alone, with the exception of anatase TiO2, which showed significantly increased levels. These findings indicate that ROS generation from nanosunscreens is, in most cases, an insignificant contributor to the overall risk associated with oxidative stress from UVA exposure itself.

  8. Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangde; Dong, Xiaolin; Shu, Benshui; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Qiongbo; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation.

  9. Measurements of UV-generated free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrling, Th.; Jung, K.; Fuchs, J.

    2006-03-01

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in skin by UV irradiation were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). To increase the sensitivity of measurement the short life free radicals/ROS were scavenged and accumulated by using the nitroxyl probe 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetrametylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (PCA). The spatial distribution of free radicals/ROS measured in pig skin biopsies with ESR imaging after UV irradiation corresponds to the intensity decay of irradiance in the depth of the skin. The main part of free radicals/ROS were generated by UVA (320-400 nm) so that the spatial distribution of free radicals reaches up to the lower side of the dermis. In vivo measurements on human skin were performed with a L-band ESR spectrometer and a surface coil integrating the signal intensities from all skin layers to get a sufficient signal amplitude. Using this experimental arrangement the protection of UVB and UVA/B filter against the generation of free radicals/ROS in skin were measured. The protection against ROS and the repair of damages caused by them can be realized with active antioxidants characterized by a high antioxidative power (AP). The effect of UV filter and antioxidants corresponding to their protection against free radicals/ROS in skin generated by UVAB irradiation can be quantified by the new radical sun protection factor (RSF). The RSF indicates the increase of time for staying in the sun to generate the same number of free radicals/ROS in the skin like for the unprotected skin. Regarding the amount of generated free radicals/ROS in skin as an biophysical endpoint the RSF characterizes both the protection against UVB and UVA radiation.

  10. Photosensitizing nanoparticles and the modulation of ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Dayane B.; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2015-01-01

    The association of PhotoSensitizer (PS) molecules with nanoparticles (NPs) forming photosensitizing NPs, has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to improve PS tumor targeting, to protect PS from deactivation reactions and to enhance both PS solubility and circulation time. Since association with NPs usually alters PS photophysical and photochemical properties, photosensitizing NPs are an important tool to modulate ROS generation. Depending on the design of the photosensitizing NP, i.e., type of PS, the NP material and the method applied for the construction of the photosensitizing NP, the deactivation routes of the excited state can be controlled, allowing the generation of either singlet oxygen or other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Controlling the type of generated ROS is desirable not only in biomedical applications, as in Photodynamic Therapy where the type of ROS affects therapeutic efficiency, but also in other technological relevant fields like energy conversion, where the electron and energy transfer processes are necessary to increase the efficiency of photoconversion cells. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of Photosensitizing NPs aimed at modulating the primary photochemical events after light absorption. PMID:26075198

  11. Isoliensinine induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells through ROS generation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiyu; Wang, Xiyao; Wu, Tingting; Li, Boxuan; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Zhaojian; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-01-01

    Isoliensinine, liensinine and neferine are major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the seed embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and exhibit potential anti-cancer activity. Here, we explored the effects of these alkaloids on triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that among the three alkaloids isoliensinine possesses the most potent cytotoxic effect, primarily by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, isoliensinine showed a much lower cytotoxicity against MCF-10A, a normal human breast epithelial cell line. Further studies showed that isoliensinine could significantly increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in MCF-10A cells. The isoliensinine-induced apoptosis could be attenuated by radical oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of isoliensinine on cancer cells is at least partially achieved by inducing oxidative stress. We found that both p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were activated by isoliensinine treatment and contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibitors or specific siRNAs of p38 MAPK and JNK could attenuate apoptosis induced by isoliensinine. However, only the p38 inhibitor or p38-specific siRNA blocked the elevation of ROS in isoliensinine-treated cells. Our findings thus revealed a novel antitumor effect of isoliensinine on breast cancer cells and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26219228

  12. Isoliensinine induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells through ROS generation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyu; Wang, Xiyao; Wu, Tingting; Li, Boxuan; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Zhaojian; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-01-01

    Isoliensinine, liensinine and neferine are major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the seed embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and exhibit potential anti-cancer activity. Here, we explored the effects of these alkaloids on triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that among the three alkaloids isoliensinine possesses the most potent cytotoxic effect, primarily by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, isoliensinine showed a much lower cytotoxicity against MCF-10A, a normal human breast epithelial cell line. Further studies showed that isoliensinine could significantly increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in MCF-10A cells. The isoliensinine-induced apoptosis could be attenuated by radical oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of isoliensinine on cancer cells is at least partially achieved by inducing oxidative stress. We found that both p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were activated by isoliensinine treatment and contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibitors or specific siRNAs of p38 MAPK and JNK could attenuate apoptosis induced by isoliensinine. However, only the p38 inhibitor or p38-specific siRNA blocked the elevation of ROS in isoliensinine-treated cells. Our findings thus revealed a novel antitumor effect of isoliensinine on breast cancer cells and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26219228

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by lunar simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2016-05-01

    The current interest in human exploration of the Moon and past experiences of Apollo astronauts has rekindled interest into the possible harmful effects of lunar dust on human health. In comparison to the Apollo-era explorations, human explorers may be weeks on the Moon, which will raise the risk of inhalation exposure. The mineralogical composition of lunar dust is well documented, but its effects on human health are not fully understood. With the aim of understanding the reactivity of dusts that may be encountered on geologically different lunar terrains, we have studied Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by a suite of lunar simulants of different mineralogical-chemical composition dispersed in water and Simulated Lung Fluid (SLF). To further explore the reactivity of simulants under lunar environmental conditions, we compared the reactivity of simulants both in air and inert atmosphere. As the impact of micrometeorites with consequent shock-induced stresses is a major environmental factor on the Moon, we also studied the effect of mechanical stress on samples. Mechanical stress was induced by hand crushing the samples both in air and inert atmosphere. The reactivity of samples after crushing was analyzed for a period of up to nine days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water and SLF was analyzed by an in situ electrochemical probe and hydroxyl radical (•OH) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Adenine probe. Out of all simulants, CSM-CL-S was found to be the most reactive simulant followed by OB-1 and then JSC-1A simulant. The overall reactivity of samples in the inert atmosphere was higher than in air. Fresh crushed samples showed a higher level of reactivity than uncrushed samples. Simulant samples treated to create agglutination, including the formation of zero-valent iron, showed less reactivity than untreated simulants. ROS generation in SLF is initially slower than in deionized water (DI), but the ROS formation is sustained for as long as 7

  14. 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide induced glioma cell autophagy via ROS generation and activation of p38 MAPK and ERK-1/2.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Sivalingam, Kalai Selvi; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2016-07-01

    16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (HCD), a natural product isolated from medicinal plant Polyalthia longifolia exhibits anticancer activity through caspase-independent apoptosis in brain tumors, as previously reported. This study further attempted to investigate the involvement of HCD-induced autophagy in brain tumor cell lines neuroblastoma N18 and glioma C6 through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of p38 and ERK-1/2 pathway. The results demonstrated that HCD increased the hyper-generation of ROS and decreased cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione s transferase (GST). Furthermore, HCD increased the expressions of autophagic marker proteins LC3-II and Beclin-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, HCD was found to significantly induce p-p38 MAPK and p-ERK-1/2 proteins by Western blot, which implies that HCD is a potential therapeutic anticancer agent that exerts its activity through inducing ROS-mediation for the autophagy of brain tumor cells.

  15. Redox cycling of Cu(II) by 6-mercaptopurine leads to ROS generation and DNA breakage: possible mechanism of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Zubair, Haseeb; Sarwar, Tarique; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Nehar, Shamshun; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) is a well-known purine antimetabolite used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other diseases. Cancer cells as compared to normal cells are under increased oxidative stress and show high copper level. These differences between cancer cells and normal cells can be targeted to develop effective cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant property of 6MP in the presence of metal ions is not well documented. Redox cycling of Cu(II) to Cu(I) was found to be efficiently mediated by 6MP. We have performed a series of in vitro experiments to demonstrate the pro-oxidant property of 6MP in the presence of Cu(II). Studies on human lymphocytes confirmed the DNA damaging ability of 6MP in the presence of Cu(II). Since 6MP possesses DNA damaging ability by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of Cu(II), it may also possess apoptosis-inducing activity by involving endogenous copper ions. Essentially, this would be an alternative and copper-dependent pathway for anticancer activity of 6MP.

  16. Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangde; Dong, Xiaolin; Shu, Benshui; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Qiongbo; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation. PMID:25257538

  17. GLP-1 Cleavage Product Reverses Persistent ROS Generation After Transient Hyperglycemia by Disrupting an ROS-Generating Feedback Loop.

    PubMed

    Giacco, Ferdinando; Du, Xueliang; Carratú, Anna; Gerfen, Gary J; D'Apolito, Maria; Giardino, Ida; Rasola, Andrea; Marin, Oriano; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Murphy, Anne N; Shah, Manasi S; Brownlee, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The assumption underlying current diabetes treatment is that lowering the level of time-averaged glucose concentrations, measured as HbA1c, prevents microvascular complications. However, 89% of variation in risk of retinopathy, microalbuminuria, or albuminuria is due to elements of glycemia not captured by mean HbA1c values. We show that transient exposure to high glucose activates a multicomponent feedback loop that causes a stable left shift of the glucose concentration-reactive oxygen species (ROS) dose-response curve. Feedback loop disruption by the GLP-1 cleavage product GLP-1(9-36)(amide) reverses the persistent left shift, thereby normalizing persistent overproduction of ROS and its pathophysiologic consequences. These data suggest that hyperglycemic spikes high enough to activate persistent ROS production during subsequent periods of normal glycemia but too brief to affect the HbA1c value are a major determinant of the 89% of diabetes complications risk not captured by HbA1c. The phenomenon and mechanism described in this study provide a basis for the development of both new biomarkers to complement HbA1c and novel therapeutic agents, including GLP-1(9-36)(amide), for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications.

  18. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, M

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed.

  19. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, M

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed. PMID:26241780

  20. Cordycepin Prevents Bone Loss through Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Ce; Cao, Zhen; Ding, Ning; Hou, Tianyong; Luo, Fei; Kang, Fei; Yang, Xiaochao; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Zhao; Hu, Min; Xu, Jianzhong; Dong, Shiwu

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin was previously reported to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, the potential role of cordycepin in bone metabolism and cell biology of osteoclasts remains unclear. In our study, we focused on the in vitro effects of cordycepin on osteoclastogenesis and its in vivo effects in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclast differentiation, formation and fusion were evaluated by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain, focal adhesion stain and fusion assay, respectively. Osteoclastic bone resorption was evaluated by pit formation assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and removal were detected by the ROS assay. OVX mice were orally administered with 10 mg/kg of cordycepin daily for four weeks. In vitro results revealed that cordycepin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation, formation, fusion and bone resorption activity. We further proved that cordycepin treatments scavenged the generation of ROS, upregulated interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) and suppressed the activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) during osteoclastogenesis. In vivo results indicated cordycepin prevents bone loss, rescues bone microarchitecture, and restores bone mineralization in OVX mice. Our observations strongly suggested that cordycepin is an efficient osteoclast inhibitor and hold potential therapeutic value in preventing bone loss among postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. PMID:27104563

  1. Copper(II)-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Triggered Synergy: Improved ROS Generation and Reduced Glutathione Levels for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Enguo; Dong, Kai; Chen, Zhaowei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-12

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) has been used as photosensitizer to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, its therapeutic efficiency was far from satisfactory. One of the major obstacles was the overexpression of glutathione (GSH) in cancer cells, which could diminish the amount of generated ROS before their arrival at the target site. Herein, we report that the integration of Cu(2+) and g-C3 N4 nanosheets (Cu(2+) -g-C3 N4 ) led to enhanced light-triggered ROS generation as well as the depletion of intracellular GSH levels. Consequently, the ROS generated under light irradiation could be consumed less by reduced GSH, and efficiency was improved. Importantly, redox-active species Cu(+) -g-C3 N4 could catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to the superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide to the hydroxyl radical, both of which facilitated the generation of ROS. This synergy of improved ROS generation and GSH depletion could enhance the efficiency of PDT for cancer therapy.

  2. Induction of chlorosis, ROs generation and cell death by a toxin isolated from Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Tsurushima, Tetsu; Minami, Yukari; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the conidia germination fluid from an Avena isolate (Br58) of Pyricularia oryzae had chlorosis-inducing activity on oat leaf segments. The same activity was also present in the acetone extract of an oatmeal agar culture of Br58. Fungal cultures were used for a large-scale preparation. A series of acetone and ethyl acetate extraction monitored by chromatography was used to isolate an active fraction. The active principle was purified by HPLC. We show by NMR and LC/MS that the toxin was an oxidized C18 unsaturated fatty acid named Mag-toxin. Mag-toxin induced chlorosis on oat leaf segments incubated in the light but not in the dark. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death were induced by Mag-toxin in oat cells. The sub-cellular localization of ROS generation induced by the toxin treatment was correlated with the location of mitochondria. Interestingly, the induction of ROS generation and cell death by Mag-toxin was light-independent. PMID:21071840

  3. ROS-mediated activation of Drosophila larval nociceptor neurons by UVC irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The complex Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system, capable of monitoring sensory input from the external environment, includes a family of multiple dendritic (md) neurons with extensive dendritic arbors tiling the inner surface of the larval body wall. The class IV multiple dendritic (mdIV) neurons are the most complex with dendritic nerve endings forming direct intimate contacts with epithelial cells of the larval body wall. Functioning as polymodal mechanonociceptors with the ability to respond to both noxious mechanical stimulation and noxious heat, the mdIV neurons are also activated by nanomolar levels of the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2. Although often associated with tissue damage related to oxidative stress, endogenous ROS have also been shown to function as signaling molecules at lower concentrations. The overall role of ROS in sensory signaling is poorly understood but the acutely sensitive response of mdIV neurons to ROS-mediated activation is consistent with a routine role in the regulation of mdIV neuronal activity. Larvae respond to short wavelength ultraviolet (UVC) light with an immediate and visual system-independent writhing and twisting of the body previously described as a nociceptive response. Molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this response and potential relationships with ROS generation are not well understood. We have used the UVC-induced writhing response as a model for investigation of the proposed link between endogenous ROS production and mdIV neuron function in the larval body wall. Results Transgenic inactivation of mdIV neurons caused a strong suppression of UVC-induced writhing behavior consistent with a key role for the mdIV neurons as mediators of the behavioral response. Direct imaging of ROS-activated fluorescence showed that UVC irradiation caused a significant increase in endogenous ROS levels in the larval body wall and transgenic overexpression of antioxidant enzymes strongly

  4. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Ouro, Alberto; Rivera, Io-Guane; Ordonez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel; Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Munoz, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} and protein kinase C-{alpha}, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-{alpha} and cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} in this pathway. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} and PKC-{alpha} in this pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

  5. Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photo-stability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Kacie M.

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly prevalent in society for applications of sunscreens, cosmetics, paints, biomedical imaging, and photovoltaics. Due to the increased surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles compared to bulk materials, it is important to know the health and safety impacts of these materials. One mechanism of toxicity of nominally "safe" materials such as TiO 2 is through the photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous organisms. We have investigated ROS generation by functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles and its influence on aggregation and bioavailability and toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae. For these studies we investigated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. For application purposes and solution stability, the TiO2 nanoparticles were functionalized with a variety of ligands such as citrate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ascorbate. We quantitatively examined the amount of ROS produced in aqueous solution using fluorescent probes and see that more ROS is produced under UV light than in the dark control. Our measurements show that TiO2 toxicity reaches a maximum for nanoparticles with smaller diameters, and is correlated with surface area dependent changes in ROS generation. In an effort to reduce toxicity through control of the surface and surface ligands, we synthesized anatase nanoparticles of different sizes, functionalized them with different ligands, and examined the resulting ROS generation and ligand stability. Using a modular ligand containing a hydrophobic inner region and a hydrophilic outer region, we synthesized water-stable nanoparticles, via two different chemical reactions, having much-reduced ROS generation and thus reduced toxicity. These results suggest new strategies for making safer nanoparticles while still retaining their desired properties. We also examine the degradation of the different ligands

  6. Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 μM for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

  7. Asperlin induces G{sub 2}/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    He, Long; Nan, Mei-Hua; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Ho; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Erikson, Raymond Leo; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. {yields} Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. {yields} Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. {yields} Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  8. Ibuprofen causes photocleavage through ROS generation and intercalates with DNA: a combined biophysical and molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mohammed Amir; Sarwar, Tarique; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Ibuprofen is an important nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug endowed with various pharmacological and biological activities. In the present study, the photochemical properties of ibuprofen were evaluated by assaying the generation of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, singlet oxygen and the hydroxyl radical. ROS generated by ibuprofen in the presence of white light causes DNA strand scission as observed by plasmid nicking assay. Ibuprofen induced ROS generation is also capable of causing DNA degradation in lymphocytes as observed by photocomet assay. ROS generation properties of ibuprofen were further strengthened by the formation of carbonyl groups in BSA and TBARS in linoleic acid as observed by carbonyl assay and lipid peroxidation assay respectively. We have also investigated the mode of interaction of ibuprofen with calf thymus DNA through a series of in vitro experiments. UV-visible spectroscopy established the formation of a complex between ibuprofen and Ct DNA. The steady state fluorescence experiments at different temperatures revealed a binding constant of ∼10(4) L mol(-1), which is indicative of intercalative binding between ibuprofen and the DNA helix. Analysis of the various thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS calculated at different temperatures indicated that the hydrogen bonds played a major role in the interaction. The intercalative binding mode is further confirmed by competitive displacement assays, urea denaturation, iodide quenching, viscosity measurements and CD analysis. In silico molecular docking revealed the binding of ibuprofen within the GC base pairs of DNA, confirming the intercalative binding mode.

  9. ROS-Induced JNK and p38 Signaling Is Required for Unpaired Cytokine Activation during Drosophila Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Santabárbara-Ruiz, Paula; López-Santillán, Mireya; Martínez-Rodríguez, Irene; Binagui-Casas, Anahí; Pérez, Lídia; Milán, Marco; Corominas, Montserrat; Serras, Florenci

    2015-01-01

    Upon apoptotic stimuli, epithelial cells compensate the gaps left by dead cells by activating proliferation. This has led to the proposal that dying cells signal to surrounding living cells to maintain homeostasis. Although the nature of these signals is not clear, reactive oxygen species (ROS) could act as a signaling mechanism as they can trigger pro-inflammatory responses to protect epithelia from environmental insults. Whether ROS emerge from dead cells and what is the genetic response triggered by ROS is pivotal to understand regeneration of Drosophila imaginal discs. We genetically induced cell death in wing imaginal discs, monitored the production of ROS and analyzed the signals required for repair. We found that cell death generates a burst of ROS that propagate to the nearby surviving cells. Propagated ROS activate p38 and induce tolerable levels of JNK. The activation of JNK and p38 results in the expression of the cytokines Unpaired (Upd), which triggers the JAK/STAT signaling pathway required for regeneration. Our findings demonstrate that this ROS/JNK/p38/Upd stress responsive module restores tissue homeostasis. This module is not only activated after cell death induction but also after physical damage and reveals one of the earliest responses for imaginal disc regeneration. PMID:26496642

  10. ROS-Induced JNK and p38 Signaling Is Required for Unpaired Cytokine Activation during Drosophila Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Santabárbara-Ruiz, Paula; López-Santillán, Mireya; Martínez-Rodríguez, Irene; Binagui-Casas, Anahí; Pérez, Lídia; Milán, Marco; Corominas, Montserrat; Serras, Florenci

    2015-10-01

    Upon apoptotic stimuli, epithelial cells compensate the gaps left by dead cells by activating proliferation. This has led to the proposal that dying cells signal to surrounding living cells to maintain homeostasis. Although the nature of these signals is not clear, reactive oxygen species (ROS) could act as a signaling mechanism as they can trigger pro-inflammatory responses to protect epithelia from environmental insults. Whether ROS emerge from dead cells and what is the genetic response triggered by ROS is pivotal to understand regeneration of Drosophila imaginal discs. We genetically induced cell death in wing imaginal discs, monitored the production of ROS and analyzed the signals required for repair. We found that cell death generates a burst of ROS that propagate to the nearby surviving cells. Propagated ROS activate p38 and induce tolerable levels of JNK. The activation of JNK and p38 results in the expression of the cytokines Unpaired (Upd), which triggers the JAK/STAT signaling pathway required for regeneration. Our findings demonstrate that this ROS/JNK/p38/Upd stress responsive module restores tissue homeostasis. This module is not only activated after cell death induction but also after physical damage and reveals one of the earliest responses for imaginal disc regeneration.

  11. ROS-generating TiO2 nanoparticles for non-invasive sonodynamic therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Dong Gil; Deepagan, V. G.; Um, Wooram; Jeon, Sangmin; Son, Sejin; Chang, Hyeyoun; Yoon, Hwa In; Cho, Yong Woo; Swierczewska, Maggie; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G.; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The non-invasive photodynamic therapy has been limited to treat superficial tumours, primarily ascribed to poor tissue penetration of light as the energy source. Herein, we designed a long-circulating hydrophilized titanium dioxide nanoparticle (HTiO2 NP) that can be activated by ultrasound to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). When administered systemically to mice, HTiO2 NPs effectively suppressed the growth of superficial tumours after ultrasound treatments. In tumour tissue, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were elevated several fold and intense vascular damage was observed. Notably, ultrasound treatments with HTiO2 NPs also suppressed the growth of deeply located liver tumours at least 15-fold, compared to animals without ultrasound treatments. This study provides the first demonstration of the feasibility of using HTiO2 NPs as sensitizers for sonodynamic therapy in vivo. PMID:26996446

  12. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells.

    PubMed

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2008-09-01

    The effect of an artichoke extract on induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its reductive properties were evaluated. Preincubation of HUVEC cells with the artichoke extract at concentrations of 25-100 microg/mL for 24 h abolished ROS generation induced by LPS and oxyLDL as evaluated by the fluorescence intensity of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Potent, concentration-dependent reductive properties of the artichoke extract were demonstrated by the reduction kinetics of cytochrome c in reference to ascorbate were also revealed. The results of the present study the warrant application of artichoke extracts as endothelium protecting agents.

  13. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-04-10

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RARα-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activating Notch1 signaling. Tetrandrine induced autophagy and differentiation in M5 type patient primary leukemia cells. The in vivo results indicated that low concentrations of tetrandrine inhibited leukemia cells proliferation and induced autophagy and then facilitated their differentiation, by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling. We suggest that tetrandrine is a potential agent for the treatment of APL by inducing differentiation of leukemia cells. PMID:25797266

  14. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hebron C.; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  15. Overload training inhibits phagocytosis and ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages: role of IGF-1 and MGF.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru; Dong, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of peritoneal macrophages (Mϕs), and that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and mechano-growth factor (MGF) produced by macrophages may contribute to this process. Rats were randomized to two groups, sedentary control group (n = 10) and overload training group (n = 10). The rats of overload training group were subjected to 11 weeks of experimental training protocol. Blood sample was used to determine the content of hemoglobin, testosterone, and corticosterone. The phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs were measured by the uptake of neutral red and the flow cytometry, respectively. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs were determined by real-time PCR. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and MGF peptide on phagocytosis and ROS generation of Mϕs in vitro. The data showed that overload training significantly decreased the body weight (19.3 %, P < 0.01), the hemoglobin (13.5 %, P < 0.01), the testosterone (55.3 %, P < 0.01) and the corticosterone (40.6 %, P < 0.01) in blood. Moreover, overload training significantly decreased the phagocytosis (27 %, P < 0.05) and the ROS generation (35 %, P < 0.01) of Mϕs. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs from overload training group increased significantly compared with the control group (21-fold and 92-fold, respectively; P < 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IGF-1 had no significant effect on the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs. Unlike IGF-1, MGF peptide impaired the phagocytosis of Mϕs in dose-independent manner. In addition, MGF peptide of some concentrations (i.e., 1, 10, 50, 100 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the ROS generation of Mϕs. These results suggest that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages, and that MGF produced by macrophages may play a key role in this process. This may represent a novel mechanism of

  16. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  17. Optogenetic control of ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor/effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs) were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling. PMID:24563855

  18. Chloroplast-generated ROS dominate NaCl- induced K+ efflux in wheat leaf mesophyll

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Mesophyll K+ retention ability has been recently reported as an important component of salinity stress tolerance in wheat. In order to investigate the role of ROS in regulating NaCl-induced K+ efflux in wheat leaf mesophyll, a series of pharmacological experiments was conducted using MV (methyl viologen, superoxide radical inducer), DPI (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), H2O2 (to mimic apoplastic ROS), and EGCG ((−)-Epigallocatechin gallate, ROS scavenger). Mesophyll pre-treatment with 10 μM MV resulted in a significantly higher NaCl-induced K+ efflux in leaf mesophyll, while 50 μM EGCG pre-treatment alleviated K+ leakage under salt stress. No significant change in NaCl-induced K+ efflux in leaf mesophyll was found in specimens pre-treated by H2O2 and DPI, compared with the control. The highest NaCl-induced H+ efflux in leaf mesophyll was also found in samples pre-treated with MV, suggesting a futile cycle between increased H+-ATPase activity and ROS-induced K+ leak. Overall, it is suggested that, under saline stress, K+ efflux from wheat mesophyll is mediated predominantly by non-selective cation channels (NSCC) regulated by ROS produced in chloroplasts, at least in bread wheat. PMID:26039472

  19. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells.

  20. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26869514

  1. The role of ROS generation from magnetic nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field on cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wydra, Robert J.; Rychahou, Piotr G.; Evers, B. Mark; Anderson, Kimberly W.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Hilt, J. Zach

    2015-01-01

    Monosaccharide coated iron oxide nanoparticles were developed to selectively target colon cancer cell lines for magnetically mediated energy delivery therapy. The nanoparticles were prepared using a coupling reaction to attach the glucose functional group to the iron oxide core, and functionality was confirmed with physicochemical characterization techniques. The targeted nanoparticles were internalized into CT26 cells at a greater extent than non-targeted nanoparticles, and the nanoparticles were shown to be localized within lysosomes. Cells with internalized nanoparticles were exposed to an AMF to determine the potential to delivery therapy. Cellular ROS generation and apoptotic cell death was enhanced with field exposure. The nanoparticle coatings inhibit the Fenton-like surface generation of ROS suggesting a thermal or mechanical effect is more likely the source of the intracellular effect. PMID:26143604

  2. Mitochondrial calcium uptake underlies ROS generation during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Robert; Linbo, Tor; Pickett, Sarah B; Wu, Patricia; Ou, Henry C; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics can lead to the generation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear that have been implicated in hearing and balance disorders. Better understanding of the origin of aminoglycoside-induced ROS could focus the development of therapies aimed at preventing this event. In this work, we used the zebrafish lateral line system to monitor the dynamic behavior of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation occurring within the same dying hair cell following exposure to aminoglycosides. The increased oxidation observed in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of dying hair cells was highly correlated with mitochondrial calcium uptake. Application of the mitochondrial uniporter inhibitor Ru360 reduced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation, suggesting that mitochondrial calcium drives ROS generation during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, targeting mitochondria with free radical scavengers conferred superior protection against aminoglycoside exposure compared with identical, untargeted scavengers. Our findings suggest that targeted therapies aimed at preventing mitochondrial oxidation have therapeutic potential to ameliorate the toxic effects of aminoglycoside exposure. PMID:27500493

  3. Characterization and structures of anthocyanin pigments generated in rosé cider during vinification.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Toshihiko; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Yanagida, Akio; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2002-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments, which are not found in apple juice, were detected in rosé cider. We confirmed by HPLC/DAD and LC/ESI-MS analyses that some of these anthocyanin pigments generated in rosé cider during vinification corresponded to those formed in model cider containing anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol in the presence of acetaldehyde. To confirm their structures, two anthocyanin pigments formed in a model cider containing cyanidin-3-galactoside and (-)-epicatechin in the presence of acetaldehyde were isolated and purified, and their structures were elucidated by high resolution FAB-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. These two pigments were found to consist of cyanidin-3-galactoside and (-)-epicatechin linked by a CH(3)-CH bridge at the 8-position. They were diastereomers that differed in the configuration of the asymmetric methine carbon.

  4. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 μg m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  5. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Li; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  6. Antigenotoxic, antimutagenic and ROS scavenging activities of a Rhoeo discolor ethanolic crude extract.

    PubMed

    González-Avila, M; Arriaga-Alba, M; de la Garza, M; del Carmen HernándezPretelín, M; Domínguez-Ortíz, M A; Fattel-Fazenda, S; Villa-Treviño, S

    2003-02-01

    Rhoeo discolor is a legendary plant used for treatment of superficial mycoses in Mexican traditional medicine. Despite its extended use, it is not known whether it has side-effects. An ethanolic crude extract from Rhoeo discolor was prepared, its mutagenic capacity was investigated by the Ames test, and its genotoxic activity in primary liver cell cultures using the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. This extract was not mutagenic when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98 and TA100, and it did not elicit unscheduled DNA synthesis in hepatocyte cultures. In addition, we explored the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities of the extract and its ROS scavenger behaviour. Our results show that Rhoeo extract is antimutagenic for S. typhimurium strain TA102 pretreated with ROS-generating mutagen norfloxacin in the Ames test, and protects liver cell cultures against diethylnitrosamine induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis even at 1.9 ng per dish, which was the lowest dose tested. A free radical scavenging test was used in order to explore the antioxidant capacity of Rhoeo extract, as compared with three commercial well-known antioxidants quercetin, ascorbic acid and tocopherol. Rhoeo extract showed less radical scavenging effect than quercetin, but similar to that of alpha-tocopherol and more than ascorbic acid. It is important to note that this extract was neither mutagenic in S. typhimurium nor genotoxic in liver cell culture, even at concentrations as high as four- and 166-fold of those needed for maximal antimutagenic or chemoprotective activities, respectively.

  7. Impaired ROS Scavenging System in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from Patients with MERRF Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shih-Jie; Tseng, Wei-Lien; Chen, Chien-Tsun; Lai, Yu-Fen; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by myoclonus epilepsy, generalized seizures, ataxia and myopathy. MERRF syndrome is primarily due to an A to G mutation at mtDNA 8344 that disrupts the mitochondrial gene for tRNA(Lys). However, the detailed mechanism by which this tRNA(Lys) mutation causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes or neurons remains unclear. In this study, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that carry the A8344G genetic mutation from patients with MERRF syndrome. Compared with mutation-free isogenic hiPSCs, MERRF-specific hiPSCs (MERRF-hiPSCs) exhibited reduced oxygen consumption, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced growth, and fragmented mitochondrial morphology. We sought to investigate the induction ability and mitochondrial function of cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiated from MERRF-hiPSCs. Our data demonstrate that that cardiomyocyte-like cells (MERRF-CMs) or neural progenitor cells (MERRF-NPCs) differentiated from MERRF-iPSCs also exhibited increased ROS levels and altered antioxidant gene expression. Furthermore, MERRF-CMs or -NPCs contained fragmented mitochondria, as evidenced by MitoTracker Red staining and transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, these findings showed that MERRF-hiPSCs and MERRF-CM or –NPC harboring the A8344G genetic mutation displayed contained mitochondria with an abnormal ultrastructure, produced increased ROS levels, and expressed upregulated antioxidant genes. PMID:27025901

  8. Mechanism of Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity Is Correlated to Impaired Metabolism Due to Mitochondrial ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Wooyoung; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Kwon, Ji-Woong; Kwon, Hyuk-Kwon; Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Hyobin; Kim, Hwan Myung; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic use of cisplatin is limited by its severe side effects. In this study, by conducting different omics data analyses, we demonstrated that cisplatin induces cell death in a proximal tubular cell line by suppressing glycolysis- and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/mitochondria-related genes. Furthermore, analysis of the urine from cisplatin-treated rats revealed the lower expression levels of enzymes involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, and genes related to mitochondrial stability and confirmed the cisplatin-related metabolic abnormalities. Additionally, an increase in the level of p53, which directly inhibits glycolysis, has been observed. Inhibition of p53 restored glycolysis and significantly reduced the rate of cell death at 24 h and 48 h due to p53 inhibition. The foremost reason of cisplatin-related cytotoxicity has been correlated to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) that influence multiple pathways. Abnormalities in these pathways resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial energy production, which in turn sensitized the cells to death. The quenching of ROS led to the amelioration of the affected pathways. Considering these observations, it can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between cisplatin and metabolic dysfunctions involving mROS as the major player. PMID:26247588

  9. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Yu Ran; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Cho, Jae Youl; Song, Won O.; Park, Haeil; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Tae Woong

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by

  10. Fructose-induced ROS generation impairs glucose utilization in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, N; Maurya, C K; Pandey, J; Rai, A K; Tamrakar, A K

    2015-01-01

    High fructose consumption has implicated in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Fructose is a highly lipogenic sugar that has intense metabolic effects in liver. Recent evidences suggest that fructose exposure to other tissues has substantial and profound metabolic consequences predisposing toward chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes. Since skeletal muscle is the major site for glucose utilization, in the present study we define the effects of fructose exposure on glucose utilization in skeletal muscle cells. Upon fructose exposure, the L6 skeletal muscle cells displayed diminished glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and impaired insulin signaling. The exposure to fructose elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in L6 myotubes, accompanied by activation of the stress/inflammation markers c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα). We found that fructose caused impairment of glucose utilization and insulin signaling through ROS-mediated activation of JNK and ERK1/2 pathways, which was prevented in the presence of antioxidants. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that exposure to fructose induces cell-autonomous oxidative response through ROS production leading to impaired insulin signaling and attenuated glucose utilization in skeletal muscle cells.

  11. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  12. The ROS-generating oxidase Nox1 is required for epithelial restitution following colitis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masayoshi; Marumo, Masaya; Nakayama, Jun; Matsumoto, Misaki; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Kamata, Tohru

    2016-07-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by endogenous metabolic enzymes are involved in a variety of intracellular mechanisms. In particular, superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1 is highly expressed in the colon and has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological states of colon tissues. However, its role in tissue repair following colitis has not been fully elucidated. Our study using experimental colitis in mice showed that repair of the mucosal layer did not occur in Nox1-deficient mice following dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. This was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation, cell survival, migration, and terminal differentiation (generation of goblet cells) of crypt progenitor cells, as determined by histochemical analyses. Furthermore, Nox1 expression as well as ROS production in the colon crypt was increased during the repair process, and Nox1 deficiency suppressed these events. The results suggest that Nox1 promotes colon mucosal wound repair by sustaining the bioactivity of crypt progenitor cells and plays a crucial role in the epithelial restitution in the case of damage associated with colitis. PMID:26876598

  13. The ROS-generating oxidase Nox1 is required for epithelial restitution following colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masayoshi; Marumo, Masaya; Nakayama, Jun; Matsumoto, Misaki; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Kamata, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by endogenous metabolic enzymes are involved in a variety of intracellular mechanisms. In particular, superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1 is highly expressed in the colon and has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological states of colon tissues. However, its role in tissue repair following colitis has not been fully elucidated. Our study using experimental colitis in mice showed that repair of the mucosal layer did not occur in Nox1-deficient mice following dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. This was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation, cell survival, migration, and terminal differentiation (generation of goblet cells) of crypt progenitor cells, as determined by histochemical analyses. Furthermore, Nox1 expression as well as ROS production in the colon crypt was increased during the repair process, and Nox1 deficiency suppressed these events. The results suggest that Nox1 promotes colon mucosal wound repair by sustaining the bioactivity of crypt progenitor cells and plays a crucial role in the epithelial restitution in the case of damage associated with colitis. PMID:26876598

  14. Inverse agonist of estrogen-related receptor α suppresses the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells through ROS generation and interaction with multiple cell signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guan-Min; Zhang, Kun-Shui; Liu, Qiao; Liang, Shu-Wei; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Hong-Bin; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent clinical need for targeted therapy approaches for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Increasing evidences suggested that the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) was correlate with unfavorable clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients. We here show that inhibition of ERRα by its inverse agonist XCT-790 can suppress the proliferation, decrease G2/M phases, and induce mitochondrial-related apoptosis of TNBC cells. XCT-790 elevates the proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as ATF4/6, XBT-1 and CHOP. It also increases the expression of growth inhibition related proteins such as p53 and p21. Further, XCT-790 can increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TNBC cells mainly through inhibition of SOD1/2. While ROS scavenger NAC abolishes XCT-790 induced ER-stress and growth arrest. XCT-790 treatment can rapidly activate the signal molecules including ERK1/2, p38-MAPK, JNK, Akt, p65, and IκBα, while NAC attenuates effects of XCT-790 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38-MAPK and Akt. Further, the inhibitors of ERK1/2, JNK, Akt, and NF-κB attenuate XCT-790 induced ROS generation. These data suggest that AKT/ROS and ERK/ROS positive feedback loops, NF-κB/ROS, and ROS/p38-MAPK, are activated in XCT-790 treated TNBC cells. In vivo experiments show that XCT-790 significantly suppresses the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors, which is associated with up regulation of p53, p21, ER-stress related proteins while down regulation of bcl-2. The present discovery makes XCT-790 a promising candidate drug and lays the foundation for future development of ERRα-based therapies for TNBC patients. PMID:26871469

  15. Role of ROS-mediated TGF beta activation in laser photobiomodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arany, Praveen R.; Chen, Aaron Chih-Hao; Hunt, Tristan; Mooney, David J.; Hamblin, Michael

    2009-02-01

    The ability of laser light to modulate specific biological processes has been well documented but the precise mechanism mediating these photobiological interactions remains an area of intense investigation. We recently published the results of our clinical trial with 30 patients in an oral tooth-extraction wound healing model using a 904nm GaAs laser (Oralaser 1010, Oralia, Konstnaz, Germany), assessing healing parameters using routine histopathology and immunostaining (Arany et al Wound Rep Regen 2007, 15, 866). We observed a better organized healing response in laser irradiated oral tissues that correlated with an increased expression of TGF-beta1 immediately post laser irradiation. Our data suggested the source of latent TGF-beta1 might be from the degranulating platelets in the serum, an abundant source of in vivo latent TGF-beta, in the freshly wounded tissues. Further, we also demonstrated the ability of the low power near-infrared laser irradiation to activate the latent TGF-beta complexes in vitro at varying fluences from 10sec (0.1 J/cm2) to 600secs (6 J/cm2). Using serum we observed two isoforms, namely TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3, were capable of being activated by laser irradiation using an isoform-specific ELISA and a reporter based (p3TP) assay system. We are presently pursuing the precise photomolecular mechanisms focusing on potential chromophores, wavelength and fluence parameters affecting the Latent TGF-beta activation process in serum. As ROS mediated TGF-beta activation has been previously demonstrated and we are also exploring the role of Laser generated-ROS in this activation process. In summary, we present evidence of a potential molecular mechanism for laser photobiomodulation in its ability to activate latent TGF-beta complexes.

  16. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    species (ROS) and that pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly attenuates the baicalein effects on the loss of MMP and activation of caspase. In addition, the blocking of ROS generation decreases the apoptotic activity and antiproliferative effect of baicalein, indicating that baicalein induces apoptosis of 5637 cells through the ROS-dependent activation of caspases.

  17. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    species (ROS) and that pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly attenuates the baicalein effects on the loss of MMP and activation of caspase. In addition, the blocking of ROS generation decreases the apoptotic activity and antiproliferative effect of baicalein, indicating that baicalein induces apoptosis of 5637 cells through the ROS-dependent activation of caspases. PMID:27571890

  18. Ischemic A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I and its role in ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Stepanova, Anna; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism and provides approximately 40% of the proton-motive force that is utilized during mitochondrial ATP production. The dysregulation of complex I function--either genetically, pharmacologically, or metabolically induced--has severe pathophysiological consequences that often involve an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Slow transition of the active (A) enzyme to the deactive, dormant (D) form takes place during ischemia in metabolically active organs such as the heart and brain. The reactivation of complex I occurs upon reoxygenation of ischemic tissue, a process that is usually accompanied by an increase in cellular ROS production. Complex I in the D-form serves as a protective mechanism preventing the oxidative burst upon reperfusion. Conversely, however, the D-form is more vulnerable to oxidative/nitrosative damage. Understanding the so-called active/deactive (A/D) transition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic interventions for conditions like stroke, cardiac infarction, and other ischemia-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the mechanism of A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I considering recently available structural data and site-specific labeling experiments. In addition, this review discusses in detail the impact of the A/D transition on ROS production by complex I and the S-nitrosation of a critical cysteine residue of subunit ND3 as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage and tissue damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  19. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Cheng Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2011-09-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: > Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. > Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. > This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  20. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures--Botrytis cinerea interaction.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska, E; Różalska, S; Kaźmierczak, A; Nawrocka, J; Małolepsza, U

    2015-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as fluorescent microscopy were used to assess tomato and B. cinerea cells death. The biochemical studies of ROS and RNS concentrations in plant cell extract were complemented by in vivo ROS and nitric oxide (NO) imaging using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), diaminobenzidine (DAB) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-DA) staining methods, and confocal microscope technique. B. cinerea infection proceeded slower in Perkoz cell cultures. It was evidenced by measuring the pathogen conidia germination and germination tube development in which nuclei revealing cell death dominated. Two different types of tomato cell death were observed: cells with necrotic nuclei dominated in Corindo whereas in Perkoz cells with characteristic of vacuolar death type prevailed. In Perkoz cells, constitutive levels of NO and S-nitrosothiols (SNO) were significantly higher and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and superoxide anion (O₂(-)) concentrations were slightly higher as compared with Corindo cells. Moreover, increases in these molecule concentrations as a result of B. cinerea inoculation were observed in both, Perkoz and Corindo cell cultures. The enzymatic GSNOR activity seems to be an important player in controlling the SNO level in tomato cells. Involvements of the studied compounds in molecular mechanisms of tomato resistance to B. cinerea are discussed in the paper. PMID:25064634

  1. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  2. Organic aerosols associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by water-soluble PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vishal; Fang, Ting; Xu, Lu; Peltier, Richard E; Russell, Armistead G; Ng, Nga Lee; Weber, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    We compare the relative toxicity of various organic aerosol (OA) components identified by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ambient fine aerosols were collected from urban (three in Atlanta, GA and one in Birmingham, AL) and rural (Yorkville, GA and Centerville, AL) sites in the Southeastern United States. The ROS generating capability of the water-soluble fraction of the particles was measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Water-soluble PM extracts were further separated into the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions using a C-18 column, and both fractions were analyzed for DTT activity and water-soluble metals. Organic aerosol composition was measured at selected sites using a high-resolution time-of-flight AMS. Positive matrix factorization of the AMS spectra resolved the organic aerosol into isoprene-derived OA (Isop_OA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA, (LO-OOA), more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). The association of the DTT activity of water-soluble PM2.5 (WS_DTT) with these factors was investigated by linear regression techniques. BBOA and MO-OOA were most consistently linked with WS_DTT, with intrinsic water-soluble activities of 151 ± 20 and 36 ± 22 pmol/min/μg, respectively. Although less toxic, MO-OOA was most widespread, contributing to WS_DTT activity at all sites and during all seasons. WS_DTT activity was least associated with biogenic secondary organic aerosol. The OA components contributing to WS_DTT were humic-like substances (HULIS), which are abundantly emitted in biomass burning (BBOA) and include highly oxidized OA from multiple sources (MO-OOA). Overall, OA contributed approximately 60% to the WS_DTT activity, with the remaining probably from water-soluble metals, which were mostly associated with the hydrophilic WS_DTT fraction. PMID:25748105

  3. Biochemical Adaptations in Zea mays Roots to Short-Term Pb(2+) Exposure: ROS Generation and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kaur, Shubhpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of lead (0, 16, 40 and 80 mg L(-1) Pb2+) exposure for 3, 12 and 24 h on root biochemistry in hydroponically grown Zea mays (maize). Pb2+ exposure (80 mg L(-1)) enhanced malondialdehyde content (239%-427%), reactive carbonyl groups (425%-512%) and H2O2 (129%-294%) accumulation during 3-24 h of treatment, thereby indicating cellular peroxidation and oxidative damage. The quantitative estimations were in accordance with in situ detection of ROS generation (using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye) and H2O2 accumulation. Pb2+ treatment significantly reduced ascorbate and glutathione content during 3-24 h of exposure. On the contrary, levels of non-protein thiols were enhanced by 3-11.8 time over control in response to 16-80 mg L(-1) Pb2+ treatment, after 24 h. A dose-dependent induction in ascorbate peroxidase and lipoxygenase enzyme activity was observed in Z. mays roots. The activities of ascorbate-recycling enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase) were significantly increased in relation to concentration and duration of Pb2+ treatment. The study concludes that Pb2+-exposure induces ROS-mediated oxidative damage during early period of exposure despite the upregulation of enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

  4. TRAP-positive osteoclast precursors mediate ROS/NO-dependent bactericidal activity via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Shindo, Satoru; Movila, Alexandru; Kayal, Rayyan; Abdullah, Albassam; Savitri, Irma Josefina; Ikeda, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tsuguno; Howait, Mohammed; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Mira, Abdulghani; Han, Xiaozhe; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis was induced by RANKL stimulation in mouse monocytes to examine the possible bactericidal function of osteoclast precursors (OCp) and mature osteoclasts (OCm) relative to their production of NO and ROS. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive OCp, but few or no OCm, phagocytized and killed Escherichia coli in association with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Phagocytosis of E. coli and production of ROS and NO were significantly lower in TRAP+ OCp derived from Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 KO mice than that derived from wild-type (WT) or TLR2-KO mice. Interestingly, after phagocytosis, TRAP+ OCp derived from wild-type and TLR2-KO mice did not differentiate into OCm, even with continuous exposure to RANKL. In contrast, E. coli-phagocytized TRAP+ OCp from TLR4-KO mice could differentiate into OCm. Importantly, neither NO nor ROS produced by TRAP+ OCp appeared to be engaged in phagocytosis-induced suppression of osteoclastogenesis. These results suggested that TLR4 signaling not only induces ROS and NO production to kill phagocytized bacteria, but also interrupts OCm differentiation. Thus, it can be concluded that TRAP+ OCp, but not OCm, can mediate bactericidal activity via phagocytosis accompanied by the production of ROS and NO via TLR4-associated reprograming toward phagocytic cell type. PMID:27343691

  5. Bicarbonate and Ca2+ Sensing Modulators Activate Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Synergistically

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Makino, Clint L.; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca2+ levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca2+-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP) S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca2+ levels. Independent of Ca2+, ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain (CCD). Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca2+-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F514S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA) severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca2+ signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F514S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca2+. Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 “overlapping” phototransduction model (Peshenko et al., 2015b). PMID:26858600

  6. Hesperetin Induces Apoptosis in Breast Carcinoma by Triggering Accumulation of ROS and Activation of ASK1/JNK Pathway.

    PubMed

    Palit, Shreyasi; Kar, Susanta; Sharma, Gunjan; Das, Pijush K

    2015-08-01

    Hesperetin, a flavanone glycoside predominantly found in citrus fruits, exhibits a wide array of biological properties. In the present study hesperetin exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner without affecting normal (HMEC) as well as immortalized normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effect of hesperetin was due to the induction of apoptosis as evident from the phosphatidyl-serine externalization, DNA fragmentation, caspase-7 activation, and PARP cleavage. Apoptosis was associated with caspase-9 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, release of cytochrome c, and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. Pre-treatment with caspase-9 specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-fmk) markedly attenuated apoptosis suggesting an involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic cascade. Further, DCFDA flow-cytometric analysis revealed triggering of ROS in a time-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione markedly abrogated hesperetin-mediated apoptosis whereas carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) pretreatment along with DHR123-based flow-cytometry indicated the generation of cytosolic ROS. Profiling of MAPKs revealed activation of JNK upon hesperetin treatment which was abrogated upon NAC pre-treatment. Additionally, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 significantly reversed hesperetin-mediated apoptosis. The activation of JNK was associated with the activation of ASK1. Silencing of ASK1 resulted in significant attenuation of JNK activation as well as reversed the hesperetin-mediated apoptosis suggesting that hesperetin-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells involves accumulation of ROS and activation of ASK1/JNK pathway. In addition, hesperetin also induced apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells via intrinsic pathway via activation of caspase -9 and -3 and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio.

  7. The kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocyte ROS induction and bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jing; Sun, Xiufeng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Shihao; Wang, Xiaozhen; Wu, Hongtan; Hong, Lixin; Xie, Changchuan; Li, Xun; Zhao, Hao; Liu, Qingxu; Jiang, Mingting; Chen, Qinghua; Zhang, Jinjia; Li, Yang; Song, Siyang; Wang, Hong-Rui; Zhou, Rongbin; Johnson, Randy L.; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Han, Jiahuai; Avruch, Joseph; Chen, Lanfen; Zhou, Dawang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria need to be juxtaposted to phagosomes to synergistically produce ample reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes for pathogens killing. However, how phagosomes transmit signal to recruit mitochondria remains unclear. Here, we report that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 function to control ROS production by regulating mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrion-phagosome juxtaposition. Mst1 and Mst2 activate Rac GTPase to promote Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered assembly of the TRAF6-ECSIT complex that is required for mitochondrial recruitment to phagosomes. Inactive forms of Rac, including the human Rac2D57N mutant, disrupt the TRAF6-ECSIT complex by sequestering TRAF6, and severely dampen ROS production and greatly increase susceptibility to bacterial infection. These findings demonstrate the TLR-Mst1-Mst2-Rac signalling axis to be critical for effective phagosome-mitochondrion function and bactericidal activity. PMID:26414765

  8. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  9. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  10. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway Through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun Jung; Johnson, Hannah; Bronson, Roderick T.; de Feraudy, Sebastien; White, Forest; Charest, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a therapeutic opportunity for the development of new targeted treatment strategies. Here, we report that the NSCLC-derived fusion CD74-ROS, which accounts for 30% of all ROS fusion kinases in NSCLC, is an active and oncogenic tyrosine kinase. We found that CD74-ROS expressing cells were highly invasive in vitro and metastatic in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of CD74-ROS kinase activity reversed its transforming capacity by attenuating downstrream signaling networks. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics, we uncovered a mechanism by which CD74-ROS activates a novel pathway driving cell invasion. Expression of CD74-ROS resulted in the phosphorylation of the extended synaptotagmin-like protein E-Syt1. Elimination of E-Syt1 expression drastically reduced invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo without modifying the oncogenic activity of CD74-ROS. Furthermore, expression of CD74-ROS in non-invasive NSCLC cell lines readily confered invasive properties that paralleled the acquisition of E-Syt1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E-Syt1 is a mediator of cancer cell invasion and molecularly define ROS fusion kinases as therapeutic targets in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22659450

  11. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    PubMed

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  12. Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation in airway epithelial cells induces MUC5AC via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takahito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Gaku; Gondo, Hisaki; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-02-01

    The dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in cigarette smoke regulate various immunological responses via the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These environmental toxicants are known to cause bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that AhR activation upregulates the expression of mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) in the airway epithelial cell line. However, the mechanism for the production of mucin has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the role and pathway of AhR in airway epithelial cells by using selective agonists and antagonists. After stimulation with or without benzopyrene (B[a]P), an AhR agonist, MUC5AC expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The mechanism of AhR-induced MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells was studied in terms of the production of cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with B[a]P increased ROS generation in NCI-H₂₉₂ cells. Furthermore, B[a]P-induced MUC5AC upregulation and mucin production were inhibited by AhR siRNA or the use of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that the AhR-induced increase of mucin production is partially mediated by ROS generation. An antioxidant therapy approach may help to cure AhR-induced mucus hypersecretory diseases. PMID:20709182

  13. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system for control of airborne microorganisms in meat processing environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Serratia marcescens and lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were used to artificiall...

  14. The endogenous nitric oxide mediates selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Mo, Hai-Zhen; Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants.

  15. The Endogenous Nitric Oxide Mediates Selenium-Induced Phytotoxicity by Promoting ROS Generation in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants. PMID:25333984

  16. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP⁺-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2012-08-21

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) which mimics Parkinson's disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival.

  17. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP+-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B.

    2013-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which mimics Parkinson’s disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival. PMID:22750587

  18. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO.), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO. (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma.

  19. Responses of solid tumor cells in DMEM to reactive oxygen species generated by non-thermal plasma and chemically induced ROS systems.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO·), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO· (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma. PMID:25715710

  20. Cigarette smoke extract-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis and anti-oxidative Nrf-2 up-regulation are mediated by ROS-stimulated p38 activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi-Xi; Yang, Xin-Fu; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Shui-Juan; Guan, Yan; Liu, Ya-Nan; Sun, Yan-Hong; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke contains reactive oxygen (ROS) that can cause oxidative stress. It increases the number of apoptotic and necrotic lung cells and further induces the development of chronic airway disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). CSE exposure induced ROS generation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that are associated with the activation of apoptosis-regulating signal kinase 1 (ASK-1). N-acetylcysteine (a general antioxidant) attenuated the CSE-induced ASK-1 and p38 MAPK activation and cell apoptosis, suggesting a triggering role of ROS in ASK-1/p38 MAPK activation during apoptotic progression. In contrast, the inhibition and knockdown of p38 attenuated the expression of anti-oxidant master NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and CSE-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p38 MAPK modulates Nrf-2 expression and presumably prevents cell apoptosis. Taken together, the data presented in this manuscript demonstrate that the ROS-dependent ASK-1/p38 signaling cascade regulates CSE-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis. In addition, anti-oxidative Nrf-2 is also up-regulated by the ROS/p38 signaling cascade in this progression. PMID:25134437

  1. A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Lim, Sung-Chul . E-mail: sclim@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-05-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity, the role of ROS in this pathway remains unclear. Therefore, we attempted to determine the molecular mechanisms relevant to Cd-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Cd was found to induce apoptosis in the HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, as confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and TUNEL staining. In the early stages, both rapid and transient ROS generation triggered apoptosis via Fas activation and subsequent caspase-8-dependent Bid cleavage, as well as by calpain-mediated mitochondrial Bax cleavage. The timing of Bid activation was coincided with the timing at which the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) collapsed as well as the cytochrome c (Cyt c) released into the cytosol. Furthermore, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore inhibitors, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BA), did not block Cd-induced ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment resulted in the complete inhibition of the Cd-induced apoptosis via catalase upregulation and subsequent Fas downregulation. NAC treatment also completely blocked the Cd-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release, indicating that Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may be regulated indirectly by ROS-mediated signaling pathway. Taken together, a rapid and transient ROS generation by Cd triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway and subsequent mitochondrial pathway. NAC inhibits Cd-induced apoptosis through the blocking of ROS generation as well as the catalase upregulation.

  2. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI. PMID:26576075

  3. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI.

  4. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI. PMID:26576075

  5. ROS-Responsive Activatable Photosensitizing Agent for Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmi; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Choi, Yongdoo

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of macrophage-targeted theranostic nanoparticles (MacTNP) prepared from a Chlorin e6 (Ce6)-hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophage cells. MacTNP are nonfluorescent and nonphototoxic in their native state. However, when treated with ROS, especially peroxynitrite, they become highly fluorescent and phototoxic. In vitro cell studies show that MacTNP emit near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence inside activated macrophages. The NIR fluorescence is quenched in the extracellular environment. MacTNP are nontoxic in macrophages up to a Ce6 concentration of 10 μM in the absence of light. However, MacTNP become phototoxic upon illumination in a light dose-dependent manner. In particular, significantly higher phototoxic effect is observed in the activated macrophage cells compared to human dermal fibroblasts and non-activated macrophages. The ROS-responsive MacTNP, with their high target-to-background ratio, may have a significant potential in selective NIR fluorescence imaging and in subsequent photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis with minimum side effects. PMID:24396511

  6. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Vikash, Vikash; Ye, Qing; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Yulan; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca2+ and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System. PMID:26998193

  7. N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine induces caspase-8-dependent cytochrome c release and apoptosis through ROS generation in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Choi, Yun Jung; Han, Youngsoo; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Hong, Sung Hee

    2009-08-15

    N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine (DMPS) blocks the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by the enzyme sphingosine kinase (SK). In this study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanisms of DMPS action on a human leukemia cell line using functional pharmacologic and genetic approaches. First, we demonstrated that DMPS-induced apoptosis is evidenced by nuclear morphological change, distinct internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and an increased sub-G1 cell population. DMPS treatment led to the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, accompanied by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and led to cytochrome c release, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 family. Ectopic expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL conferred resistance of HL-60 cells to DMPS-induced cell death, suggesting that DMPS-induced apoptosis occurs predominantly through the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We also observed that DMPS activated the caspase-8-Bid-Bax pathway and that the inhibition of caspase-8 by z-IETD-fmk or small interfering RNA suppressed the cleavage of Bid, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic cell death. In addition, cells subjected to DMPS exhibited significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ROS scavengers, such as quercetin and Tiron, but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibited DMPS-induced activations of caspase-8, -3 and subsequent apoptotic cell death, indicating the role of ROS in caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that caspase-8 acts upstream of caspase-3, and that the caspase-8-mediated mitochondrial pathway is important in DMPS-induced apoptosis. Our results also suggest that ROS are critical regulators of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in DMPS-treated leukemia cells.

  8. Autophagy pathways activated in response to PDT contribute to cell resistance against ROS damage

    PubMed Central

    Dewaele, Michael; Martinet, Wim; Rubio, Noemí; Verfaillie, Tom; de Witte, Peter A; Piette, Jacques; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) concurrently instigate apoptosis and autophagy pathways, but the link between these processes remains unclear. Because cytotoxic ROS formation is exploited in anticancer therapy, such as in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a better understanding of the complex interplay between autophagy and apoptosis is urgently required. Previously, we reported that ROS generated by PDT with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated sensitizer leads to loss of ER-Ca2+ homeostasis, ER stress and apoptosis. Here we show that PDT prompted Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway down-regulation and stimulated macroautophagy (MA) in cancer and normal cells. Overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 reversed mTOR down-regulation and blocked MA progression and apoptosis. Attenuating MA using Atg5 knockdown or 3-methyladenine, reduced clearance of oxidatively damaged proteins and increased apoptosis, thus revealing a cytoprotective role of MA in PDT. Paradoxically, genetic loss of MA improved clearance of oxidized proteins and reduced photokilling. We found that up-regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in unstressed Atg5−/− cells compensated for MA loss and increased cellular resistance to PDT. CMA-deficient cells were significantly sensitized to photokilling but were protected against the ER stressor thapsigargin. These results disclose a stress-specific recruitment of autophagy pathways with cytoprotective function and unravel CMA as the dominant defence mechanism against PDT. PMID:20626525

  9. Miltirone exhibits antileukemic activity by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling; Jiang, Lifeng; Xu, Maolei; Liu, Qun; Gao, Ning; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of miltirone in human leukemia cell lines, primary leukemia cells, and nude mice U937 xenograft. Treatment of cells with miltirone resulted in apoptosis, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) collapses, increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cytochrome c release. Miltirone triggered the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress identified through several key molecules of the unfolded protein response, including phosphorylated PERK, eIF2a, GRP78, GRP94, and caspase-12. Miltrone treatment also resulted in the release of Ca2+ from the ER stores and mitochondrial Ca2+ loading in the cells. Further research revealed that miltirone resulted in dose-dependent decrease in complex III activity and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in these cells. Miltirone-induced apoptosis, dissipation of MMP and ER stress were dramatically blocked by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In contrast, treatment with ER stress inhibitor TUDCA significantly attenuated miltirone-induced ROS and apoptosis in leukemia cells. Moreover, our in vivo findings showed that administration of miltirone markedly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in U937 xenograft model with low systemic toxicity. Taken together, these findings indicate that miltirone may exert its antileukemic activity by inducing apoptosis through a ROS-dependent destructive cycle involving ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26848099

  10. Abiotic Stress Generates ROS That Signal Expression of Anionic Glutamate Dehydrogenases to Form Glutamate for Proline Synthesis in Tobacco and Grapevine[W

    PubMed Central

    Skopelitis, Damianos S.; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A.; Pliakonis, Eleni D.; Delis, Ioannis D.; Yakoumakis, Dimitris I.; Kouvarakis, Antonios; Papadakis, Anastasia K.; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2006-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) may be a stress-responsive enzyme, as GDH exhibits considerable thermal stability, and de novo synthesis of the α-GDH subunit is induced by exogenous ammonium and senescence. NaCl treatment induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular ammonia, expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) gdh-NAD;A1 encoding the α-subunit of GDH, increase in immunoreactive α-polypeptide, assembly of the anionic isoenzymes, and in vitro GDH aminating activity in tissues from hypergeous plant organs. In vivo aminating GDH activity was confirmed by gas chromatorgraphy–mass spectrometry monitoring of 15N-Glu, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Pro in the presence of methionine sulfoximine and amino oxyacetic acid, inhibitors of Gln synthetase and transaminases, respectively. Along with upregulation of α-GDH by NaCl, isocitrate dehydrogenase genes, which provide 2-oxoglutarate, are also induced. Treatment with menadione also elicits a severalfold increase in ROS and immunoreactive α-polypeptide and GDH activity. This suggests that ROS participate in the signaling pathway for GDH expression and protease activation, which contribute to intracellular hyperammonia. Ammonium ions also mimic the effects of salinity in induction of gdh-NAD;A1 expression. These results, confirmed in tobacco and grape (Vitis vinifera cv Sultanina) tissues, support the hypothesis that the salinity-generated ROS signal induces α-GDH subunit expression, and the anionic iso-GDHs assimilate ammonia, acting as antistress enzymes in ammonia detoxification and production of Glu for Pro synthesis. PMID:17041150

  11. Loss of UCP2 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction without altering ROS production and uncoupling activity.

    PubMed

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

  12. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  13. Loss of UCP2 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction without altering ROS production and uncoupling activity.

    PubMed

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan.

  14. Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P.; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

  15. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  16. Sodium orthovanadate associated with pharmacological doses of ascorbate causes an increased generation of ROS in tumor cells that inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Günther, Tânia Mara Fischer; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Baron, Carla Cristine; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Farias, Mirelle Sifroni; da Silva, Fabiana Ourique; Bücker, Nádia Cristina Falcão; Pich, Claus Tröger; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2013-01-18

    Pharmacological doses of ascorbate were evaluated for its ability to potentiate the toxicity of sodium orthovanadate (Na(3)VO(4)) in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, generation of ROS and DNA fragmentation were assessed in T24 cells. Na(3)VO(4) was cytotoxic against T24 cells (EC(50)=5.8 μM at 24 h), but in the presence of ascorbate (100 μM) the EC(50) fell to 3.3 μM. Na(3)VO(4) plus ascorbate caused a strong inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 20%) and increased the generation of ROS (4-fold). Na(3)VO(4) did not directly cleave plasmid DNA, at this aspect no synergism was found occurring between Na(3)VO(4) and ascorbate once the resulting action of the combination was no greater than that of both substances administered separately. Cells from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the extent of the oxidative damage and the type of cell death. Na(3)VO(4) alone, or combined with ascorbate, increased catalase activity, but only Na(3)VO(4) plus ascorbate increased superoxide dismutase activity (up to 4-fold). Oxidative damage on proteins and lipids was higher due to the treatment done with Na(3)VO(4) plus ascorbate (2-3-fold). Ascorbate potentiated apoptosis in tumor cells from mice treated with Na(3)VO(4). The results indicate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate enhance the generation of ROS induced by Na(3)VO(4) in tumor cells causing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by orthovanadate and ascorbate is closer related to inhibition on Bcl-xL and activation of Bax. Our data apparently rule out a mechanism of cell demise p53-dependent or related to Cdk2 impairment. PMID:23261463

  17. Induction of hsp70, hsp60, hsp83 and hsp26 and oxidative stress markers in benzene, toluene and xylene exposed Drosophila melanogaster: Role of ROS generation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Reddy, M.M. Krishna.; Mathur, N.; Saxena, D.K.; Chowdhuri, D. Kar

    2009-03-01

    Exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene in the human population may pose a health risk. We tested a working hypothesis that these test chemicals cause cellular toxicity to a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster transgenic for hsp70, hsp83 and hsp26 and Oregon R{sup +} strain were exposed to 1.0-100.0 mM benzene, toluene and xylene for 2-48 h to examine the heat shock proteins (hsps), ROS generation, anti-oxidant stress markers and developmental end points. The test chemicals elicited a concentration- and time-dependent significant (p < 0.01) induction of the hsps in the exposed organism in the order of hsp70 > hsp83 {>=} hsp26 as evident by {beta}-galactosidase activity after 24 h. RT-PCR amplification studies in Oregon R{sup +} larvae revealed a similar induction pattern of these genes along with hsp60 in the order of hsp70 > hsp60 > hsp26 {>=} hsp83. Under similar experimental conditions, a significant induction of ROS generation and oxidative stress markers viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content was observed. Sub-organismal response was propagated towards organismal response i.e., a delay in the emergence of flies and their reproductive performance. While hsp70 was predominantly induced in the organism till 24 h of treatment with the test chemicals, a significant or insignificant regression of Hsp70 after 48 h was concurrent with a significant induction (p < 0.01) of hsp60 > hsp83 {>=} hsp26 in comparison to the former. A significant positive correlation was observed between ROS generation and these hsps in the exposed organism till 24 h and a negative correlation between ROS generation and hsp70 in them after 48 h indicating a modulatory role of ROS in the induction of hsps. The study suggests that among the tested hsps, hsp70 may be used as an early bioindicator of cellular toxicity against benzene, toluene

  18. Extracellular ATP activates MAPK and ROS signaling during injury response in the fungus Trichoderma atroviride

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Castellanos, Elizabeth; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo U.; Heil, Martin; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The response to mechanical damage is crucial for the survival of multicellular organisms, enabling their adaptation to hostile environments. Trichoderma atroviride, a filamentous fungus of great importance in the biological control of plant diseases, responds to mechanical damage by activating regenerative processes and asexual reproduction (conidiation). During this response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by the NADPH oxidase complex. To understand the underlying early signaling events, we evaluated molecules such as extracellular ATP (eATP) and Ca2+ that are known to trigger wound-induced responses in plants and animals. Concretely, we investigated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by eATP, Ca2+, and ROS. Indeed, application of exogenous ATP and Ca2+ triggered conidiation. Furthermore, eATP promoted the Nox1-dependent production of ROS and activated a MAPK pathway. Mutants in the MAPK-encoding genes tmk1 and tmk3 were affected in wound-induced conidiation, and phosphorylation of both Tmk1 and Tmk3 was triggered by eATP. We conclude that in this fungus, eATP acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). Our data indicate the existence of an eATP receptor and suggest that in fungi, eATP triggers pathways that converge to regulate asexual reproduction genes that are required for injury-induced conidiation. By contrast, Ca2+ is more likely to act as a downstream second messenger. The early steps of mechanical damage response in T. atroviride share conserved elements with those known from plants and animals. PMID:25484887

  19. The photodamage effect and ROS generation induced by PDT with HMME in MCF-7cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huijuan; Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Yan

    2007-05-01

    Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) is a novel and promising porphyrin-related photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). We use the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to investigate the photodamage effect of HMME and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HMME-PDT. Methods: The growth rates of MCF-7 cells at 24h after irradiation by 532nm laser with HMME of 5~20μg/ml and light dose of 0.3~4.8J/cm2 were determined by CCK-8 assays. Hoechst33342 staining was used to investigate the morphological change of the tumor cell. Flow cytometry combined with dual Annexin V/PI staining was used to identify the death mode of the cells following PDT. The changes of ROS labeled by DCFH-DA were observed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM). Our results show that HMME-based PDT induced significant cell death, and the photocytotoxity to MCF-7 cells is dose-dependent at the range of HMME concentration 5~20μg/ml and the light dose 0.3~4.8J/cm2. The nucleolus underwent apoptosis and/or necrosis observed by LSCM with Hoechst33342 staining. The necrosis and apoptosis rate were 16.0% and 12.4% respectively by FCM, showing the number of necrosic cells was more than that of apoptosis. There was an intense increase of fluorescence intensity standing for ROS generation within 30min post-PDT, and the peak was at about 10min after PDT. Our results suggest that HMME-PDT could inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells remarkably. Because the MCF-7 cells lack procaspase-3, the apoptosis rate is lower. ROS played an important role in the photodamage with HMME.

  20. MicroRNA-155 Regulates ROS Production, NO Generation, Apoptosis and Multiple Functions of Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Under Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajing; Pan, Qunwen; Zhao, Yuhui; He, Caixia; Bi, Kexia; Chen, Yusen; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang; Ma, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    The microRNA-155 (miR155) regulates various functions of cells. Dysfunction or injury of endothelial cells (ECs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role and potential mechanisms of miR155 in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) under physiological and pathological conditions. We detected the effects of miR155 silencing on ROS production, NO generation, apoptosis and functions of HBMECs at basal and in response to oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Western blot and q-PCR were used for analyzing the gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase(Akt), activated caspase-3, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Results showed that under both basal and challenge situations: (1) Silencing of miR155 decreased apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of HBMECs, whereas, promoted nitric oxide (NO) generation. (2) Silencing of miR155 increased the proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability of HBMECs, while decreased cell adhesion ability. (3) Gene expression analyses showed that EGFR/ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt were increased and that activated caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mRNA were decreased after knockdown of miR155. In conclusion, knockdown of miR155 could modulate ROS production, NO generation, apoptosis and function of HBMECs via regulating diverse gene expression, such as caspase-3, ICAM-1 and EGFR/ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  1. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiu-Li; Ding, Fan; Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Ji-Min; Gao, Xue

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  2. Clostridium perfringens Phospholipase C Induced ROS Production and Cytotoxicity Require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called α-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NFκB signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NFκB pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NFκB inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis. PMID:24466113

  3. Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C induced ROS production and cytotoxicity require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB activation.

    PubMed

    Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called α-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NFκB signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NFκB pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NFκB inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis. PMID:24466113

  4. ROS-mediated activation of JNK/p38 contributes partially to the pro-apoptotic effect of ajoene on cells of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingyi; Sun, Zhao; Chen, Shuchang; Jiao, Yuchen; Bai, Chunmei

    2016-03-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, exerts anti-tumorigenic effect against various cancers. However, little is known about the biological effect of ajoene on lung adenocarcinoma, an aggressive malignancy with dismal prognosis. We investigated the biological effect of ajoene on lung adenocarcinoma and the underlying pathway. Lung adenocarcinoma cells A549, NCI-H1373, and NCI-H1395, along with the noncancerous lung bronchus cells BEAS-2B, were used. MTT test showed that ajoene (25 μM) reduces viability of lung adenocarcinoma cells but not the noncancerous BEAS-2B cells. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that ajoene inhibits proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Treatment of lung adenocarcinoma cells with ajoene enhances apoptosis and ROS generation in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Abrogation of caspase activation by zVAD-fmk completely prevents the ajoene-induced apoptosis; whereas block of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine partly abolishes the ajoene-induced apoptosis. ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis contributes partially to the anti-tumorigenic property of ajoene observed, a phenomenon also confirmed by xenograft tumor study. Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), pivots of ROS-mediated signaling pathway, are activated upon ajoene treatment; Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 activations are required for signaling pathway underlying the ajoene-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that ROS-mediated activation of JNK/p38 contributes partially to the pro-apoptotic action of ajoene on cells of lung adenocarcinoma. Ajoene may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent for lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs.

  6. ROS activates JNK-mediated autophagy to counteract apoptosis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-yu; Jiang, Xiao-xue; Zhu, Xin; He, Wei-yang; Kuang, You-lin; Ren, Ke; Lin, Yong; Gou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) is hampered by apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In diabetic ED, there is increased oxidative stress and decreased NO in the corpora cavernosa, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In this study we examined whether and how autophagy was involved in ROS-induced apoptosis of MSCs. Methods: Mouse C3H10 MSCs were treated with H2O2 to simulate the high oxidative condition in diabetic ED. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blot assays. Intracellular autophagosome accumulation was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (50–400 μmol/L) inhibited the cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, H2O2 (300 μmol/L) induced apoptosis, as well as activated autophagy in MSCs. Pretreatment with lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (10 μmol/L) or PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine (5 mmol/L) significantly enhanced H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L) abrogated H2O2-induced accumulation of LC3-II, and attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of Bcl-2 levels in MSCs. Conclusion: ROS induce autophagy to counteract apoptosis in MSCs by activation of JNK. Thus, augmentation of autophagy may reduce apoptosis, prolonging MSC survival and improving MSC-based therapeutic efficacy for diabetic ED. PMID:26592514

  7. Resveratrol dimers, nutritional components in grape wine, are selective ROS scavengers and weak Nrf2 activators.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Xu, Xiaofei; Tao, Zhihao; Wang, Xiu Jun; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-15

    Resveratrol monomer (Res) and its oligomers are considered as nutritional components distributed in edible plants. Three naturally occurring resveratrol dimers, namely parthenocissin A (Par), quadrangularin A (Qua) and pallidol (Pal), were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates cellular antioxidant systems. In vitro studies with different ROS and radical assay models showed that all the three dimers are strong DPPH quenchers and selective singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavengers (IC50=4.90, 1.05 and 5.50 μM, respectively). However, they were ineffective against hydroxyl radical (OH) or superoxide anion (O2(-)). Exposing the dimers to an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter cell line revealed that only pallidol was able to activate Nrf2 at 30 μM, while parthenocissin A and quadrangularin A had no significant effect on Nrf2. Our data demonstrates the distinct difference between reservatrol monomer and its dimers in activating the Nrf2/ARE signalling pathway.

  8. NPRL-Z-1, as a New Topoisomerase II Poison, Induces Cell Apoptosis and ROS Generation in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Yan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-01-01

    NPRL-Z-1 is a 4β-[(4″-benzamido)-amino]-4′-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)–DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma. PMID:25372714

  9. Species- and tissue-specific relationships between mitochondrial permeability transition and generation of ROS in brain and liver mitochondria of rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Panov, Alexander; Dikalov, Sergey; Shalbuyeva, Natalia; Hemendinger, Richelle; Greenamyre, John T; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey

    2007-02-01

    In animal models of neurodegenerative diseases pathological changes vary with the type of organ and species of the animals. We studied differences in the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the liver (LM) and brain (BM) of Sprague-Dawley rats and C57Bl mice. In the presence of ADP mouse LM and rat LM required three times less Ca(2+) to initiate mPT than the corresponding BM. Mouse LM and BM sequestered 70% and 50% more Ca(2+) phosphate than the rat LM and BM. MBM generated 50% more ROS with glutamate than the RBM, but not with succinate. With the NAD substrates, generation of ROS do not depend on the energy state of the BM. Organization of the respiratory complexes into the respirasome is a possible mechanism to prevent ROS generation in the BM. With BM oxidizing succinate, 80% of ROS generation was energy dependent. Induction of mPT does not affect ROS generation with NAD substrates and inhibit with succinate as a substrate. The relative insensitivity of the liver to systemic insults is associated with its high regenerative capacity. Neuronal cells with low regenerative capacity and a long life span protect themselves by minimizing ROS generation and by the ability to withstand very large Ca(2+) insults. We suggest that additional factors, such as oxidative stress, are required to initiate neurodegeneration. Thus the observed differences in the Ca(2+)-induced mPT and ROS generation may underlie both the organ-specific and species-specific variability in the animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. α-Mangostin inhibits hypoxia-driven ROS-induced PSC activation and pancreatic cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jianjun; Huo, Xiongwei; Duan, Wanxing; Xu, Qinhong; li, Rong; Ma, Jiguang; Li, Xuqi; Han, Liang; Li, Wei; Sun, Hao; Wu, Erxi; Ma, Qingyong

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances indicating a key role of microenvironment for tumor progression, we investigated the role of PSCs and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, and examined the potential protective effect of α-mangostin on hypoxia-driven pancreatic cancer progression. Our data indicate that hypoxic PSCs exploit their oxidative stress due to hypoxia to secrete soluble factors favouring pancreatic cancer invasion. α-mangostin suppresses hypoxia-induced PSC activation and pancreatic cancer cell invasion through the inhibition of HIF-1α stabilization and GLI1 expression. Increased generation of hypoxic ROS is responsible for HIF-1α stabilization and GLI1 upregulation. Therefore, α-mangostin may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer progression. PMID:24513179

  11. ROS and Sympathetically Mediated Mitochondria Activation in Brown Adipose Tissue Contribute to Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Conti, Bruno; Wood, Malcolm R.; Bortell, Nikki; Bustamante, Eduardo; Saez, Enrique; Fox, Howard S.; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5°C and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 h, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a levels, but without affecting Meth-induced uncoupling protein 1 upregulation. Furthermore, in isolated BAT cells in culture, Meth, but not Norepinephrine, induced H2O2 upregulation. In addition, we found that in vivo Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a role in Meth hyperthermia. Thus, sympathetically mediated mitochondrial activation in the BAT and Meth-induced ROS are key components to the development of hyperthermia in Meth abuse. PMID:23630518

  12. Lysophosphatidylcholine-induced modulation of Ca(2+)-activated K(+)channels contributes to ROS-dependent proliferation of cultured human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wolfram Kuhlmann, Christoph Rüdiger; Wiebke Lüdders, Dörte; Schaefer, Christian Alexander; Kerstin Most, Astrid; Backenköhler, Ulrich; Neumann, Thomas; Tillmanns, Harald; Erdogan, Ali

    2004-05-01

    Proliferation of endothelial cells plays a crucial role in the process of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The major component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has been shown to promote endothelial proliferation by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since K(+) channels are known to control the cell cycle, we investigated the role of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK(Ca)) in the regulation of LPC-induced endothelial proliferation and ROS generation. A significant increase of cell growth induced by LPC (20 micromol/l; cell counts (CCs): +87%, thymidin incorporation: +89%; n = 12, P < 0.01) was observed, which was inhibited by the BK(Ca) inhibitor iberiotoxin (IBX; 100 nmol/l), by the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (5 micromol/l) and by transfection with antisense (AS) oligonucleotides against NAD(P)H oxidase, whereas N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) further increased LPC-induced cell growth. Using the patch-clamp technique a significant increase of BK(Ca) open-state probability (control: 0.004 +/- 0.002; LPC: 0.104 +/- 0.035; n = 21, P < 0.05) by LPC was observed. Using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence microscopy a significant increase of ROS induced by LPC was reported, that was blocked by IBX and Ca(2+) antagonists. Intracellular Ca(2+) measurements revealed a capacitative Ca(2+) influx caused by LPC. Bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) was measured using a [(3)H]-cGMP radioimmunoassay. LPC significantly decreased acetylcholine-induced NO synthesis. LPC significantly increased cGMP levels in endothelial cells transfected with AS, which was blocked by IBX. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that LPC activates BK(Ca) thereby increasing ROS production which induces endothelial proliferation. In addition LPC-induced BK(Ca)-activation contributes to increased cGMP levels, if ROS production is prevented by AS.

  13. Iron uptake controls the generation of Leishmania infective forms through regulation of ROS levels

    PubMed Central

    Mittra, Bidyottam; Cortez, Mauro; Haydock, Andrew; Ramasamy, Gowthaman; Myler, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    During its life cycle, Leishmania undergoes extreme environmental changes, alternating between insect vectors and vertebrate hosts. Elevated temperature and decreased pH, conditions encountered after macrophage invasion, can induce axenic differentiation of avirulent promastigotes into virulent amastigotes. Here we show that iron uptake is a major trigger for the differentiation of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes, independently of temperature and pH changes. We found that iron depletion from the culture medium triggered expression of the ferrous iron transporter LIT1 (Leishmania iron transporter 1), an increase in iron content of the parasites, growth arrest, and differentiation of wild-type (WT) promastigotes into infective amastigotes. In contrast, LIT1-null promastigotes showed reduced intracellular iron content and sustained growth in iron-poor media, followed by cell death. LIT1 up-regulation also increased iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) activity in WT but not in LIT1-null parasites. Notably, the superoxide-generating drug menadione or H2O2 was sufficient to trigger differentiation of WT promastigotes into fully infective amastigotes. LIT1-null promastigotes accumulated superoxide radicals and initiated amastigote differentiation after exposure to H2O2 but not to menadione. Our results reveal a novel role for FeSOD activity and reactive oxygen species in orchestrating the differentiation of virulent Leishmania amastigotes in a process regulated by iron availability. PMID:23382545

  14. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Testis Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Minutoli, Letteria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Irrera, Natasha; Marini, Herbert; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Bitto, Alessandra; Crea, Giovanni; Pisani, Antonina; Squadrito, Francesco; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Bruschetta, Daniele; Micali, Antonio; Altavilla, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes a reduction in arterial blood supply to tissues, followed by the restoration of perfusion and consequent reoxygenation. The reestablishment of blood flow triggers further damage to the ischemic tissue through reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, interference with cellular ion homeostasis, and inflammatory responses to cell death. In normal conditions, ROS mediate important beneficial responses. When their production is prolonged or elevated, harmful events are observed with peculiar cellular changes. In particular, during I/R, ROS stimulate tissue inflammation and induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The mechanisms underlying the activation of NLRP3 are several and not completely elucidated. It was recently shown that NLRP3 might sense directly the presence of ROS produced by normal or malfunctioning mitochondria or indirectly by other activators of NLRP3. Aim of the present review is to describe the current knowledge on the role of NLRP3 in some organs (brain, heart, kidney, and testis) after I/R injury, with particular regard to the role played by ROS in its activation. Furthermore, as no specific therapy for the prevention or treatment of the high mortality and morbidity associated with I/R is available, the state of the art of the development of novel therapeutic approaches is illustrated. PMID:27127546

  15. Inhibition of lanthanide nanocrystal-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by a surface coating peptide through abrogation of ROS production and TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx.

    PubMed

    Yao, Han; Zhang, Yunjiao; Liu, Liu; Xu, Youcui; Liu, Xi; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Wei, Pengfei; Jin, Peipei; Wen, Long-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Lanthanide-based nanoparticles (LNs) hold great promise in medicine. A variety of nanocrystals, including LNs, elicits potent inflammatory response through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We have previously identified an LNs-specific surface coating peptide RE-1, with the sequence of 'ACTARSPWICG', which reduced nanocrystal-cell interaction and abrogated LNs-induced autophagy and toxicity in both HeLa cells and liver hepatocytes. Here we show that RE-1 coating effectively inhibited LNs-induced inflammasome activation, mostly mediated by NLRP3, in mouse bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) cells, human THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages and also reduced LNs-elicited inflammatory response in vivo. RE-1 coating had no effect on cellular internalization of LNs in BMDM cells, in contrast to the situation in HeLa cells where cell uptake of LNs was significantly inhibited by RE-1. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammasome-inhibiting effect of RE-1, we assessed several parameters known to influence nanocrystal-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. RE-1 coating did not reduce potassium efflux, which occurred after LNs treatment in BMDM cells and was necessary but insufficient for LNs-induced inflammasome activation. RE-1 did decrease lysosomal damage induced by LNs, but the inhibitor of cathepsin B did not affect LNs-elicited caspase 1 activation and IL-1β release, suggesting that lysosomal damage was not critically important for LNs-induced inflammasome activation. On the other hand, LNs-induced elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), critically important for inflammasome activation, was largely abolished by RE-1 coating, with the reduction on NADPH oxidase-generated ROS playing a more prominent role for RE-1's inflammasome-inhibiting effect than the reduction on mitochondria-generated ROS. ROS generation further triggered Ca(2+) influx, an event that was mediated by Transient Receptor Potential M2 (TRPM2) and was

  16. Sodium orthovanadate associated with pharmacological doses of ascorbate causes an increased generation of ROS in tumor cells that inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Günther, T-hat nia Mara Fischer; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Baron, Carla Cristine; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Farias, Mirelle Sifroni; Ourique da Silva, Fabiana; Bücker, Nádia Cristina Falcão; Pich, Claus Tröger; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2013-01-18

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Pharmacological doses of ascorbate were evaluated for its ability to potentiate the toxicity of sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, generation of ROS and DNA fragmentation were assessed in T24 cells. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} was cytotoxic against T24 cells (EC{sub 50} = 5.8 μM at 24 h), but in the presence of ascorbate (100 μM) the EC{sub 50} fell to 3.3 μM. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate caused a strong inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 20%) and increased the generation of ROS (4-fold). Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} did not directly cleave plasmid DNA, at this aspect no synergism was found occurring between Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and ascorbate once the resulting action of the combination was no greater than that of both substances administered separately. Cells from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the extent of the oxidative damage and the type of cell death. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} alone, or combined with ascorbate, increased catalase activity, but only Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate increased superoxide dismutase activity (up to 4-fold). Oxidative damage on proteins and lipids was higher due to the treatment done with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate (2–3-fold). Ascorbate potentiated apoptosis in tumor cells from mice treated with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}. The results indicate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate enhance the generation of ROS induced by Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} in tumor cells causing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by orthovanadate and ascorbate is closer related to inhibition on Bcl-xL and activation of Bax. Our data apparently rule out a mechanism of cell demise p53-dependent or related to Cdk2 impairment.

  17. ROS Hexapod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Kirsch; Bankieris, Derek

    2016-01-01

    As an intern project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job was to familiarize myself and operate a Robotics Operating System (ROS). The project outcome will convert existing software assets into ROS using nodes, enabling a robotic Hexapod to communicate and to be functional and controlled by an existing PlayStation 3 (PS3) controller. Existing control algorithms and current libraries have no ROS capabilities within the Hexapod C++ source code. Conversion of C++ codes to ROS will enable existing code to be compatible with ROS, and will be controlled using existing PS3 controller. Furthermore, my job description is to design ROS messages and script programs which will enable assets to participate in the ROS ecosystem. In addition, an open source software (IDE) Arduino board will be integrated in the ecosystem with designing circuitry on a breadboard to add additional behavior with push buttons, potentiometers and other simple elements in the electrical circuitry. Other projects with the Arduino will be a GPS module digital clock that will run off 22 satellites to show accurate real time using a GPS signal and internal patch antenna to communicate with satellites.

  18. UVA-induced ROS generation inhibition by Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and subsequent cell death in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Soin, Magdalena; Filipek, Agnieszka; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2013-09-01

    UVA radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which react with lipids, proteins and other intracellular molecules leading to oxidative stress, cellular damage and ultimately cell death. There is, therefore, a growing need for substances exhibiting antioxidant activity, which may support repair mechanisms of the skin. This study evaluates the protective effect of the aqueous Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, against UVA (25 and 50J/cm(2))-induced changes in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The tested extract (0.1-10μg/ml) has decreased, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the UVA-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium, the ROS production (with the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and lipid peroxidation (utilizing redox reactions with ferrous ions) as compared to the control cells (incubated without the extract). Moreover, the extract increased the number of viable (calcein positive) cells decreasing the number of cells in late apoptosis (annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide positive). Thus our results show that O. paradoxa defatted seeds extract may be beneficial for the prevention of UVA skin damage.

  19. Chemoreception in the context of the general biology of ROS.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C; Agapito, M T; Rocher, A; Gonzalez-Martin, M C; Vega-Agapito, V; Gomez-Niño, A; Rigual, R; Castañeda, J; Obeso, A

    2007-07-01

    Superoxide anion is the most important reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily generated in cells. The main cellular constituents with capabilities to generate superoxide anion are NADPH oxidases and mitochondrial respiratory chain. The emphasis of our article is centered in critically examining hypotheses proposing that ROS generated by NADPH oxidase and mitochondria are key elements in O(2)-sensing and hypoxic responses generation in carotid body chemoreceptor cells. Available data indicate that chemoreceptor cells express a specific isoform of NADPH oxidase that is activated by hypoxia; generated ROS acting as negative modulators of the carotid body (CB) hypoxic responses. Literature is also consistent in supporting that poisoned respiratory chain can produce high amounts of ROS, making mitochondrial ROS potential triggers-modulators of the CB activation elicited by mitochondrial venoms. However, most data favour the notion that levels of hypoxia, capable of strongly activating chemoreceptor cells, would not increase the rate of ROS production in mitochondria, making mitochondrial ROS unlikely triggers of hypoxic responses in the CB. Finally, we review recent literature on heme oxygenases from two perspectives, as potential O(2)-sensors in chemoreceptor cells and as generators of bilirubin which is considered to be a ROS scavenger of major quantitative importance in mammalian cells.

  20. Novel chromone and xanthone derivatives: Synthesis and ROS/RNS scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Proença, Carina; Albuquerque, Hélio M T; Ribeiro, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Santos, Clementina M M; Silva, Artur M S; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-06-10

    Chromones and xanthones are oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds acknowledged by their antioxidant properties. In an effort to develop novel agents with improved activity, a series of compounds belonging to these chemical classes were prepared. Their syntheses involve the condensation of appropriate 2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-ones, obtained via Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement, with (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylaldehyde to provide the corresponding 2-[(1E,3E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]-4H-chromen-4-ones. Subsequent electrocyclization and oxidation of these compounds led to the synthesis of 1-aryl-9H-xanthen-9-ones. After cleavage of the protecting groups, hydroxylated chromones and xanthones were assessed as scavenging agents against both reactive oxygen species (ROS) [superoxide radical (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and peroxyl radical (ROO(•))] and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) [nitric oxide ((•)NO) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-))]. Generally, all the tested new hydroxylated chromones and xanthones exhibited scavenger effects dependent on the concentration, with IC50 values found in the micromolar range. Some of them were shown to have improved scavenging activity when compared with previously reported analogues, allowing the inference of preliminary conclusions on the structure-activity relationship. PMID:27031214

  1. Active Learning Crosses Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Diane K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of intergenerational programs, highlighting a child care program that offers age-appropriate and mutually beneficial activities for children and elders within a nearby retirement community. The program has adopted High/Scope's active learning approach to planning and implementing activities that involve both generations. The…

  2. Immunoresponsive gene 1 augments bactericidal activity of macrophage-lineage cells by regulating β-oxidation-dependent mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christopher J; Boyle, Rachel H; Astin, Jonathan W; Flores, Maria Vega; Oehlers, Stefan H; Sanderson, Leslie E; Ellett, Felix; Lieschke, Graham J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2013-08-01

    Evidence suggests the bactericidal activity of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) directly contributes to killing phagocytozed bacteria. Infection-responsive components that regulate this process remain incompletely understood. We describe a role for the mitochondria-localizing enzyme encoded by Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) during the utilization of fatty acids as a fuel for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and associated mROS production. In a zebrafish infection model, infection-responsive expression of zebrafish irg1 is specific to macrophage-lineage cells and is regulated cooperatively by glucocorticoid and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Irg1-depleted macrophage-lineage cells are impaired in their ability to utilize fatty acids as an energy substrate for OXPHOS-derived mROS production resulting in defective bactericidal activity. Additionally, the requirement for fatty acid β-oxidation during infection-responsive mROS production and bactericidal activity toward intracellular bacteria is conserved in murine macrophages. These results reveal IRG1 as a key component of the immunometabolism axis, connecting infection, cellular metabolism, and macrophage effector function.

  3. Protectin DX, a double lipoxygenase product of DHA, inhibits both ROS production in human neutrophils and cyclooxygenase activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Boussetta, Tarek; Makni-Maalej, Karama; Fay, Michèle; Driss, Fathi; El-Benna, Jamel; Lagarde, Michel; Guichardant, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils play a major role in inflammation by releasing large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). This ROS overproduction is mediated by phosphorylation of the NOX subunits with an uncontrolled manner. Therefore, targeting neutrophil subunits would represent a promising strategy to moderate NOX activity, lower ROS, and other inflammatory agents, such as cytokines and leukotrienes, produced by neutrophils. For this purpose, we investigated the effects of protectin DX (PDX) - a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) di-hydroxylated product which inhibits blood platelet aggregation - on neutrophil activation in vitro. We found that PDX decreases ROS production, inhibits NOX activation and MPO release from neutrophils. We also confirm, that PDX is an anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2, E.C. 1.14.99.1) as well as COX-2 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated human neutrophils. However, PDX has no effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway that produces the chemotactic agent leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Taken together, our results suggest that PDX could be a protective agent against neutrophil invasion in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24254970

  4. Negative Regulation of Leptin-induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Formation by Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Activation in Hypothalamic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Letizia; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Imperatore, Roberta; Morello, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Martella, Andrea; Cristino, Luigia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2015-05-29

    The adipocyte-derived, anorectic hormone leptin was recently shown to owe part of its regulatory effects on appetite-regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides to the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Leptin is also known to exert a negative regulation on hypothalamic endocannabinoid levels and hence on cannabinoid CB1 receptor activity. Here we investigated the possibility of a negative regulation by CB1 receptors of leptin-mediated ROS formation in the ARC. Through pharmacological and molecular biology experiments we report data showing that leptin-induced ROS accumulation is 1) blunted by arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) in a CB1-dependent manner in both the mouse hypothalamic cell line mHypoE-N41 and ARC neuron primary cultures, 2) likewise blocked by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, troglitazone, in a manner inhibited by T0070907, a PPAR-γ antagonist that also inhibited the ACEA effect on leptin, 3) blunted under conditions of increased endocannabinoid tone due to either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation in mHypoE-N41 and primary ARC neuronal cultures from MAGL(-/-) mice, respectively, and 4) associated with reduction of both PPAR-γ and catalase activity, which are reversed by both ACEA and troglitazone. We conclude that CB1 activation reverses leptin-induced ROS formation and hence possibly some of the ROS-mediated effects of the hormone by preventing PPAR-γ inhibition by leptin, with subsequent increase of catalase activity. This mechanism might underlie in part CB1 orexigenic actions under physiopathological conditions accompanied by elevated hypothalamic endocannabinoid levels.

  5. Resveratrol protects ROS-induced cell death by activating AMPK in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Ock Jin

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol, one of polyphenols derived from red wine, has been shown to protect against cell death, possibly through the association with several signaling pathways. Currently numerous studies indicate that cardiovascular diseases are linked to the release of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) often generated in states such as ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated whether resveratrol has the capability to control intracellular survival signaling cascades involving AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in the inhibitory process of cardiac injury. We hypothesized that resveratrol may exert a protective effect on damage to heart muscle through modulating of the AMPK signaling pathway. We mimicked ischemic conditions by inducing cell death with H2O2 in H9c2 muscle cells. In this experiment, resveratrol induced strong activation of AMPK and inhibited the occurrence of cell death caused by treatment with H2O2. Under the same conditions, inhibition of AMPK using dominant negative AMPK constructs dramatically abolished the effect of resveratrol on cell survival in H2O2-treated cardiac muscle cells. These results indicate that resveratrol-induced cell survival is mediated by AMPK in H9c2 cells and may exert a novel therapeutic effect on oxidative stress induced in cardiac disorders. PMID:18850225

  6. Targeting TRPM2 in ROS-Coupled Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Under pathological conditions such as inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which, in return, contribute to the development and exacerbation of disease. The second member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin subfamily, TRPM2, is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel, activated by ROS in an ADP-ribose mediated fashion. In other words, TRPM2 functions as a transducer that converts oxidative stress into Ca2+ signaling. There is good evidence that TRPM2 plays an important role in ROS-coupled diseases. For example, in monocytes the influx of Ca2+ through TRPM2 activated by ROS contributes to the aggravation of inflammation via chemokine production. In this review, the focus is on TRPM2 as a molecular linker between ROS and Ca2+ signaling in ROS-coupled diseases. PMID:27618067

  7. Redox-fibrosis: Impact of TGFβ1 on ROS generators, mediators and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kati; Konzack, Anja; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fibrosis is one of the most prevalent features of age-related diseases like obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, or cardiomyopathy and affects millions of people in all countries. Although the understanding about the pathophysiology of fibrosis has improved a lot during the recent years, a number of mechanisms still remain unknown. Although TGF-β1 signaling, loss of metabolic homeostasis and chronic low-grade inflammation appear to play important roles in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, recent evidence indicates that oxidative stress and the antioxidant system may also be crucial for fibrosis development and persistence. These findings point to a concept of a redox-fibrosis where the cellular oxidant and antioxidant system could be potential therapeutic targets. The current review aims to summarize the existing links between TGF-β1 signaling, generation and action of reactive oxygen species, expression of antioxidative enzymes, and functional consequences including epigenetic redox-mediated responses during fibrosis.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Huang, Yuan-Li; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Chen, Jiun-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  9. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsuyama, Keigo; Nakazato, Yasutaro; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Kondoh, Sayuri; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  10. The adhesion GPCR BAI1 mediates macrophage ROS production and microbicidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Emily A.; Lee, Chang Sup; Owen, Katherine A.; D’Souza, Ryan S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Casanova, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of microbes and initiation of an innate immune response occur through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the cellular microbicidal machinery. In particular, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase complex is a critical component of the macrophage bactericidal machinery. We previously characterized brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), a member of the adhesion family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a PRR that mediates the selective phagocytic uptake of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages. We showed that BAI1 promoted phagosomal ROS production through activation of the Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac1, thereby stimulating NADPH oxidase activity. Primary BAI1-deficient macrophages exhibited attenuated Rac GTPase activity and reduced ROS production in response to several Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in impaired microbicidal activity. Furthermore, in a peritoneal infection model, BAI1-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to death by bacterial challenge because of impaired bacterial clearance. Together, these findings suggest that BAI1 mediates the clearance of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating both phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase activation, thereby coupling bacterial detection to the cellular microbicidal machinery. PMID:26838550

  11. Impact of solar UV radiation on toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles through photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and photo-induced dissolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study investigated the impact of solar UV radiation on ZnO nanoparticle toxicity through photocatalytic ROS generation and photo-induced dissolution. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Daphnia magna was examined under laboratory light versus simulated solar UV radiatio...

  12. Synergistic activities of a silver(I) glutamic acid complex and reactive oxygen species (ROS): a novel antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Batarseh, K I; Smith, M A

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic activities of a silver(I) glutamic acid complex with the synergistic concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated here. The ROS generation system employed was via Fenton chemistry. The antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Escherichia coli bacteria, and Vero and MCF-7 tumor cell lines, respectively. Antimicrobial activities were conducted by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), while chemotherapeutic efficacies were done by serial dilution using standard techniques to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). The antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic results obtained were compared with positive control drugs gentamicin, oxacillin, penicillin, streptomycin and cisplatin, a ubiquitously used platinum-based antitumor drug, and with the silver(I) glutamic acid complex and hydrogen peroxide separately. Based on MIC and IC50 values, it was determined that this synergistic approach was very effective at extremely low concentrations, especially when compared with the other drugs evaluated here. This finding might be of great significance regarding metronomic dosing when this synergistic approach is clinically implemented. Since silver at low concentrations exhibits no toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic activities, this might offer an alternative approach for the development of safer silver-based antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby reducing or even eliminating the toxicity associated with current drugs. Accordingly, the present approach might be integrated into the systemic clinical treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:22680634

  13. Tideglusib induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells, provoking sub-G0/G1 accumulation and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Mathuram, Theodore Lemuel; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Reece, Lisa M; Karthik, Selvaraju; Sasikumar, Changam Sheela; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2016-09-01

    apoptotic inducer in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells. Our study also reports that LiCl reduced cell viability in IMR32 cells inducing apoptosis mediated by ROS generation. PMID:27490211

  14. Tideglusib induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells, provoking sub-G0/G1 accumulation and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Mathuram, Theodore Lemuel; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Reece, Lisa M; Karthik, Selvaraju; Sasikumar, Changam Sheela; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2016-09-01

    apoptotic inducer in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells. Our study also reports that LiCl reduced cell viability in IMR32 cells inducing apoptosis mediated by ROS generation.

  15. Anticancer potential of Conium maculatum extract against cancer cells in vitro: Drug-DNA interaction and its ability to induce apoptosis through ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Jesmin; Panigrahi, Ashis Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Conium maculatum extract is used as a traditional medicine for cervix carcinoma including homeopathy. However, no systematic work has so far been carried out to test its anti-cancer potential against cervix cancer cells in vitro. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether ethanolic extract of conium is capable of inducing cytotoxicity in different normal and cancer cell lines including an elaborate study in HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: Conium's effects on cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis, if any, were analyzed through flow cytometry. Whether Conium could damage DNA and induce morphological changes were also determined microscopically. Expression of different proteins related to cell death and survival was critically studied by western blotting and ELISA methods. If Conium could interact directly with DNA was also determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Results: Conium treatment reduced cell viability and colony formation at 48 h and inhibited cell proliferation, arresting cell cycle at sub-G stage. Conium treatment lead to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 24 h, increase in MMP depolarization, morphological changes and DNA damage in HeLa cells along with externalization of phosphatidyl serine at 48 hours. While cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation led HeLa cells toward apoptosis, down-regulation of Akt and NFkB inhibited cellular proliferation, indicating the signaling pathway to be mediated via the mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent pathway. CD-spectroscopy revealed that Conium interacted with DNA molecule. Conclusion: Overall results validate anti-cancer potential of Conium and provide support for its use in traditional systems of medicine. PMID:25298670

  16. Juglanthraquinone C Induces Intracellular ROS Increase and Apoptosis by Activating the Akt/Foxo Signal Pathway in HCC Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone extracted from Juglans mandshurica, could induce apoptosis of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the detailed cytotoxicity mechanism of JC in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. The Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays were first used to analyze the mRNA expression exposed to JC or DMSO in HepG2 cells. Consistent with the previous results, the data indicated that JC could induce apoptosis and hyperactivated Akt. The Western blot analysis further revealed that Akt, a well-known survival protein, was strongly activated in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. Furthermore, an obvious inhibitory effect on JC-induced apoptosis was observed when the Akt levels were decreased, while the overexpression of constitutively active mutant Akt greatly accelerated JC-induced apoptosis. The subsequent results suggested that JC treatment suppressed nuclear localization and increased phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a, and the overexpression of Foxo3a abrogated JC-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, the inactivation of Foxo3a induced by JC further led to an increase of intracellular ROS levels by suppressing ROS scavenging enzymes, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and catalase successfully decreased JC-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that JC induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by activating Akt/Foxo signaling pathway and increasing intracellular ROS levels. PMID:26682007

  17. Allicin sensitizes hepatocellular cancer cells to anti-tumor activity of 5-fluorouracil through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xuejing; Liang, Jiyun; Sun, Jingyuan; Hu, Xiaoyun; Lei, Ling; Wu, Dehua; Liu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistance and hepatic dysfunction are the two major factors that limit the application of chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that allicin has the hepatic protective effect and antitumor activity. Hence allicin may be an ideal enhancer to chemotherapy regimen of HCC. In the present study, we demonstrated that allicin enhanced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) inducing cytotoxicity in HCC cells. In vivo experiment, combined treatment group with allicin (5 mg/kg/d; every two days for 3 weeks) and 5-FU (20 mg/kg/d; 5 consecutive days) showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC xenograft tumors in nude mice. The co-treatment group showed highly apoptotic level compared with 5-FU treated alone. Cells combined treatment with allicin and 5-FU increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), activated caspase-3 and PARP, and down-regulated Bcl-2 compared with DMSO, allicin and 5-FU treated alone. Moreover, the increase of activated caspase-3 and PARP was blocked by the ROS inhibitor antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that allicin sensitized HCC cells to 5-FU induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. These results provided evidences for the combination used of allicin and 5-FU as a novel chemotherapy regimen in HCC. PMID:27177453

  18. Arsenic trioxide and radiation enhance apoptotic effects in HL-60 cells through increased ROS generation and regulation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sheng-Yow; Wu, Wei-Jr; Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Yi-An; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2011-09-01

    The induction of apoptotic cell death is a significant mechanism of tumor cells under the influence of radio-/chemotherapy, and resistance to these treatments has been linked to some cancer cell lines with a low propensity for apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the enhanced effects and mechanisms in apoptosis and the cycle distribution of HL-60 cells, a human leukemia cell line lacking a functional p53 protein, after combination treatment with arsenic trioxide (ATO) and irradiation (IR). Our results indicated that combined treatment led to increased cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells, which was correlated with the activation of cdc-2 and increased expression of cyclin B, the induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the loss of mitochondria membrane potential, and the activation of caspase-3. The combined treatment of HL-60 cells pre-treated with Z-VAD or NAC resulted in a significant reduction in apoptotic cells. In addition, activation of JNK and p38 MAPK may be involved in combined treatment-mediated apoptosis. The data suggest that a combination of IR and ATO could be a potential therapeutic strategy against p53-deficient leukemia cells.

  19. DMSO triggers the generation of ROS leading to an increase in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid in Artemisia annua shoot cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Abdul; Liu, Chunzhao; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Towler, Melissa J.; Vail, Dan R.; Lorence, Argelia

    2010-01-01

    The antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin, is in short supply; demand is not being met, and the role of artemisinin in the plant is not well established. Prior work showed that addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to seedlings increased artemisinin in their shoots and this study further investigated that serendipitous observation. When in vitro-cultured Artemisia annua rooted shoots were fed different amounts of DMSO (0–2.0% v/v), artemisinin levels doubled and showed biphasic optima at 0.25 and 2.0% DMSO. Both artemisinin and its precursor, dihydroartemisinic acid, increased with the former continuing 7 days after DMSO treatment. There was no stimulation of artemisinin production in DMSO-treated unrooted shoots. The first gene in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, amorphadiene synthase, showed no increase in transcript level in response to DMSO compared to controls. In contrast, the second gene in the pathway, CYP71AV1, did respond to DMSO but at a level of transcripts inverse to artemisinin levels. When rooted shoots were stained for the reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2, ROS increased with increasing DMSO concentration; unrooted shoots produced no ROS in response to DMSO. Both the increases in DMSO-induced ROS response and corresponding artemisinin levels were inhibited by addition of vitamin C. Together these data show that at least in response to DMSO, artemisinin production and ROS increase and that when ROS is reduced, so also is artemisinin suggesting that ROS may play a role in artemisinin production in A. annua. PMID:20084379

  20. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria-An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    (mannitol or NaCl), PmitoKATP was found to be activated by ROS, so inhibiting further large-scale ROS production according to a feedback mechanism; moreover, a stress-activated phospholipase A2 may generate FFAs, further activating the channel. In conclusion, a main property of PmitoKATP is the ability to keep in balance the control of harmful ROS with the mitochondrial/cellular bioenergetics, thus preserving ATP for energetic needs of cell defense under stress. PMID:26648958

  1. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria—An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    (mannitol or NaCl), PmitoKATP was found to be activated by ROS, so inhibiting further large-scale ROS production according to a feedback mechanism; moreover, a stress-activated phospholipase A2 may generate FFAs, further activating the channel. In conclusion, a main property of PmitoKATP is the ability to keep in balance the control of harmful ROS with the mitochondrial/cellular bioenergetics, thus preserving ATP for energetic needs of cell defense under stress. PMID:26648958

  2. Cu(II)-coumestrol interaction leads to ROS-mediated DNA damage and cell death: a putative mechanism for anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Singh, Swarnendra; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoestrogens have attracted considerable interest as natural alternatives to hormone replacement therapy and their potential as cancer therapeutic agents. Among phytoestrogens, coumestrol has shown multipharmacological properties such as antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, osteoblastic differentiation and anticancer. Though several studies have described anticancer effects of coumestrol, a clear underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain elevated copper levels that play an integral role in angiogenesis. Copper is an important metal ion associated with the chromatin DNA, particularly with guanine. Thus, targeting copper in cancer cells can serve as effective anticancer strategy. Using human peripheral lymphocytes, we assessed lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage and apoptosis by coumestrol in the presence of exogenously added Cu(II) in cells to simulate malignancy-like condition. Results showed that Cu(II)-coumestrol interaction leads to lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation (markers of oxidative stress), DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in treated lymphocytes. Further, incubation of lymphocytes with ROS scavengers and membrane-permeant copper chelator, neocuproine, resulted in inhibition of DNA damage and apoptosis. This suggests that coumestrol engages in redox cycling of Cu(II) to generate ROS that leads to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that coumestrol targets cellular copper to induce prooxidant death in malignant cells. We believe that such a prooxidant cytotoxic mechanism better explains the anticancer activity of coumestrol. These findings will provide significant insights into the development of new chemical molecules with better copper-chelating and prooxidant properties against cancer cells. PMID:27260464

  3. LZ-106, a novel analog of enoxacin, inducing apoptosis via activation of ROS-dependent DNA damage response in NSCLCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Yuan, Yinan; Fu, Chengyu; Xu, Xuefen; Zhou, Jieying; Wang, Shuhao; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Wei, Libin

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), plays the leading role in cancer which is closely related to a myriad of fatal results. Unfortunately, current molecular mechanisms and clinical treatment of NSCLC still remain to be explored despite the fact that intensive investigations have been carried out in the last two decades. Recently, growing attention to finding exploitable sources of anticancer agents is refocused on quinolone compounds, an antibiotic with a long period of clinic application, for their remarkable cell-killing activity against not only bacteria, but eukaryotes as well. In this study, we found LZ-106, an analog of enoxacin, exhibiting potent inhibitory effects on NSCLC in both cultured cells and xenograft mouse model. We identified apoptosis-inducing action of LZ-106 in NSCLC cells through the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress apoptotic pathways via Annexin-V/PI double-staining assay, membrane potential detection, calcium level detection and the expression analysis of the key apoptotic proteins. Through comet assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, the expression analysis of DNA damage response (DDR) marker γ-H2AX and other DDR-related proteins, we also demonstrated that LZ-106 notably induced ROS overproduction and DDR. Interestingly, additional evidence in our findings revealed that DDR and apoptosis could be alleviated in the presence of ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), indicating ROS-dependent DDR involvement in LZ-106-induced apoptosis. Thus our data not only offered a new therapeutic candidate for NSCLC, but also put new insights into the pharmacological research of quinolones.

  4. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Yim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  5. Wave activated generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neuenschwander, V. L.

    1985-09-03

    A wave activated generator utilizes the principle of providing relative movement between a permanent magnet and a coil to induce an electrical current in the coil. The coil is situated in a static tube anchored to the sea bed by means of a ballast tank at the base of the tube and guy wires extending from the tube. A plunger with permanent magnets is mounted in the tube for vertical reciprocation of the plunger, the plunger projecting outwardly from the upper end of the tube and terminating in a hull-shaped float which rides the water surface and provides vertical reciprocation of the plunger responsive to wave motion in order to move the magnets relative to the coil and generate current in the coil.

  6. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.H.; Sung, J.H.; Kim, E.J.; Chung, N.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25517919

  7. The phosphorylation status of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 in astrocytes and neurons from rat hippocampus determines the thrombin-induced calcium release and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Zündorf, Gregor; Reiser, Georg

    2011-12-01

    Challenge of protease-activated receptors induces cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c)) increase, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation with a bandwidth of responses in individual cells. We detected in this study in situ the thrombin-induced [Ca(2+) ](c) rise and ROS formation in dissociated hippocampal astrocytes and neurons in a mixed culture. In identified cells, single cell responses were correlated with extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation level. On average, in astrocytes, thrombin induced a transient [Ca(2+) ](c) rise with concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and extrusion rate and high ERK1/2 phosphorylation level. Correlation analysis of [Ca(2+) ](c) response characteristics of single astrocytes reveals that astrocytes with nuclear phosphoERK1/2 localization have a smaller Ca(2+) amplitude and extrusion rate compared with cells with a cytosolic phosphoERK1/2 localization. In naive neurons, without thrombin challenge, variable ERK1/2 phosphorylation patterns are observed. ROS were detected by hydroethidine. Only in neurons with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation level, we see sustained intracellular rise in fluorescence of the dye lasting over several minutes. ROS formation was abolished by pre-incubation with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, thrombin induced an immediate, transient hydroethidine fluorescence increase. This was interpreted as NADPH oxidase-mediated O(2) (•-) -release into the extracellular milieu, because it was decreased by pre-incubation with apocynin, and could be eluted by superfusion. In conclusion, the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 determines the thrombin-dependent [Ca(2+) ](c) increase and ROS formation and, thus, influences the capacity of thrombin to regulate neuroprotection or neurodegeneration. PMID:21988180

  8. The cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly component MET18 is required for the full enzymatic activity of ROS1 in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaokang; Li, Qi; Yuan, Wei; Cao, Zhendong; Qi, Bei; Kumar, Suresh; Li, Yan; Qian, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns in plants are dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation in response to both environmental changes and development of plant. Beginning with the removal of methylated cytosine by ROS1/DME family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair. So far, many components involved in active DNA demethylation remain undiscovered. Through a forward genetic screening of Arabidopsis mutants showing DNA hypermethylation at the EPF2 promoter region, we identified the conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein MET18. MET18 dysfunction caused DNA hypermethylation at more than 1000 loci as well as the silencing of reporter genes and some endogenous genes. MET18 can directly interact with ROS1 in vitro and in vivo. ROS1 activity was reduced in the met18 mutant plants and point mutation in the conserved Fe-S cluster binding motif of ROS1 disrupted its biological function. Interestingly, a large number of DNA hypomethylated loci, especially in the CHH context, were identified from the met18 mutants and most of the hypo-DMRs were from TE regions. Our results suggest that MET18 can regulate both active DNA demethylation and DNA methylation pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27193999

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca2+ hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  11. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and ROS-Induced ROS Release

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Byproducts of normal mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis include the buildup of potentially damaging levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+, etc., which must be normalized. Evidence suggests that brief mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) openings play an important physiological role maintaining healthy mitochondria homeostasis. Adaptive and maladaptive responses to redox stress may involve mitochondrial channels such as mPTP and inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). Their activation causes intra- and intermitochondrial redox-environment changes leading to ROS release. This regenerative cycle of mitochondrial ROS formation and release was named ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR). Brief, reversible mPTP opening-associated ROS release apparently constitutes an adaptive housekeeping function by the timely release from mitochondria of accumulated potentially toxic levels of ROS (and Ca2+). At higher ROS levels, longer mPTP openings may release a ROS burst leading to destruction of mitochondria, and if propagated from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, of the cell itself. The destructive function of RIRR may serve a physiological role by removal of unwanted cells or damaged mitochondria, or cause the pathological elimination of vital and essential mitochondria and cells. The adaptive release of sufficient ROS into the vicinity of mitochondria may also activate local pools of redox-sensitive enzymes involved in protective signaling pathways that limit ischemic damage to mitochondria and cells in that area. Maladaptive mPTP- or IMAC-related RIRR may also be playing a role in aging. Because the mechanism of mitochondrial RIRR highlights the central role of mitochondria-formed ROS, we discuss all of the known ROS-producing sites (shown in vitro) and their relevance to the mitochondrial ROS production in vivo. PMID:24987008

  12. Polyethylenimine-coated SPIONs trigger macrophage activation through TLR-4 signaling and ROS production and modulate podosome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mulens-Arias, Vladimir; Rojas, José M; Pérez-Yagüe, Sonia; Morales, María P; Barber, Domingo F

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) is widely used as transfection agent in preclinical studies, both in vitro and in vivo. Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, SPIONs (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles) have been thoroughly studied as nanocarriers. PEI appears to activate different immune cells to an inflammatory response (M1/TH1), whereas the SPION-induced response seems to be context-dependent; the immunogenicity of the combination of these components has not been studied. Here we show that PEI-coated SPIONs (PMag) activate macrophages, as determined by measuring IL-12 secretion into culture medium and upregulation of several genes linked to the M1 phenotype. PMag-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, p44/p42 MAPK and JNK, and upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86 and I-A/I-E activation markers. PMag-induced macrophage activation depended partially on TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) signaling. Comparison of these responses with the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced phenotype showed differences in gene expression profiling. PMag positively modulated podosome formation in murine macrophages, but hampered gelatin degradation by these cells. In conclusion, PMag induced an M1-like phenotype that was partially dependent on both TLR4 and ROS. These results show the adjuvant potential of PMag and suggest their use in vaccination schedules.

  13. The antitumor mechanism of di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone and its copper complex in ROS generation and topoisomerase inhibition, and hydrazone involvement in oxygen-catalytic iron mobilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfei; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Xingzhi; Zhu, Zhenfu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-11-01

    Iron depletion and stimulation of iron-dependent free radical damage is a rapidly developing field for chelation therapy, but the iron mobilization from ferritin by chelators has received less attention. In this study, the di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex was prepared and characterized by NMR and MS spectra. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that both DPPCAH and its copper complex exhibited selectively proliferation inhibition for HepG2 (IC50, 4.6 ± 0.2 µM for DPPACH and 1.3 ± 0.2 µM for its copper complex), but less inhibition for HCT-116 cell line (IC50, >100 µM for DPPACH and 7.8 ± 0.4 µM for its copper complex). The mechanistic studies revealed that DPPACH could remove iron from ferritin in a oxygen-catalytic manner, and contributed to redox activity of labile iron pool (LIP), that is less reported for the chelators that possess significant biological activity. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA cleavage assay in vitro and in vivo showed that both DPPACH-Fe(II) and DPPACH-Cu were redox-active species, indicating that ROS may mediate their antitumor activity. Further study revealed that both DPPACH and its copper complex displayed certain degree of inhibition of type II topoisomerase (Top) which contributed to their antitumor activity. Thus, the mechanism that iron mobilization by DPPACH from ferritin contributed to LIP was proposed, and both DPPACH and its copper complex were involved in ROS generation and Top II inhibition for their antitumor activities.

  14. Ziyuglycoside II induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of ROS/JNK pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Ling; Zhou, Fanfan

    2014-05-16

    Ziyuglycoside II, a triterpenoid saponin compound extracted from Sanguisorba officinalis L., has been reported to have a wide range of clinical applications including anti-cancer effect. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of ziyuglycoside II in two classic human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, was extensively investigated. Our study indicated that ziyuglycoside II could effectively induce G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in both cell lines. Cell cycle blocking was associated with the down-regulation of Cdc25C, Cdc2, cyclin A and cyclin B1 as well as the up-regulation of p21/WAF1, phospho-Cdc25C and phospho-Cdc2. Ziyuglycoside II treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis by activating the extrinsic/Fas/FasL pathway as well as the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway. More importantly, the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), a downstream target of ROS, was found to be a critical mediator of ziyuglycoside II-induced cell apoptosis. Further knockdown of JNK by siRNA could inhibit ziyuglycoside II-mediated apoptosis with attenuating the up-regulation of Bax and Fas/FasL as well as the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, the cell death of breast cancer cells in response to ziyuglycoside II was dependent upon cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis via a ROS-dependent JNK activation pathway. Our findings may significantly contribute to the understanding of the anti-proliferative effect of ziyuglycoside II, in particular to breast carcinoma and provide novel insights into the potential application of such compound in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24680927

  15. Photoactivation of ROS Production In Situ Transiently Activates Cell Proliferation in Mouse Skin and in the Hair Follicle Stem Cell Niche Promoting Hair Growth and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Elisa; Calvo, María I; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Vecchio, Daniela; Zamarrón, Alicia; de Almeida, Irma Joyce Dias; Stockert, Juan C; Hamblin, Michael R; Juarranz, Ángeles; Espada, Jesús

    2015-11-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of hair follicle (HF) cycle and skin homeostasis is poorly characterized. ROS have been traditionally linked to human disease and aging, but recent findings suggest that they can also have beneficial physiological functions in vivo in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we transiently switched on in situ ROS production in mouse skin. This process activated cell proliferation in the tissue and, interestingly, in the bulge region of the HF, a major reservoir of epidermal stem cells, promoting hair growth, as well as stimulating tissue repair after severe burn injury. We further show that these effects were associated with a transient Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr416 and with a strong transcriptional activation of the prolactin family 2 subfamily c of growth factors. Our results point to potentially relevant modes of skin homeostasis regulation and demonstrate that a local and transient ROS production can regulate stem cell and tissue function in the whole organism.

  16. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-10-15

    TNF-α plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-α in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-α induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-α-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-κB (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-α markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-α-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-α-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-α-stimulated MAPKs and NF-κB activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-κB cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-α-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-α on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-α induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-α induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF

  17. Reactive oxygen species generation and signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Baishnab Charan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of molecular oxygen into the atmosphere was accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as side products of many biochemical reactions. ROS are permanently generated in plastids, peroxisomes, mitochiondria, the cytosol and the apoplast. Imbalance between ROS generation and safe detoxification generates oxidative stress and the accumulating ROS are harmful for the plants. On the other hand, specific ROS function as signaling molecules and activate signal transduction processes in response to various stresses. Here, we summarize the generation of ROS in the different cellular compartments and the signaling processes which are induced by ROS. PMID:23072988

  18. The characterization of anti-T. cruzi activity relationships between ferrocenyl, cyrhetrenyl complexes and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, César; Romero, Valentina; Arancibia, Rodrigo; Klahn, Hugo; Montorfano, Ignacio; Armisen, Ricardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Simon, Felipe; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Nifurtimox is the most used drug against the T. cruzi, this drug increases intermediaries nitro group, being mainly responsible for the high toxicity component, for this reason it is important to study new organic compounds and thus improve therapeutic strategies against Chagas disease. The electronic effects of ferrocenyl and cyrhetrenyl fragments were investigated by DFT calculation. A close correlation was found between HOMO-LUMO gap of nitro radical NO 2 (-) with the experimental reduction potential found for nitro group and IC50 of two forms the T. cruzi (epimastigote and trypomastigote). The IC50 on human hepatoma cells is higher for both compounds compared to IC50 demonstrated in the two forms the T. cruzi, and additionally show reactive oxygen species release. The information obtained in this paper could generate two new drugs with anti-T. cruzi activity, but additional studies are needed.

  19. The characterization of anti-T. cruzi activity relationships between ferrocenyl, cyrhetrenyl complexes and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, César; Romero, Valentina; Arancibia, Rodrigo; Klahn, Hugo; Montorfano, Ignacio; Armisen, Ricardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Simon, Felipe; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Nifurtimox is the most used drug against the T. cruzi, this drug increases intermediaries nitro group, being mainly responsible for the high toxicity component, for this reason it is important to study new organic compounds and thus improve therapeutic strategies against Chagas disease. The electronic effects of ferrocenyl and cyrhetrenyl fragments were investigated by DFT calculation. A close correlation was found between HOMO-LUMO gap of nitro radical NO 2 (-) with the experimental reduction potential found for nitro group and IC50 of two forms the T. cruzi (epimastigote and trypomastigote). The IC50 on human hepatoma cells is higher for both compounds compared to IC50 demonstrated in the two forms the T. cruzi, and additionally show reactive oxygen species release. The information obtained in this paper could generate two new drugs with anti-T. cruzi activity, but additional studies are needed. PMID:27460450

  20. PD98059 Protects Brain against Cells Death Resulting from ROS/ERK Activation in a Cardiac Arrest Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Thi, Phuong Anh; Chen, Meng-Hua; Li, Nuo; Zhuo, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and experimental postcardiac arrest treatment has not reached therapeutic success. The present study investigated the effect of PD98059 (PD) in rats subjected to cardiac arrest (CA)/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Experimental rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: sham, CA, and PD. The rats except for sham group were subjected to CA for 5 min followed by CPR operation. Once spontaneous circulation was restored, saline and PD were injected in CA and PD groups, respectively. The survival rates and neurologic deficit scores (NDS) were observed, and the following indices of brain tissue were evaluated: ROS, MDA, SOD, p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, TUNEL positive cells, and double fluorescent staining of p-ERK/TUNEL. Our results indicated that PD treatment significantly reduced apoptotic neurons and improved the survival rates and NDS. Moreover, PD markedly downregulated the ROS, MDA, p-ERK, and caspase-3, Bax and upregulated SOD and Bcl-2 levels. Double staining p-ERK/TUNEL in choroid plexus and cortex showed that cell death is dependent on ERK activation. The findings in present study demonstrated that PD provides neuroprotection via antioxidant activity and antiapoptosis in rats subjected to CA/CPR. PMID:27069530

  1. New polyhydroxylated flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones: synthesis and ROS/RNS scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana L C; Proença, Carina; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Silva, Artur M S

    2016-08-25

    New polyhydroxylated flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones were prepared and assessed as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavengers. The synthetic strategy involved the preparation of 2'-hydroxychalcones and 2'-hydroxycinnamylidenoacetophenones from base-catalyzed aldol reaction of appropriate 2'-hydroxyacetophenones and benzaldehydes/cinnamaldehydes, followed by an Algar-Flynn-Oyamada (AFO) reaction to give the polyalkoxy(flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones). The last step of this synthetic route consisted in the cleavage of the protecting groups affording the expected polyhydroxylated derivatives. The present work consisted in the study of the in vitro scavenging activities of the synthetized compounds against the most physiologically relevant ROS [superoxide radical (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and peroxyl radical (ROO)] and RNS [nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-))]. Generally, all the tested new polyhydroxylated flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones exhibited scavenging effects dependent on the concentration, and with IC50 values found within the micromolar range. This work allowed the establishment of new structure-activity relationships and brought the knowledge about the selective choice of a structure depending on the targeted reactive species. PMID:27213247

  2. Induction of hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis through activation of the JNK-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-ROS self-driven death signal circuit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Song, Fang-Jiao; Wang, Ying-Hong; Li, Ning; Yu, Qian; Liao, Li-Xi; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-28

    As an efficient method for inducing tumor cell apoptosis, ROS can be constantly formed and accumulated in NADPH oxidase overactivated-cells, resulting in further mitochondrial membrane damage and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signal also acts as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial death pathway. However, the relationship between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK signal still remains unclear. Here, we discovered a novel self-driven signal circuit between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK, which was induced by a cytotoxic steroidal saponin (ASC) in hepatoma carcinoma cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production was markedly activated by ASC and directly led to JNK MAPK activation. Moreover, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitor and specific knock-out for p47 subunit of NADPH oxidase could effectively block NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent JNK activation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an upstream regulator of JNK MAPK. Conversely, a specific JNK inhibitor could inhibit ASC-induced NADPH oxidase activation and down-regulate ROS levels as well, indicating that JNK might also regulate NADPH oxidase activity to some extent. These observations indicate that NADPH oxidase and JNK MAPK activate each other as a signal circuit. Furthermore, drug pretreatment experiments with ASC showed this signal circuit operated continuously via a self-driven mode and finally induced apoptosis in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Taken together, we provide a proof for inducing hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis by activating the JNK-NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent self-driven signal circuit pathway. PMID:25064608

  3. Disulfiram targeting lymphoid malignant cell lines via ROS-JNK activation as well as Nrf2 and NF-kB pathway inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disulfiram (DS), an anti-alcoholism drug, demonstrates strong antitumor activity in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of DS/Cu complex in lymphoid malignant cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Method Raji cells were subjected to different treatments and thereafter MTT assay, flow cytometry were used to determine IC50 and apoptotic status. We also tested the cytotoxicity of DS/Cu in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt4 in vitro. In vivo experiments were also performed to demonstrate the anticancer efficacy of DS/Cu in Raji cells xenografted nude mice. Results In combination with a low concentration (1 μM) of Cu2+, DS induced cytotoxicity in Raji cells with an IC50 of 0.085 ± 0.015 μM and in Molt4 cells with an IC50 of 0.435 ± 0.109 μM. The results of our animal experiments also showed that the mean tumor volume in DS/Cu-treated mice was significantly smaller than that in DS or control group, indicating that DS/Cu inhibits the proliferation of Raji cells in vivo. DS/Cu also induced apoptosis in 2 lymphoid malignant cell lines. After exposure to DS (3.3 μM)/Cu (1 μM) for 24 hours, apoptosis was detected in 81.03 ± 7.91% of Raji cells. DS/Cu induced significant apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest apoptotic proportion (DS/Cu: 89.867 ± 4.69%) at a concentration of 2 μM in Molt4 cells. After 24 h exposure, DS/Cu inhibits Nrf2 expression. Flow cytometric analysis shows that DS/Cu induced ROS generation. DS/Cu induced phosphorylation of JNK and inhibits p65 expression as well as Nrf2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, can partially attenuate DS/Cu complex-induced apoptosis and block JNK activation in vitro. In addition, NAC is able to restore Nrf2 nuclear translocation and p65 expression. Conclusion Our study manifests that DS/Cu complex targets lymphoid malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. Generation of ROS might

  4. A low temperature-inducible protein AtSRC2 enhances the ROS-producing activity of NADPH oxidase AtRbohF.

    PubMed

    Kawarazaki, Tomoko; Kimura, Sachie; Iizuka, Ayako; Hanamata, Shigeru; Nibori, Hitomi; Michikawa, Masataka; Imai, Aya; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kaya, Hidetaka; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play critical roles in plant environmental responses. Arabidopsis thaliana NADPH oxidase AtRbohF-mediated ROS-production is involved in abiotic stress responses. Because overproduction of ROS is highly toxic to cells, the activity of AtRbohF needs to be tightly regulated in response to diverse stimuli. The ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF is activated by Ca(2+) and protein phosphorylation, but other regulatory factors for AtRbohF are mostly unknown. In this study, we screened for proteins that interact with the N-terminal cytosolic region of AtRbohF by a yeast two-hybrid screen, and isolated AtSRC2, an A. thaliana homolog of SRC2 (soybean gene regulated by cold-2). A co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that AtSRC2 interacts with the N-terminal region of AtRbohF in plant cells. Intracellular localization of GFP-tagged AtSRC2 was partially overlapped with that of GFP-tagged AtRbohF at the cell periphery. Co-expression of AtSRC2 enhanced the Ca(2+)-dependent ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF in HEK293T cells, but did not affect its phosphorylation-dependent activation. Low-temperature treatment induced expression of the AtSRC2 gene in Arabidopsis roots in proportion to levels of ROS production that was partially dependent on AtRbohF. Our findings suggest that AtSRC2 is a novel activator of Ca(2+)-dependent AtRbohF-mediated ROS production and may play a role in cold responses.

  5. Thrombin-induced reactive oxygen species generation in platelets: A novel role for protease-activated receptor 4 and GPIbα

    PubMed Central

    Carrim, Naadiya; Arthur, Jane F.; Hamilton, Justin R.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Andrews, Robert K.; Moran, Niamh; Berndt, Michael C.; Metharom, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelets are essential for maintaining haemostasis and play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Upon ligation of platelet receptors through subendothelial matrix proteins, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, further amplifying the platelet activation response. Thrombin, a potent platelet activator, can signal through GPIbα and protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 on human platelets, and recently has been implicated in the generation of ROS. While ROS are known to have key roles in intra-platelet signalling and subsequent platelet activation, the precise receptors and signalling pathways involved in thrombin-induced ROS generation have yet to be fully elucidated. Objective To investigate the relative contribution of platelet GPIbα and PARs to thrombin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methods and results Highly specific antagonists targeting PAR1 and PAR4, and the GPIbα-cleaving enzyme, Naja kaouthia (Nk) protease, were used in quantitative flow cytometry assays of thrombin-induced ROS production. Antagonists of PAR4 but not PAR1, inhibited thrombin-derived ROS generation. Removal of the GPIbα ligand binding region attenuated PAR4-induced and completely inhibited thrombin-induced ROS formation. Similarly, PAR4 deficiency in mice abolished thrombin-induced ROS generation. Additionally, GPIbα and PAR4-dependent ROS formation were shown to be mediated through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) proteins. Conclusions Both GPIbα and PAR4 are required for thrombin-induced ROS formation, suggesting a novel functional cooperation between GPIbα and PAR4. Our study identifies a novel role for PAR4 in mediating thrombin-induced ROS production that was not shared by PAR1. This suggests an independent signalling pathway in platelet activation that may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:26569550

  6. Potent In Vitro Protection Against PM₂.₅-Caused ROS Generation and Vascular Permeability by Long-Term Pretreatment with Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chung, Meng-Chi; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Chang, Jing-Fen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show increased particulate matter (PM[Formula: see text]) particles in ambient air are correlated with increased myocardial infarctions. Given the close association of capillaries and alveoli, the dysfunction is caused when inhaled PM[Formula: see text] particles come in close proximity to capillary endothelial cells. We previously suggested that the inhalation of PM[Formula: see text] diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces oxidative stress and upregulates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inducing vascular permeability factor VEGFA secretion, which results in cell-cell adherens junction disruption and PM[Formula: see text] transmigratation into circulation. Here, we minimized the level that PM[Formula: see text] traveled in the bloodstream by pre-supplementing with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Ganoderma tsugae DMSO extract (GTDE) prior to PM[Formula: see text] exposure. Our results show that PM[Formula: see text] caused alterations in enzyme activities and cellular anti-oxidant balance. We found decreased glutathione levels, a reduced cellular redox ratio, increased ROS generation and cytotoxicity in the cellular fractions. The oxidative stress caused DNA damage and apoptosis, likely causing downstream molecular events that trigger vasculature permeabilization and, eventually, cardiovascular disorders. Our results show long-term GTDE treatment increased endogenous glutathione level, while PM[Formula: see text]-reduced glutathione levels and the cellular redox ratio. GTDE was protective against the genotoxic and apoptotic effects initiated by PM[Formula: see text] oxidative stress. Vascular permeability revealed that PM[Formula: see text] only accumulated on the surface of cells after GTDE treatment; no penetration was detected. After two weeks of GTDE treatment, VEGFA secretion was significantly reduced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and endothelial cell migration was blocked. Our results suggest GTDE prevents PM

  7. Emodin Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced C-Reactive Protein Generation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Regulating PPARγ Expression and ROS-ERK1/2/p38 Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoming; Liu, Juntian; Li, Yuxia; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. As an inflammatory molecule, C-reactive protein (CRP) plays a direct role in atherogenesis. It is known that the elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. We previously reported that Hcy produces a pro-inflammatory effect by inducing CRP expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In the present study, we observed effect of emodin on Hcy-induced CRP expression in rat VSMCs and molecular mechanisms. The in vitro results showed that pretreatment of VSMCs with emodin inhibited Hcy-induced mRNA and protein expression of CRP in a concentration-dependent manner. The in vivo experiments displayed that emodin not only inhibited CRP expression in the vessel walls in mRNA and protein levels, but also reduced the circulating CRP level in hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Further study revealed that emodin diminished Hcy-stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), attenuated Hcy-activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, and upregulated Hcy-inhibited expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in VSMCs. These demonstrate that emodin is able to inhibit Hcy-induced CRP generation in VSMCs, which is related to interfering with ROS-ERK1/2/p38 signal pathway and upregulating PPARγ expression. The present study provides new evidence for the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of emodin.

  8. C. elegans epidermal wounding induces a mitochondrial ROS burst that promotes wound repair.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suhong; Chisholm, Andrew D

    2014-10-13

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated at wound sites and act as long-range signals in wound healing. The roles of other ROS in wound repair are little explored. Here, we reveal a cytoprotective role for mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) in Caenorhabditis elegans skin wound healing. We show that skin wounding causes local production of mtROS superoxide at the wound site. Inhibition of mtROS levels by mitochondrial superoxide-specific antioxidants blocks actin-based wound closure, whereas elevation of mtROS promotes wound closure and enhances survival of mutant animals defective in wound healing. mtROS act downstream of wound-triggered Ca(2+) influx. We find that the mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU-1 is essential for rapid mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and mtROS production after wounding. mtROS can promote wound closure by local inhibition of Rho GTPase activity via a redox-sensitive motif. These findings delineate a pathway acting via mtROS that promotes cytoskeletal responses in wound healing. PMID:25313960

  9. Condurango (Gonolobus condurango) Extract Activates Fas Receptor and Depolarizes Mitochondrial Membrane Potential to Induce ROS-dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bishayee, Kausik; Mondal, Jesmin; Sikdar, Sourav; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Condurango (Gonolobus condurango) extract is used by complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners as a traditional medicine, including homeopathy, mainly for the treatment of syphilis. Condurango bark extract is also known to reduce tumor volume, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Methods: Using a cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) as our model, the molecular events behind condurango extract’s (CE’s) anticancer effect were investigated by using flow cytometry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Other included cell types were prostate cancer cells (PC3), transformed liver cells (WRL-68), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results: Condurango extract (CE) was found to be cytotoxic against target cells, and this was significantly deactivated in the presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting that its action could be mediated through ROS generation. CE caused an increase in the HeLa cell population containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage at the G zero/Growth 1 (G0/G1) stage. Further, CE increased the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the fas receptor (FasR) levels both at the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the protein levels, indicating that CE might have a cytotoxic mechanism of action. CE also triggered a sharp decrease in the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB ) both at the RNA and the protein levels, a possible route to attenuation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caused an opening of the mitochondrial membrane’s permeability transition (MPT) pores, thus enhancing caspase activities. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest possible pathways for CE mediated cytotoxicity in model cancer cells. PMID:26389000

  10. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  11. PEGylated FePt-Fe3O4 composite nanoassemblies (CNAs): in vitro hyperthermia, drug delivery and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Niroj Kumar; Gupta, Jagriti; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2015-05-21

    Chemothermal therapy is widely used in clinical applications for the treatment of tumors. However, the major challenge is the use of a multifunctional nano platform for significant regression of the tumor. In this study, a simple synthesis of highly aqueous stable, carboxyl enriched, PEGylated mesoporous iron platinum-iron(ii,iii) oxide (FePt-Fe3O4) composite nanoassemblies (CNAs) by a simple hydrothermal approach is reported. CNAs exhibit a high loading capacity ∼90 wt% of the anticancer therapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX) because of its porous nature and the availability of abundant negatively charged carboxylic groups on its surface. DOX loaded CNAs (CNAs + DOX) showed a pH responsive drug release in a cell-mimicking environment. Furthermore, the release was enhanced by the application of a alternating current magnetic field. CNAs show no appreciable cytotoxicity in mouse fibroblast (L929) cells but show toxic effects in cervical cancer (HeLa) cells at a concentration of ∼1 mg mL(-1). A suitable composition of CNAs with a concentration of 2 mg mL(-1) can generate a hyperthermic temperature of ∼43 °C. Also, CNAs, because of their Fe and Pt contents, have an ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide inside the cancer cells which helps to enhance its therapeutic effects. The synergistic combination of chemotherapy and ROS is very efficient for killing cancer cells. PMID:25897960

  12. Olaquindox induces DNA damage via the lysosomal and mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Liping; She, Yan; Chen, Min; Li, Qiujuan; Yang, Guang; Geng, Chengyan; Tang, Liyun; Zhong, Laifu; Jiang, Lijie; Liu, Xiaofang

    2015-11-01

    Olaquindox (OLA) is a potent antibacterial agent used as a feed additive and growth promoter. In this study, the genotoxic potential of OLA was investigated in the human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK293). Results showed that OLA caused significant increases of DNA migration. Lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced after treatment with OLA. OLA was shown to induce ROS production and GSH depletion. The expression of p53 protein is increased in cells incubated with OLA. The activation of p53 and ATM gene was assessed by exposure to OLA. Furthermore, NAC reduced DNA migration, ROS formation, GSH depletion and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. And desipramine significantly decreased AO fluorescence intensity and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. These results support the assumption that OLA exerted genotoxic effects and induced DNA strand breaks in HEK293 cells, possibly through lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation.

  13. A Mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans NDUF-7 Activates the Mitochondrial Stress Response and Prolongs Lifespan via ROS and CED-4.

    PubMed

    Rauthan, Manish; Ranji, Parmida; Abukar, Ragda; Pilon, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The mevalonate pathway is responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol, coenzyme Q, and prenyl groups essential for small GTPase modification and function, and for the production of dolichols important for protein glycosylation. Statins, i.e., cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, HMG-CoA reductase, are lethal to Caenorhabditis elegans even though this animal lacks the branch of the mevalonate pathway that leads to cholesterol synthesis. To better understand the effects of statins that are not related to cholesterol, we have adopted the strategy of isolating statin-resistant C. elegans mutants. Previously, we showed that such mutants often have gain-of-function mutations in ATFS-1, a protein that activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Here, we describe the isolation of a statin-resistant mutant allele of the NDUF-7 protein, which is a component of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The novel nduf-7(et19) mutant also exhibits constitutive and ATFS-1-dependent activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) and prolonged life span, both of which are mediated through production of ROS. Additionally, lifespan extension, but not activation, of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response was dependent on the pro-apoptotic gene ced-4. We conclude that the nduf-7(et19) mutant allele causes an increase in reactive oxygen species that activate ATFS-1, hence UPR(mt)-mediated statin resistance, and extends life span via CED-4.

  14. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  15. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  16. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Preferentially Induces Apoptosis in p53-Mutated Cancer Cells by Activating ROS Stress-Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonghao; Ha, Chang Seung; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Kyo-Won; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is an ionized gas at room temperature and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy that acts by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is imperative to determine its selectivity and standardize the components and composition of NTAPP. Here, we designed an NTAPP-generating apparatus combined with a He gas feeding system and demonstrated its high selectivity toward p53-mutated cancer cells. We first determined the proper conditions for NTAPP exposure to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic effect of NTAPP was greater for p53-mutated cancer cells; artificial p53 expression in p53-negative HT29 cells decreased the pro-apoptotic effect of NTAPP. We also examined extra- and intracellular ROS levels in NTAPP-treated cells to deduce the mechanism of NTAPP action. While NTAPP-mediated increases in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) did not affect cell viability, intracellular ROS increased under NTAPP exposure and induced apoptotic cell death. This effect was dose-dependently reduced following treatment with ROS scavengers. NTAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of NTAPP as a potent cancer therapy. Collectively, these results strongly support the potential of NTAPP as a selective anticancer treatment, especially for p53-mutated cancer cells. PMID:24759730

  17. GADD45B mediates podocyte injury in zebrafish by activating the ROS-GADD45B-p38 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z; Wan, X; Hou, Q; Shi, S; Wang, L; Chen, P; Zhu, X; Zeng, C; Qin, W; Zhou, W; Liu, Z

    2016-01-01

    GADD45 gene has been implicated in cell cycle arrest, cell survival or apoptosis in a cell type specific and context-dependent manner. Members of GADD45 gene family have been found differentially expressed in several podocyte injury models, but their roles in podocytes are unclear. Using an in vivo zebrafish model of inducible podocyte injury that we have previously established, we found that zebrafish orthologs of gadd45b were induced upon the induction of podocyte injury. Podocyte-specific overexpression of zebrafish gadd45b exacerbated edema, proteinuria and foot-process effacement, whereas knockdown of gadd45b by morpholino-oligos in zebrafish larvae ameliorated podocyte injury. We then explored the role of GADD45B induction in podocyte injury using in vitro podocyte culture. We confirmed that GADD45B was significantly upregulated during the early phase of podocyte injury in cultured human podocytes and that podocyte apoptosis induced by TGF-β and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) was aggravated by GADD45B overexpression but ameliorated by shRNA-mediated GADD45B knockdown. We also showed that ROS inhibitor NAC suppressed PAN-induced GADD45B expression and subsequent activation of p38 MAPK pathway in podocytes and that inhibition of GADD45B diminished PAN-induced p38 MAPK activation. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that GADD45B has an important role in podocyte injury and may be a therapeutic target for the management of podocyte injury in glomerular diseases. PMID:26794661

  18. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  19. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  20. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles—the role of ROS mediated cell injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, Anat; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml - 1 ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

  1. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles--the role of ROS mediated cell injury.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, Anat; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2011-03-11

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml(-1) ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds. PMID:21289395

  2. Curcumin and Ellagic acid synergistically induce ROS generation, DNA damage, p53 accumulation and apoptosis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devbrat; Basu, Soumya; Parija, Lucy; Rout, Deeptimayee; Manna, Sanjeet; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Debata, Priya Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the cervix continue to be a global health issue, and the medication for the treatment for chronic HPV infection so far has not been effective. Potential anticancer and anti HPV activities of two known phytochemicals, Curcumin and Ellagic acid were evaluated in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Curcumin is a natural compound found in the root of Curcuma longa plant and Ellagic acid a polyphenol found in fruits of strawberries, raspberries and walnuts. The combination of Curcumin and Ellagic acid at various concentrations showed better anticancer properties than either of the drug when used alone as evidenced by MTT assay. Besides this, Curcumin and Ellagic acid also restore p53, induce ROS formation and DNA damage. Mechanistic study further indicated that Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells. PMID:27261574

  3. Curcumin and Ellagic acid synergistically induce ROS generation, DNA damage, p53 accumulation and apoptosis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devbrat; Basu, Soumya; Parija, Lucy; Rout, Deeptimayee; Manna, Sanjeet; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Debata, Priya Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the cervix continue to be a global health issue, and the medication for the treatment for chronic HPV infection so far has not been effective. Potential anticancer and anti HPV activities of two known phytochemicals, Curcumin and Ellagic acid were evaluated in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Curcumin is a natural compound found in the root of Curcuma longa plant and Ellagic acid a polyphenol found in fruits of strawberries, raspberries and walnuts. The combination of Curcumin and Ellagic acid at various concentrations showed better anticancer properties than either of the drug when used alone as evidenced by MTT assay. Besides this, Curcumin and Ellagic acid also restore p53, induce ROS formation and DNA damage. Mechanistic study further indicated that Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells.

  4. Antiaging, antistress and ROS scavenging activity of crude extract of Ocimum sanctum (L.) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas, 1900).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rakesh; Gupta, Shipra; Shukla, Virendra; Tandon, Sudeep; Shukla, Vibha

    2013-07-01

    Since aging is the most important risk factor for variety of diseases, the discovery of a wide range of chemical modulators of aging in model organisms encourages new strategies for targeting age associated diseases. Simple genetic manipulation leads to long-lived and healthy animals, so any compound which could have similar effect would prove a boon to mankind. In the present study, effect of different pharmacological doses (1.0, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/mL) of O. sanctum crude extract were used to determine their impact on life span, thermotolerance and ROS scavenging activities in C. elegans. The results revealed that 1 mg/mL of O. sanctum extract significantly extended the life span of C. elegans. The extract also proved to be a strong free radical scavenger and increased resistance against thermal stress. It is also suggested that the protective and life span extending action of the crude extract is not only due to its antioxidant capacity but may also be mediated by modulation of some signaling pathways. Thus, in addition to all the known medicinal property of Ocimum, it is capable of increasing stress tolerance and life span in C. elegans. PMID:23898550

  5. Novel 6-formylpterin derivatives: chemical synthesis and O2 to ROS conversion activities.

    PubMed

    Nonogawa, Mitsuru; Arai, Toshiyuki; Endo, Nobuyuki; Pack, Seung Pil; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke

    2006-05-01

    6-Formylpterin (6FP) has been demonstrated to have strong neuroprotective effects against transient ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils. Also it has been shown that in rats, 6FP protected retinal neurons even when it was administered after the ischemic insult. Since there is a significant need for such a compound that effectively suppresses the events caused by the lack of oxygen supply, 6FP has attracted further investigation. Unfortunately, however, 6FP is hardly soluble in water at neutral pH and in organic solvents because of its self-assembling ability. Although a several mM solution of 6FP is available in alkaline water, it is unstable. In the present study, a novel chemical derivatization of 6FP has been developed which maintains the formyl group on the 6-position of 6FP, which is essential for the physiological activities of 6FP, and increases solubility in water and organic solvents. In the method, the 2- and 3-positions of 6FP were modified by a three component coupling reaction: 6FP was subjected to the reaction with acid chloride and N,N-dimethylformamide. The derivatives synthesized here, 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyleneamino)-6-formyl-3-pivaloylpteridine-4-one 1, 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyleneamino)-6-formyl-3-isobutyrylpteridine-4-one 2, and 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyleneamino)-6-formyl-3-o-toluoylpteridine-4-one 3, showed high solubility in water (1.0-5.6 mM) and organic solvents. The O(2) conversion property has also been determined for the derivative 1. Using an oxygen electrode, it has been found that O(2) is consumed in the presence of 1 and NADH at around pH 7.4 and that the rate of O(2) consumption is enhanced by UV-A irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis coupled with DMPO spin trapping has also revealed that in the presence of NADH, 1 converts O(2) to O(2)(-), which is further reduced to OH. By UV-A illumination in the analogous systems, (1)O(2) formation was observed. These results are similar to those reported previously

  6. Safrole oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through inhibition of integrin beta4/SOD activity and elevation of ROS/NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Le; Zhao, BaoXiang; Lv, Xin; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing

    2007-02-20

    Neuronal apoptosis is a very important event in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We have previously shown that safrole oxide, a small molecule, induces integrin beta4 expression and promotes apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In this study, the effects of safrole oxide on cell growth and apoptosis have been examined in primary cultures of mouse neurons. Safrole oxide was found to significantly inhibit neuronal cell growth and to induce apoptosis. The inhibitory and apoptotic activities of safrole oxide followed a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the expression of integrin beta4 was significantly inhibited with safrole oxide treatment. Furthermore, safrole oxide dramatically increases the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Moreover, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity was decreased significantly with safrole oxide treatment. Our study thus demonstrates that safrole oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through integrin beta4, ROS, NADPH, and MnSOD.

  7. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup.

  8. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup. PMID:26555381

  9. ROS-induced ROS release in vascular biology: redox-redox signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zinkevich, Natalya S.

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating vascular function both in normal vessels and as part of an adaptive response during disease has been intensively studied. From the recognition that ROS serve as important signaling molecules has emerged multiple lines of evidence that there is a functional connectivity between intracellular sites of ROS production. This cross talk has been termed ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) and is supported by a variety of observations showing that RIRR is a common mechanism for ROS amplification and regional ROS generation. The compartmentalization of ROS production within a cell is critical to its signaling function and is facilitated by microlocalization of specific scavengers. This review will provide descriptions and examples of important mechanisms of RIRR. PMID:21685266

  10. Photoactivation of ROS production in situ transiently activates cell proliferation in mouse skin and in the hair follicle stem cell niche promoting hair growth and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Elisa; Calvo, María I.; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Vecchio, Daniela; Zamarrón, Alicia; de Almeida, Irma Joyce Dias; Stockert, Juan C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juarranz, Ángeles; Espada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of hair follicle cycle and skin homeostasis is poorly characterized. ROS have been traditionally linked to human disease and ageing, but recent findings suggest that can also have beneficial physiological functions in vivo in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we transiently switched on in situ ROS production in mouse skin. This process activated cell proliferation in the tissue and, interestingly, in the bulge region of the hair follicle, a major reservoir of epidermal stem cells, promoting hair growth as well as stimulating tissue repair after severe burn injury. We further show that these effects were associated with a transient Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr416 and with a strong transcriptional activation of the prolactin family 2 subfamily c of growth factors. Our results point to potentially relevant modes of skin homeostasis regulation and demonstrate that a local and transient ROS production can regulate stem cell and tissue function in the whole organism. PMID:26134949

  11. Placenta Peptide Can Protect Mitochondrial Dysfunction through Inhibiting ROS and TNF-α Generation, by Maintaining Mitochondrial Dynamic Network and by Increasing IL-6 Level during Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Wang, Li; Alemu, Paulos N.; Cui, Huantian; Peng, Xiaofei; Li, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Level of fatigue is related to the metabolic energy available to tissues and cells, mainly through mitochondrial respiration, as well fatigue is the most common symptom of poorly functioning mitochondria. Hence, dysfunction of these organelles may be the cause of the fatigue seen in Chronic fatigue (CF). Placenta has been used for treatment of fatigue and various disease, moreover peptides has known protect mitochondrial viability, and alleviate fatigue. These properties of placenta and peptides may link with its effect on mitochondria; therefore, it is highly important to investigate the effectiveness of placenta peptide on fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: After administration of sheep placenta peptide (SPP) for 1 month, mice’s were forced to swim till exhaustion for 90 min to induce chronic fatigue. Electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle mitochondrial structure, tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA), mitochondrial SOD and serum inflammatory cytokines level were investigated in order to determine the potential effect of SPP on mitochondria during CF. Rat skeletal muscle (L6 cell) were also treated with different concentration of SPP to determine the effect of SPP on cell viability using Thiazoyl blue tetrazolium assay. Results: Our finding revealed that forced swimming induced fatigue model can cause mitochondrial damage through Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated lipid peroxidation and Tumor Necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation. Whereas SPP protected fatigue induced mitochondrial dysfunction through preventing ROS and TNF-α generation, by maintaining mitochondrial dynamic network and by increasing serum IL-6 level. Conclusion: SPP can protect damage in mitochondrial components which will allow proper functioning of mitochondria that will in turn inhibit progression of chronic fatigue. Therefore, SPP may represent a novel therapeutic advantage for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue. PMID

  12. Naegleria fowleri induces MUC5AC and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human epithelial cells via ROS production and EGFR activation.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; Serrano-Luna, José de Jesús; Meza-Cervantez, Patricia; Arroyo, Rossana; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko

    2009-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri is an amoeboflagellate responsible for the fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This amoeba gains access to the CNS by invading the olfactory mucosa and crossing the cribriform plate. Studies using a mouse model of infection have shown that the host secretes mucus during the very early stages of infection, and this event is followed by an infiltration of neutrophils into the nasal cavity. In this study, we investigated the role of N. fowleri trophozoites in inducing the expression and secretion of airway mucin and pro-inflammatory mediators. Using the human mucoepidermal cell line NCI-H292, we demonstrated that N. fowleri induced the expression of the MUC5AC gene and protein and the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), but not tumour necrosis factor-alpha or chemokine c-c motif ligand 11 (eotaxin). Since the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon involved in the signalling pathways of these molecules, we analysed if trophozoites were capable of causing ROS production in NCI-H292 cells by detecting oxidation of the fluorescent probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. NCI-H292 cells generated ROS after 15-30 min of trophozoite stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of MUC5AC, IL-8 and IL-1 beta was inhibited in the presence of the ROS scavenger DMSO. In addition, the use of an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor decreased the expression of MUC5AC and IL-8, but not IL-1 beta. We conclude that N. fowleri induces the expression of some host innate defence mechanisms, such as mucin secretion (MUC5AC) and local inflammation (IL-8 and IL-1 beta) in respiratory epithelial cells via ROS production and suggest that these innate immune mechanisms probably prevent most PAM infections.

  13. Near-Infrared Light Triggered ROS-activated Theranostic Platform based on Ce6-CPT-UCNPs for Simultaneous Fluorescence Imaging and Chemo-Photodynamic Combined Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yue, Caixia; Zhang, Chunlei; Alfranca, Gabriel; Yang, Yao; Jiang, Xinquan; Yang, Yuming; Pan, Fei; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Many drug controlled release methods have been integrated in multifunctional nanoparticles, such as pH-, redox-, temperature-, enzyme-, and light-responsive release. However, few report is associated with the ROS responsive drug controlled release. Herein, a thioketal linker-based ROS responsive drug (camptothecin conjugated with thioketal linker, abbreviated as TL-CPT) was prepared and the thioketal linker could be cleaved by ROS(reactive oxygen species). To achieve cancer simultaneous optical imaging, photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy, the photosensitizer Chlorin e6(Ce6), TL-CPT and carboxyl-mPEG were loaded on the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which were named as Ce6-CPT-UCNPs. Under 980 nm laser irradiation, Ce6-CPT-UCNPs emitted a narrow emission band at 645-675 nm which was overlapped with Ce6 absorption peak. Ce6 absorbed the light to produce ROS, which was used for photodynamic therapy and to cleave the thioketal linker in Ce6-CPT-UCNPs to release camptothecin for chemotherapy. Meanwhile, Ce6 absorbed the light, was used for near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The in vivo biodistribution studies showed that the prepared nanoparticles had high orthotopic lung cancer targeting efficiency. The in vivo therapeutic results demonstrated that NCI-H460 lung cancers could be completely eliminated by combining chemo- and photodynamic therapy under 980 nm laser irradiation. The prepared multifunctional Ce6-CPT-UCNPs have great potential in applications such as cancer targeted fluorescent imaging, simultaneous ROS activated chemo- and photodynamic therapy in near future.

  14. Near-Infrared Light Triggered ROS-activated Theranostic Platform based on Ce6-CPT-UCNPs for Simultaneous Fluorescence Imaging and Chemo-Photodynamic Combined Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Caixia; Zhang, Chunlei; Alfranca, Gabriel; Yang, Yao; Jiang, Xinquan; Yang, Yuming; Pan, Fei; de la Fuente, Jesús M.; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Many drug controlled release methods have been integrated in multifunctional nanoparticles, such as pH-, redox-, temperature-, enzyme-, and light-responsive release. However, few report is associated with the ROS responsive drug controlled release. Herein, a thioketal linker-based ROS responsive drug (camptothecin conjugated with thioketal linker, abbreviated as TL-CPT) was prepared and the thioketal linker could be cleaved by ROS(reactive oxygen species). To achieve cancer simultaneous optical imaging, photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy, the photosensitizer Chlorin e6(Ce6), TL-CPT and carboxyl-mPEG were loaded on the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which were named as Ce6-CPT-UCNPs. Under 980 nm laser irradiation, Ce6-CPT-UCNPs emitted a narrow emission band at 645-675 nm which was overlapped with Ce6 absorption peak. Ce6 absorbed the light to produce ROS, which was used for photodynamic therapy and to cleave the thioketal linker in Ce6-CPT-UCNPs to release camptothecin for chemotherapy. Meanwhile, Ce6 absorbed the light, was used for near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The in vivo biodistribution studies showed that the prepared nanoparticles had high orthotopic lung cancer targeting efficiency. The in vivo therapeutic results demonstrated that NCI-H460 lung cancers could be completely eliminated by combining chemo- and photodynamic therapy under 980 nm laser irradiation. The prepared multifunctional Ce6-CPT-UCNPs have great potential in applications such as cancer targeted fluorescent imaging, simultaneous ROS activated chemo- and photodynamic therapy in near future. PMID:26941840

  15. The rare sugar d-allose acts as a triggering molecule of rice defence via ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    Only d-allose, among various rare monosaccharides tested, induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in susceptible rice leaves with defence responses: reactive oxygen species, lesion mimic formation, and PR-protein gene expression. These responses were suppressed by ascorbic acid or diphenylene iodonium. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsrbohC, encoding NADPH oxidase, were enhanced in sensitivity to d-allose. d-Allose-mediated defence responses were suppressed by the presence of a hexokinase inhibitor. 6-Deoxy-d-allose, a structural derivative of d-allose unable to be phosphorylated, did not confer resistance. Transgenic rice plants expressing Escherichia coli AlsK encoding d-allose kinase to increase d-allose 6-phosphate synthesis were more sensitive to d-allose, but E. coli AlsI encoding d-allose 6-phosphate isomerase expression to decrease d-allose 6-phosphate reduced sensitivity. A d-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective mutant was also less sensitive, and OsG6PDH1 complementation restored full sensitivity. These results reveal that a monosaccharide, d-allose, induces rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae by activating NADPH oxidase through the activity of d-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, initiated by hexokinase-mediated conversion of d-allose to d-allose 6-phosphate, and treatment with d-allose might prove to be useful for reducing disease development in rice. PMID:24014866

  16. N-acetyl-L-cysteine protects against cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sujuan; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Jinfei; Ye, Yangjing; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Yijiao; Guo, Min; Ji, Haiyan; Xu, Chong; Gu, Chenjian; Gao, Wei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) in mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). Methods NAC (150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to mice exposed to Cd (10-50 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks. The changes of cell damage and death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, as well as Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in brain neurons were assessed. To verify the role of mTOR activation in Cd-induced neurotoxicity, mice also received a subacute regimen of intraperitoneally administered Cd (1 mg/kg) with/without rapamycin (7.5 mg/kg) for 11 days. Results Chronic exposure of mice to Cd induced brain damage or neuronal cell death, due to ROS induction. Co-administration of NAC significantly reduced Cd levels in the plasma and brain of the animals. NAC prevented Cd-induced ROS and significantly attenuated Cd-induced brain damage or neuronal cell death. The protective effect of NAC was mediated, at least partially, by elevating the activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of glutathione in the brain. Furthermore, Cd-induced activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in the brain was also inhibited by NAC. Rapamycin in vitro and in vivo protected against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions NAC protects against Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis in mouse brain partially by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. The findings highlight that NAC may be exploited for prevention and treatment of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24299490

  17. Tumor suppressor gene OSCP1/NOR1 regulates apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and ROS generation during eye development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huu, Nguyen Tho; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2015-12-01

    OSCP1/NOR1 (organic solute carrier partner 1/oxidored nitrodomain-containing protein 1) is a known tumor suppressor protein. OSCP1 has been reported to mediate transport of various organic solutes into cells; however, its role during development has not yet been addressed. Here we report the results of studies on dOSCP1 (the Drosophila ortholog of hOSCP1) to elucidate the role of OSCP1/NOR1 during development. Knockdown of dOSCP1 in the eye imaginal discs induced a rough-eye phenotype in adult flies. This phenotype resulted from induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis followed by a compensatory cell proliferation and generation of reactive oxygen species in eye imaginal discs. The induction of apoptosis appears to be associated with down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Buffy gene and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Debcl gene. These effects of knockdown of dOSCP1 lead to mitochondrial fragmentation, degradation, and a shortfall in ATP production. We also found that knockdown of dOSCP1 causes a defect in cone cell and pigment cell differentiation in pupal retinae. Moreover, mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor pathway-related genes, such as Spitz and Drk, enhanced the rough-eye phenotype induced by dOSCP1 knockdown. These results suggest that dOSCP1 positively regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Overall, our findings indicate that dOSCP1 plays multiple roles during eye development in Drosophila.

  18. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  19. Life-history Constraints on the Mechanisms that Control the Rate of ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The quest to understand why and how we age has led to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to consider mitochondrial metabolism as a major player. During mitochondrial respiration a small and variable amount of the consumed oxygen is converted to reactive species of oxygen (ROS). For many years, these ROS have been perceived as harmful by-products of respiration. However, evidence from recent years indicates that ROS fulfill important roles as cellular messengers. Results obtained using model organisms suggest that ROS-dependent signalling may even activate beneficial cellular stress responses, which eventually may lead to increased lifespan. Nevertheless, when an overload of ROS cannot be properly disposed of, its accumulation generates oxidative stress, which plays a major part in the ageing process. Comparative studies about the rates of ROS production and oxidative damage accumulation, have led to the idea that the lower rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation of long-lived animals with respect to that of their short-lived counterpart, could be a primary cause of their slow ageing rate. A hitherto largely under-appreciated alternative view is that such lower rate of ROS production, rather than a cause may be a consequence of the metabolic constraints imposed for the large body sizes that accompany high lifespans. To help understanding the logical underpinning of this rather heterodox view, herein I review the current literature regarding the mechanisms of ROS formation, with particular emphasis on evolutionary aspects. PMID:24955029

  20. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chang, Jing-Fen; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Gordon, Marion K.; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione. PMID:26148005

  1. Cytotoxic effects induced by interferon-ω gene lipofection through ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in feline mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Marcela Solange; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Miranda, María Victoria; Finocchiaro, Liliana María Elena; Glikin, Gerardo Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Progress in comparative oncology promises advances in clinical cancer treatments for both companion animals and humans. In this context, feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) cells have been proposed as a suitable model to study human breast cancer. Based on our previous data about the advantages of using type I interferon gene therapy over the respective recombinant DNA derived protein, the present work explored the effects of feline interferon-ω gene (fIFNω) transfer on FMC cells. Three different cell variants derived from a single spontaneous highly aggressive FMC tumor were successfully established and characterized. Lipofection of the fIFNω gene displayed a significant cytotoxic effect on the three cell variants. The extent of the response was proportional to ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and calcium uptake. Moreover, a lower sensitivity to the treatment correlated with a higher malignant phenotype. Our results suggest that fIFNω lipofection could offer an alternative approach in veterinary oncology with equal or superior outcome and with less adverse effects than recombinant fIFNω therapy.

  2. ROS-dependent Syk and Pyk2-mediated STAT1 activation is required for 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Sivareddy; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Traylor, James G.; Orr, A. Wayne; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2014-01-01

    15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 15-lipoxygenase 1/2 (15-LO1/2) metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), induces CD36 expression through xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and Syk and Pyk2-dependent STAT1 activation. In line with these observations, 15(S)-HETE also induced foam cell formation involving ROS, Syk, Pyk2 and STAT1-mediated CD36 expression. In addition, peritoneal macrophages from Western diet-fed ApoE−/− mice exhibited elevated levels of xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase activities, ROS production, Syk, Pyk2, and STAT1 phosphorylation and CD36 expression compared to those from ApoE−/−:12/15-LO−/− mice and these events correlated with increased lipid deposits, macrophage content and lesion progression in the aortic roots. Human atherosclerotic arteries also showed increased 15-LO1 expression, STAT1 phosphorylation and CD36 levels as compared to normal arteries. Together, these findings suggest that 12/15-LO metabolites of AA, particularly 12/15(S)-HETE might play a crucial role in atherogenesis by enhancing foam cell formation. PMID:25152235

  3. The pharmacological NFkappaB inhibitors BAY117082 and MG132 induce cell arrest and apoptosis in leukemia cells through ROS-mitochondria pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Schröder, Rafael; Becker, Matheus; Klamt, Fábio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2010-02-28

    A growing body of evidence suggests the inhibition of NFkappaB as a strategy to induce cell death in tumor cells. In this work, we evaluated the effects of the pharmacological NFkappaB inhibitors BAY117082 and MG132 on leukemia cells apoptosis. BAY117082 and MG132 presented potent apoptotic effects compared to inhibitors of MAPKs, EGFR, PI3K/Akt, PKC and PKA signaling pathways. Non-tumor peripheral blood cells were insensitive to BAY117082 and MG132 apoptotic effects. BAY117082 and MG132-induced apoptosis was dependent on their ability to increase ROS as a prelude to mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) depolarization, permeability transition pore opening and cytochrome c release. Antioxidants blocked MG132 and BAY117082 effects on ROS, MMP and cell death. Although apoptotic markers as phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation and sub-G1 were detected in BAY117082-treated cells, caspases activation did not occur and apoptosis was insensitive to caspase inhibitors, suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism. In contrast, MG132 induced classical apoptosis through ROS-mitochondria and subsequent caspase-9/caspase-3 activation. At sub-apoptotic concentrations, BAY117082 and MG132 arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and blocked doxorubicin-induced NFkappaB, which sensitized doxorubicin-resistant cells. Data suggest that the NFkappaB inhibitors MG132 and BAY117082 are potential anti-leukemia agents.

  4. Selective killing of gastric cancer cells by a small molecule via targeting TrxR1 and ROS-mediated ER stress activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongwei; Weng, Qiaoyou; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Ji, Jiansong; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) 1 is often overexpressed in numerous cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 leads to a reduction in tumor progression and metastasis, making the enzyme an attractive target for cancer treatment. Our previous research revealed that the curcumin derivative B19 could induce cancer cell apoptosis via activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the upstream mechanism and molecular target of B19 is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that B19 directly inhibits TrxR1 enzyme activity to elevate oxidative stress and then induce ROS-mediated ER Stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, subsequently resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. A computer-assistant docking showed that B19 may bind TrxR1 protein via formation of a covalent bond with the residue Cys-498. Blockage of ROS production totally reversed B19-induced anti-cancer actions. In addition, the results of xenograft experiments in mice were highly consistent with in vitro studies. Taken together, targeting TrxR1 with B19 provides deep insight into the understanding of how B19 exerts its anticancer effects. More importantly, this work indicates that targeting TrxR1 and manipulating ROS levels are effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26919094

  5. Liver-X-receptor activator prevents homocysteine-induced production of IgG antibodies from murine B lymphocytes via the ROS-NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lina; Zhang, Zhenmin; Li Wenjing; Dai Jing; Guan Youfei; Wang Xian . E-mail: xwang@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-06-08

    Our previous study showed that homosysteine (Hcy) promotes proliferation of mouse splenic B lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated whether Hcy could stimulate the production of IgG antibodies. Hcy significantly increased the production of IgG antibodies from resting B lymphocytes. B lymphocytes from ApoE-knockout mice with hyperhomocysteinemia showed elevated IgG secretion at either the basal Hcy level or in response to lipopolysaccharide. Hcy promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and free radical scavengers, MnTMPyP decreased Hcy-induced IgG secretion. The inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B (MG132) also significantly reduced Hcy-induced IgG secretion. Furthermore, Hcy-induced formation of ROS, activation of NF-{kappa}B, and secretion of IgG could be inhibited by the liver-X-receptor (LXR) agonist TO 901317. Thus, our data provide strong evidence that HHcy induces IgG production from murine splenic B lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism might be through the ROS-NF-{kappa}B pathway and can be attenuated by the activation of LXR.

  6. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penncross’) and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  7. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-03-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. 'Penncross') and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  8. Scavenging ROS dramatically increase NMDA receptor whole-cell currents in painted turtle cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Dukoff, David James; Hogg, David William; Hawrysh, Peter John; Buck, Leslie Thomas

    2014-09-15

    Oxygen deprivation triggers excitotoxic cell death in mammal neurons through excessive calcium loading via over-activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. This does not occur in the western painted turtle, which overwinters for months without oxygen. Neurological damage is avoided through anoxia-mediated decreases in NMDA and AMPA receptor currents that are dependent upon a modest rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) originating from mitochondria. Anoxia also blocks mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is another potential signaling mechanism to regulate glutamate receptors. To assess the effects of decreased intracellular [ROS] on NMDA and AMPA receptor currents, we scavenged ROS with N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Unlike anoxia, ROS scavengers increased NMDA receptor whole-cell currents by 100%, while hydrogen peroxide decreased currents. AMPA receptor currents and [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were unaffected by ROS manipulation. Because decreases in [ROS] increased NMDA receptor currents, we next asked whether mitochondrial Ca(2+) release prevents receptor potentiation during anoxia. Normoxic activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mKATP) channels with diazoxide decreased NMDA receptor currents and was unaffected by subsequent ROS scavenging. Diazoxide application following ROS scavenging did not rescue scavenger-mediated increases in NMDA receptor currents. Fluorescent measurement of [Ca(2+)]i and ROS levels demonstrated that [Ca(2+)]i increases before ROS decreases. We conclude that decreases in ROS concentration are not linked to anoxia-mediated decreases in NMDA/AMPA receptor currents but are rather associated with an increase in NMDA receptor currents that is prevented during anoxia by mitochondrial Ca(2+) release.

  9. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  10. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Natalotto, Antonino; Alvarez, Elvira; Deudero, Salud

    2013-10-01

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes - catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase -, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers - malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index - were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. PMID:23871388

  11. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. This pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species. The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by electrical stimulation. On the other hand, electrical stimuli induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits: p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50 μM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 μM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 μM and 200 μM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of electrical stimuli in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide on both NF

  12. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. This pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species. The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by electrical stimulation. On the other hand, electrical stimuli induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits: p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50 μM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 μM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 μM and 200 μM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of electrical stimuli in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide on both NF

  13. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and Interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation of in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R.; Allen, Paul D.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. DMD pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation (ES) increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by ES. On the other hand, ES induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits; p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50µM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 µM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 µM and 200 µM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of ES in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression

  14. ROS production in brown adipose tissue mitochondria: the question of UCP1-dependence.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecinová, Alena; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Whether active UCP1 can reduce ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria is presently not settled. The issue is of principal significance, as it can be seen as a proof- or disproof-of-principle concerning the ability of any protein to diminish ROS production through membrane depolarization. We therefore undertook a comprehensive investigation of the significance of UCP1 for ROS production, by comparing the ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria isolated from wildtype mice (that display membrane depolarization) or from UCP1(-/-) mice (with a high membrane potential). We tested the significance of UCP1 for glycerol-3-phosphate-supported ROS production by three methods (fluorescent dihydroethidium and the ESR probe PHH for superoxide, and fluorescent Amplex Red for hydrogen peroxide), and followed ROS production also with succinate, acyl-CoA or pyruvate as substrate. We studied the effects of the reverse electron flow inhibitor rotenone, the UCP1 activity inhibitor GDP, and the uncoupler FCCP. We also examined the effect of a physiologically induced increase in UCP1 amount. We noted GDP effects that were not UCP1-related. We conclude that only ROS production supported by exogenously added succinate was affected by the presence of active UCP1; ROS production supported by any other tested substrate (including endogenously generated succinate) was unaffected. This conclusion indicates that UCP1 is not involved in control of ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria. Extrapolation of these data to other tissues would imply that membrane depolarization may not necessarily decrease physiologically relevant ROS production. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetics Conference (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Volume 1837, Issue 7, July 2014). PMID:24769119

  15. β-Elemonic acid inhibits the cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells: The role of MAPK, ROS activation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Tuan; Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hen-I; Chen, Bing-Fang; Jow, Guey-Mei

    2016-01-01

    β-elemonic acid, a known triterpene, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, yet research on the pharmacological effects of β-elemonic acid is rare. We investigated the anticancer effects and the related molecular mechanisms of β-elemonic acid on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. The effects of β-elemonic acid on the growth of A549 cells were studied using a 3-(4,5)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V staining. The effect of β-elemonic acid on the cell cycle of A549 cells was assessed using the propidium iodide method. The change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using a dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay with microscopic examination. The expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family proteins and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were detected using western blot analysis. Our data revealed that β-elemonic acid strongly induced human A549 lung cancer cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as determined by the MTT assay. β-elemonic acid-induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic when the phosphatidylserine exposure was observed using Annexin V staining. The death of human A549 lung cancer cells was caused by apoptosis induced by activation of ROS activity, increase in the sub-G1 proportion, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, upregulation of Bax expression and inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathways. These results clearly demonstrated that β-elemonic acid inhibits proliferation by inducing hypoploid cells and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the anticancer effects of β-elemonic acid were related to the MAPK signaling pathway, ROS activation and glutathione depletion in human A549 lung cancer cells.

  16. Silver Nanoparticle Based Codelivery of Oseltamivir to Inhibit the Activity of the H1N1 Influenza Virus through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Hua, Liang; Wang, Hanzhong; Xia, Huimin; Zhu, Bing

    2016-09-21

    As the therapeutic agent for antiviral applications, the clinical use of oseltamivir is limited with the appearance of drug-resistant viruses. It is important to explore novel anti-influenza drugs. The antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has attracted increasing attention in recent years and was a possibility to be employed as a biomedical intervention. Herein, we describe the synthesis of surface decoration of AgNPs by using oseltamivir (OTV) with antiviral properties and inhibition of drug resistance. Compared to silver and oseltamivir, oseltamivir-modified AgNPs (Ag@OTV) have remarkable inhibition against H1N1 infection, and less toxicity was found for MDCK cells by controlled-potential electrolysis (CPE), MTT, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, Ag@OTV inhibited the activity of neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) and then prevented the attachment of the H1N1 influenza virus to host cells. The investigations of the mechanism revealed that Ag@OTV could block H1N1 from infecting MDCK cells and prevent DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and the activity of caspase-3. Ag@OTV remarkably inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the H1N1 virus and activation of AKT and p53 phosphorylation. Silver nanoparticle based codelivery of oseltamivir inhibits the activity of the H1N1 influenza virus through ROS-mediated signaling pathways. These findings demonstrate that Ag@OTV is a novel promising efficient virucide for H1N1.

  17. Fisetin regulates TPA-induced breast cell invasion by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation via the PKC/ROS/MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Noh, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Hong, On-Yu; So, Hong-Seob; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Suk; Park, Samg Hyun; Youn, Hyun-Jo; You, Yong-Ouk; Choi, Ki-Bang; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae

    2015-10-01

    Invasion and metastasis are among the main causes of death in patients with malignant tumors. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), is known to have antimetastatic effects on prostate and lung cancers; however, the effect of fisetin on breast cancer metastasis is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-invasive activity of fisetin in human breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is a major component facilitating the invasion of many cancer tumor cell types, and thus the inhibitory effect of fisetin on MMP-9 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated human breast cancer cells was investigated in this study. Fisetin significantly attenuated TPA-induced cell invasion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and was found to inhibit the activation of the PKCα/ROS/ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. This effect was furthermore associated with reduced NF-κB activation, suggesting that the anti-invasive effect of fisetin on MCF-7 cells may result from inhibited TPA activation of NF-κB and reduced TPA activation of PKCα/ROS/ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signals, ultimately leading to the downregulation of MMP-9 expression. Our findings indicate the role of fisetin in MCF-7 cell invasion, and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of this role, suggesting fisetin as a potential chemopreventive agent for breast cancer metastasis.

  18. Classical ROS-dependent and early/rapid ROS-independent release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps triggered by Leishmania parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rochael, Natalia C.; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; DeSouza-Vieira, Thiago S.; Oliveira, Matheus P.; Garcia e Souza, Luiz F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Saraiva, Elvira M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) extruded from neutrophils upon activation are composed of chromatin associated with cytosolic and granular proteins, which ensnare and kill microorganisms. This microbicidal mechanism named classical netosis has been shown to dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase and also chromatin decondensation dependent upon the enzymes (PAD4), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). NET release also occurs through an early/rapid ROS-independent mechanism, named early/rapid vital netosis. Here we analyze the role of ROS, NE, MPO and PAD4 in the netosis stimulated by Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in human neutrophils. We demonstrate that promastigotes induce a classical netosis, dependent on the cellular redox imbalance, as well as by a chloroamidine sensitive and elastase activity mechanism. Additionally, Leishmania also induces the early/rapid NET release occurring only 10 minutes after neutrophil-parasite interaction. We demonstrate here, that this early/rapid mechanism is dependent on elastase activity, but independent of ROS generation and chloroamidine. A better understanding of both mechanisms of NET release, and the NETs effects on the host immune system modulation, could support the development of new potential therapeutic strategies for leishmaniasis. PMID:26673780

  19. Disruption of Interleukin-1β Autocrine Signaling Rescues Complex I Activity and Improves ROS Levels in Immortalized Epithelial Cells with Impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Function

    PubMed Central

    Clauzure, Mariángeles; Valdivieso, Angel G.; Massip Copiz, María M.; Schulman, Gustavo; Teiber, María Luz; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have elevated concentration of cytokines in sputum and a general inflammatory condition. In addition, CF cells in culture produce diverse cytokines in excess, including IL-1β. We have previously shown that IL-1β, at low doses (∼30 pM), can stimulate the expression of CFTR in T84 colon carcinoma cells, through NF-κB signaling. However, at higher doses (>2.5 ng/ml, ∼150 pM), IL-1β inhibit CFTR mRNA expression. On the other hand, by using differential display, we found two genes with reduced expression in CF cells, corresponding to the mitochondrial proteins CISD1 and MTND4. The last is a key subunit for the activity of mitochondrial Complex I (mCx-I); accordingly, we later found a reduced mCx-I activity in CF cells. Here we found that IB3-1 cells (CF cells), cultured in serum-free media, secrete 323±5 pg/ml of IL-1β in 24 h vs 127±3 pg/ml for S9 cells (CFTR-corrected IB3-1 cells). Externally added IL-1β (5 ng/ml) reduces the mCx-I activity and increases the mitochondrial (MitoSOX probe) and cellular (DCFH-DA probe) ROS levels of S9 (CFTR-corrected IB3-1 CF cells) or Caco-2/pRSctrl cells (shRNA control cells) to values comparable to those of IB3-1 or Caco-2/pRS26 cells (shRNA specific for CFTR). Treatments of IB3-1 or Caco-2/pRS26 cells with either IL-1β blocking antibody, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IKK inhibitor III (NF-κB pathway) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK pathway), restored the mCx-I activity. In addition, in IB3-1 or Caco-2/pRS26 cells, IL-1β blocking antibody, IKK inhibitor III or SB203580 reduced the mitochondrial ROS levels by ∼50% and the cellular ROS levels near to basal values. The AP-1 inhibitors U0126 (MEK1/2) or SP600125 (JNK1/2/3 inhibitor) had no effects. The results suggest that in these cells IL-1β, through an autocrine effect, acts as a bridge connecting the CFTR with the mCx-I activity and the ROS levels. PMID:24901709

  20. Saikosaponin-D reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by repressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaobin; Dang, Chengxue; Kang, Huafeng; Dai, Zhijun; Lin, Shuai; Guan, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xijing; Hui, Wentao

    2015-09-01

    The nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin (DDP) severely limits the clinical efficacy of this widely used anticancer agent. The observed nephrotoxicity may be the result of DDP-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Saikosaponin-D (SSD), a triterpenoid saponin, has numerous pharmacological properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether and how SSD protected against DDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Non-cytotoxic levels of SSD significantly increased the viability rate, improved the nuclear morphology, and attenuated the caspase-3 activation and programmed apoptosis of DDP-treated HK-2 cells. In addition, SSD treatment markedly inhibited the release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the production of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by these cells. More importantly, SSD effectively blocked the DDP-induced activation of NF-κB, P38, JNK, and MAPKs. Furthermore, we found that U0126 (a specific inhibitor of MAPKs) strongly inhibited the IKK/IκB/NF-κB-dependent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS gene expression. Finally, we demonstrated that SSD decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and that the specific ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited the DDP-induced activation of MAPK and phosphorylation of the downstream signal NF-κB, which in turn reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and iNOS gene expression. Our results suggest that the SSD-mediated alleviation of DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was due to uncoupling of the ROS, P38, and JNK/NF-κB signalling pathways. PMID:26118633

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates H2O2-induced Leydig cells oxidation damage and apoptosis through inhibition of ROS production and activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Wang, Dian; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely used as a nutritional supplement, and administration of DHEA produces a number of beneficial effects in the elderly. Many researchers have suggested that DHEA exerts it function after conversion into more biologically active hormones in peripheral target cells. The actions of DHEA in Leydig cells, a major target cell of DHEA biotransformation in males, are not clear. The present study found that DHEA increased cell viability and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde contents in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. DHEA significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the DNA damage in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. Apoptosis was significant decreased in H2O2-induced Leydig cells after DHEA treatment. DHEA inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the upregulation of the caspase-3 protein level induced by H2O2 in Leydig cells. DHEA also reversed the decrease in PI3K and p-Akt protein levels induced by H2O2. These data showed that DHEA could ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative damage by increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activities, which resulted in reduced ROS content, and decreased apoptosis, mainly by preventing the loss of ΔΨm and inhibiting caspase-3 protein levels via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the anti-ageing effect of DHEA.

  2. Role of TLR4/NADPH oxidase/ROS-activated p38 MAPK in VCAM-1 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in human renal mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In bacteria-induced glomerulonephritis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a key component of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria) can increase oxidative stress and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which recruits leukocytes to the glomerular mesangium. However, the mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS are still unclear in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs). Results We demonstrated that LPS induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels associated with an increase in the promoter activity of VCAM-1, determined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. LPS-induced responses were inhibited by transfection with siRNAs of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, c-Src, p38 MAPK, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), and p300 or pretreatment with the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS, edaravone), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], c-Src (PP1), p38 MAPK (SB202190), and p300 (GR343). LPS induced NADPH oxidase activation, ROS production, and p47phox translocation from the cytosol to the membrane, which were reduced by PP1 or c-Src siRNA. We observed that LPS induced TLR4, MyD88, c-Src, and p47phox complex formation determined by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot. We further demonstrated that LPS stimulated ATF2 and p300 phosphorylation and complex formation via a c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. Up-regulation of VCAM-1 led to enhancing monocyte adhesion to HRMCs challenged with LPS, which was inhibited by siRNAs of c-Src, p47phox, p38 MAPK, ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with an anti-VCAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Conclusions In HRMCs, LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was, at least in part, mediated through a TLR4/MyD88/ c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK-dependent p300 and ATF2 pathway associated with recruitment of monocyte adhesion to kidney. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte

  3. Novel CHOP activator LGH00168 induces necroptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells via ROS-mediated ER stress and NF-κB inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-ming; Peng, Yan-min; Zhu, Qiong-hua; Gao, An-hui; Chao, Bo; He, Qiao-jun; Li, Jia; Hu, You-hong; Zhou, Yu-bo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is a transcription factor that is activated at multiple levels during ER stress and plays an important role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. In this study we identified a novel CHOP activator, and further investigated its potential to be a therapeutic agent for human lung cancer. Methods: HEK293-CHOP-luc reporter cells were used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify CHOP activators. The cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro was measured with MTT assay. The anticancer effects were further examined in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft mice. The mechanisms underlying CHOP activation were analyzed using luciferase assays, and the anticancer mechanisms were elucidated in A549 cells. Results: From chemical libraries of 50 000 compounds, LGH00168 was identified as a CHOP activator, which showed cytotoxic activities against a panel of 9 cancer cell lines with an average IC50 value of 3.26 μmol/L. Moreover, administration of LGH00168 significantly suppressed tumor growth in A549 xenograft bearing mice. LGH00168 activated CHOP promoter via AARE1 and AP1 elements, increased DR5 expression, decreased Bcl-2 expression, and inhibited the NF-κB pathway. Treatment of A549 cells with LGH00168 (10 μmol/L) did not induce apoptosis, but lead to RIP1-dependent necroptosis, accompanied by cell swelling, plasma membrane rupture, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, MMP collapse and caspase 8 inhibition. Furthermore, LGH00168 (10 and 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced mito-ROS production in A549 cells, which was reversed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 10 mmol/L). Moreover, NAC significantly diminished LGH00168-induced CHOP activation, NF-κB inhibition and necroptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: LGH00168 is a CHOP activator that inhibits A549 cell growth in vitro and lung tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27264312

  4. Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy induces THP-1 macrophage apoptosis via ROS bursts and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Longbin; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Jing; Kou, Jiayuan; Jiang, Yueqing; Zheng, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhongni; Li, Hongxia; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye; Wang, You; Yang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most vital cardiovascular disease, which poses a great threat to human health. Macrophages play an important role in the progression of AS. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a useful therapeutic modality not only in the treatment of cancer but also in the treatment of AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of PDT, using mesoporous-silica-coated upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles encapsulating chlorin e6 (UCNPs-Ce6) in the induction of apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Here, we investigated the ability of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT to induce THP-1 macrophage apoptosis by facilitating the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to depolarize mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Our results indicated that the levels of ROS were significantly increased in the PDT group, resulting in both MPTP opening and MMP depolarization, which led to apoptosis. In addition, immunofluorescence and Western blotting revealed that PDT induced both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C, as well as upregulation of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Therefore, we demonstrated that UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT induces apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages via ROS bursts. The proapoptotic factor Bax subsequently translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in the MPTP opening and cytochrome C release. This study demonstrated the great potential of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT in the treatment of AS. PMID:26045663

  5. Increased tolerance to salt stress in OPDA-deficient rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants is linked to an increased ROS-scavenging activity

    PubMed Central

    Hazman, Mohamed; Hause, Bettina; Eiche, Elisabeth; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress represents a global constraint for rice, the most important staple food worldwide. Therefore the role of the central stress signal jasmonate for the salt response was analysed in rice comparing the responses to salt stress for two jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis rice mutants (cpm2 and hebiba) impaired in the function of ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) and their wild type. The aoc mutants were less sensitive to salt stress. Interestingly, both mutants accumulated smaller amounts of Na+ ions in their leaves, and showed better scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under salt stress. Leaves of the wild type and JA mutants accumulated similar levels of abscisic acid (ABA) under stress conditions, and the levels of JA and its amino acid conjugate, JA–isoleucine (JA-Ile), showed only subtle alterations in the wild type. In contrast, the wild type responded to salt stress by strong induction of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which was not observed in the mutants. Transcript levels of representative salinity-induced genes were induced less in the JA mutants. The absence of 12-OPDA in the mutants correlated not only with a generally increased ROS-scavenging activity, but also with the higher activity of specific enzymes in the antioxidative pathway, such as glutathione S-transferase, and fewer symptoms of damage as, for example, indicated by lower levels of malondialdehyde. The data are interpreted in a model where the absence of OPDA enhanced the antioxidative power in mutant leaves. PMID:25873666

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin activates NRF2-ARE-mediated transcriptional response via the ROS-EGFR-PI3K-AKT/MEK-ERK MAP kinase signaling in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Duan, Chaohui; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Jeffries, Jayme L; Lau, Gee W

    2013-01-01

    The redox-active pyocyanin (PCN) secreted by the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes oxidative stress to pulmonary epithelial cells. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) confers protection against ROS-mediated cell death by inducing the expression of detoxifying enzymes and proteins via its binding to the cis-acting antioxidant response element (ARE). However, a clear relationship between NRF2 and PCN-mediated oxidative stress has not been established experimentally. In this study, we investigated the induction of NRF2-ARE response by PCN in the pulmonary epithelial cells. We analyzed the effect of PCN on NRF2 expression and nuclear translocation in cultured human airway epithelial cells, and in a mouse model of chronic PCN exposure. NRF2-dependent transcription of antioxidative enzymes was also assessed. Furthermore, we used inhibitors to examine the involvement of EGFR and its downstream signaling components that mediate NRF2-ARE-activation in response to PCN. PCN enhances the nuclear NRF2 accumulation and activates the transcription of ARE-mediated antioxidant genes. Furthermore, PCN activates NRF2 by inducing the EGFR-phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and its main downstream effectors, AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Inhibition of the EGFR-PI3K signaling markedly attenuates PCN-stimulated NRF2 accumulation in the nucleus. We demonstrate for the first time that PCN-mediated oxidative stress activates the EGFR-PI3K-AKT/MEK1/2-ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway, leading to nuclear NRF2 translocation and ARE responsiveness in pulmonary epithelial cells.

  7. Eugenol Provokes ROS-Mediated Membrane Damage-Associated Antibacterial Activity Against Clinically Isolated Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Das, Balaram; Mandal, Debasis; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Tripathy, Satyajit; Dolai, Durga Pada; Dey, Sankar Kumar; Roy, Somenath

    2016-01-01

    Due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, resistance to antibiotics has increased remarkably in Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin is the final drug to treat the S. aureus infection, but nowadays, resistance to this antibiotic is also increasing. So, the investigation of antibiotic resistance pattern is important. As there is already resistance to vancomycin, there is an urgent need to develop a new kind of antimicrobial to treat S. aureus infection. Eugenol may be the new drug of choice. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of eugenol against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolated from clinical pus samples. Thirty six pus samples were included in the study. Samples were isolated, identified and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed as per routine laboratory protocol. The antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of killing of eugenol were studied. Out of 36 pus samples, only 20 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus strains and 6 isolates exhibited vancomycin resistance. Eugenol successfully destroyed the vancomycin-resistant strains via reactive oxygen species generation and membrane damage. The prevalence of vancomycin resistance is increased day by day in different countries, and necessary steps to prevent the spread and emergence of resistance should be taken. The findings of the study suggested that eugenol might be used to treat vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:26917967

  8. Oxidative stress generation of silver nanoparticles in three bacterial genera and its relationship with the antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Quinteros, M A; Cano Aristizábal, V; Dalmasso, P R; Paraje, M G; Páez, P L

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by the high intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Nanoparticles could cause rapid generation of free radicals by redox reactions. ROS can react directly with membrane lipids, proteins and DNA and are normally scavenged by antioxidants that are capable of neutralizing; however, elevated concentrations of ROS in bacterial cells can result in oxidative stress. The aim of this work was contribute to the knowledge of action mechanism of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their relation to the generation of oxidative stress in bacteria. We demonstrated that Ag-NPs generated oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated by the increment of ROS and this increase correlated with a better antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, we showed that the oxidative stress caused by the Ag-NPs biosynthesized was associated to a variation in the level of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). Oxidative stress in bacteria can result from disruption of the electronic transport chain due to the high affinity of Ag-NPs for the cell membrane. This imbalance in the oxidative stress was evidentiated by a macromolecular oxidation at level of DNA, lipids and proteins in E. coli exposed to Ag-NPs. The formation of ROS and RNI by Ag-NPs may also be considered to explain the bacterial death.

  9. Oxidative stress generation of silver nanoparticles in three bacterial genera and its relationship with the antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Quinteros, M A; Cano Aristizábal, V; Dalmasso, P R; Paraje, M G; Páez, P L

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by the high intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Nanoparticles could cause rapid generation of free radicals by redox reactions. ROS can react directly with membrane lipids, proteins and DNA and are normally scavenged by antioxidants that are capable of neutralizing; however, elevated concentrations of ROS in bacterial cells can result in oxidative stress. The aim of this work was contribute to the knowledge of action mechanism of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their relation to the generation of oxidative stress in bacteria. We demonstrated that Ag-NPs generated oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated by the increment of ROS and this increase correlated with a better antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, we showed that the oxidative stress caused by the Ag-NPs biosynthesized was associated to a variation in the level of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). Oxidative stress in bacteria can result from disruption of the electronic transport chain due to the high affinity of Ag-NPs for the cell membrane. This imbalance in the oxidative stress was evidentiated by a macromolecular oxidation at level of DNA, lipids and proteins in E. coli exposed to Ag-NPs. The formation of ROS and RNI by Ag-NPs may also be considered to explain the bacterial death. PMID:27530963

  10. Sensitization of Melanoma Cells for Death Ligand TRAIL Is Based on Cell Cycle Arrest, ROS Production, and Activation of Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Quast, Sandra-Annika; Steinhorst, Katja; Plötz, Michael; Eberle, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The death ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) represents a promising strategy for melanoma due to significant expression of TRAIL receptor 1 in melanoma metastases and high TRAIL sensitivity through this receptor. However, prevalent and inducible resistance are limiting its clinical use. In previous work, we and others have described multiple strategies leading to TRAIL sensitization; however, the common principles of these strategies remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate in melanoma cell lines (TRAIL-sensitive, TRAIL-resistant, and TRAIL-selected cells with acquired resistance) that cell cycle arrest clearly correlates with enhanced TRAIL sensitivity. Cell cycle arrest was induced by high cell confluence, serum starvation, or cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibition. Addressing the signaling pathways revealed disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to antiproliferative conditions alone. Activation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bax and inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2 overexpression or by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine underlined the critical involvement of mitochondrial apoptosis pathways and of ROS, respectively. Most pronounced was the upregulation of small proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins (Puma and Bcl-xS). These data provide a general understanding on TRAIL sensitization as well as an alternative view on CDK inhibitors and may suggest selective targeting of melanoma cells by cell cycle inhibition and TRAIL.

  11. Silver Nanoparticle Based Codelivery of Oseltamivir to Inhibit the Activity of the H1N1 Influenza Virus through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Hua, Liang; Wang, Hanzhong; Xia, Huimin; Zhu, Bing

    2016-09-21

    As the therapeutic agent for antiviral applications, the clinical use of oseltamivir is limited with the appearance of drug-resistant viruses. It is important to explore novel anti-influenza drugs. The antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has attracted increasing attention in recent years and was a possibility to be employed as a biomedical intervention. Herein, we describe the synthesis of surface decoration of AgNPs by using oseltamivir (OTV) with antiviral properties and inhibition of drug resistance. Compared to silver and oseltamivir, oseltamivir-modified AgNPs (Ag@OTV) have remarkable inhibition against H1N1 infection, and less toxicity was found for MDCK cells by controlled-potential electrolysis (CPE), MTT, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, Ag@OTV inhibited the activity of neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) and then prevented the attachment of the H1N1 influenza virus to host cells. The investigations of the mechanism revealed that Ag@OTV could block H1N1 from infecting MDCK cells and prevent DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and the activity of caspase-3. Ag@OTV remarkably inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the H1N1 virus and activation of AKT and p53 phosphorylation. Silver nanoparticle based codelivery of oseltamivir inhibits the activity of the H1N1 influenza virus through ROS-mediated signaling pathways. These findings demonstrate that Ag@OTV is a novel promising efficient virucide for H1N1. PMID:27588566

  12. Cedrol induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells through the P13K/Akt signaling pathway, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the generation of ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Yi; Li, Xue-Bo; Hou, Sheng-Guang; Sun, Yao; Shi, Yi-Ran; Lin, Song-Sen

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anticancer effects of cedrol in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells by examining the effects of cedrol on apoptosis induction, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). The anticancer effects of cedrol were examined using A549 human lung carcinoma cells as an in vitro model. Cell viability was determined using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and an inverted phase contrast microscope was used to examine the morphological changes in these cells. Cedrol‑triggered autophagy was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the cells, as well as by western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3)B expression. Intracellular ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry using 5-(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-DCFH2-DA) staining and MTP was measured using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that cedrol reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic evaluations indicated that cedrol induced apoptosis by reducing the MTP and by decreasing the levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K and p-Akt. Cedrol induced autophagy, which was confirmed by TEM analysis, by increasing intracellular ROS formation in a concentration-dependent manner, which was almost completely reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and tocopherol. Taken together, these findings reveal that cedrol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Our findings also reveal that cedrol induced pro-death autophagy by increasing intracellular ROS production.

  13. Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide Ameliorates Hyperglycemia-Induced Endothelial Cell Death via a Mitochondria-ROS Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Juan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Yao, Yu-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Shao, Deng-Yin; Gong, De-Ming; Cui, Steve W; Phillips, Glyn O; He, Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial function in hyperglycemia-induced angiopathy. In this work, ROS scavenger, oxidizing agent tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH), mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) blockers, and caspase inhibition are used to investigate whether PSG-1 may promote survival of human umbilical vein cells (HUVECs) through preventing the overproduction of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental results show that exposure of HUVECs to 35.5 mmol/L glucose increases the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis. PSG-1, mPTP blocker, or caspase inhibition can reduce apoptosis and ROS generation. PSG-1 also increases mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) but inhibits Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. In summary, vascular protection of PSG-1 can be mediated by a mitochondria-ROS pathway. ROS generation and mPTP induction are critical for high glucose-mediated apoptosis. PSG-1 ameliorates endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction.

  14. In the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), do reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to muscle weakness?

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Adam P; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J; Cooper, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of rare autoimmune disorders, collectively known as myositis. Affected patients present with proximal muscle weakness, which usually improves following treatment with immunosuppressants, but often incompletely so, thus many patients remain weak. IIMs are characterised histologically by inflammatory cell infiltrates into skeletal muscle and overexpression of major histocompatibility complex I on muscle cell surfaces. Although inflammatory cell infiltrates represent a major feature of myositis there is growing evidence that muscle weakness correlates only poorly with the degree of cellular infiltration, while weakness may in fact precede such infiltrations. The mechanisms underpinning such non-immune cell mediated weakness in IIM are poorly understood. Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways appears to be a potential contributor. Data from non-muscle cells indicate that endoplasmic reticulum stress results in altered redox homeostasis capable of causing oxidative damage. In myopathological situations other than IIM, as seen in ageing and sepsis, evidence supports an important role for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modified ROS generation is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, depressed force generation and activation of muscle catabolic and autophagy pathways. Despite the growing evidence demonstrating a key role for ROS in skeletal muscle dysfunction in myopathologies other than IIM, no research has yet investigated the role of modified generation of ROS in inducing the weakness characteristic of IIM. This article reviews current knowledge regarding muscle weakness in the absence of immune cells in IIM, and provides a background to the potential role of modified ROS generation as a mechanism of muscle dysfunction. The authors suggest that ROS-mediated mechanisms are potentially involved in non-immune cell mediated weakness seen in IIM and outline how these mechanisms might be

  15. Inflammatory Role of ROS-Sensitive AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles. Immediately after exposure (24 h), we found that intravenous capsaicin, phenylbiguanide, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked augmented LVCF-mediated apneic responses and LVCF afferent responses in rats subjected to IH exposure in comparison with those in RA rats. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF responses decreased at 6 h after and vanished at 12 h after the termination of IH exposure. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF-mediated apneic and LVCF afferent responses was significantly attenuated by treatment with NAC, compound C, or ibuprofen, but not by their vehicles. Further biochemical analysis revealed that rats exposed to IH displayed increased lung levels of lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress), AMPK phosphorylation (an index of AMPK activation), and prostaglandin E2 (a cyclooxygenase metabolite), compared with those exposed to RA. IH-induced increase in lipid peroxidation was considerably suppressed by treatment with NAC but not by compound C or ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation was totally abolished by NAC or compound C but not by ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in prostaglandin E2 was considerably prevented by any of these three inhibitor treatments. The vehicles of these inhibitors exerted no significant effect on the three IH-induced responses. These

  16. Low level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aaron Chih-Hao; Arany, Praveen R.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Tomkinson, Elizabeth M.; Saleem, Taimur; Yull, Fiona E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT), the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation remain unclear. In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810-nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NFkB was observed for fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm2. NF-kB activation by laser was detectable at 1-hour time point. Moreover, we demonstrated that laser phosphorylated both IKK α/β and NF-kB 15 minutes after irradiation, which implied that laser activates NF-kB via phosphorylation of IKK α/β. Suspecting mitochondria as the source of NF-kB activation signaling pathway, we demonstrated that laser increased both intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence microscopy with dichlorodihydrofluorescein and ATP synthesis by luciferase assay. Mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat increased ROS and NF-kB activation but had no effect on ATP. The ROS quenchers N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ascorbic acid abrogated laser-induced NF-kB and ROS but not ATP. These results suggested that ROS might play an important role in the signaling pathway of laser induced NF-kB activation. However, the western blot showed that antimycin A, a mitochondrial inhibitor, did not activate NF-kB via serine phosphorylation of IKK α/β as the laser did. On the other hand, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that light also upregulates mitochondrial respiration. ATP upregulation reached a maximum at 0.3 J/cm2 or higher. We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kB by generating ROS as signaling molecules.

  17. Activated G-protein releases cGMP from high affinity binding sites on PDE from toad rod outer segments (ROS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, P.S.T.; Walseth, T.F.; Panter, S.S.; Sundby, S.R.; Graeff, R.M.; Goldberg, N.D.

    1987-05-01

    cGMP binding proteins in toad ROS were identified by direct photoaffinity labeling (PAL) with /sup 32/P-cGMP and quantified by retention of complexes on nitrocellulose filters. By PAL, high affinity sites were present on the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) which have MW/sub app/ of 94 and 90 kDa. A doublet was deduced from its photolabeling properties to represent PDE/sub ..gamma../ photocrosslinked with PDE/sub ..cap alpha../ or PDE/sub ..beta../, respectively. cGMP prebound to these high affinity sites was released by light-activated G-protein or its ..cap alpha.. subunit complexed with GTP..gamma..S; this inhibition of cGMP binding to PDE did not result from decreased cGMP availability due to enhanced hydrolysis. A low affinity cGMP binding component identified by PAL is tightly associated with ROS membranes. Apparent ATP/light-dependent stimulation of cGMP binding was shown to result from light activated cGMP hydrolysis in conjunction with ATP-promoted conversion of GMP to GDP/GTP and increased GDP/GTP binding. These findings coincide with a model for light-related regulation of cGMP binding and metabolism predicted from intact and cellfree kinetic measurements: in the dark state the cGMP hydrolic rate is constrained by the availability of cGMP because of its binding to high affinity sites on PDE. Light activated G-protein releases cGMP from these sites and allows for its redistribution to lower affinity sites represented by PDE catalytic site(s) and possible cGMP-dependent membrane cation channels.

  18. An efficient one-pot synthesis of thiochromeno[3,4-d]pyrimidines derivatives: Inducing ROS dependent antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Lingala; Sagar Vijay Kumar, P; Poornachandra, Y; Ganesh Kumar, C; Chandramouli, G V P

    2016-10-01

    An efficient synthesis of thiochromeno[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives has been achieved successfully via a one-pot three-component reaction of thiochrome-4-one, aromatic aldehyde and thiourea in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulphate [Bmim]HSO4. This new protocol has the advantages of environmental friendliness, high yields, short reaction times, and convenient operation. Furthermore, among all the tested derivatives, compounds 4b and 4c exhibited promising antibacterial, minimum bactericidal concentration and anti-biofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Staphylococcus aureus MLS16 MTCC 2940 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121. The compound 4c also showed promising intracellular ROS accumulation in Staphylococcus aureus MLS16 MTCC 2940 comparable to that of ciprofloxacin resulting in apoptotic cell death of the bacterium. PMID:27522461

  19. The J-protein AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Lv, Ting-Ting; Li, Mi-Xin; Wei, Shan-Shan; Li, Yan-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Lan; Li, Bing

    2016-05-01

    AtDjB1 is a mitochondria-located J-protein in Arabidopsis thaliana It is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development; however, the exact mechanisms remain to be determined. We performed comparison analyses of phenotypes, auxin signalling, redox status, mitochondrial structure and function using wild-type plants, AtDjB1 mutants, rescued AtDjB1 mutants by AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 (an auxin synthesis gene), and AtDjB1 overexpression plants. AtDjB1 mutants (atj1-1 or atj1-4) exhibited inhibition of growth and development and reductions in the level of IAA and the expression of YUCCA genes compared to wild-type plants. The introduction of AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 into atj1-1 largely rescued phenotypic defects and the IAA level, indicating that AtDjB1 probably regulates growth and development via auxin. Furthermore, atj1-1 plants displayed a significant reduction in amount/activity of mitochondrial complex I compared to wild-type plants; this resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, exogenous H2O2 markedly inhibited the expression of YUCCA genes in wild-type plants. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbate increased the expression of YUCCA genes and IAA level in atj1-1 plants, indicating that the low auxin level observed in atj1-1 was probably due to the high oxidation status. Overall, the data presented here suggest that AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling in Arabidopsis.

  20. The J-protein AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Lv, Ting-Ting; Li, Mi-Xin; Wei, Shan-Shan; Li, Yan-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Lan; Li, Bing

    2016-05-01

    AtDjB1 is a mitochondria-located J-protein in Arabidopsis thaliana It is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development; however, the exact mechanisms remain to be determined. We performed comparison analyses of phenotypes, auxin signalling, redox status, mitochondrial structure and function using wild-type plants, AtDjB1 mutants, rescued AtDjB1 mutants by AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 (an auxin synthesis gene), and AtDjB1 overexpression plants. AtDjB1 mutants (atj1-1 or atj1-4) exhibited inhibition of growth and development and reductions in the level of IAA and the expression of YUCCA genes compared to wild-type plants. The introduction of AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 into atj1-1 largely rescued phenotypic defects and the IAA level, indicating that AtDjB1 probably regulates growth and development via auxin. Furthermore, atj1-1 plants displayed a significant reduction in amount/activity of mitochondrial complex I compared to wild-type plants; this resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, exogenous H2O2 markedly inhibited the expression of YUCCA genes in wild-type plants. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbate increased the expression of YUCCA genes and IAA level in atj1-1 plants, indicating that the low auxin level observed in atj1-1 was probably due to the high oxidation status. Overall, the data presented here suggest that AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling in Arabidopsis. PMID:27117341

  1. AdipoR-increased intracellular ROS promotes cPLA2 and COX-2 expressions via activation of PKC and p300 in adiponectin-stimulated human alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Mei; Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chang, Jia-Feng; Wu, Chi-Sheng; Sia, Kee-Chin; Lin, Wei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, accumulated in lung system via T-cadherin after allergens/ozone challenge. However, the roles of adiponectin on lung pathologies were controversial. Here we reported that adiponectin stimulated expression of inflammatory proteins, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human alveolar type II A549 cells. AdipoR1/2 involved in adiponectin-activated NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, which further promoted intracellular ROS accumulation. Protein kinase C (PKC) may involve an adiponectin-activated NADPH oxidase. Similarly, p300 phosphorylation and histone H4 acetylation occurred in adiponectin-challenged A549 cells. Moreover, adiponectin-upregulated cPLA2 and COX-2 expression was significantly abrogated by ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine) or the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (apocynin), mitochondrial complex I (rotenone), PKC (Ro31-8220, Gö-6976, and rottlerin), and p300 (garcinol). Briefly, we reported that adiponectin stimulated cPLA2 and COX-2 expression via AdipoR1/2-dependent activation of PKC/NADPH oxidase/mitochondria resulting in ROS accumulation, p300 phosphorylation, and histone H4 acetylation. These results suggested that adiponectin promoted lung inflammation, resulting in exacerbation of pulmonary diseases via upregulating cPLA2 and COX-2 expression together with intracellular ROS production. Understanding the adiponectin signaling pathways on regulating cPLA2 and COX-2 may help develop therapeutic strategies on pulmonary diseases. PMID:27288489

  2. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week-old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT-overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and protecting the

  3. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week‑old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT‑overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and

  4. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week‑old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT‑overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and

  5. Conjugates of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) with carminic acid: Synthesis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lev-Goldman, Vered; Mester, Brenda; Ben-Aroya, Nurit; Hanoch, Tamar; Rupp, Barbara; Stanoeva, Tsvetanka; Gescheidt, Georg; Seger, Rony; Koch, Yitzhak; Weiner, Lev; Fridkin, Mati

    2008-07-15

    We synthesized two carminic acid (7-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracene carboxlic acid, CA)-GnRH conjugates to be used as a model for potential photoactive targeted compounds. CA was conjugated to the epsilon-amino group of [d-Lys(6)]GnRH through its carboxylic moiety or via a beta-alanine spacer (beta-ala). Redox potentials of CA and its conjugates were determined. We used electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping techniques to study the light-stimulated redox properties of CA and its CA-GnRH conjugates. Upon irradiation, the compounds stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that is, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and oxygen radicals (O(2)(-*) and OH(*)). Both conjugates exhibited higher ROS production than the non-conjugated CA. The bioactivity properties of the CA conjugates and the parent peptide, [d-Lys(6)]GnRH, were tested on primary rat pituitary cells. We found that the conjugates preserved the bioactivity of GnRH as illustrated by their capability to induce ERK phosphorylation and LH release. PMID:18571926

  6. Temporal dynamics of ROS biogenesis under simulated solar radiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Häder, Donat-P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-09-01

    We studied the temporal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 under simulated solar radiation using WG 280, WG 295, WG 305, WG 320, WG 335, WG 345, and GG 400 nm cut-off filters to find out the minimum exposure time and most effective region of the solar spectrum inducing highest level of ROS. There was no significant generation of ROS in all treatments in comparison to the samples kept in the dark during the first 8 h of exposure; however, after 12 h of exposure, ROS were significantly generated in samples covered with 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filters. In contrast with ROS, the fragmentation of filaments was predominantly seen in 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 12 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, ROS levels were significantly higher in all samples than in the dark; however, the ROS signals were more pronounced in 320, 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples. In contrast, the length of filaments was reduced in 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 24 h of exposure. Thus, fragmentation of the filament was induced by all wavelengths of the UV-B region contrary to the UV-A region where only shorter wavelengths were able to induce the fragmentation. In contrast, ROS were generated by all wavelengths of the solar spectrum after 24 h of exposure; however, shorter wavelengths of both the UV-A and the UV-B regions were more effective in generating ROS in comparison to their higher wavelengths and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Moreover, lower wavelengths of UV-B were more efficient than the lower wavelengths of the UV-A radiation. Findings from this study suggest that certain threshold levels of ROS are required to induce the fragmentation of filaments.

  7. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  8. Mitochondrial ROS signaling in organismal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shadel, Gerald S; Horvath, Tamas L

    2015-10-22

    Generation, transformation, and utilization of organic molecules in support of cellular differentiation, growth, and maintenance are basic tenets that define life. In eukaryotes, mitochondrial oxygen consumption plays a central role in these processes. During the process of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria utilize oxygen to generate ATP from organic fuel molecules but in the process also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). While ROS have long been appreciated for their damage-promoting, detrimental effects, there is now a greater understanding of their roles as signaling molecules. Here, we review mitochondrial ROS-mediated signaling pathways with an emphasis on how they are involved in various basal and adaptive physiological responses that control organismal homeostasis. PMID:26496603

  9. Nurr1 and PPARγ protect PC12 cells against MPP(+) toxicity: involvement of selective genes, anti-inflammatory, ROS generation, and antimitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad; Forouzanfar, Mahboobeh; Ghaedi, Kamran; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Peymani, Maryam; Shoaraye Nejati, Alireza; Izadi, Tayebeh; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Rahgozar, Soheila; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can degenerate dopaminergic (DA) neurons in midbrain, substantia-nigra pars compacta. Alleviation of its symptoms and protection of normal neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of researches to establish novel therapeutic strategies. PPARγ as a member of PPARs have shown neuroprotection in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and PD. Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1) is, respectively, member of NR4A family and has received great attentions as potential target for development, maintenance, and survival of DA neurons. Based on neuroprotective effects of PPARγ and dual role of Nurr1 in anti-inflammatory pathways and development of DA neurons, we hypothesize that PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists alone and in combined form can be targets for neuroprotective therapeutic development for PD in vitro model. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells as an in vitro model for PD studies. Treatment/cotreatment with PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists 24 h prior to MPP(+) induction enhanced the viability of PC12 cell. The viability of PC12 cells was determined by MTS test. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the relative expression of four genes including TH (the marker of DA neurons), Ephrin A1, Nurr1, and Ferritin light chain were assessed by RT-qPCR. In the MPP(+)-pretreated PC12 cells, PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists and their combined form resulted in a decrease in the cell death rate. Moreover, production of intracellular ROS and MMP modulated by MPP(+) was decreased by PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists' treatment alone and in the combined form. PMID:27435855

  10. Antioxidant Activity/Capacity Measurement. 3. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS/RNS) Scavenging Assays, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, and Chromatographic/Chemometric Assays.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Çapanoğlu, Esra

    2016-02-10

    There are many studies in which the antioxidant potential of different foods have been analyzed. However, there are still conflicting results and lack of information as a result of unstandardized assay techniques and differences between the principles of the methods applied. The measurement of antioxidant activity, especially in the case of mixtures, multifunctional or complex multiphase systems, cannot be evaluated satisfactorily using a simple antioxidant test due to the many variables influencing the results. In the literature, there are many antioxidant assays that are used to measure the total antioxidant activity/capacity of food materials. In this review, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) scavenging assays are evaluated with respect to their mechanism, advantages, disadvantages, and potential use in food systems. On the other hand, in vivo antioxidant activity (AOA) assays including oxidative stress biomarkers and cellular-based assays are covered within the scope of this review. Finally, chromatographic and chemometric assays are reviewed, focusing on their benefits especially with respect to their time saving, cost-effective, and sensitive nature.

  11. Macrophages generate reactive oxygen species in response to minimally oxidized LDL: TLR4- and Syk-dependent activation of Nox2

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yun Soo; Lee, Jee Hyun; Choi, Soo Ho; Kim, Sunah; Almazan, Felicidad; Witztum, Joseph L.; Miller, Yury I.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a causative role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) stimulates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in macrophages through NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91phox/Nox2), which in turn induces production of RANTES and migration of smooth muscle cells. Peritoneal macrophages from gp91phox/Nox2−/− mice or J774 macrophages in which Nox2 was knocked down by siRNA failed to generate ROS in response to mmLDL. Because mmLDL-induced cytoskeletal changes were dependent on TLR4, we analyzed ROS generation in peritoneal macrophages from wild type, TLR4−/−, or MyD88−/− mice and found that mmLDL-mediated ROS was generated in a TLR4-dependent, but MyD88-independent manner. Furthermore, we found that ROS generation required the recruitment and activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and that mmLDL also induced PLCγ1 phosphorylation and PKC membrane translocation. Importantly, the PLCγ1 phosphorylation was reduced in J774 cells expressing Syk-specific shRNA. Nox2 modulated mmLDL activation of macrophages by regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and RANTES. We showed that purified RANTES was able to stimulate migration of mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MASMC) and addition of neutralizing antibody against RANTES abolished the migration of MASMC stimulated by mmLDL-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that mmLDL induces generation of ROS through sequential activation of TLR4, Syk, PLCγ1, PKC, and gp91phox/Nox2 and thereby stimulates expression of proinflammatory cytokines. These data help explain mechanisms by which endogenous ligands, such as mmLDL, can induce TLR4-dependent, proatherogenic activation of macrophages. PMID:19096031

  12. An IκBα phosphorylation inhibitor induces heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) expression through the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-Nrf2-ARE signaling and ROS-PI3K/Akt signaling in an NF-κB-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-jin; Lee, Jung Tae; Joe, Eun-hye; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in cells. Excessive ROS induce expression of inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS and COX2. Antioxidant enzymes, such as, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), tightly regulate ROS levels within cells. Here, we show that Bay 11-7082 (Bay) increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human colon cancer HT29 cells. Bay induced translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) into nuclei and increased the binding activity of the antioxidant response element (ARE). In addition, PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) blocked Bay-induced HO-1 expression. Pretreatment with anti-oxidants (N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione) significantly reduced Bay-induced HO-1 mRNA/protein expression, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of Akt. However, PI3K/Akt signaling was independent of Bay-induced Nrf2 translocation and ARE binding activity. Furthermore, other NF-κB inhibitors, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and MG132, also increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. However, although overexpression of dominant negative inhibitory κB (IκB) reduced NF-κB-driven transcriptional activity, IκB overexpression did not increase HO-1 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that in human colon cancer HT29 cells, Bay induces HO-1 expression by increasing ROS production in an Nrf2-ARE and PI3K dependent manner, but Bay acts independently of NF-κB.

  13. HIV-induced kidney cell injury: role of ROS-induced downregulated vitamin D receptor

    PubMed Central

    Salhan, Divya; Husain, Mohammad; Subrati, Ashaan; Goyal, Rohan; Singh, Tejinder; Rai, Partab; Malhotra, Ashwani

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to contribute to HIV-induced tubular cell injury. We hypothesized that HIV-induced ROS generation may be causing tubular cell injury through downregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and associated downstream effects. In the present study, HIV not only downregulated tubular cell VDR expression but also inflicted DNA injury. On the other hand, EB-1089, a VDR agonist (VD), inhibited both downregulation of VDR and tubular cell DNA injury in the HIV milieu. H2O2 (an O− donor) directly downregulated tubular cell VDR, whereas catalase, a free radical scavenger, inhibited HIV-induced downregulation of tubular cell VDR expression. HIV also stimulated the tubular cell renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through downregulation of VDR. Because losartan (an ANG II blolcker) partially inhibited HIV-induced tubular cell ROS generation while ANG II directly stimulated tubular cell ROS generation, it appears that HIV-induced ROS production was partly contributed by the RAS activation. VD not only inhibited HIV-induced RAS activation but also attenuated tubular cell ROS generation. Tubular cells displayed double jeopardy in the HIV milieu induction of double-strand breaks and attenuated DNA repair; additionally, in the HIV milieu, tubular cells exhibited enhanced expression of phospho-p53 and associated downstream signaling. A VDR agonist and an ANG II blocker not only preserved expression of tubular cell DNA repair proteins but also inhibited induction of double-strand breaks. In in vivo studies, renal cortical sections of Tg26 mice displayed attenuated expression of VDR both in podocytes and tubular cells. In addition, renal cortical sections of Tg26 mice displayed enhanced oxidative stress-induced kidney cell DNA damage. These findings indicated that HIV-induced tubular cell downregulation of VDR contributed to the RAS activation and associated tubular cell DNA damage. However, both VD and RAS blockade provided protection

  14. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  15. Curcumin enhances the antitumor effect of ABT-737 via activation of the ROS-ASK1-JNK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruinian; You, Zhijian; Jia, Jun; Lin, Shunhuan; Han, Shuai; Liu, Aixue; Long, Huidong; Wang, Senming

    2016-02-01

    At present, the therapeutic treatment strategies for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unsatisfactory, and novel methods are urgently required to treat this disease. Members of the B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family are anti‑apoptotic proteins, which are commonly expressed at high levels in certain HCC tissues and positively correlate with the treatment resistance of patients with HCC. ABT-737, an inhibitor of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins, has been demonstrated to exhibit potent antitumor effects in several types of tumor, including HCC. However, treatment with ABT-737 alone also activates certain pro-survival signaling pathways, which attenuate the antitumor validity of ABT-737. Curcumin, which is obtained from Curcuma longa, is also an antitumor potentiator in multiple types of cancer. In the present study, the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737 on HCC cells was investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It was found that curcumin markedly enhanced the antitumor effects of ABT-737 on HepG2 cells, which was partially dependent on the induction of apoptosis, according to western blot analysis and flow cytometric apoptosis analysis. In addition, the sustained activation of the ROS-ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway may be an important mediator of the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737. Collectively, these results indicated that the combination of curcumin and ABT-737 can efficaciously induce the death of HCC cells, and may offer a potential treatment strategy for patients with HCC. PMID:26707143

  16. HIGD1A regulates oxygen consumption, ROS production and AMPK activity during glucose deprivation to modulate cell survival and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Kurosh; Jahangiri, Arman; Rajah, Anthony M.; Tormos, Kathryn V.; Nagarajan, Ravi; Pekmezci, Melike; Nguyen, Vien; Wheeler, Matthew L.; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanders, Timothy A.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Rinaudo, Paolo F.; Costello, Joseph F.; Aghi, Manish K.; Maltepe, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Gene Domain Family Member 1A (HIGD1A) is a survival factor induced by Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 (HIF1). HIF1 regulates many responses to oxygen deprivation but viable cells within hypoxic perinecrotic solid tumor regions frequently lack HIF1α. HIGD1A is induced in these HIF-deficient extreme environments and interacts with the mitochondrial electron transport chain to repress oxygen consumption, enhance AMPK activity and lower cellular ROS levels. Importantly, HIGD1A decreases tumor growth but promotes tumor cell survival in vivo. The human Higd1a gene is located on chromosome 3p22.1, where many tumor suppressor genes reside. Consistent with this, the Higd1a gene promoter is differentially methylated in human cancers, preventing its hypoxic induction. When hypoxic tumor cells are confronted with glucose deprivation, however, DNA methyltransferase activity is inhibited, enabling HIGD1A expression, metabolic adaptation and possible dormancy induction. Our findings therefore reveal important new roles for this family of mitochondrial proteins in cancer biology. PMID:25683712

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Wu-zhen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Jingli; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Wu-zhen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Jingli; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. PMID:26498521

  19. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ~72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. PMID:25064160

  20. Actin microfilaments participate in the regulation of the COL1A1 promoter activity in ROS17/2.8 cells under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhongquan; Li, Yinghui; Ding, Bai; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Tan, Yingjun; Wan, Yumin

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionMicrogravity is thought to decrease osteoblastic activity and induce osteoporosis during spaceflight, but the mechanisms, particularly the attendant changes in gene expression, are not well understood. It is suspected that the cytoskeletal system is involved in the manifold changes of cell shape, function, and signaling under microgravity conditions. MethodsWe constructed cell lines stably transfected with pJI36EGFP and pJI23EGFP, which contained a 3.6 and a 2.3 kb fragment, respectively, of the α1(I) collagen gene (COL1A1) promoter fused with the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter gene. We then developed a semi-quantitative analysis of EGFP fluorescence intensity to evaluate the effects of clinorotation and/or cytochalasin B on the activity of the COL1A1 promoter. Simultaneously, we assessed the collagen type I protein content versus total protein content in clinorotated or control osteoblasts, using immunocytochemistry and the Bradford method, respectively. ResultsThe fluorescence intensity analysis revealed that the expression of COL1A1-EGFP increased in GFP-ROS cells clinorotated for 24 or 48 h, as compared with stationary control cultures. We observed a similar trend in collagen type I content, as assessed by immunocytochemistry. We found that the osteoblast microfilaments tended to disassemble and show a reduction in stress fibers under space flight and clinorotation. Treatment with cytochalasin B in normal gravity resulted in a dose-dependent increase of EGFP fluorescence intensity, indicating that disruption of the actin system was associated with increased activity of the COL1A1 promoter. ConclusionOur study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin B and real or simulated microgravity conditions led to altered COL1A1 promoter activity. Together, these results suggest that actin may participate in the regulation of the COL1A1 promoter activity under microgravity conditions.

  1. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  2. A KS-type dehydrin and its related domains reduce Cu-promoted radical generation and the histidine residues contribute to the radical-reducing activities

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Dehydrin is a plant disordered protein whose functions are not yet totally understood. Here it is reported that a KS-type dehydrin can reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from Cu. AtHIRD11, which is the Arabidopsis KS-type dehydrin, inhibited generation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the Cu–ascorbate system. The radical-reducing activity of AtHIRD11 was stronger than those of radical-silencing peptides such as glutathione and serum albumin. The addition of Cu2+ reduced the disordered state, decreased the trypsin susceptibility, and promoted the self-association of AtHIRD11. Domain analyses indicated that the five domains containing histidine showed ROS-reducing activities. Histidine/alanine substitutions indicated that histidine is a crucial residue for reducing ROS generation. Using the 27 peptides which are related to the KnS-type dehydrins of 14 plant species, it was found that the strengths of ROS-reducing activities can be determined by two factors, namely the histidine contents and the length of the peptides. The degree of ROS-reducing activities of a dehydrin can be predicted using these indices. PMID:23382551

  3. ROS-sensitive cytochrome P450 activity maintains endothelial dilatation in ageing but is transitory in dyslipidaemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Krummen, Stéphane; Drouin, Annick; Gendron, Marie-Ève; Falck, John R; Thorin, Eric

    2006-01-01

    increasing the efficacy of the non-NO/non-PGI2 endothelium-dependent dilatation. Acute free radical production contributes to the endothelial dysfunction in the presence of DL only, by abrogating this latter pathway. This 17-ODYA-sensitive pathway, however, appears in 12 m/o WT mice and remains active at 20 m/o. PMID:16474414

  4. ROS1 Kinase Inhibitors for Molecular-Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanea, M M; Abdelazem, A Z; Park, B S; Yoo, K H; Sim, T; Kwon, Y J; Lee, S H

    2016-01-01

    ROS1 is a pivotal transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase which regulates several cellular processes like apoptosis, survival, differentiation, proliferation, cell migration, and transformation. There is increasing evidence supporting that ROS1 plays an important role in different malignancies including glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, ovarian cancer, angiosarcoma, and non small cell lung cancer; thus, ROS1 has become a potential drug discovery target. ROS1 shares about 49% sequence homology with ALK primary structure; therefore, wide range of ALK kinase inhibitors have shown in vitro inhibitory activity against ROS1 kinase. After Crizotinib approval by FDA for the management of ALK-rearranged lung cancer, ROS1-positive tumors have been focused. Although significant advancements have been achieved in understanding ROS1 function and its signaling pathways plus recent discovery of small molecules modulating ROS1 protein, a vital need of medicinal chemistry efforts is still required to produce selective and potent ROS1 inhibitors as an important therapeutic strategy for different human malignancies. This review focuses on the current knowledge about different scaffolds targeting ROS1 rearrangements, methods to synthesis, and some biological data about the most potent compounds that have delivered various scaffold structures. PMID:26438251

  5. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  6. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  7. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  8. Student Activities Can Generate Positive PR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    1985-01-01

    To counter negative news about education it is important to make sure that positive school activities receive their fair share of exposure in the news media. Presents tips on how to generate positive public relations. Includes a list of newsworthy activities ideas. (MD)

  9. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that α-solanine induces

  10. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-08-27

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that α-solanine induces

  11. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced – turnover of LC3-II and – accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors – chloroquine and – bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that

  12. Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sharon; Brault, Julie; Stasia, Marie-Jose; Knaus, Ulla G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure–function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants. PMID:26210446

  13. Hemodynamic Shear Stress via ROS Modulates PCSK9 Expression in Human Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells and Along the Mouse Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zufeng; Wang, Xianwei; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Sun, Changqing; Wang, Yannian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To investigate a possible link between hemodynamic shear stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) expression. Results: Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, we observed that PCSK9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) reached maximal value at low shear stress (3–6 dynes/cm2), and then began to decline with an increase in shear stress. PCSK9 expression increased when cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide. PCSK9 expression was always greater in SMCs than in ECs. ROS generation followed the same pattern as PCSK9 expression. Aortic branching and aorta–iliac bifurcation regions of mouse aorta that express low shear stress were also found to have greater PCSK9 expression (vs. other regions). To determine a relationship between ROS and PCSK9 expression, ECs and SMCs were treated with ROS inhibitors diphenylene-iodonium chloride and apocynin, and both markedly reduced PCSK9 expression. Relationship between PCSK9 and ROS was further studied in p47phox and gp91phox knockout mice; both mice strains revealed low PCSK9 levels in serum and mRNA levels in aorta–iliac bifurcation regions (vs. wild-type mice). Other studies showed that ROS and NF-κB activation plays a bridging role in PCSK9 expression via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1). Innovation: Low shear stress induces PCSK9 expression, which is mediated by NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that low shear stress enhances PCSK9 expression in concert with ROS generation in vascular ECs and SMCs. ROS seem to regulate PCSK9 expression. We propose that PCSK9-ROS interaction may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in arterial channels with low shear stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 760–771. PMID:25490141

  14. ATM functions at the peroxisome to induce pexophagy in response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangwei; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Jing, Ji; Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T; Pandita, Raj K; Charaka, Vijaya K; Pandita, Tej K; Kastan, Michael B; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-10-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to ROS, ATM signalling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser 141, which promotes PEX5 monoubiquitylation at Lys 209, and recognition of ubiquitylated PEX5 by the autophagy adaptor protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy.

  15. Development of an automated sampling-analysis system for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gas and particle phases: GAC-ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yuanxun; Zhang, Yang; Zeng, Limin; Dong, Huabin; Huo, Peng; Fang, Dongqing; Schauer, James J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel online system, GAC-ROS, for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both gas and particle phases was developed based on 2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay to provide fast sampling and analysis of atmospheric ROS. The GAC-ROS, composed of a Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC), a series of reaction and transportation systems, and a fluorescence detector, was tested for instrumental performance in laboratory. Results showed good performance with a favorable R2 value for the calibration curve (above 0.998), high penetration efficiencies of ROS (above 99.5%), and low detection limits (gas-phase ROS: 0.16 nmol H2O2 m-3; particle-phase ROS: 0.12 nmol H2O2 m-3). Laboratorial comparison between online and offline methods for particle-bound ROS showed significant loss of ROS due to the relatively long time off-line treatment. Field observations in Beijing found that concentrations of ROS in winter time were significantly higher than those observed in spring. Only a few weak positive correlations were found between ROS and some air pollutants, which reflects the complexities of ROS generation and transformation in atmosphere. This study was the first to simultaneously obtain concentrations of gas and particle-phase ROS using an online method. Consequently, it provides a powerful tool to characterize the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the sources of the oxidizing capacity.

  16. Generativity as a Route to Active Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Andreas; Schmitt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We elucidate the significance of active ageing from an individual as well as from a societal perspective. Taking an individual perspective, maintaining activity in later years is linked to successful ageing because of empirical relationships to positive self-perception, satisfaction with life, and development of competences, whereas from a societal perspective, active ageing implies usage of older people's life competences as a human capital of society—a societal imperative, particularly in times of demographic change but also more basically substantiated in an ethics of responsibility, intergenerational solidarity, and generation equity. We focus on the psychological construct of generativity which is interpreted as an aspect of the philosophical-anthropological category of joint responsibility. Our own research in Mexico and the Baltic States supports the notion that maintaining access to the public sphere and active engagement for others is a more basic individual concern than a life-stages specific developmental task. We report background and results of a Dialogue Forum Project Funding, a research cooperation between our institute and the Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future aimed to improve generativity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine by implementing and supporting local initiatives offering opportunities for intergenerational dialogue. PMID:22919378

  17. Synthesis, characterization of α-amino acid Schiff base derived Ru/Pt complexes: Induces cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell via protein binding and ROS generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsalme, Ali; Laeeq, Sameen; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Mohd. Shahnawaz; Al Farhan, Khalid; Musarrat, Javed; Khan, Rais Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    We have synthesized two new complexes of platinum (1) and ruthenium (2) with α-amino acid, L-alanine, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde derived Schiff base (L). The ligand and both complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis and several other spectroscopic techniques viz; IR, 1H, 13C NMR, EPR, and ESI-MS. Furthermore, the protein-binding ability of synthesized complexes was monitored by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism techniques with a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Both the PtL2 and RuL2 complexes displayed significant binding towards HSA. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity assay for both complexes was carried out on human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer (HepG2) cell line. The results showed concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species was also evaluated, and results exhibited substantial role in cytotoxicity.

  18. Effects of temperature on complexes I and II mediated respiration, ROS generation and oxidative stress status in isolated gill mitochondria of the mud crab Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Chainy, G B N

    2014-04-01

    Effects of fluctuations in habitat temperature (18-30°) on mitochondrial respiratory behavior and oxidative metabolic responses in the euryhaline ectotherm Scylla serrata are not fully understood. In the present study, effects of different temperatures ranging from 12 to 40°C on glutamate and succinate mediated mitochondrial respiration, respiratory control ratio (RCR), ATP generation rate, ratio for the utilization of phosphate molecules per atomic oxygen consumption (P/O), levels of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 in isolated gill mitochondria of S. serrata are reported. The pattern of variation in the studied parameters was similar for the two substrates at different temperatures. The values recorded for RCR (≥3) and P/O ratio (1.4-2.7) at the temperature range of 15-25°C were within the normal range reported for other animals (3-10 for RCR and 1.5-3 for P/O). Values for P/O ratio, ATP generation rate and RCR were highest at 18°C when compared to the other assay temperatures. However, at low and high extreme temperatures, i.e. at 12 and 40°C, states III and IV respiration rates were not clearly distinguishable from each other indicating that mitochondria were completely uncoupled. Positive correlations were noticed between temperature and the levels of both lipid peroxidation and H2O2. It is inferred that fluctuations on either side of ambient habitat temperature may adversely influence mitochondrial respiration and oxidative metabolism in S. serrata. The results provide baseline data to understand the impacts of acute changes in temperature on ectotherms inhabiting estuarine or marine environments.

  19. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1–dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1–dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1–dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity. PMID:27140632

  20. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-05-17

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1-dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1-dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1-dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity.

  1. δ-Tocopherol prevents methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis by reducing ROS generation and inhibiting apoptotic signaling cascades in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Moon ho; Kim, Su nam; Seo, Seung-Yong; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2015-05-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive metabolite of glucose, which is known to cause damage and induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. Endothelial cell damage is implicated in the progression of diabetes-associated complications and atherosclerosis. Nuts are high in vitamin E. Consumption of nuts has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, different nuts contain different forms of vitamin E, which can have different effects on endothelial cells. In this work, we investigated the protective effect of different isoforms of vitamin E on MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among all forms of vitamin E, δ-tocopherol showed the highest effect on apoptosis of HUVECs. We also compared the anti-apoptotic activity of δ-tocopherol with that of α-tocopherol in MGO-treated HUVECs. Pretreatment with α- or δ-tocopherol significantly inhibited MGO-induced changes in cell morphology, cell death, and production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. δ-Tocopherol prevented MGO-induced apoptosis in HUVECs by increasing Bcl-2 expression and decreasing Bax expression. Interestingly, α-tocopherol also inhibited these factors but to a lesser extent than δ-tocopherol. MGO was found to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Compared to pretreatment with α-tocopherol, pretreatment with δ-tocopherol more strongly inhibited the activation of MAPKs, such as JNK and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that δ-tocopherol may be a more effective regulator of MGO-induced apoptosis than α-tocopherol.

  2. ROS-dependent signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Colleen R; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are no longer viewed as just a toxic by-product of mitochondrial respiration, but are now appreciated for their role in regulating a myriad of cellular signaling pathways. H2O2, a type of ROS, is a signaling molecule that confers target specificity through thiol oxidation. Although redox-dependent signaling has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, the mechanism by which the ROS signal is transmitted to its target protein in the face of highly reactive and abundant antioxidants is not fully understood. In this review of redox-signaling biology, we discuss the possible mechanisms for H2O2-dependent signal transduction. PMID:25305438

  3. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin inhibits high glucose-induced ROS production and stimulates osteoblastic differentiation by preventing the activation of PI3K/Akt in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingli; Yang, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, an osteoblast-derived protein, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. It has previously been demonstrated that high glucose levels inhibit osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. However, the mechanisms through which uncarboxylated osteocalcin regulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of uncarboxylated osteocalcin on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under high glucose conditions. We demonstrated that high glucose levels induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MC3T3-E1 cells, and this production was inhibited by treatment with uncarboxylated osteocalcin and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. In addition, we found that uncarboxylated osteocalcin reduced high glucose‑induced oxidative stress and increased the mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix and osteocalcin, as well as the formation of mineralized nodules; it also inhibited adipogenic differentiation, as shown by a decrease in the mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (adipocyte protein 2; aP2) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), and reduced lipid drop accumulation. Furthermore, we found that uncarboxylated osteocalcin inhibited PI3K/Akt signaling which was induced by ROS and facilitated the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under high glucose conditions. Taken together and to the best of ou knowledge, our results demonstrate for the first time that uncarboxylated osteocalcin inhibits high glucose-induced ROS production and stimulates osteoblastic differentiation by inhibiting the activation of PI3K/Akt in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, we suggest that uncarboxylated osteocalcin may be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes

  4. VEGF secretion by adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells is impaired under hyperglycemic conditions via glucose transporter activation and ROS increase.

    PubMed

    Matsugami, Hiromi; Harada, Yusuke; Kurata, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Otsuki, Yuki; Yaura, Hisako; Inoue, Yumiko; Morikawa, Kumi; Yoshida, Akio; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Suyama, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Bin; Iwaguro, Hideki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of cultured adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) into ischemic tissues promotes neovascularization and blood perfusion recovery. These effects are attenuated in diabetes patients. We examined the effects of hyperglycemia on the angiogenic capacity of ADRCs derived from Wistar rats both in vivo and in vitro. Cultured ADRCs were predominantly composed of CD90 positive cells; prevalence of CD90 positive cells was not affected by hyperglycemia. mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly decreased in ADRCs under hyperglycemic conditions independent of osmolarity, whereas mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor were unaffected. Since ADRCs express glucose transporter proteins GLUT1, 3 and 4, we examined the effects of the glucose transporter inhibitor phloretin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiogenic factors. Phloretin decreased the glucose uptake rate, reduced ROS, and increased VEGF mRNA in ADRCs exposed to a hyperglycemic condition. In vivo transplantation of ADRCs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions into mouse ischemic limbs resulted in significantly decreased blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic regions compared with transplantation of ADRCs cultured under normoglycemic conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycemia impaired VEGF production in ADRCs via an increase of ROS, impairing the angiogenic capacity of ADRCs transplanted into ischemic limbs.

  5. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in the generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Kirsten; Bartsch, Helmut; Seitz, Helmut K

    2014-01-01

    Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic and are formed by the reaction of lipidperoxidation (LPO) products such as 4-hydoxynonenal or malondialdehyde with DNA bases. LPO products are generated either via inflammation driven oxidative stress or via the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In the liver CYP2E1 is induced by various compounds including free fatty acids, acetone and ethanol. Increased levels of CYP2E1 and thus, oxidative stress are observed in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as in the chronic alcoholic. In addition, chronic ethanol ingestion also increases CYP2E1 in the mucosa of the oesophagus and colon. In all these tissues CYP2E1 correlates significantly with the levels of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. In contrast, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) hepatic etheno-DNA adducts do not correlate with CYP2E1 indicating that in NASH etheno-DNA adducts formation is predominately driven by inflammation rather than by CYP2E1 induction. Since etheno-DNA adducts are strong mutagens producing various types of base pair substitution mutations as well as other types of genetic damage, it is strongly believed that they are involved in ethanol mediated carcinogenesis primarily driven by the induction of CYP2E1. PMID:25462066

  6. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in the generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Kirsten; Bartsch, Helmut; Seitz, Helmut K.

    2014-01-01

    Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic and are formed by the reaction of lipidperoxidation (LPO) products such as 4-hydoxynonenal or malondialdehyde with DNA bases. LPO products are generated either via inflammation driven oxidative stress or via the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In the liver CYP2E1 is induced by various compounds including free fatty acids, acetone and ethanol. Increased levels of CYP2E1 and thus, oxidative stress are observed in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as in the chronic alcoholic. In addition, chronic ethanol ingestion also increases CYP2E1 in the mucosa of the oesophagus and colon. In all these tissues CYP2E1 correlates significantly with the levels of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. In contrast, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) hepatic etheno-DNA adducts do not correlate with CYP2E1 indicating that in NASH etheno-DNA adducts formation is predominately driven by inflammation rather than by CYP2E1 induction. Since etheno-DNA adducts are strong mutagens producing various types of base pair substitution mutations as well as other types of genetic damage, it is strongly believed that they are involved in ethanol mediated carcinogenesis primarily driven by the induction of CYP2E1. PMID:25462066

  7. Peroxisomes sense and respond to environmental cues by regulating ROS and RNS signalling networks

    PubMed Central

    Sandalio, L. M.; Romero-Puertas, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes are highly dynamic, metabolically active organelles that used to be regarded as a sink for H2O2 generated in different organelles. However, peroxisomes are now considered to have a more complex function, containing different metabolic pathways, and they are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Over-accumulation of ROS and RNS can give rise oxidative and nitrosative stress, but when produced at low concentrations they can act as signalling molecules. Scope This review focuses on the production of ROS and RNS in peroxisomes and their regulation by antioxidants. ROS production is associated with metabolic pathways such as photorespiration and fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturbances in any of these processes can be perceived by the cell as an alarm that triggers defence responses. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that photorespiratory H2O2 can affect nuclear gene expression, regulating the response to pathogen infection and light intensity. Proteomic studies have shown that peroxisomal proteins are targets for oxidative modification, S-nitrosylation and nitration and have highlighted the importance of these modifications in regulating peroxisomal metabolism and signalling networks. The morphology, size, number and speed of movement of peroxisomes can also change in response to oxidative stress, meaning that an ROS/redox receptor is required. Information available on the production and detection of NO/RNS in peroxisomes is more limited. Peroxisomal homeostasis is critical for maintaining the cellular redox balance and is regulated by ROS, peroxisomal proteases and autophagic processes. Conclusions Peroxisomes play a key role in many aspects of plant development and acclimation to stress conditions. These organelles can sense ROS/redox changes in the cell and thus trigger rapid and specific responses to environmental cues involving changes in peroxisomal

  8. Swim Pressure: Stress Generation in Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, S. C.; Yan, W.; Brady, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    We discover a new contribution to the pressure (or stress) exerted by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique swim pressure that is entirely athermal in origin. The origin of the swim pressure is based upon the notion that an active body would swim away in space unless confined by boundaries—this confinement pressure is precisely the swim pressure. Here we give the micromechanical basis for the swim stress and use this new perspective to study self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. The swim pressure gives rise to a nonequilibrium equation of state for active matter with pressure-volume phase diagrams that resemble a van der Waals loop from equilibrium gas-liquid coexistence. Theoretical predictions are corroborated by Brownian dynamics simulations. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria to catalytic nanobots to molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  9. Swim pressure: stress generation in active matter.

    PubMed

    Takatori, S C; Yan, W; Brady, J F

    2014-07-11

    We discover a new contribution to the pressure (or stress) exerted by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique swim pressure that is entirely athermal in origin. The origin of the swim pressure is based upon the notion that an active body would swim away in space unless confined by boundaries-this confinement pressure is precisely the swim pressure. Here we give the micromechanical basis for the swim stress and use this new perspective to study self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. The swim pressure gives rise to a nonequilibrium equation of state for active matter with pressure-volume phase diagrams that resemble a van der Waals loop from equilibrium gas-liquid coexistence. Theoretical predictions are corroborated by Brownian dynamics simulations. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria to catalytic nanobots to molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  10. Acute liver failure impairs function and expression of breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP) at rat blood-brain barrier partly via ammonia-ROS-ERK1/2 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Sun, Binbin; Zhong, Zeyu; Liu, Can; Ling, Zhaoli; Chen, Yang; Shu, Nan; Zhao, Kaijing; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    We once reported that P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) were oppositely regulated at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure (ALF) rats. This study aimed to investigate whether ALF affected function and expression of breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP) at the BBB of rats and the role of ammonia in the regulation. ALF rats were developed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) for 2 days. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by NH4 Ac (i.p. 4.5 mmol/kg). BCRP function and expression were measured by brain distribution of specific substrates (prazosin and methotrexate) and western blot, respectively. MDCK-BCRP cells and primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were employed to investigate possible mechanisms through which ammonia regulated BCRP function and expression. The results showed that both ALF and hyperammonemia significantly weakened function and expression of BCRP in the brain of rats. The function and expression of BCRP in MDCK-BCRP cells and rBMECs were strikingly decreased after exposure to NH4 Cl and H2 O2 , accompanied by remarkable increases in the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The altered BCRP expression and function by ammonia and H2 O2 were restored by ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine and ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Markedly increased levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ROS were found in the brains of ALF rats and hyperammonemic rats. All above results indicated ALF down-regulated expression and function of BCRP at BBB of rats partly via hyperammonemia. Activation of ROS-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation may be one of the reasons that ammonia impaired BCRP expression and function at the BBB. The present study showed that the expression and function of breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) at blood-brain barrier (BBB) of thioacetamide-induced ALF rats were down-regulated which partly

  11. Acute liver failure impairs function and expression of breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP) at rat blood-brain barrier partly via ammonia-ROS-ERK1/2 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Sun, Binbin; Zhong, Zeyu; Liu, Can; Ling, Zhaoli; Chen, Yang; Shu, Nan; Zhao, Kaijing; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    We once reported that P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) were oppositely regulated at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure (ALF) rats. This study aimed to investigate whether ALF affected function and expression of breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP) at the BBB of rats and the role of ammonia in the regulation. ALF rats were developed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) for 2 days. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by NH4 Ac (i.p. 4.5 mmol/kg). BCRP function and expression were measured by brain distribution of specific substrates (prazosin and methotrexate) and western blot, respectively. MDCK-BCRP cells and primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were employed to investigate possible mechanisms through which ammonia regulated BCRP function and expression. The results showed that both ALF and hyperammonemia significantly weakened function and expression of BCRP in the brain of rats. The function and expression of BCRP in MDCK-BCRP cells and rBMECs were strikingly decreased after exposure to NH4 Cl and H2 O2 , accompanied by remarkable increases in the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The altered BCRP expression and function by ammonia and H2 O2 were restored by ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine and ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Markedly increased levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ROS were found in the brains of ALF rats and hyperammonemic rats. All above results indicated ALF down-regulated expression and function of BCRP at BBB of rats partly via hyperammonemia. Activation of ROS-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation may be one of the reasons that ammonia impaired BCRP expression and function at the BBB. The present study showed that the expression and function of breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) at blood-brain barrier (BBB) of thioacetamide-induced ALF rats were down-regulated which partly

  12. Active Ageing: Intergenerational Relationships and Social Generativity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Beneficial Companions of Plants’ Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rachana; Singh, Samiksha; Parihar, Parul; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tripathi, Durgesh K.; Singh, Vijay P.; Chauhan, Devendra K.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well-known. PMID:27729914

  14. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  15. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  16. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders.

  17. Neuroprotective strategies involving ROS in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Magali; Beal, M Flint

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. It occurs early in disease pathogenesis and can exacerbate its progression. Several causes of oxidative stress have been determined over the years. First, mitochondria play an important role in the generation and accumulation of free radicals. In addition to mitochondria, inflammation can also induce oxidative damage, especially via microglia, and microglia are also important for Aβ clearance. In AD, both mitochondrial function and inflammatory response are affected, leading to increased ROS formation and oxidative damage to lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids. Some other sources have also been identified. From these findings, various neuroprotective strategies against ROS-mediated damages have been elaborated in AD research. This review recapitulates some of the major strategies used to prevent oxidative stress and disease progression. Outcomes from in vitro and in vivo studies using models of AD are encouraging. However, only a few clinical trials have provided positive results in terms of slowing down cognitive decline. Nonetheless, there is still hope for improved compounds that would better target pathways implicated in ROS production. In fact, facilitating the endogenous antioxidant system by modulating transcription has great promise for AD therapy.

  18. ROS eliminate danger.

    PubMed

    Peter, Marcus E

    2008-07-18

    Necrotic cells release HMGB1 as a danger signal to activate the immune system. In this issue of Immunity, Kazama et al. (2008) identify a mechanism that determines whether HMGB1 is tolerogenic or immunogenic.

  19. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  20. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation.

    PubMed

    Narrima, Putri; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Yi Li; Taha, Hairin; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  1. 8β-hydroxy-3-oxopimar-15-ene exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ROS-mediated activation of the TRAF6-ASK1-p38 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Heung; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Nam, Dongwoo; Shim, Bum Sang; Song, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sang Hoon; Chung, Won-Seok; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2013-10-01

    The flying squirrel's droppings (Pteropus pselaphon) have been used for improving the blood circulation, arresting bleeding to treat hematological disorders, and reducing pain. Here, 8β-hydroxy-3-oxopimar-15-ene (OXO), one of main constituents of P. pselaphon, was examined for its anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages. We found that OXO significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) without exerting cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells. OXO inhibited the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein and their mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Also, TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2 secretion was decreased by OXO in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These inflammatory biomarkers were attributed to the suppression of LPS-induced activation of p38 MAPK and subsequent activation of two components of AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), but not of ERK, JNK, NF-κB. Moreover, OXO inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and co-incubation of OXO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, OXO completely disrupted the formation of TRAF6-ASK complex in the cells. Therefore, we demonstrate here that OXO can potentially inhibit several biomarkers related to inflammation through inhibition of ROS-mediated activation of TRAF6-ASK1-p38 pathway. PMID:23914844

  2. Polymorphic ROS scavenging revealed by CCCP in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of antioxidants has been argued to scavenge circulating reactive molecules (e.g., free radicals), play a part in mate choice (by mediating access to this important resource), and perhaps increase life span. However, recent work has come to question these relationships. We have shown elsewhere in the polychromatic lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, that diet supplementation of carotenoids as antioxidants does not depress circulating natural reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and leads to no corresponding improvement of color traits. However, a much stronger test would be to experimentally manipulate the ROS levels themselves and assess carotenoid-induced ROS depression. Here, we achieve this by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which elevates superoxide (SO) formation approximately threefold at 10 μM in this model system. We then look for depressing effects on ROS of the carotenoids in order to assess whether ‘super-production’ of SO makes carotenoid effects on elevated ROS levels detectable. The rationale for this treatment was that if not even such elevated levels of SO are reduced by carotenoid supplementation, the putative link carotenoids, ROS depression, and mate quality (in terms of antioxidant capacity) is highly questionable. We conclude that there is no significant effect of carotenoids on mean SO levels even at the induced ROS levels. However, our results showed a significant interaction effect between carotenoid treatment and male color, with red males having higher ROS levels than yellow males. We suggest that this may be because different pigments are differently involved in the generation of the integumental colors in the two morphs with concomitant effects on ROS depletion depending on carotenoid uptake or allocation to coloration and antioxidation.

  3. Diapocynin, a Dimer of the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin, Reduces ROS Production and Prevents Force Loss in Eccentrically Contracting Dystrophic Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hesham M.; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dorchies, Olivier M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX) have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25329652

  4. Reactive oxygen species in signalling the transcriptional activation of WIPK expression in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Yoo, Seung Jin; Liu, Yidong; Ren, Dongtao; Zhang, Shuqun

    2014-07-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinases represented by tobacco WIPK (wounding-induced protein kinase) and its orthologs in other species are unique in their regulation at transcriptional level in response to stress and pathogen infection. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional activation of WIPK is essential for induced WIPK activity, and activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) by the constitutively active NtMEK2(DD) is sufficient to induce WIPK gene expression. Here, we report that the effect of SIPK on WIPK gene expression is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a combination of pharmacological and gain-of-function transgenic approaches, we studied the relationship among SIPK activation, WIPK gene activation in response to fungal cryptogein, light-dependent ROS generation in chloroplasts, and ROS generated via NADPH oxidase. In the conditional gain-of-function GVG-NtMEK2(DD) transgenic tobacco, induction of WIPK expression is dependent on the ROS generation in chloroplasts. Consistently, methyl viologen, an inducer of ROS generation in chloroplasts, highly activated WIPK expression. In addition to chloroplast-originated ROS, H(2)O(2) generated from the cell-surface NADPH oxidase could also activate WIPK gene expression, and inhibition of cryptogein-induced ROS generation also abolished WIPK gene activation. Our data demonstrate that WIPK gene activation is mediated by ROS, which provides a mechanism by which ROS influence cellular signalling processes in plant stress/defence response.

  5. Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis by regulating functional connections between caveolin-1 phosphorylation and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-na; Liu, Xiang-chun; Chen, Xiang-jun; Guan, Guang-ju; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is a major multifunctional scaffolding protein of caveolae. Cav-1 is primarily expressed in mesangial cells, renal proximal tubule cells and podocytes in kidneys. Recent evidence shows that the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS play a key role in many diseases. In this study we investigated whether regulating the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS in kidneys contributed to the beneficial effects of curcumin in treating diabetic nephropathy in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured mouse podocytes (mpc5) were incubated in a high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L) medium for 24, 48 or 72 h. Male rats were injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) to induce diabetes. ROS generation, SOD activity, MDA content and caspase-3 activity in the cultured cells and kidney cortex homogenate were determined. Apoptotic proteins and cav-1 phosphorylation were analyzed using Western blot analyses. Results: Incubation in HG-containing medium time-dependently increased ROS production, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cav-1 phosphorylation in podocytes. Pretreatment with curcumin (1, 5, and 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated these abnormalities in HG-treated podocytes. Furthermore, in HG-containing medium, the podocytes transfected with a recombinant plasmid GFP-cav-1 Y14F (mutation at a cav-1 phosphorylation site) exhibited significantly decreased ROS production and apoptosis compared with the cells transfected with empty vector. In diabetic rats, administration of curcumin (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight per day, ig, for 8 weeks) not only significantly improved the renal function, but also suppressed ROS levels, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cav-1 phosphorylation in the kidneys. Conclusion: Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis in vitro and diabetic nephropathy in vivo partly through regulating the functional connections between cav-1 phosphorylation and ROS. PMID:26838071

  6. Colony Rheology: Active Arthropods Generate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen; Mann, Michael; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodynamic-like flows are observed in biological systems as varied as bacteria, insects, birds, fish, and mammals. Both the phenomenology (e.g. front instabilities, milling motions) and the interaction types (hydrodynamic, direct contact, psychological, excluded-volume) strongly vary between systems, but a question common to all of them is to understand the role of particle-scale fluctuations in controlling large-scale rheological behaviors. We will address these questions through experiments on a new system, Tyrolichus casei (cheese mites), which live in dense, self-mixing colonies composed of a mixture of living mites and inert flour/detritus. In experiments performed in a Hele-Shaw geometry, we observe that the rheology of a colony is strongly dependent on the relative concentration of active and inactive particles. In addition to spreading flows, we also observe that the system can generate convective circulation and auto-compaction.

  7. Generating passive NIR images from active LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Shea; Broadwater, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Many modern LIDAR platforms contain an integrated RGB camera for capturing contextual imagery. However, these RGB cameras do not collect a near-infrared (NIR) color channel, omitting information useful for many analytical purposes. This raises the question of whether LIDAR data, collected in the NIR, can be used as a substitute for an actual NIR image in this situation. Generating a LIDAR-based NIR image is potentially useful in situations where another source of NIR, such as satellite imagery, is not available. LIDAR is an active sensing system that operates very differently from a passive system, and thus requires additional processing and calibration to approximate the output of a passive instrument. We examine methods of approximating passive NIR images from LIDAR for real-world datasets, and assess differences with true NIR images.

  8. 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) stimulates cell proliferation through the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, Davide; Leoni, Silvia; Incerpi, Sandra; Bruscalupi, Giovannella

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) have a wide variety of essential roles in vertebrates, ranging from the regulation of key metabolic processes to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The classical mechanism of action of THs is genomic; 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) binds to specific nuclear receptors (TRs) and modifies the expression of specific genes. Recently, a new category of mechanisms, termed nongenomic, has been discovered for T3. These mechanisms include, among others, the rapid activation of signal transduction pathways, such as PI3K/Akt and MAPK, which eventually lead to cell proliferation. These effects are mediated in some cell types by a plasma membrane receptor, identified as integrin αvβ3, and in other cell types by cytoplasmic TRβ1. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of T3 on the cell growth of chick embryo hepatocytes at two different stages of development, 14 and 19 days, and to determine the activation of the signal transduction pathways, focusing on the potential involvement of a plasma membrane receptor and the possible participation of PI3K/Akt and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results clearly show that T3 stimulates cell proliferation at both stages of development through the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and the production of small amounts of ROS, which operate as effective second messengers. Moreover, we prove that these effects are not initiated at the plasma membrane receptor for T3.

  9. Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bandoski, Cheryl; Bartlett, John D

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These

  10. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  11. Redox Activities and ROS, NO and Phenylpropanoids Production by Axenically Cultured Intact Olive Seedling Roots after Interaction with a Mycorrhizal or a Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Francisco; Garrido, Inmaculada; Ortega, Alfonso; Casimiro, Ilda; Álvarez-Tinaut, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Roots of intact olive seedlings, axenically cultured, were alternatively placed in contact with Rhizophagus irregularis (mycorrhizal) or Verticillim dahliae (pathogenic) fungi. MeJA treatments were also included. In vivo redox activities in the apoplast of the intact roots (anion superoxide generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities) were measured. All our results showed that apoplastic redox activities of intact seedling roots in contact with the compatible mycorrhizal fungus were clearly attenuated in comparison with the pathogenic fungus or treated with MeJA, even at the early stages of treatment used. Total phenolics, flavonoids and phenylpropanoid glycosides were also quantified. Roots in contact with the mycorrhizal fungus did not enhance the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds with respect to controls, while those in contact with the pathogenic one significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of all phenolic fractions measured. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxid accumulation in roots were examined by fluorescence microscopy. All of them presented much higher accumulation in roots in contact with the pathogenic than with the mycorrhizal fungus. Altogether these results indicate that intact olive seedling roots clearly differentiated between mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi, attenuating defense reactions against the first to facilitate its establishment, while inducing a strong and sustained defense reaction against the second. Both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species seemed to be involved in these responses from the first moments of contact. However, further investigations are required to clarify the proposed crosstalk between them and their respective roles in these responses since fluorescence images of roots revealed that reactive oxygen species were mainly accumulated in the apoplast (congruently with the measured redox activities in this compartment) while nitric oxid was mainly stored in the cytosol. PMID:24967716

  12. Reactive oxygen species generated from skeletal muscles are required for gecko tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhu, Ziwen; Bai, Xue; Wei, Sumei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Xiaochuan; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in various physiological and pathological functions following generation from different types of cells. Here we explore ROS functions on spontaneous tail regeneration using gecko model. ROS were mainly produced in the skeletal muscle after tail amputation, showing a temporal increase as the regeneration proceeded. Inhibition of the ROS production influenced the formation of autophagy in the skeletal muscles, and as a consequence, the length of the regenerating tail. Transcriptome analysis has shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and the subunits (p40(phox) and p47(phox)) are involved in the ROS production. ROS promoted the formation of autophagy through regulation of both ULK and MAPK activities. Our results suggest that ROS produced by skeletal muscles are required for the successful gecko tail regeneration. PMID:26853930

  13. Reactive oxygen species generated from skeletal muscles are required for gecko tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhu, Ziwen; Bai, Xue; Wei, Sumei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Xiaochuan; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in various physiological and pathological functions following generation from different types of cells. Here we explore ROS functions on spontaneous tail regeneration using gecko model. ROS were mainly produced in the skeletal muscle after tail amputation, showing a temporal increase as the regeneration proceeded. Inhibition of the ROS production influenced the formation of autophagy in the skeletal muscles, and as a consequence, the length of the regenerating tail. Transcriptome analysis has shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and the subunits (p40(phox) and p47(phox)) are involved in the ROS production. ROS promoted the formation of autophagy through regulation of both ULK and MAPK activities. Our results suggest that ROS produced by skeletal muscles are required for the successful gecko tail regeneration.

  14. ROS as key players in plant stress signalling.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Aaron; Mittler, Ron; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an integral role as signalling molecules in the regulation of numerous biological processes such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and/or abiotic stimuli in plants. To some extent, various functions of ROS signalling are attributed to differences in the regulatory mechanisms of respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs) that are involved in a multitude of different signal transduction pathways activated in assorted tissue and cell types under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent findings revealed that stress responses in plants are mediated by a temporal-spatial coordination between ROS and other signals that rely on production of stress-specific chemicals, compounds, and hormones. In this review we will provide an update of recent findings related to the integration of ROS signals with an array of signalling pathways aimed at regulating different responses in plants. In particular, we will address signals that confer systemic acquired resistance (SAR) or systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) in plants.

  15. TRPs as chemosensors (ROS, RNS, RCS, gasotransmitters).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (trp) gene superfamily encodes TRP proteins that act as multimodal sensor cation channels for a wide variety of stimuli from outside and inside the cell. Upon chemical or physical stimulation of cells, TRP channels transduce electrical and/or Ca(2+) signals via their cation channel activities. These functional features of TRP channels allow the body to react and adapt to different forms of environmental changes. Indeed, members of one class of TRP channels have emerged as sensors of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive carbonyl species (RCS), and gaseous messenger molecules including molecular oxygen (O2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an ROS, triggers the production of ADP-ribose, which binds and activates TRPM2. In addition to TRPM2, TRPC5, TRPV1, and TRPA1 are also activated by H2O2 via modification of cysteine (Cys) free sulfhydryl groups. Nitric oxide (NO), a vasoactive gaseous molecule, regulates TRP channels directly via Cys S-nitrosylation or indirectly via cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent phosphorylation. Anoxia induced by O2-glucose deprivation and severe hypoxia activates TRPM7 and TRPC6, respectively, whereas TRPA1 serves as a sensor of mild hypoxia and hyperoxia in vagal and sensory neurons. TRPA1 also detects other gaseous molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In this review, we highlight our current knowledge of TRP channels as chemosensors for ROS, RNS, RCS, and gaseous molecules and discuss their functional impacts on physiological and pathological events.

  16. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOEpatents

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  17. TPD52L1-ROS1, a new ROS1 fusion variant in lung adenosquamous cell carcinoma identified by comprehensive genomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Viola Weijia; Upadhyay, Daya; Schrock, Alexa B; Gowen, Kyle; Ali, Siraj M; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2016-07-01

    Crizotinib was approved for the treatment of ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the US on 11 March, 2016. Interestingly no one companion diagnostic test (CDx) has been approved simultaneously with this approval of crizotinib. Hence, an ideal and adequate CDx will have to be able to identify ROS1 fusions without the knowledge of the fusion partners to ROS1, and as to date there are 13 fusion partners reported for ROS1 in NSCLC. Here we report a novel TPD52L1-ROS1 fusion variant in NSCLC. This novel TPD52L1-ROS1 fusion variant is generated by the fusion of exons 1-3 of TPD52L1 on chromosome 6q22-23 to the exons 33-43 of ROS1 on chromosome 6q22, likely from an intra-chromosomal deletion and subsequent fusion event similar to the generation of EML4-ALK. The predicted TPD52L1-ROS1 protein product contains 655 amino acids comprising of the N-terminal amino acids 1-95 of TPD52L1 and C-terminal amino acids of 1789-2348 of ROS1. In summary, TPD52L1-ROS1 is a novel ROS1 fusion variant in NSCLC identified by comprehensive genomic profiling and should be included in any ROS1 detecting assays that depend on identifying the corresponding fusion partners, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PMID:27237027

  18. Synergistic effects of particulate matter (PM10) and SO2 on human non-small cell lung cancer A549 via ROS-mediated NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yue, Huifeng; Li, Guangke; Zhu, Na; Sang, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Since a real atmospheric scenario usually represents a system involving multiple pollutants, air pollution studies typically focused on describing adverse effects associated with exposure to individual pollutants cannot reflect actual health risk. Particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are two major pollutants derived from coal combustion processes and co-existing in coal-smoke air pollution, but their potentially synergistic toxicity remains elusive thus far. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of PM10 and SO2, singly and in binary mixtures, using human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, followed by clarifying the possible mechanisms for their interaction. The results indicated that the concomitant treatment of PM10 and SO2 at low concentrations led to synergistic injury in terms of cell survival and apoptosis occurrence, while PM10 and SO2 alone at the same concentrations did not cause damage to the cells. Also, radical oxygen species (ROS) production followed by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation was involved in the above synergistic cytotoxicity, which was confirmed by the repression of the actions by an ROS inhibitor (NAC). This implies that assessment of health risk should consider the interactions between ambient PM and gaseous copollutants.

  19. Combustion-derived flame generated ultrafine soot generates reactive oxygen species and activates Nrf2 antioxidants differently in neonatal and adult rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban particulate matter (PM) has been epidemiologically correlated with multiple cardiopulmonary morbidities and mortalities, in sensitive populations. Children exposed to PM are more likely to develop respiratory infections and asthma. Although PM originates from natural and anthropogenic sources, vehicle exhaust rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can be a dominant contributor to the PM2.5 and PM0.1 fractions and has been implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Objectives Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the variable nature of PM, so we utilized a previously characterized ethylene-combusted premixed flame particles (PFP) with consistent and reproducible physiochemical properties and 1) measured the oxidative potential of PFP compared to ambient PM, 2) determined the ability of PFPs to generate oxidative stress and activate the transcription factor using in vitro and ex vivo models, and 3) we correlated these responses with antioxidant enzyme expression in vivo. Methods We compared oxidative stress response (HMOX1) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and PRDX6) expression in vivo by performing a time-course study in 7-day old neonatal and young adult rats exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to 22.4 μg/m3 PFPs. Results We showed that PFP is a potent ROS generator that induces oxidative stress and activates Nrf2. Induction of the oxidative stress responsive enzyme HMOX1 in vitro was mediated through Nrf2 activation and was variably upregulated in both ages. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme expression had age and lung compartment variations post exposure. Of particular interest was SOD1, which had mRNA and protein upregulation in adult parenchyma, but lacked a similar response in neonates. Conclusions We conclude that PFPs are effective ROS generators, comparable to urban ambient PM2.5, that induce oxidative stress in neonatal and adult rat lungs. PFPs upregulate a select set of antioxidant enzymes in

  20. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and its cytotoxicity – a paradoxical issue in ROS-based cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunpeng; Hu, Wei; Wu, Hao; Hu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Targeting cancer via ROS-based mechanism has been proposed as a radical therapeutic approach. Cancer cells exhibit higher endogenous oxidative stress than normal cells and pharmacological ROS insults via either enhancing ROS production or inhibiting ROS-scavenging activity can selectively kill cancer cells. In this study, we randomly chose 4 cancer cell lines and primary colon or rectal cancer cells from 4 patients to test the hypothesis and obtained following paradoxical results: while piperlongumin (PL) and β-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), 2 well-defined ROS-based anticancer agents, induced an increase of cellular ROS and killed effectively the tested cells, lactic acidosis (LA), a common tumor environmental factor that plays multifaceted roles in promoting cancer progression, induced a much higher ROS level in the tested cancer cells than PL and PEITC, but spared them; L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO, 20 μM) depleted cellular GSH more effectively and increased higher ROS level than PL or PEITC but permitted progressive growth of the tested cancer cells. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. If ROS is the effecter, it should obey the fundamental therapeutic principle – the dose-response relationship. This is a major concern. PMID:24848642

  1. Green tea polyphenols precondition against cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation via stimulation of laminin receptor, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of protein kinase Cε.

    PubMed

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H; Elhiani, Albert A; Schiffman, Jason E; Hinton, David R; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2012-10-01

    As the development of synthetic drugs for the prevention of stroke has proven challenging, utilization of natural products capable of preconditioning neuronal cells against ischemia-induced cell death would be a highly useful complementary approach. In this study using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in PC12 cells, we show that 2-day pretreatment with green tea polyphenols (GTPP) and their active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects cells from subsequent OGD/R-induced cell death. A synergistic interaction was observed between GTPP constituents, with unfractionated GTPP more potently preconditioning cells than EGCG. GTPP-induced preconditioning required the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), to which EGCG binds with high affinity. 67LR also mediated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase. An exogenous ROS-generating system bypassed 67LR to induce preconditioning, suggesting that sublethal levels of ROS are indeed an important mediator in GTPP-induced preconditioning. This role for ROS was further supported by the fact that antioxidants blocked GTPP-induced preconditioning. Additionally, ROS induced an activation and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC), particularly PKCε from the cytosol to the membrane/mitochondria, which was also blocked by antioxidants. The crucial role of PKC in GTPP-induced preconditioning was supported by use of its specific inhibitors. Preconditioning was increased by conditional overexpression of PKCε and decreased by its knock-out with siRNA. Collectively, these results suggest that GTPP stimulates 67LR and thereby induces NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of ROS, which in turn induces activation of PKC, particularly prosurvival isoenzyme PKCε, resulting in preconditioning against cell death induced by OGD/R.

  2. Insulin elicits a ROS-activated and an IP₃-dependent Ca²⁺ release, which both impinge on GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Llanos, Paola; Vásquez, César; Espinosa, Alejandra; Osorio-Fuentealba, César; Arias-Calderon, Manuel; Lavandero, Sergio; Klip, Amira; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    Insulin signaling includes generation of low levels of H2O2; however, its origin and contribution to insulin-stimulated glucose transport are unknown. We tested the impact of H2O2 on insulin-dependent glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells. H2O2 increased the translocation of GLUT4 with an exofacial Myc-epitope tag between the first and second transmembrane domains (GLUT4myc), an effect additive to that of insulin. The anti-oxidants N-acetyl L-cysteine and Trolox, the p47(phox)-NOX2 NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide gp91-ds-tat or p47(phox) knockdown each reduced insulin-dependent GLUT4myc translocation. Importantly, gp91-ds-tat suppressed insulin-dependent H2O2 production. A ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel agonist stimulated GLUT4myc translocation and insulin stimulated RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) release by promoting RyR1 S-glutathionylation. This pathway acts in parallel to insulin-mediated stimulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-activated Ca(2+) channels, in response to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its downstream target phospholipase C, resulting in Ca(2+) transfer to the mitochondria. An inhibitor of IP3 receptors, Xestospongin B, reduced both insulin-dependent IP3 production and GLUT4myc translocation. We propose that, in addition to the canonical α,β phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to Akt pathway, insulin engages both RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release and IP3-receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, and that these signals jointly stimulate glucose uptake.

  3. Insulin elicits a ROS-activated and an IP₃-dependent Ca²⁺ release, which both impinge on GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Llanos, Paola; Vásquez, César; Espinosa, Alejandra; Osorio-Fuentealba, César; Arias-Calderon, Manuel; Lavandero, Sergio; Klip, Amira; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    Insulin signaling includes generation of low levels of H2O2; however, its origin and contribution to insulin-stimulated glucose transport are unknown. We tested the impact of H2O2 on insulin-dependent glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells. H2O2 increased the translocation of GLUT4 with an exofacial Myc-epitope tag between the first and second transmembrane domains (GLUT4myc), an effect additive to that of insulin. The anti-oxidants N-acetyl L-cysteine and Trolox, the p47(phox)-NOX2 NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide gp91-ds-tat or p47(phox) knockdown each reduced insulin-dependent GLUT4myc translocation. Importantly, gp91-ds-tat suppressed insulin-dependent H2O2 production. A ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel agonist stimulated GLUT4myc translocation and insulin stimulated RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) release by promoting RyR1 S-glutathionylation. This pathway acts in parallel to insulin-mediated stimulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-activated Ca(2+) channels, in response to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its downstream target phospholipase C, resulting in Ca(2+) transfer to the mitochondria. An inhibitor of IP3 receptors, Xestospongin B, reduced both insulin-dependent IP3 production and GLUT4myc translocation. We propose that, in addition to the canonical α,β phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to Akt pathway, insulin engages both RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release and IP3-receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, and that these signals jointly stimulate glucose uptake. PMID:24569874

  4. Propolis Inhibits UVA-Induced Apoptosis of Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells by Scavenging ROS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han Bit; Yoo, Byung Sun

    2016-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees from several plant sources. This research aimed at showing its protective effect against UVA-induced apoptosis of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Using Hoechst staining, it was demonstrated that propolis (5 and 10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the apoptosis of HaCaT cells induced by UVA-irradiation. Propolis also showed the protective effect against loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by UVA-irradiaiton in HaCaT cells. Propolis also inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 induced by UVA-irradiation. To investigate the role of ROS in UVA-induced apoptosis and protection by propolis, the generation of ROS was determined in cells. The results showed that the generation of ROS was markedly reduced in cells pretreated with propolis. Consequently, propolis protected human keratinocyte HaCaT cells against UVA-induced apoptosis, which might be related to the reduction of ROS generation by UVA-irradiation.

  5. Angiotensin II induces Fat1 expression/activation and vascular smooth muscle cell migration via Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation

    PubMed Central

    Bruder-Nascimento, T; Chinnasamy, P; Riascos-Bernal, DF; Cau, SB; Callera, GE; Touyz, RM; Tostes, RC; Sibinga, NES

    2013-01-01

    Fat1 is an atypical cadherin that controls vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (Nox1) is an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VSMCs. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces the expression and/or activation of both Fat1 and Nox1 proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that Ang II-induced Fat1 activation and VSMC migration are mediated by Nox1-dependent ROS generation and redox signaling. Studies were performed in cultured VSMCs from Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 μmol/L) for short (5 to 30 min) or long term stimulations (3 to 12 h) in the absence or presence of the antioxidant apocynin (10 μmol/L), extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) inhibitor PD98059 (1 μmol/L), or Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) valsartan (1 μmol/L). siRNA was used to knockdown Nox1 or Fat1. Cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay. Ang II increased Fat1 mRNA and protein levels and promoted Fat1 translocation to the cell membrane, responses that were inhibited by AT1R antagonist and antioxidant treatment. Downregulation of Nox1 inhibited the effects of Ang II on Fat1 protein expression. Nox1 protein induction, ROS generation, and p44/p42 MAPK phosphorylation in response to Ang II were prevented by valsartan and apocynin, and Nox1 siRNA inhibited Ang II-induced ROS generation. Knockdown of Fat1 did not affect Ang II-mediated increases in Nox1 expression or ROS. Inhibition of p44/p42 MAPK phosphorylation by PD98059 abrogated the Ang II-induced increase in Fat1 expression and membrane translocation. Knockdown of Fat1 inhibited Ang II-induced VSMC migration, which was also prevented by valsartan, apocynin, PD98059, and Nox1 siRNA. Our findings indicate that Ang II regulates Fat1 expression and activity and induces Fat1-dependent VSMC migration via activation of AT1R, ERK1/2, and Nox1-derived ROS, suggesting a role for Fat1 downstream of Ang II

  6. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery.

  7. Oxygen Consumption and Usage During Physical Exercise: The Balance Between Oxidative Stress and ROS-Dependent Adaptive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1, are modulated by exercise-associated changes in the redox milieu. PGC-1α activation could result in decreased oxidative challenge, either by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and/or by an increased number of mitochondria that allows lower levels of respiratory activity for the same degree of ATP generation. Endogenous thiol antioxidants glutathione and thioredoxin are modulated with high oxygen consumption and ROS generation during physical exercise, controlling cellular function through redox-sensitive signaling and protein–protein interactions. Endurance exercise-related angiogenesis, up to a significant degree, is regulated by ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Moreover, the exercise-associated ROS production could be important to DNA methylation and post-translation modifications of histone residues, which create heritable adaptive conditions based on epigenetic features of chromosomes. Accumulating data indicate that exercise with moderate intensity has systemic and complex health-promoting effects, which undoubtedly involve regulation of redox homeostasis and signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1208–1246. PMID:22978553

  8. The ROS Wheel: Refining ROS Transcriptional Footprints1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Noctor, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microarray studies have delivered extensive inventories of transcriptome-wide changes in messenger RNA levels provoked by various types of oxidative stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previous cross-study comparisons indicated how different types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their subcellular accumulation sites are able to reshape the transcriptome in specific manners. However, these analyses often employed simplistic statistical frameworks that are not compatible with large-scale analyses. Here, we reanalyzed a total of 79 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray studies of redox homeostasis perturbation experiments. To create hierarchy in such a high number of transcriptomic data sets, all transcriptional profiles were clustered on the overlap extent of their differentially expressed transcripts. Subsequently, meta-analysis determined a single magnitude of differential expression across studies and identified common transcriptional footprints per cluster. The resulting transcriptional footprints revealed the regulation of various metabolic pathways and gene families. The RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG F-mediated respiratory burst had a major impact and was a converging point among several studies. Conversely, the timing of the oxidative stress response was a determining factor in shaping different transcriptome footprints. Our study emphasizes the need to interpret transcriptomic data sets in a systematic context, where initial, specific stress triggers can converge to common, aspecific transcriptional changes. We believe that these refined transcriptional footprints provide a valuable resource for assessing the involvement of ROS in biological processes in plants. PMID:27246095

  9. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

  10. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S

    2015-07-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade-Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5-8% less than calculation without considering parking activity.

  11. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug.

  12. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  13. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  14. Activation of ROS/NF-{kappa}B and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM kinase II are necessary for VCAM-1 induction in IL-1{beta}-treated human tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.-F.; Chang, C.-C.; Lee, I-T.; Lee, C.-W.; Lin, W.-N.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2009-05-15

    Histone acetylation regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in the expression of inflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Oxidative processes have been shown to induce VCAM-1 expression. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying IL-1{beta}-induced VCAM-1 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our results showed that IL-1{beta} enhanced HTSMCs-monocyte adhesion through up-regulation of VCAM-1, which was inhibited by pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKC{alpha} (Goe6976), c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO)], intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM), PI-PLC (U73122), CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II (KN62), p300 (garcinol), NF-{kappa}B (Bay11-7082), HDAC (trichostatin A), and ROS scavenger [N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] or transfection with siRNAs of MyD88, PKC{alpha}, Src, p47{sup phox}, p300, and HDAC4. Moreover, IL-1{beta} stimulated NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII phosphorylation through MyD88-dependent PI-PLC/PKC{alpha}/c-Src/ROS and PI-PLC/Ca{sup 2+}/CaM pathways, respectively. Activation of NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII may eventually lead to the acetylation of histone residues and phosphorylation of histone deacetylases. These findings suggested that IL-1{beta} induced VCAM-1 expression via these multiple signaling pathways in HTSMCs. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in airway diseases.

  15. Suppression of the Barley uroporphyrinogen III synthase Gene by a Ds Activation Tagging Element Generates Developmental Photosensitivity[W

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, Michael A.; Agostino, Anthony; Clarke, Bryan C.; Furbank, Robert; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Pryor, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorophyll production involves the synthesis of photoreactive intermediates that, when in excess, are toxic due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A novel, activation-tagged barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant is described that results from antisense suppression of a uroporphyrinogen III synthase (Uros) gene, the product of which catalyzes the sixth step in the synthesis of chlorophyll and heme. In homozygous mutant plants, uroporphyrin(ogen) I accumulates by spontaneous cyclization of hydroxyl methylbilane, the substrate of Uros. Accumulation of this tetrapyrrole intermediate results in photosensitive cell death due to the production of ROS. The efficiency of Uros gene suppression is developmentally regulated, being most effective in mature seedling leaves compared with newly emergent leaves. Reduced transcript accumulation of a number of nuclear-encoded photosynthesis genes occurs in the mutant, even under 3% light conditions, consistent with a retrograde plastid-nuclear signaling mechanism arising from Uros gene suppression. A similar set of nuclear genes was repressed in wild-type barley following treatment with a singlet oxygen-generating herbicide, but not by a superoxide generating herbicide, suggesting that the retrograde signaling apparent in the mutant is specific to singlet oxygen. PMID:19336693

  16. Humic acid effect on catalase activity and the generation of reactive oxygen species in corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Flávio Couto; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo; de Souza, Sonia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) have positive effects on plant physiology, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially understood. The induction of root growth and emission of lateral roots (LRs) promoted by exogenous auxin is a natural phenomenon. Exogenous auxins are also associated with HA. Gas nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger produced endogenously in plants. It is associated with metabolic events dependent on auxin. With the application of auxin, NO production is significantly increased, resulting in positive effects on plant physiology. Thus it is possible to evaluate the beneficial effects of the application of HA as an effect of auxin. To investigate the effects of HA the parameters of root growth, Zea mays was studied by evaluating the application of 3 mM C L⁻¹ of HA extracted from Oxisol and 100 µM SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and the NO donor, subject to two N-NO₃⁻, high dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻) and low dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻). Treatments with HA and NO were positively increased, regardless of the N-NO₃⁻ taken, as assessed by fresh weight and dry root, issue of LRs. The effects were more pronounced in the treatment with a lower dose of N-NO₃⁻. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo and catalase activity were evaluated; these tests were associated with root growth. Under application of the bioactive substances tested, detection of ROS and catalase activity increased, especially in treatments with lower doses of N-NO₃⁻. The results of this experiment indicate that the effects of HA are dependent on ROS generation, which act as a messenger that induces root growth and the emission of LRs.

  17. Next Generation Active Buffet Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Ryall, Thomas G.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.; White, Edward V.; Zimcik, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon that is common to high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. These loads result in significant random stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. This paper describes an international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States involving the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads. The research program is being co-ordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and is being conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). This truly unique collaborative program has been developed to enable each participating country to contribute resources toward a program that coalesces a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation. This collaborative program is directed toward a full-scale test of an F/A-18 empennage, which is an extension of an earlier initial test. The current program aims at applying advanced directional piezoactuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers and advanced control strategies on a full-scale structure to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active BLA control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration.

  18. ATM Functions at the Peroxisome to Induce Pexophagy in Response to ROS

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T.; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T.; Pandita, Raj K.; Charaka, Vijaya K.; Pandita, Tej K.; Kastan, Michael B.; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate ROS as a by product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM signaling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser141, which promotes PEX5 mono-ubiquitination at K209, and recognition of ubiquitinated PEX5 by the autophagy adapter protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy. PMID:26344566

  19. ROS production and lipid catabolism in desiccating Shorea robusta seeds during aging.

    PubMed

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2012-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation products appear to correlate strongly with the desiccation induced loss of viability in recalcitrant sal seeds. The 100% germination in fresh sal seeds declined with dehydration under natural storage conditions (26 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 52 ± 2%). Seeds became non-viable within 8 days. Desiccation induced disturbances in the metabolic activity of seeds resulted in generation of enormous amounts of ROS that are responsible for cellular damage and viability loss. Oxidative stress in the dehydrating aging sal seeds was further aggravated by inducing lipid peroxidation as the amounts of free fatty acid, conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide and secondary free radicals; malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, were also promoted. In addition, significant rise in lipid degrading enzymes; lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) and lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 1.13.11.12) were detected in dehydrating sal seeds. Our results indicated multiple pathways (ROS, lipid peroxidation & lipase and LOX) that operate in the dehydrating recalcitrant sal seeds finally contributing to loss of viability.

  20. Upregulating of Fas, integrin beta4 and P53 and depressing of PC-PLC activity and ROS level in VEC apoptosis by safrole oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Junying; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Shangli

    2005-10-24

    Previously, we found that safrole oxide could trigger vascular endothelial cell (VEC) apoptosis. In this study, to investigate its mechanism to induce apoptosis in VECs, the activities of nitric oxide synthetase and phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C, the level of reactive oxygen species and the expressions of Fas, integrin beta4 and P53 were analyzed. The data showed that safrole oxide induced apoptosis by increasing the expressions of Fas, integrin beta4 and P53, and depressing the activity of Ca(2+)-independent phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in VECs.

  1. Imaging ROS signaling in cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Fang, Huaqiang; Huang, Zhanglong; Shang, Wei; Hou, Tingting; Cheng, Aiwu; Cheng, Heping

    2013-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as essential cellular messengers, redox regulators, and, when in excess, oxidative stressors that are widely implicated in pathologies of cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding such complexity of the ROS signaling is critically hinged on the ability to visualize and quantify local, compartmental, and global ROS dynamics at high selectivity, sensitivity, and spatiotemporal resolution. The past decade has witnessed significant progress in ROS imaging at levels of intact cells, whole organs or tissues, and even live organisms. In particular, major advances include the development of novel synthetic or genetically encoded fluorescent protein-based ROS indicators, the use of protein indicator-expressing animal models, and the advent of in vivo imaging technology. Innovative ROS imaging has led to important discoveries in ROS signaling-for example, mitochondrial superoxide flashes as elemental ROS signaling events and hydrogen peroxide transients for wound healing. This review aims at providing an update of the current status in ROS imaging, while identifying areas of insufficient knowledge and highlighting emerging research directions. PMID:23873151

  2. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite. PMID:26070143

  3. Training Effects on ROS Production Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Master Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min−1) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (−20%) and after IE (−25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  4. Chimaphilin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Dong; Zou, Yong-Peng; Wang, Peng; Yao, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Yao; Duan, Ming-Hui; Fu, Yu-Jie; Yu, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Chimaphilin, 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is extracted from pyrola [Passiflora incarnata Fisch.]. In this study, the anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms of chimaphilin toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are firstly investigated. Chimaphilin could inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC50 value was 43.30μM for 24h. Chimaphilin markedly induced apoptosis through the investigation of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, nuclear DNA fragmentation, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Flow cytometry assay revealed that chimaphilin triggered a significant generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, western blotting assay showed that chimaphilin suppressed Bcl-2 level and enhanced Bad level, then activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and further activated the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), finally induced cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment test testified that chimaphilin could increase the generation of ROS, then induce cell apoptosis. In general, the present results demonstrated that chimaphilin induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24793375

  5. Chronic Inhibition of STAT3/STAT5 in Treatment-Resistant Human Breast Cancer Cell Subtypes: Convergence on the ROS/SUMO Pathway and Its Effects on xCT Expression and System xc- Activity.

    PubMed

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Nashed, Mina G; Ungard, Robert G; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Gurmit

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically targeting activated STAT3 and/or STAT5 has been an active area of cancer research. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributes to redox balance and export of intracellularly produced glutamate in response to up-regulated glutaminolysis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that blocking STAT3/5 using the small molecule inhibitor, SH-4-54, which targets the SH2 domains of both proteins, increases xCT expression, thereby increasing system xc- activity in human breast cancer cells. The current investigation demonstrates that chronic SH-4-54 administration, followed by clonal selection of treatment-resistant MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells, elicits distinct subtype-dependent effects. xCT mRNA and protein levels, glutamate release, and cystine uptake are decreased relative to untreated passage-matched controls in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, with the inverse occurring in estrogen-responsive T47D cells. This "ying-yang" effect is linked with a shifted balance between the phosphorylation status of STAT3 and STAT5, intracellular ROS levels, and STAT5 SUMOylation/de-SUMOylation. STAT5 emerged as a definitive negative regulator of xCT at the transcriptional level, while STAT3 activation is coupled with increased system xc- activity. We propose that careful classification of a patient's breast cancer subtype is central to effectively targeting STAT3/5 as a therapeutic means of treating breast cancer, particularly given that xCT is emerging as an important biomarker of aggressive cancers.

  6. Chronic Inhibition of STAT3/STAT5 in Treatment-Resistant Human Breast Cancer Cell Subtypes: Convergence on the ROS/SUMO Pathway and Its Effects on xCT Expression and System xc- Activity

    PubMed Central

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Nashed, Mina G.; Ungard, Robert G.; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A.; Gunning, Patrick T.; Singh, Gurmit

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically targeting activated STAT3 and/or STAT5 has been an active area of cancer research. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributes to redox balance and export of intracellularly produced glutamate in response to up-regulated glutaminolysis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that blocking STAT3/5 using the small molecule inhibitor, SH-4-54, which targets the SH2 domains of both proteins, increases xCT expression, thereby increasing system xc- activity in human breast cancer cells. The current investigation demonstrates that chronic SH-4-54 administration, followed by clonal selection of treatment-resistant MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells, elicits distinct subtype-dependent effects. xCT mRNA and protein levels, glutamate release, and cystine uptake are decreased relative to untreated passage-matched controls in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, with the inverse occurring in estrogen-responsive T47D cells. This “ying-yang” effect is linked with a shifted balance between the phosphorylation status of STAT3 and STAT5, intracellular ROS levels, and STAT5 SUMOylation/de-SUMOylation. STAT5 emerged as a definitive negative regulator of xCT at the transcriptional level, while STAT3 activation is coupled with increased system xc- activity. We propose that careful classification of a patient’s breast cancer subtype is central to effectively targeting STAT3/5 as a therapeutic means of treating breast cancer, particularly given that xCT is emerging as an important biomarker of aggressive cancers. PMID:27513743

  7. Chronic Inhibition of STAT3/STAT5 in Treatment-Resistant Human Breast Cancer Cell Subtypes: Convergence on the ROS/SUMO Pathway and Its Effects on xCT Expression and System xc- Activity.

    PubMed

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Nashed, Mina G; Ungard, Robert G; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Gurmit

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically targeting activated STAT3 and/or STAT5 has been an active area of cancer research. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributes to redox balance and export of intracellularly produced glutamate in response to up-regulated glutaminolysis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that blocking STAT3/5 using the small molecule inhibitor, SH-4-54, which targets the SH2 domains of both proteins, increases xCT expression, thereby increasing system xc- activity in human breast cancer cells. The current investigation demonstrates that chronic SH-4-54 administration, followed by clonal selection of treatment-resistant MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells, elicits distinct subtype-dependent effects. xCT mRNA and protein levels, glutamate release, and cystine uptake are decreased relative to untreated passage-matched controls in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, with the inverse occurring in estrogen-responsive T47D cells. This "ying-yang" effect is linked with a shifted balance between the phosphorylation status of STAT3 and STAT5, intracellular ROS levels, and STAT5 SUMOylation/de-SUMOylation. STAT5 emerged as a definitive negative regulator of xCT at the transcriptional level, while STAT3 activation is coupled with increased system xc- activity. We propose that careful classification of a patient's breast cancer subtype is central to effectively targeting STAT3/5 as a therapeutic means of treating breast cancer, particularly given that xCT is emerging as an important biomarker of aggressive cancers. PMID:27513743

  8. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  9. ROS/redox signaling regulates bone turnover in an age-specific manner in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide appears to be an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. ROS signaling has been suggested to increase RANKL mRNA and protein expression, thus enha...

  10. MBL-Mediated Opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by Human Neutrophils Is Coupled with Intracellular Dectin-1-Triggered ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Qinning; Liu, Weihuang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jinbo; Xu, Li; Chen, Liuqing; Duan, Yiqun

    2012-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a lectin homologous to C1q, greatly facilitates C3/C4-mediated opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans (C. albicans) by human neutrophils, and has the capacity to bind to CR1 (CD35) expressed on circulating neutrophils. The intracellular pool of neutrophil Dectin-1 plays a critical role in stimulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through recognition of β-1,3-glucan component of phagocytized zymosan or yeasts. However, little is known about whether MBL can mediate the opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by neutrophils independent of complement activation, and whether MBL-mediated opsonophagocytosis influence the intracellular expression of Dectin-1 and ROS production. Here we showed that the inhibited phagocytic efficiency of neutrophils as a result of blockage of Dectin-1 was compensated by exogenous MBL alone in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expressions of Dectin-1 at mRNA and intracellular protein levels were significantly up-regulated in neutrophils stimulated by MBL-pre-incubated C. albicans, while the expression of surface Dectin-1 remained almost unchanged. Nevertheless, the stimulated ROS production in neutrophils was partly and irreversibly inhibited by blockage of Dectin-1 in the presence of exogenous MBL. Confocal microscopy examination showed that intracellular Dectin-1 was recruited and co-distributed with ROS on the surface of some phagocytized yeasts. The β-1,3-glucanase digestion test further suggested that the specific recognition and binding site of human Dectin-1 is just the β-1,3-glucan moiety on the cell wall of C. albicans. These data demonstrate that MBL has an ability to mediate the opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by human neutrophils independent of complement activation, which is coupled with intracellular Dectin-1-triggered ROS production. PMID:23239982

  11. Mechanisms of Rapid Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Response to Cytosolic Ca2+ or Zn2+ Loads in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Aaron; McClanahan, Taylor; Ji, Sung G.; Weiss, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive “excitotoxic” accumulation of Ca2+ and Zn2+ within neurons contributes to neurodegeneration in pathological conditions including ischemia. Putative early targets of these ions, both of which are linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, are mitochondria and the cytosolic enzyme, NADPH oxidase (NOX). The present study uses primary cortical neuronal cultures to examine respective contributions of mitochondria and NOX to ROS generation in response to Ca2+ or Zn2+ loading. Induction of rapid cytosolic accumulation of either Ca2+ (via NMDA exposure) or Zn2+ (via Zn2+/Pyrithione exposure in 0 Ca2+) caused sharp cytosolic rises in these ions, as well as a strong and rapid increase in ROS generation. Inhibition of NOX activation significantly reduced the Ca2+-induced ROS production with little effect on the Zn2+- triggered ROS generation. Conversely, dissipation of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient increased the cytosolic Ca2+ or Zn2+ rises caused by these exposures, consistent with inhibition of mitochondrial uptake of these ions. However, such disruption of mitochondrial function markedly suppressed the Zn2+-triggered ROS, while partially attenuating the Ca2+-triggered ROS. Furthermore, block of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), through which Zn2+ as well as Ca2+ can enter the mitochondrial matrix, substantially diminished Zn2+ triggered ROS production, suggesting that the ROS generation occurs specifically in response to Zn2+ entry into mitochondria. Finally, in the presence of the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, which impairs Zn2+ binding to cytosolic metalloproteins, far lower Zn2+ exposures were able to induce mitochondrial Zn2+ uptake and consequent ROS generation. Thus, whereas rapid acute accumulation of Zn2+ and Ca2+ each can trigger injurious ROS generation, Zn2+ entry into mitochondria via the MCU may do so with particular potency. This may be of particular relevance to conditions like ischemia

  12. Mechanisms of rapid reactive oxygen species generation in response to cytosolic Ca2+ or Zn2+ loads in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Aaron; McClanahan, Taylor; Ji, Sung G; Weiss, John H

    2013-01-01

    Excessive "excitotoxic" accumulation of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) within neurons contributes to neurodegeneration in pathological conditions including ischemia. Putative early targets of these ions, both of which are linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, are mitochondria and the cytosolic enzyme, NADPH oxidase (NOX). The present study uses primary cortical neuronal cultures to examine respective contributions of mitochondria and NOX to ROS generation in response to Ca(2+) or Zn(2+) loading. Induction of rapid cytosolic accumulation of either Ca(2+) (via NMDA exposure) or Zn(2+) (via Zn(2+)/Pyrithione exposure in 0 Ca(2+)) caused sharp cytosolic rises in these ions, as well as a strong and rapid increase in ROS generation. Inhibition of NOX activation significantly reduced the Ca(2+)-induced ROS production with little effect on the Zn(2+)- triggered ROS generation. Conversely, dissipation of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient increased the cytosolic Ca(2+) or Zn(2+) rises caused by these exposures, consistent with inhibition of mitochondrial uptake of these ions. However, such disruption of mitochondrial function markedly suppressed the Zn(2+)-triggered ROS, while partially attenuating the Ca(2+)-triggered ROS. Furthermore, block of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), through which Zn(2+) as well as Ca(2+) can enter the mitochondrial matrix, substantially diminished Zn(2+) triggered ROS production, suggesting that the ROS generation occurs specifically in response to Zn(2+) entry into mitochondria. Finally, in the presence of the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, which impairs Zn(2+) binding to cytosolic metalloproteins, far lower Zn(2+) exposures were able to induce mitochondrial Zn(2+) uptake and consequent ROS generation. Thus, whereas rapid acute accumulation of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) each can trigger injurious ROS generation, Zn(2+) entry into mitochondria via the MCU may do so with particular potency. This may be of

  13. Intracellular ROS Scavenging Activity and Downregulation of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW264.7 Macrophage by Fresh Leaf Extracts of Pseuderanthemum palatiferum

    PubMed Central

    Sittisart, Patcharawan

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial antioxidant phytochemicals are found in many medicinal plants. Pseuderanthemum palatiferum (PP), a well-known Vietnamese traditional medicinal plant in Thailand, has long been used in folk medicine for curing inflammatory diseases, often with limited support of scientific research. Therefore, this study aimed to determine antioxidant and modulation of inflammatory mediators of ethanol and water extracts of PP (EEP and WEP, resp.). WEP had significantly higher phenolic and flavonoid levels and DPPH radical scavenging activity than EEP. However, EEP exhibited greater reducing power than WEP. A greater decrease of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in RAW264.7 macrophage cells was also observed with EEP. Modulation of inflammatory mediators of EEP and WEP was evaluated on LPS plus IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EEP more potently suppressed LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production than WEP. Both EEP and WEP also suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein levels. Collectively, these results suggest that PP possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24744809

  14. Inhibiting ROS-STAT3-dependent autophagy enhanced capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Tan, Miduo; Xie, Zhiqin; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Zhijian; Yang, Kaiqing; Hu, Chen; Liao, Ni; Wang, Taoli; Chen, Dongliang; Xie, Feng; Tang, Caixi

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, which is the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peppers, has been reported to possess anticancer activity, including that against hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anticancer effects remain poorly understood. Herein, we have tested the involvement of autophagy in the capsaicin mechanism of action in human hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cancer cells were treated with different doses of capsaicin (50, 100 and 200μmol/L) for 6, 12, and 24 h. Flow cytometry and Caspase-3 activity assay were performed to determine cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was performed to visualize LC3-positive puncta. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the hallmarks of apoptosis and autophagy. Capsaicin can induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP and Bcl-2 were significantly increased. In line with the apoptosis, capsaicin can trigger autophagy in HepG2 cells. Capsaicin increased LC3-II and beclin-1 expression and GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy further sensitized HepG2 cells to capsaicin-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, capsaicin upregulated the Stat3 activity which contributed to autophagy. Importantly, we found that capsaicin triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatoma cells and that the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Moreover, NAC abrogated the effects of capsaicin on Stat3-dependent autophagy. In this study, we demonstrated that capsaicin increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3)-dependent autophagy through the generation of ROS signaling pathways in human hepatoma. Inhibiting autophagy could enhance capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27043357

  15. Inhibiting ROS-STAT3-dependent autophagy enhanced capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Tan, Miduo; Xie, Zhiqin; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Zhijian; Yang, Kaiqing; Hu, Chen; Liao, Ni; Wang, Taoli; Chen, Dongliang; Xie, Feng; Tang, Caixi

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, which is the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peppers, has been reported to possess anticancer activity, including that against hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anticancer effects remain poorly understood. Herein, we have tested the involvement of autophagy in the capsaicin mechanism of action in human hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cancer cells were treated with different doses of capsaicin (50, 100 and 200μmol/L) for 6, 12, and 24 h. Flow cytometry and Caspase-3 activity assay were performed to determine cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was performed to visualize LC3-positive puncta. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the hallmarks of apoptosis and autophagy. Capsaicin can induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP and Bcl-2 were significantly increased. In line with the apoptosis, capsaicin can trigger autophagy in HepG2 cells. Capsaicin increased LC3-II and beclin-1 expression and GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy further sensitized HepG2 cells to capsaicin-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, capsaicin upregulated the Stat3 activity which contributed to autophagy. Importantly, we found that capsaicin triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatoma cells and that the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Moreover, NAC abrogated the effects of capsaicin on Stat3-dependent autophagy. In this study, we demonstrated that capsaicin increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3)-dependent autophagy through the generation of ROS signaling pathways in human hepatoma. Inhibiting autophagy could enhance capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Anguillicola crassus impairs the silvering-related enhancements of the ROS defense capacity in swimbladder tissue of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Hanel, Reinhold; Pelster, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    In a process called silvering, European eels prepare for their long-distance migration from European freshwater systems to the Sargasso Sea for reproduction. During this journey, eels perform extended diel vertical migrations, and the concomitant changes in hydrostatic pressure significantly affect the swimbladder, functioning as a buoyancy organ. As the swimbladder is primarily filled with oxygen, the tissue has to cope with extreme hyperoxic conditions, which typically are accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. In addition, since the introduction of the parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus in the early 1980s, swimbladder function of most of the European eels is impaired by the infection with this parasite. However, the exact pathways to detoxify ROS and how these pathways are affected by silvering or the infection are still unknown. In swimbladder and muscle tissue from uninfected and infected yellow, and from uninfected and infected silver eels, we measured the level of lipid peroxidation, which increases with ROS stress. To assess the capacity of the ROS defense systems, we analyzed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and determined the concentration of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH + GSSG). In swimbladder tissue, we found increased concentrations of GSH + GSSG as well as higher activities of SOD, GPx and GR, suggesting that SOD and the glutathione cycle are important for ROS detoxification. Comparing swimbladder tissue of uninfected yellow with uninfected silver eels, the concentration of GSH + GSSG and the activity of SOD were higher after silvering, corresponding with lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Whereas in yellow eels the infection with A. crassus had no effect, in silver eels the capacity to cope with ROS was significantly impaired. In muscle tissue, silvering or the infection only affected the activity of SOD

  17. Anguillicola crassus impairs the silvering-related enhancements of the ROS defense capacity in swimbladder tissue of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Hanel, Reinhold; Pelster, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    In a process called silvering, European eels prepare for their long-distance migration from European freshwater systems to the Sargasso Sea for reproduction. During this journey, eels perform extended diel vertical migrations, and the concomitant changes in hydrostatic pressure significantly affect the swimbladder, functioning as a buoyancy organ. As the swimbladder is primarily filled with oxygen, the tissue has to cope with extreme hyperoxic conditions, which typically are accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. In addition, since the introduction of the parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus in the early 1980s, swimbladder function of most of the European eels is impaired by the infection with this parasite. However, the exact pathways to detoxify ROS and how these pathways are affected by silvering or the infection are still unknown. In swimbladder and muscle tissue from uninfected and infected yellow, and from uninfected and infected silver eels, we measured the level of lipid peroxidation, which increases with ROS stress. To assess the capacity of the ROS defense systems, we analyzed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and determined the concentration of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH + GSSG). In swimbladder tissue, we found increased concentrations of GSH + GSSG as well as higher activities of SOD, GPx and GR, suggesting that SOD and the glutathione cycle are important for ROS detoxification. Comparing swimbladder tissue of uninfected yellow with uninfected silver eels, the concentration of GSH + GSSG and the activity of SOD were higher after silvering, corresponding with lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Whereas in yellow eels the infection with A. crassus had no effect, in silver eels the capacity to cope with ROS was significantly impaired. In muscle tissue, silvering or the infection only affected the activity of SOD

  18. NASA/NREN: Next Generation Internet (NGI) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Richard; Freeman, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation internet (NGI) and the NREN (NASA Research and Education Network) activities are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NREN architecture; 2) NREN applications; and 3) NREN applied research.

  19. 15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS AT LEFT, HISTORIC CONTROL PANEL AT RIGHT. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Procyanidins from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Seedpod induce autophagy mediated by reactive oxygen species generation in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuqing; Xu, Hui; Luo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, autophagic effect of procyanidins from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedpod (LSPCs) on human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells, and the inherent correlation between autophagic levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were investigated. The results showed that LSPCs increased monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescence intensity and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion in HepG2 cells. In addition, the typically autophagic characteristics (autophagosomes and autolysosomes) were observed in LSPCs-treated cells, but not found in the cells treated with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Furthermore, the elevated ROS level was in line with the increasing of autophagy activation caused by LSPCs, however, both 3-MA and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcyteine (NAC) inhibitors effectively suppressed the autophagy and ROS generation triggered by LSPCs. As a result, these results indicated that LSPCs induced HepG2 cell autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on HepG2 cells. Moreover, we found that LSPCs caused DNA damage, S phase arrest and the decrement of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) which were associated with ROS generation. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the LSPCs-induced autophagy and autophagic cell death were triggered by the ROS generation in HepG2 cells, which might be associated with ROS generation through the mitochondria-dependent signaling way. PMID:27044822

  1. Emergent Public Spaces: Generative Activities on Function Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Guadalupe; Dominguez, Angeles; Krause, Gladys; Duran, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights ways in which generative activities may be coupled with network-based technologies in the context of teacher preparation to enhance preservice teachers' cognizance of how their own experience as students provides a blueprint for the learning environments they may need to generate in their future classrooms. In this study, the…

  2. ROS-mediated enhanced transcription of CYP38 promotes the plant tolerance to high light stress by suppressing GTPase activation of PsbO2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the Immunophilin family, cyclophilin38 (CYP38) is discovered to be localized in the thylakoid lumen, and is reported to be a participant in the function regulation of thylakoid membrane protein. However, the molecule mechanisms remain unclear. We found that, CYP38 plays an important role in the process of regulating and protecting the plant to resist high light (HL) stress. Under HL condition, the gene expression of CYP38 is enhanced, and if CYP38 gene is deficient, photochemistry efficiency, and chlorophyll content falls distinctly, and excessive reactive oxygen species synthesis occurs in the chloroplast. Western blot results showed that the D1 degradation rate of cyp38 mutant plants is faster than that of wide type plants. Interestingly, both gene expression and activity of PsbO2 were drastically enhanced in cyp38 mutant plants and less changed when the deleted gene of CYP38 was restored under HL treatment. This indicates that CYP38 may impose a negative regulation effect on PsbO2, which exerts a positive regulation effect in facilitating the dephosphorylation and subsequent degradation of D1. It is also found that, under HL condition, the cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) concentration and the gene expression level of calmodulin 3 (CaM3) arose markedly, which occurs upstream of CYP38 gene expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that CYP38 plays an important role in plant strengthening HL resistibility, which provides a new insight in the research of mechanisms of CYP38 protein in plants. PMID:26483802

  3. Mitochondrial ROS and the Effectors of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Aging Cells: The Discerning Killers!

    PubMed Central

    Hekimi, Siegfried; Wang, Ying; Noë, Alycia

    2016-01-01

    It has become clear that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are not simply villains and mitochondria the hapless targets of their attacks. Rather, it appears that mitochondrial dysfunction itself and the signaling function of mtROS can have positive effects on lifespan, helping to extend longevity. If events in the mitochondria can lead to better cellular homeostasis and better survival of the organism in ways beyond providing ATP and biosynthetic products, we can conjecture that they act on other cellular components through appropriate signaling pathways. We describe recent advances in a variety of species which promoted our understanding of how changes of mtROS generation are part of a system of signaling pathways that emanate from the mitochondria to impact organism lifespan through global changes, including in transcriptional patterns. In unraveling this, many old players in cellular homeostasis were encountered. Among these, maybe most strikingly, is the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which is the conduit by which at least one class of mtROS exercise their actions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This is a pathway that normally contributes to organismal homeostasis by killing defective or otherwise unwanted cells, and whose various compounds have also been implicated in other cellular processes. However, it was a surprise that that appropriate activation of a cell killing pathway can in fact prolong the lifespan of the organism. In the soma of adult C. elegans, all cells are post-mitotic, like many of our neurons and possibly some of our immune cells. These cells cannot simply be killed and replaced when showing signs of dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that it is the ability of the apoptotic pathway to pull together information about the functional and structural integrity of different cellular compartments that is the key property for why this pathway is used to decide when to boost defensive and repair processes in irreplaceable

  4. Mitochondrial ROS and the Effectors of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Aging Cells: The Discerning Killers!

    PubMed Central

    Hekimi, Siegfried; Wang, Ying; Noë, Alycia

    2016-01-01

    It has become clear that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are not simply villains and mitochondria the hapless targets of their attacks. Rather, it appears that mitochondrial dysfunction itself and the signaling function of mtROS can have positive effects on lifespan, helping to extend longevity. If events in the mitochondria can lead to better cellular homeostasis and better survival of the organism in ways beyond providing ATP and biosynthetic products, we can conjecture that they act on other cellular components through appropriate signaling pathways. We describe recent advances in a variety of species which promoted our understanding of how changes of mtROS generation are part of a system of signaling pathways that emanate from the mitochondria to impact organism lifespan through global changes, including in transcriptional patterns. In unraveling this, many old players in cellular homeostasis were encountered. Among these, maybe most strikingly, is the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which is the conduit by which at least one class of mtROS exercise their actions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This is a pathway that normally contributes to organismal homeostasis by killing defective or otherwise unwanted cells, and whose various compounds have also been implicated in other cellular processes. However, it was a surprise that that appropriate activation of a cell killing pathway can in fact prolong the lifespan of the organism. In the soma of adult C. elegans, all cells are post-mitotic, like many of our neurons and possibly some of our immune cells. These cells cannot simply be killed and replaced when showing signs of dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that it is the ability of the apoptotic pathway to pull together information about the functional and structural integrity of different cellular compartments that is the key property for why this pathway is used to decide when to boost defensive and repair processes in irreplaceable

  5. The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jiang, Caifu

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance. PMID:27233644

  6. ROS evaluation for a series of CNTs and their derivatives using an ESR method with DMPO

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruoka, S; Takeuchi, K; Koyama, K; Noguchi, T; Endo, M; Tristan, F; Terrones, M; Matsumoto, H; Saito, N; Usui, Y; Porter, D W; Castranova, V

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are important materials in advanced industries. It is a concern that pulmonary exposure to CNTs may induce carcinogenic responses. It has been recently reported that CNTs scavenge ROS though non-carbon fibers generate ROS. A comprehensive evaluation of ROS scavenging using various kinds of CNTs has not been demonstrated well. The present work specifically investigates ROS scavenging capabilities with a series of CNTs and their derivatives that were physically treated, and with the number of commercially available CNTs. CNT concentrations were controlled at 0.2 through 0.6 wt%. The ROS scavenging rate was measured by ESR with DMPO. Interestingly, the ROS scavenging rate was not only influenced by physical treatments, but was also dependent on individual manufacturing methods. Ratio of CNTs to DMPO/ hydrogen peroxide is a key parameter to obtain appropriate ROS quenching results for comparison of CNTs. The present results suggest that dangling bonds are not a sole factor for scavenging, and electron transfer on the CNT surface is not clearly determined to be the sole mechanism to explain ROS scavenging. PMID:26300949

  7. ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma: prognostic impact, therapeutic options and genetic variability

    PubMed Central

    Teixido, Cristina; Michels, Sebastian; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Fischer, Rieke; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Fassunke, Jana; Sebastian, Martin; Serke, Monika; Kaminsky, Britta; Randerath, Winfried; Gerigk, Ulrich; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Krüger, Stefan; Schnell, Roland; Rothe, Achim; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Heukamp, Lukas; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent data show that crizotinib is highly effective in patients with ROS1 rearrangement, few data is available about the prognostic impact, the predictive value for different treatments, and the genetic heterogeneity of ROS1-positive patients. Patients and Methods 1137 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung were analyzed regarding their ROS1 status. In positive cases, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed. Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome of these patients were assessed. Overall survival (OS) was compared with genetically defined subgroups of ROS1-negative patients. Results 19 patients of 1035 evaluable (1.8%) had ROS1-rearrangement. The median OS has not been reached. Stage IV patients with ROS1-rearrangement had the best OS of all subgroups (36.7 months, p < 0.001). 9 of 14 (64.2%) patients had at least one response to chemotherapy. Estimated mean OS for patients receiving chemotherapy and crizotinib was 5.3 years. Ten patients with ROS1-rearrangement (52.6%) harbored additional aberrations. Conclusion ROS1-rearangement is not only a predictive marker for response to crizotinib, but also seems to be the one of the best prognostic molecular markers in NSCLC reported so far. In stage IV patients, response to chemotherapy was remarkable high and overall survival was significantly better compared to other subgroups including EGFR-mutated and ALK-fusion-positive NSCLC. PMID:25868855

  8. 20 CFR 627.225 - Employment generating activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of information on JTPA programs and activities; labor market surveys; and development of on-the-job... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment generating activities. 627.225 Section 627.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  9. 20 CFR 627.225 - Employment generating activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of information on JTPA programs and activities; labor market surveys; and development of on-the-job... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment generating activities. 627.225 Section 627.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  11. Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Generation Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Cells by Dentatin (DEN) and Dentatin Incorporated in Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (DEN-HPβCD)

    PubMed Central

    Ashwaq, Al-Abboodi Shakir; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-01-01

    Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. To analyze the mechanism, in which DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex causes the death in human colon HT29 cancer cells, was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA)-based assays for caspase-3, 8, 9, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings showed that an anti-proliferative effect of DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex were via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and eventually induced apoptosis through both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways. The down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which leaded to apoptosis upon treatment, was investigated by Western-blotting. Hence, complexation between DEN and HPβCD did not diminish or eliminate the effective properties of DEN as anticancer agent. Therefore, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents in the future. PMID:27763535

  12. Enhancement of dynein-mediated autophagosome trafficking and autophagy maturation by ROS in mouse coronary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Yang; Pitzer, Ashley L; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2014-11-01

    Dynein-mediated autophagosome (AP) trafficking was recently demonstrated to contribute to the formation of autophagolysosomes (APLs) and autophagic flux process in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs). However, it remains unknown how the function of dynein as a motor protein for AP trafficking is regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. The present study tested whether the dynein-mediated autophagy maturation is regulated by a redox signalling associated with lysosomal Ca(2+) release machinery. In primary cultures of CAMs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2 O2 and O2 (-.) (generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase) significantly increased dynein ATPase activity and AP movement, which were accompanied by increased lysosomal fusion with AP and APL formation. Inhibition of dynein activity by (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) (EHNA) or disruption of the dynein complex by dynamitin (DCTN2) overexpression blocked ROS-induced dynein activation, AP movement and APL formation, and resulted in an accumulation of AP along with a failed breakdown of AP. Antagonism of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-mediated Ca(2+) signalling with NED-19 and PPADS abolished ROS-enhanced lysosomal Ca(2+) release and dynein activation in CAMs. In parallel, all these changes were also enhanced by overexpression of NADPH oxidase-1 (Nox1) gene in CAMs. Incubation with high glucose led to a marked O2 (-.) production compared with normoglycaemic CAMs, while Nox1 inhibitor ML117 abrogated this effect. Moreover, ML117 and NED-19 and PPADS significantly suppressed dynein activity and APL formation caused by high glucose. Taken together, these data suggest that ROS function as important players to regulate dynein-dependent AP trafficking leading to efficient autophagic maturation in CAMs.

  13. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  14. Crosstalk between ROS Homeostasis and Secondary Metabolism in S. natalensis ATCC 27448: Modulation of Pimaricin Production by Intracellular ROS

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Catarina L.; Osório, Hugo; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Mendes, Marta V.

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces secondary metabolism is strongly affected by oxygen availability. The increased culture aeration enhances pimaricin production in S. natalensis, however the excess of O2 consumption can lead to an intracellular ROS imbalance that is harmful to the cell. The adaptive physiological response of S. natalensis upon the addition of exogenous H2O2 suggested that the modulation of the intracellular ROS levels, through the activation of the H2O2 inducible catalase during the late exponential growth phase, can alter the production of pimaricin. With the construction of defective mutants on the H2O2 related enzymes SodF, AhpCD and KatA1, an effective and enduring modulation of intracellular ROS was achieved. Characterization of the knock-out strains revealed different behaviours regarding pimaricin production: whilst the superoxide dismutase defective mutant presented low levels of pimaricin production compared to the wild-type, the mutants defective on the H2O2-detoxifying enzymes displayed a pimaricin overproducer phenotype. Using physiological and molecular approaches we report a crosstalk between oxidative stress and secondary metabolism regulatory networks. Our results reveal that the redox-based regulation network triggered by an imbalance of the intracellular ROS homeostasis is also able to modulate the biosynthesis of pimaricin in S. natalensis. PMID:22114674

  15. ROS signalling, NADPH oxidases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Landry, William D; Cotter, Thomas G

    2014-08-01

    ROS (reactive oxygen species) have long been regarded as a series of destructive molecules that have a detrimental effect on cell homoeostasis. In support of this are the myriad antioxidant defence systems nearly all eukaryotic cells have that are designed to keep the levels of ROS in check. However, research data emerging over the last decade have demonstrated that ROS can influence a range of cellular events in a manner similar to that seen for traditional second messenger molecules such as cAMP. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) appears to be the main ROS with such signalling properties, and this molecule has been shown to affect a wide range of cellular functions. Its localized synthesis by the Nox (NADPH oxidase) family of enzymes and how these enzymes are regulated is of particular interest to those who work in the field of tumour biology.

  16. Glial Lipid Droplets and ROS Induced by Mitochondrial Defects Promote Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lucy; Zhang, Ke; Sandoval, Hector; Yamamoto, Shinya; Jaiswal, Manish; Sanz, Elisenda; Li, Zhihong; Hui, Jessica; Graham, Brett H.; Quintana, Albert; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial defects in neurons are implicated in neurodegenerative disease. Here we find that a key consequence of ROS and neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction is the accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) in glia. In Drosophila, ROS triggers c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP) activity in neurons leading to LD accumulation in glia prior to or at the onset of neurodegeneration. The accumulated lipids are peroxidated in the presence of ROS. Reducing LD accumulation in glia and lipid peroxidation via targeted lipase overexpression and/or lowering ROS significantly delays the onset of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, a similar pathway leads to glial LD accumulation in Ndufs4 mutant mice with neuronal mitochondrial defects, suggesting that LD accumulation following mitochondrial dysfunction is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, and represents an early, transient indicator and promoter of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25594180

  17. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chang, Yi-Chuang; Tseng, Wei-Chang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Liu, Heng-Ling; Chen, Chang-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

  18. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21853253

  19. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.

  20. Nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke induces cell damage through reactive oxygen species newly generated by PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Mai, Yosuke; Sawada, Osamu; Fujii, Shunsuke; Nishiya, Tadashi; Minami, Masabumi; Katayama, Takahiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Terada, Koji; Miwa, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    We examined cytotoxic effects of nicotine/tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on C6 glioma cells. The CSE induced plasma membrane damage (determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake) and cell apoptosis {determined by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] reduction activity and DNA fragmentation}. The cytotoxic activity decayed with a half-life of approximately 2 h at 37°C, and it was abolished by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione. The membrane damage was prevented by catalase and edaravone (a scavenger of (•)OH) but not by superoxide dismutase, indicating involvement of (•)OH. In contrast, the CSE-induced cell apoptosis was resistant to edaravone and induced by authentic H(2)O(2) or O(2)(-) generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, indicating involvement of H(2)O(2) or O(2)(-) in cell apoptosis. Diphenyleneiodonium [NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor] and bisindolylmaleimide I [BIS I, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor] abolished membrane damage, whereas they partially inhibited apoptosis. These results demonstrate that 1) a stable component(s) in the CSE activates PKC, which stimulates NOX to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing membrane damage and apoptosis; 2) different ROS are responsible for membrane damage and apoptosis; and 3) part of the apoptosis is caused by oxidants independently of PKC and NOX. PMID:22302021

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate Ras protein levels in primary human fibroblasts via ERK1/2. Amplification of ROS and Ras in systemic sclerosis fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Svegliati, Silvia; Cancello, Raffaella; Sambo, Paola; Luchetti, Michele; Paroncini, Paolo; Orlandini, Guido; Discepoli, Giancarlo; Paterno, Roberto; Santillo, Mariarosaria; Cuozzo, Concetta; Cassano, Silvana; Avvedimento, Enrico V; Gabrielli, Armando

    2005-10-28

    The levels of Ras proteins in human primary fibroblasts are regulated by PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor). PDGF induced post-transcriptionally Ha-Ras by stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ERK1/2. Activation of ERK1/2 and high ROS levels stabilize Ha-Ras protein, by inhibiting proteasomal degradation. We found a remarkable example in vivo of amplification of this circuitry in fibroblasts derived from systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) lesions, producing vast excess of ROS and undergoing rapid senescence. High ROS, Ha-Ras, and active ERK1/2 stimulated collagen synthesis, DNA damage, and accelerated senescence. Conversely ROS or Ras inhibition interrupted the signaling cascade and restored the normal phenotype. We conclude that in primary fibroblasts stabilization of Ras protein by ROS and ERK1/2 amplifies the response of the cells to growth factors and in systemic sclerosis represents a critical factor in the onset and progression of the disease. PMID:16081426

  2. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases Differentially Regulate Agonist-Receptor Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Huzoor; Duan, Xin; Saleem, Saima; Davis, Ashley K.; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Agonist induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOX) enhances platelet aggregation and hence the risk of thrombosis. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases are involved in ROS generation by NOX in a variety of cells, but their roles in platelet ROS production remain unclear. In this study we used platelets from RhoA and Rac1 conditional knockout mice as well as human platelets treated with Rhosin and NSC23767, rationally designed small molecule inhibitors of RhoA and Rac GTPases, respectively, to better define the contributions of RhoA and Rac1 signaling to ROS generation and platelet activation. Treatment of platelets with Rhosin inhibited: (a) U46619 induced activation of RhoA; (b) phosphorylation of p47phox, a critical component of NOX; (c) U46619 or thrombin induced ROS generation; (d) phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC); (e) platelet shape change; (f) platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen; and (g) release of P-selectin, secretion of ATP and aggregation. Conditional deletion of RhoA or Rac1 gene inhibited thrombin induced ROS generation in platelets. Addition of Y27632, a RhoA inhibitor, NSC23766 or Phox-I, an inhibitor of Rac1-p67phox interaction, to human platelets blocked thrombin induced ROS generation. These data suggest that: (a) RhoA/ROCK/p47phox signaling axis promotes ROS production that, at least in part, contributes to platelet activation in conjunction with or independent of the RhoA/ROCK mediated phosphorylation of MLC; and (b) RhoA and Rac1 differentially regulate ROS generation by inhibiting phosphorylation of p47phox and Rac1-p67phox interaction, respectively. PMID:27681226

  3. Visualisation of nitric oxide generated by activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leone, A M; Furst, V W; Foxwell, N A; Cellek, S; Moncada, S

    1996-04-01

    We have visualised the release and approximate diffusion profile of nitric oxide (NO) from activated murine macrophages using a high transmission microscope coupled to a high sensitivity photon counting camera. The images generated by NO were cell-associated and spread over an area of approximately 175 micrometers from the activated macrophage. The signals obtained were dependent on the presence of exogenous L-arginine in the medium and followed a time course similar to that previously described for the generation of NO by the inducible form of NO synthase. The light signal was attenuated by the inhibitor of NO synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Studies using superoxide-deficient macrophages further confirmed that the signals detected were generated by NO rather than reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:8660339

  4. The generation effect: activating broad neural circuits during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Zachary A; Elman, Jeremy A; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-01-01

    The generation effect is a robust memory phenomenon in which actively producing material during encoding acts to improve later memory performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, we explored the neural basis of this effect. During encoding, participants generated synonyms from word-fragment cues (e.g., GARBAGE-W_ST_) or read other synonym pairs (e.g., GARBAGE-WASTE). Compared to simply reading target words, generating target words significantly improved later recognition memory performance. During encoding, this benefit was associated with a broad neural network that involved both prefrontal (inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus) and posterior cortex (inferior temporal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, ventral posterior parietal cortex). These findings define the prefrontal-posterior cortical dynamics associated with the mnemonic benefits underlying the generation effect.

  5. Income Generation Activities among Academic Staffs at Malaysian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abd Rahman; Soon, Ng Kim; Ting, Ngeoh Pei

    2015-01-01

    Income generation activities have been acquainted among public higher education institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia. Various factors that brought to insufficient of funding caused Higher Education Institutions(HEIs) to seek for additional income as to support the operation expenses. Financial sustainability issues made up the significant impact…

  6. Generating Coherent Patterns of Activity from Chaotic Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sussillo, David; Abbott, L. F.

    2009-01-01

    Neural circuits display complex activity patterns both spontaneously and when responding to a stimulus or generating a motor output. How are these two forms of activity related? We develop a procedure called FORCE learning for modifying synaptic strengths either external to or within a model neural network to change chaotic spontaneous activity into a wide variety of desired activity patterns. FORCE learning works even though the networks we train are spontaneously chaotic and we leave feedback loops intact and unclamped during learning. Using this approach, we construct networks that produce a wide variety of complex output patterns, input-output transformations that require memory, multiple outputs that can be switched by control inputs, and motor patterns matching human motion capture data. Our results reproduce data on pre-movement activity in motor and premotor cortex, and suggest that synaptic plasticity may be a more rapid and powerful modulator of network activity than generally appreciated. PMID:19709635

  7. Growth inhibition dependent on reactive oxygen species generated by C9-UK-2A, a derivative of the antifungal antibiotic UK-2A, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Kazunori; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Tanaka, Toshio; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    UK-2A is a potent antifungal antibiotic and its structure is highly similar to that of antimycin A3 (AA). UK-2A and AA inhibit mitochondrial electron transport at complex III. C9-UK-2A, which has been prepared to improve the duration of the antifungal activity of UK-2A, shows durable fungicidal activities against various species of fungi and induces both membrane injury and the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IFO 0001 cells. We found that C9-UK-2A inhibited the vegetative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0203 cells accompanying cellular ROS generation in Sabouraud dextrose (SD) medium, which contained a fermentable carbon source. The ROS generation was completely restricted by pretreatment with a lipophilic antioxidant alpha-tocopherol. In addition, the pretreatment with the antioxidant protected against the growth inhibition induced by C9-UK-2A. C9-UK-2A also induced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria of the S. cerevisiae cells. The addition of both a complex I inhibitor rotenone and a complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone reduced ROS generation induced by C9-UK-2A in the whole cells and the isolated mitochondria. The addition of the inhibitors of complex III, AA or myxothiazol, or of complex IV, KCN, did not reduce ROS generation. These results suggest that C9-UK-2A induces ROS generation due to the blockade of electron flow at complex III, thereby inhibiting the growth of S. cerevisiae in SD medium. PMID:15515888

  8. Humic acid in drinking well water induces inflammation through reactive oxygen species generation and activation of nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 signaling pathways: a possible role in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Senthil Kumar, K J; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Cho, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Shu-Wei; Shen, Pei-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lu, Fung-Jou; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2014-01-15

    Humic acid (HA) has been implicated as one of the etiological factors in the peripheral vasculopathy of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of BFD are not well defined. In this study, we used an in vitro and in vivo model, in which HA (25-200μg/mL) activated macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory molecules by activating their transcriptional factors. HA exposure induced NO and PGE2 production followed by induction of iNOS and COX-2 through NF-κB/AP-1 transactivation in macrophages. In addition, the production of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased by HA. Moreover, HA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression were down-regulated by the NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and Tanshinone, respectively. Furthermore, generations of ROS and nitrotyrosine, as well as activation of the AKT and MAPKs signaling cascades were observed after HA exposure. Specifically, HA-induced NF-κB activation was mediated by ROS and AKT, and that HA-induced AP-1 activation was mediated by JNK and ERK. Notably, HA-mediated AKT, JNK, and ERK activation was ROS-independent. The inflammatory potential of HA was correlated with increased expression of HO-1 and Nrf2. Furthermore, an in vivo study confirms that mice exposed to HA, the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. This report marks the first confirmation that environmental exposure of HA induces inflammation in macrophages, which may be one of the main causes of early atherogenesis in blackfoot disease.

  9. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production. PMID:26851027

  10. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production.

  11. Induction of ROS Overload by Alantolactone Prompts Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yushuang; Wang, Hongge; Niu, Jiajing; Luo, Manyu; Gou, Yangmei; Miao, Lining; Zou, Zhihua; Cheng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells typically display higher than normal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may promote cancer development and progression but may also render the cancer cells more vulnerable to further ROS insult. Indeed, many of the current anticancer therapeutics kill cancer cells via induction of oxidative stress, though they target both cancer and normal cells. Recently, alantolactone (ATL), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has been shown to induce apoptosis by increasing ROS levels specifically in cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms linking ROS overproduction to apoptosis remain unclear. Here we show that the ATL-induced ROS overload in human SW480 and SW1116 colorectal cancer cells was followed by a prominent accumulation of cellular oxidized guanine (8-oxoG) and immediate increase in the number of DNA strand breaks, indicating that increased ROS resulted in extensive oxidative DNA damage. Consequently, the G1/S-CDK suppresser CDKN1B (p21) and pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and activated caspase-3 were upregulated, while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated, which were followed by cell cycle arrest at G1 and marked apoptosis in ATL-treated cancer but not non-cancer cells. These results suggest that the ATL-induced ROS overload triggers cell death through induction of massive oxidative DNA damage and subsequent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:27089328

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi infection disturbs mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production rate in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shivali; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Wen, Jian-jun; Wu, Yewen; Huang, Ming-He; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of Trypanosoma cruzi invasion and inflammatory processes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mouse atrial cardiomyocyte line (HL-1) and primary adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes were incubated with T. cruzi (Tc) trypomastigotes, Tc lysate (TcTL) or Tc secreted proteins (TcSP) for 0-72 h, and ROS measured by amplex red assay. Cardiomyocytes infected by T. cruzi (but not those incubated with TcTL or TcSP) exhibited a linear increase in ROS production during 2-48 h post-infection (max.18-fold increase) which was further enhanced by recombinant cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ). We observed no increase in NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and myeloperoxidase activities, and specific inhibitor of these enzymes did not block the increased rate of ROS production in infected cardiomyocytes. Instead, the mitochondrial membrane potential was perturbed, and resulted in inefficient electron transport chain (ETC) activity, and enhanced electron leakage and ROS formation in infected cardiomyocytes. HL-1 rho (ρ) cardiomyocytes lacked a functional ETC, and exhibited no increase in ROS formation in response to T. cruzi. Together, these results demonstrate that invasion by T. cruzi and inflammatory milieu affect mitochondrial integrity and contribute to electron transport chain inefficiency and ROS production in cardiomyocytes. PMID:19686837

  13. The Distribution of Active Force Generators Controls Mitotic Spindle Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Stephan W.; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2003-07-01

    During unequal cell divisions a mitotic spindle is eccentrically positioned before cell cleavage. To determine the basis of the net force imbalance that causes spindle displacement in one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we fragmented centrosomes with an ultraviolet laser. Analysis of the mean and variance of fragment speeds suggests that the force imbalance is due to a larger number of force generators pulling on astral microtubules of the posterior aster relative to the anterior aster. Moreover, activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) α subunits is required to generate these astral forces.

  14. Identification of differential anti-neoplastic activity of copper bis(thiosemicarbazones) that is mediated by intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Christian; Al-Eisawi, Zaynab; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2015-11-01

    Bis(thiosemicarbazones) and their copper (Cu) complexes possess unique anti-neoplastic properties. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the structure-activity relationships of twelve bis(thiosemicarbazones) to elucidate factors regarding their anti-cancer efficacy. Importantly, the alkyl substitutions at the diimine position of the ligand backbone resulted in two distinct groups, namely, unsubstituted/monosubstituted and disubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazones). This alkyl substitution pattern governed their: (1) Cu(II/I) redox potentials; (2) ability to induce cellular (64)Cu release; (3) lipophilicity; and (4) anti-proliferative activity. The potent anti-cancer Cu complex of the unsubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazone) analog, glyoxal bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (GTSM), generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was attenuated by Cu sequestration by a non-toxic Cu chelator, tetrathiomolybdate, and the anti-oxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Fluorescence microscopy suggested that the anti-cancer activity of Cu(GTSM) was due, in part, to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). For the first time, this investigation highlights the role of ROS and LMP in the anti-cancer activity of bis(thiosemicarbazones).

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  16. The Role of Mechanical Force and ROS in Integrin-Dependent Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Kathrin S.; Riaz, Anjum; Sarve, Hamid; Li, Jia; Tengholm, Anders; Johansson, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    Cells are exposed to several types of integrin stimuli, which generate responses generally referred to as “integrin signals”, but the specific responses to different integrin stimuli are poorly defined. In this study, signals induced by integrin ligation during cell attachment, mechanical force from intracellular contraction, or cell stretching by external force were compared. The elevated phosphorylation levels of several proteins during the early phase of cell attachment and spreading of fibroblast cell lines were not affected by inhibition of ROCK and myosin II activity, i.e. the reactions occurred independently of intracellular contractile force acting on the adhesion sites. The contraction-independent phosphorylation sites included ERK1/2 T202/Y204, AKT S473, p130CAS Y410, and cofilin S3. In contrast to cell attachment, cyclic stretching of the adherent cells induced a robust phosphorylation only of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation levels of the other investigated proteins were not or only moderately affected by stretching. No major differences between signaling via α5β1 or αvβ3 integrins were detected. The importance of mitochondrial ROS for the integrin-induced signaling pathways was investigated using rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I in the respiratory chain. While rotenone only moderately reduced ATP levels and hardly affected the signals induced by cyclic cell stretching, it abolished the activation of AKT and reduced the actin polymerization rate in response to attachment in both cell lines. In contrast, scavenging of extracellular ROS with catalase or the vitamin C analog Asc-2P did not significantly influence the attachment-derived signaling, but caused a selective and pronounced enhancement of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to stretching. In conclusion, the results showed that “integrin signals” are composed of separate sets of reactions triggered by different types of integrin stimulation. Mitochondrial ROS and extracellular

  17. Mental arithmetic activates analogic representations of internally generated sums.

    PubMed

    Kallai, Arava Y; Schunn, Christian D; Fiez, Julie A

    2012-08-01

    The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI study, the spontaneous processing of arithmetical expressions was tested. Participants passively viewed a sequence of double-digit addition expressions that summed to the same number. Adaptation was found in number-related regions in a fronto-parietal network. Following adaptation, arrays of dots were introduced, differing in their numerical distance from the sum of the addition expressions. Activation in voxels that showed adaptation to a repeated sum was also sensitive to the distance of the dot quantity from the sum. We conclude that participants exhibited adaptation to an internally generated number, that adapted representations were analogic in nature, and that these analogic representations may undergird arithmetic calculation. PMID:22732492

  18. FoxO3a suppresses the senescence of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells by regulating the ROS-mediated cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xu-Feng; Chen, Zhuo-Ying; Xia, Jing-Bo; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Hui; Pi, Long-Quan; Park, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Cai, Dong-Qing

    2015-04-01

    FoxO3a plays an important role in the aging process and decreases with age. However, the potential regulatory roles of FoxO3a in processes involved in cardiac microvascular endothelial cell (CMEC) senescence, and its underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. This study demonstrates that FoxO3a is deactivated in senescent CMECs together with the inhibition of proliferation and tube formation. Furthermore, the activation of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and SOD, downstream FoxO3a targets, was significantly decreased, thereby leading to cell cycle arrest in G1-phase by increased ROS generation and subsequently the activation of the p27(Kip1) pathway. However, FoxO3a overexpression in primary low-passage CMECs not only significantly suppressed the senescence process by increasing the activation of catalase and SOD but also markedly inhibited ROS generation and p27(Kip1) activation, although it failed to reverse cellular senescence. Moreover, both cell viability and tube formation were greatly increased by FoxO3a overexpression in primary CMECs during continuous passage. In addition, FoxO3a, deficiency in low-passage CMECs, accelerated the senescence process. Collectively, our data suggest that FoxO3a suppresses the senescence process in CMECs by regulating the antioxidant/ROS/p27(Kip1) pathways, although it fails to reverse the cellular senescent phenotype.

  19. Integrated High-Content Quantification of Intracellular ROS Levels and Mitochondrial Morphofunction.

    PubMed

    Sieprath, Tom; Corne, Tobias D J; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H; De Vos, Winnok H

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their removal by cellular antioxidant systems. Especially under pathological conditions, mitochondria constitute a relevant source of cellular ROS. These organelles harbor the electron transport chain, bringing electrons in close vicinity to molecular oxygen. Although a full understanding is still lacking, intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial function are also linked to changes in mitochondrial morphology. To study the intricate relationships between the different factors that govern cellular redox balance in living cells, we have developed a high-content microscopy-based strategy for simultaneous quantification of intracellular ROS levels and mitochondrial morphofunction. Here, we summarize the principles of intracellular ROS generation and removal, and we explain the major considerations for performing quantitative microscopy analyses of ROS and mitochondrial morphofunction in living cells. Next, we describe our workflow, and finally, we illustrate that a multiparametric readout enables the unambiguous classification of chemically perturbed cells as well as laminopathy patient cells. PMID:27207366

  20. DNA Damage-induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Stress Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Lori A.; Degtyareva, Natalya; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Cells are exposed to both endogenous and exogenous sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). At high levels, ROS can lead to impaired physiological function through cellular damage of DNA, proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules, which can lead to certain human pathologies including cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease, as well as aging. We have employed Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to examine the levels and types of ROS that are produced in response to DNA damage in isogenic strains with different DNA repair capacities. We find that when DNA damage is introduced into cells from exogenous or endogenous sources there is an increase in the amount of intracellular ROS which is not directly related to cell death. We have examined the spectrum of ROS in order to elucidate its role in the cellular response to DNA damage. As an independent verification of the DNA damage-induced ROS response, we show that a major activator of the oxidative stress response, Yap1, relocalizes to the nucleus following exposure to the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. Our results indicate that the DNA damage-induced increase in intracellular ROS levels is a generalized stress response that is likely to function in various signaling pathways. PMID:18708137

  1. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  2. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-10

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  3. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  4. Deficiency of DJ-1 Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis through Inhibition of Hepatic ROS Production and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingxue; Sun, Xuehua; Gu, Jinyang; Yu, Chang; Wen, Yankai; Gao, Yueqiu; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury. Results showed that DJ-1 depletion significantly blunted liver fibrosis, accompanied by marked reductions in liver injury and ROS production. In the acute CCl4 model, deficiency of DJ-1 showed hepatic protective functions as evidenced by decreased hepatic damage, reduced ROS levels, diminished hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation compared to WT mice. In vitro hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation assays indicated that DJ-1 has no direct effect on the activation of HSCs in the context of with or without TGFβ treatment. Thus our present study demonstrates that in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, DJ-1 deficiency attenuates mice fibrosis by inhibiting ROS production and liver injury, and further indirectly affecting the activation of HSCs. These results are in line with previous studies that ROS promote HSC activation and fibrosis development, and suggest the therapeutic value of DJ-1 in treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27766037

  5. FFA-ROS-P53-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to reduction of osteoblastogenesis and bone mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; He, Wang; Liao, Bo; Yang, Jingyue

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between free fatty acid (FFA), ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetic patients and investigated the molecular mechanism. db/db and high fat (HF)-fed mice were treated by Etomoxir, an inhibitor of CPT1, MitoQ, and PFT-α, an inhibitor of P53. Bone metabolic factors were assessed and BMSCs were isolated and induced to osteogenic differentiation. FFA, lipid peroxidation and mtDNA copy number were correlated with BMD in T2DM patients. Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-α significantly inhibited the decrease of BMD and bone breaking strength in db/db and HF-fed mice and suppressed the reduction of BMSCs-differentiated osteoblasts. Etomoxir and MitoQ, but not PFT-α, inhibited the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in db/db and HF-fed mice and osteoblasts. In addition, Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-α significantly inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblasts. Moreover, mitochondrial apoptosis was activated in osteoblasts derived from db/db and HF-fed mice, which was inhibited by Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-α. Furthermore, mitochondrial accumulation of P53 recruited Bax and initiated molecular events of apoptotic events. These results demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation resulted in ROS generation, activating P53/Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, leading to reduction of osteogenic differentiation and bone loss in T2DM. PMID:26226833

  6. Regulation of Yeast Chronological Life Span by TORC1 via Adaptive Mitochondrial ROS Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yong; Schroeder, Elizabeth A.; Ocampo, Alejandro; Barrientos, Antoni; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Here we show that yeast strains with reduced target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling have greater overall mitochondrial electron transport chain activity during growth that is efficiently coupled to ATP production. This metabolic alteration increases mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production that we propose supplies an adaptive signal during growth that extends chronological life span (CLS). In strong support of this concept, uncoupling respiration during growth or over-expressing mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase significantly curtails CLS extension in tor1Δ strains, and treatment of wild-type strains with either rapamycin (to inhibit TORC1) or menadione (to generate mitochondrial ROS) during growth is sufficient to extend CLS. Finally, extension of CLS by reduced TORC1/Sch9p-mitochondrial signaling occurs independently of Rim15p and is not a function of changes in media acidification/composition. Considering the conservation of TOR-pathway effects on life span, mitochondrial ROS signaling may be an important mechanism of longevity regulation in higher organisms. PMID:21641548

  7. Nuclear receptor-induced transcription is driven by spatially and timely restricted waves of ROS

    PubMed Central

    Perillo, Bruno; Di Santi, Annalisa; Cernera, Gustavo; Ombra, Maria Neve; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is governed by chromatin mainly through posttranslational modifications at the N-terminal tails of nucleosomal histone proteins. According to the histone code theory, peculiar sets of such modifications (marks) give rise to reproducible final effects on transcription and, very recently, a further level of complexity has been highlighted in binary switches between specific marks at adjacent residues. In particular, disappearance of dimethyl-lysine 9 in histone H3 is faced by phosphorylation of the following serine during activation of gene expression. Demethylation of lysine 9 by the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a pre-requisite for addition of the phosphoryl mark to serine 10 and an essential step in the transcriptional control by estrogens. It generates a local burst of oxygen reactive species (ROS) that induce oxidation of nearby nucleotides and recruitment of repair enzymes with a consequent formation of single or double stranded nicks on DNA that modify chromatin flexibility in order to allow correct assembly of the transcriptional machinery.   We describe here the molecular mechanism by which members of the family of nuclear receptors prevent the potential damage to DNA during transcription of target genes elicited by the use of ROS to shape chromatin. The mechanism is based on the presence of phosphorylated serine 10 in histone H3 to prevent unbalanced DNA oxidation waves. We also discuss the opportunities raised by the use of voluntary derangement of this servo system to induce selective death in hormone-responsive transformed cells. PMID:25482200

  8. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through modulating the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Binger; Wang, Bin; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and contribute to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We have reported that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2) can attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Neonatal rat CMECs were isolated and subjected to H/R. Pretreatment of F2 leads to a reduction in H/R injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptosis, together with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) phosphorylation in H/R ECs. Blockade of AMPK with compound C reversed F2-induced inhibition of H/R injury, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, increased LDH release and apoptosis. Moreover, compound C also blocked the ability of F2 to reduce H/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Supplementation with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduced ROS levels, increased cell survival rate, and decreased both LDH release and apoptosis after H/R. In conclusion, our data indicate that F2 may mitigate H/R injury by stimulating LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway and subsequent suppression of ROS production in CMECs. PMID:27166184

  9. PX-12 inhibits the growth of hepatocelluar carcinoma by inducing S-phase arrest, ROS-dependent apoptosis and enhances 5-FU cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Zhen; Liang, Hui-Fang; Liao, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Ni, Ya-An; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Er-Lei; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12), a thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) inhibitor, has been investigated in a number of ancers, but its effectiveness in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been reported. PX-12 has generated considerable interest in its use in a variety of solid tumors, yet most studies have confined their interests to using PX-12 as a single agent. The aim of this study is to investigate whether PX-12 inhibits cell growth and has a synergistic anti-tumor effect in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HCC. Methods: Cells were treated with different concentrations of PX-12 and 5-FU. Cell viability assays, colony formation assay, cell cycle assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, apoptosis analysis, western blot assay, immunohistochemistry and xenograft tumorigenicity assay were performed. Results: Treatment with PX-12 inhibited cell growth, induced S-phase arrest, and increased ROS levels. PX-12-induced apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation were associated with the generation of ROS, and inhibition of ROS attenuated PX-12-induced apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation. Treatment with PX-12 increased the expression of bax and reduced the expression of bcl-2, indicating that PX-12-mediated apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. PX-12 also exerted a synergistic effect with 5-FU tosignificantly suppress tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of ROS accumulation reduced the synergistic effect of PX-12 and 5-FU. Conclusions: PX-12 has anti-tumor activity and a synergistic effect in combination with 5-FU in HCC. Treatment with PX-12 alone or in combination with 5-FU may have clinical use in the treatment of HCC and other cancers. PMID:26550453

  10. Humic acid in drinking well water induces inflammation through reactive oxygen species generation and activation of nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 signaling pathways: A possible role in atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Senthil Kumar, K.J.; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Cho, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Shu-Wei; Shen, Pei-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lu, Fung-Jou; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2014-01-15

    Humic acid (HA) has been implicated as one of the etiological factors in the peripheral vasculopathy of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of BFD are not well defined. In this study, we used an in vitro and in vivo model, in which HA (25–200 μg/mL) activated macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory molecules by activating their transcriptional factors. HA exposure induced NO and PGE{sub 2} production followed by induction of iNOS and COX-2 through NF-κB/AP-1 transactivation in macrophages. In addition, the production of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased by HA. Moreover, HA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression were down-regulated by the NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and Tanshinone, respectively. Furthermore, generations of ROS and nitrotyrosine, as well as activation of the AKT and MAPKs signaling cascades were observed after HA exposure. Specifically, HA-induced NF-κB activation was mediated by ROS and AKT, and that HA-induced AP-1 activation was mediated by JNK and ERK. Notably, HA-mediated AKT, JNK, and ERK activation was ROS-independent. The inflammatory potential of HA was correlated with increased expression of HO-1 and Nrf2. Furthermore, an in vivo study confirms that mice exposed to HA, the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. This report marks the first confirmation that environmental exposure of HA induces inflammation in macrophages, which may be one of the main causes of early atherogenesis in blackfoot disease. - Highlights: • Humic acid (HA) induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in macrophages. • HA-induced inflammation is mediated by ROS and NF-κB/AP-1 signaling pathways. • The inflammatory potential of HA correlated with activation of Nrf2/HO-1 genes. • HA exposure to mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokines production in vivo. • HA may be one of the main causes of early

  11. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Zhuang, Wei-Ling; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity. Rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH with/without daily treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide anion scavenger), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or vehicle. At 16 h after their last exposure, intravenous capsaicin, adenosine, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked an augmented apneic response in anesthetized rats with 14-days CIH exposure, compared to anesthetized rats with 14-days RA exposure. The augmented apneic responses to these LVCF stimulants were abolished by bilateral vagotomy or perivagal capsaicin treatment, which block LVCFs neural conduction and were significantly suppressed by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin, but not vehicle. Electrophysiological studies revealed that 14-days CIH exposure potentiated the responses of LVCFs to these stimulants. This effect was inhibited by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin treatment and was not seen in rats who received 7-days of CIH exposure. Biochemical analysis indicated that 14-days CIH exposure increased both lung lipid peroxidation, which is indicative of oxidative stress, and expression of the p47(phox) subunit in the membrane fraction of lung tissue, which is an index of NADPH oxidase activation. The former was prevented by treatment with either MnTMPyP or apocynin, while the later was prevented by treatment with apocynin only. These results suggest that 14-days CIH exposure sensitizes LVCFs in rats, leading to an exaggerated reflex and afferent responses to

  12. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Zhuang, Wei-Ling; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity. Rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH with/without daily treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide anion scavenger), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or vehicle. At 16 h after their last exposure, intravenous capsaicin, adenosine, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked an augmented apneic response in anesthetized rats with 14-days CIH exposure, compared to anesthetized rats with 14-days RA exposure. The augmented apneic responses to these LVCF stimulants were abolished by bilateral vagotomy or perivagal capsaicin treatment, which block LVCFs neural conduction and were significantly suppressed by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin, but not vehicle. Electrophysiological studies revealed that 14-days CIH exposure potentiated the responses of LVCFs to these stimulants. This effect was inhibited by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin treatment and was not seen in rats who received 7-days of CIH exposure. Biochemical analysis indicated that 14-days CIH exposure increased both lung lipid peroxidation, which is indicative of oxidative stress, and expression of the p47phox subunit in the membrane fraction of lung tissue, which is an index of NADPH oxidase activation. The former was prevented by treatment with either MnTMPyP or apocynin, while the later was prevented by treatment with apocynin only. These results suggest that 14-days CIH exposure sensitizes LVCFs in rats, leading to an exaggerated reflex and afferent responses to

  13. p47phox-Nox2-dependent ROS Signaling Inhibits Early Bone Development in Mice but Protects against Skeletal Aging*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Mercer, Kelly E.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone remodeling is age-dependently regulated and changes dramatically during the course of development. Progressive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suspected to be the leading cause of many inflammatory and degenerative diseases, as well as an important factor underlying many effects of aging. In contrast, how reduced ROS signaling regulates inflammation and remodeling in bone remains unknown. Here, we utilized a p47phox knock-out mouse model, in which an essential cytosolic co-activator of Nox2 is lost, to characterize bone metabolism at 6 weeks and 2 years of age. Compared with their age-matched wild type controls, loss of Nox2 function in p47phox−/− mice resulted in age-related switch of bone mass and strength. Differences in bone mass were associated with increased bone formation in 6-week-old p47phox−/− mice but decreased in 2-year-old p47phox−/− mice. Despite decreases in ROS generation in bone marrow cells and p47phox-Nox2 signaling in osteoblastic cells, 2-year-old p47phox−/− mice showed increased senescence-associated secretory phenotype in bone compared with their wild type controls. These in vivo findings were mechanistically recapitulated in ex vivo cell culture of primary fetal calvarial cells from p47phox−/− mice. These cells showed accelerated cell senescence pathway accompanied by increased inflammation. These data indicate that the observed age-related switch of bone mass in p47phox-deficient mice occurs through an increased inflammatory milieu in bone and that p47phox-Nox2-dependent physiological ROS signaling suppresses inflammation in aging. PMID:25922068

  14. Inductions of Caspase-, MAPK- and ROS-dependent Apoptosis and Chemotherapeutic Effects Caused by an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria barbata D. Don in Human Gastric Adenocarcinom Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ji Hwan; Gim, Huijin; Lee, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The crude extracts of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB) have traditionally demonstrated inhibitory effects on numerous human cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer on world. The authors investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (ESB) on the growth and survival of MKN-45 cells (a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line). Methods: The MKN-45 cells were treated with different concentrations of ESB, and cell death was examined using an MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Analyses of sub-G1 peaks, caspase-3 and -9 activities, and mitochondrial membrane depolarizations were conducted to determine the anti-cancer effects of SB on MKN-45 cells. Also, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was investigated. Results: ESB inhibited the growth of MKN-45 cells, caused cell cycle arrest, and increased the sub-G1 population. In addition, ESB markedly increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization and the activities of caspase-3 and -9. ESB exerted anti-proliferative effects on MKN-45 cells by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and by increasing the generation of ROS. Furthermore, combinations of anti-cancer drugs plus ESB suppressed cell growth more than treatments with an agent or ESB, and this was especially true for cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin. Conclusion: ESB has a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on MKN-45 cells and this is closely associated with the induction of apoptosis. ESB-induced apoptosis is mediated by mitochondria- , caspase- and MAPK dependent pathways. In addition, ESB enhances ROS generation and increases the chemosensitivity of MKN-45 cells. These results suggest that treatment with ESB can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells by modulating the caspase-, MAPK- and ROS-dependent pathway. PMID:27386146

  15. Mitochondria-derived ROS bursts disturb Ca2+ cycling and induce abnormal automaticity in guinea pig cardiomyocytes: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qince; Su, Di; O'Rourke, Brian; Pogwizd, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are in close proximity to the redox-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release [ryanodine receptors (RyRs)] and uptake [Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)] channels. Thus mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mdROS) could play a crucial role in modulating Ca2+ cycling in the cardiomyocytes. However, whether mdROS-mediated Ca2+ dysregulation translates to abnormal electrical activities under pathological conditions, and if yes what are the underlying ionic mechanisms, have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that pathological mdROS induce Ca2+ elevation by modulating SR Ca2+ handling, which activates other Ca2+ channels and further exacerbates Ca2+ dysregulation, leading to abnormal action potential (AP). We also propose that the morphologies of elicited AP abnormality rely on the time of mdROS induction, interaction between mitochondria and SR, and intensity of mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypotheses, we developed a multiscale guinea pig cardiomyocyte model that incorporates excitation-contraction coupling, local Ca2+ control, mitochondrial energetics, and ROS-induced ROS release. This model, for the first time, includes mitochondria-SR microdomain and modulations of mdROS on RyR and SERCA activities. Simulations show that mdROS bursts increase cytosolic Ca2+ by stimulating RyRs and inhibiting SERCA, which activates the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, Ca2+-sensitive nonspecific cationic channels, and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, eliciting abnormal AP. The morphologies of AP abnormality are largely influenced by the time interval among mdROS burst induction and AP firing, dosage and diffusion of mdROS, and SR-mitochondria distance. This study defines the role of mdROS in Ca2+ overload-mediated cardiac arrhythmogenesis and underscores the importance of considering mitochondrial targets in designing new antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25539710

  16. Oxidation of Са2+-Binding Domain of NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5): Toward Understanding the Mechanism of Inactivation of NOX5 by ROS

    PubMed Central

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Lobachev, Vladimir M.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Devred, Francois; Kovacic, Hervé; Kubatiev, Aslan A.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.

    2016-01-01

    NOX5 protein, one of the most active generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays an important role in many processes, including regulation of cell growth, death and differentiation. Because of its central role in ROS generation, it needs to be tightly regulated to guarantee cellular homeostasis. Contrary to other members of NADPH-oxidases family, NOX5 has its own regulatory calcium-binding domain and thus could be activated directly by calcium ions. While several mechanisms of activation have been described, very little is known about the mechanisms that could prevent the overproduction of ROS by NOX5. In the present study using calorimetric methods and circular dichroism we found that oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues of NOX5 decreases binding of Ca2+ ions and perturbs both secondary and tertiary structure of protein. Our data strongly suggest that oxidation of calcium-binding domain of NOX5 could be implicated in its inactivation, serving as a possible defense mechanism against oxidative stress. PMID:27391469

  17. Oxidation of Са2+-Binding Domain of NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5): Toward Understanding the Mechanism of Inactivation of NOX5 by ROS.

    PubMed

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Lobachev, Vladimir M; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Makarov, Alexander A; Devred, Francois; Kovacic, Hervé; Kubatiev, Aslan A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O

    2016-01-01

    NOX5 protein, one of the most active generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays an important role in many processes, including regulation of cell growth, death and differentiation. Because of its central role in ROS generation, it needs to be tightly regulated to guarantee cellular homeostasis. Contrary to other members of NADPH-oxidases family, NOX5 has its own regulatory calcium-binding domain and thus could be activated directly by calcium ions. While several mechanisms of activation have been described, very little is known about the mechanisms that could prevent the overproduction of ROS by NOX5. In the present study using calorimetric methods and circular dichroism we found that oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues of NOX5 decreases binding of Ca2+ ions and perturbs both secondary and tertiary structure of protein. Our data strongly suggest that oxidation of calcium-binding domain of NOX5 could be implicated in its inactivation, serving as a possible defense mechanism against oxidative stress. PMID:27391469

  18. Radiation therapy generates platelet-activating factor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Weyerbacher, Jonathan; Murphy, Robert C.; Konger, Raymond L.; Garrett, Joy Elizabeth; Chin-Sinex, Helen Jan; Johnston, Michael Edward; Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Mendonca, Marc; McMullen, Kevin; Li, Gengxin; Spandau, Dan F.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipid agonists of the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). As radiation therapy also induces reactive oxygen species, the present studies were designed to define whether ionizing radiation could generate PAF-R agonists and if these lipids could subvert host immunity. We demonstrate that radiation exposure of multiple tumor cell lines in-vitro, tumors in-vivo, and human subjects undergoing radiation therapy for skin tumors all generate PAF-R agonists. Structural characterization of radiation-induced PAF-R agonistic activity revealed PAF and multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholines that are produced non-enzymatically. In a murine melanoma tumor model, irradiation of one tumor augmented the growth of the other (non-treated) tumor in a PAF-R-dependent process blocked by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. These results indicate a novel pathway by which PAF-R agonists produced as a byproduct of radiation therapy could result in tumor treatment failure, and offer important insights into potential therapeutic strategies that could improve the overall antitumor effectiveness of radiation therapy regimens. PMID:26959112

  19. Radiation therapy generates platelet-activating factor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ravi P; Harrison, Kathleen A; Weyerbacher, Jonathan; Murphy, Robert C; Konger, Raymond L; Garrett, Joy Elizabeth; Chin-Sinex, Helen Jan; Johnston, Michael Edward; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Mendonca, Marc; McMullen, Kevin; Li, Gengxin; Spandau, Dan F; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2016-04-12

    Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipid agonists of the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). As radiation therapy also induces reactive oxygen species, the present studies were designed to define whether ionizing radiation could generate PAF-R agonists and if these lipids could subvert host immunity. We demonstrate that radiation exposure of multiple tumor cell lines in-vitro, tumors in-vivo, and human subjects undergoing radiation therapy for skin tumors all generate PAF-R agonists. Structural characterization of radiation-induced PAF-R agonistic activity revealed PAF and multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholines that are produced non-enzymatically. In a murine melanoma tumor model, irradiation of one tumor augmented the growth of the other (non-treated) tumor in a PAF-R-dependent process blocked by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. These results indicate a novel pathway by which PAF-R agonists produced as a byproduct of radiation therapy could result in tumor treatment failure, and offer important insights into potential therapeutic strategies that could improve the overall antitumor effectiveness of radiation therapy regimens. PMID:26959112

  20. Reactive oxygen species-activated nanomaterials as theranostic agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kye S; Lee, Dongwon; Song, Chul Gyu; Kang, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from the endogenous oxidative metabolism or from exogenous pro-oxidant exposure. Oxidative stress occurs when there is excessive production of ROS, outweighing the antioxidant defense mechanisms which may lead to disease states. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most abundant and stable forms of ROS, implicated in inflammation, cellular dysfunction and apoptosis, which ultimately lead to tissue and organ damage. This review is an overview of the role of ROS in different diseases. We will also examine ROS-activated nanomaterials with emphasis on hydrogen peroxide, and their potential medical implications. Further development of the biocompatible, stimuli-activated agent responding to disease causing oxidative stress, may lead to a promising clinical use. PMID:26328770